THE STONY CREEK WATER WARS
Glenn County - Tehama County - Colusa County, California.
(c) 2009, Mike Barkley (06/11/2009)

History of Colusa and Glenn Counties California 1918

Partially cleaned up (those of you familiar with OCR output will recognize what OCR typos remain - missing page numbers are photo pages and not included here) from crude OCR scan at :
http://www.archive.org/stream/historyofcolusag00mcco/historyofcolusag00mcco_djvu.txt

Dewey Decimal :
Gc
979.401
C72m
1169819

GENEALOGY COLLECTION

Unknown :
ML

Allen County Public Library Bar code : 3 1833 01067 2084


HISTORY OF
COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES
CALIFORNIA

WITH

Biographical Sketches

OF

The Leading Men and Women of the Counties Who have
been Identified with their Growth and
Developnent from the Early
Days to the Present



HISTORY BY
Charles Davis McComish and Mrs. Rebecca T. Lambert
ILLUSTRATED
COMPLETE IN ONE VOLUME
HISTORIC RECORD COMPANY
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
1918
[page]

CONTENTS-- HISTORICAL
_______

HISTORY OF COLUSA COUNTY
By Charles Davis McComish


Library number stamped with number machine ?
1169819

. . . . . . . . . . . . .PAGE
Foreword Page 17

Former histories of Colusa County:
History by Will S. Green, published in 1880. exhaustive in detail and copiously illustrated;
history by Justus H. Rogers, published in 1891, a complete and valuable work for its period

-- Purpose and field of the present history.

CHAPTER I

Early History of California Page 18

Legends and stories of the coming of one Manuelo, a Spanish sailor, to San Francisco Bay
-- The voyage of Cabrillo, in 1542
-- Conditions in California before the coming of the white men
-- Sir Francis Drake reaches California in 1579, on his trip around the world
-- Visits of Spanish vessels from 1579 to 1602
-- Father Junipero Serra establishes the first of the Spanish missions, at San Diego, in 1769
-- Growth and prosperity of the missions, 1769 to 1833
-- Restrictions upon the missions under Spanish rule, 1769 to 1824
-- Russian fur-trading post established at Fort Ross in 1812
-- Arrival of American and English adventurers
-- Jedediah S. Smith, the first white man to cross the Sierra Nevada Mountains, 1825
-- Chapman marries the daughter of Captain Ortega, the discoverer of San Francisco Bay
-- Conditions in California under Mexican rule
-- Decline and secularization of the missions
-- The Indians dispossessed
-- Capt. John Sutter arrives, 1839
-- John Bidwell and party, 1841
-- First wave of the great flood of immigration
-- The Bear Flag army
-- California passes from Mexican to American domination
-- Discovery of gold by James W. Marshall, 1848, and the coming of the forty-niners
-- Admission of California to statehood, 1850.

CHAPTER II

Early Explorations and First Settlers Page 22


Early Explorations: Colusa County as organized in 1851
-- Transfer of territory to Tehama County in 1855
-- County division, and formation of Glenn County, in 1891
-- Present boundaries of the county
-- First visited by white men in 1843
-- General Bidwell's narrative of the trip of these first authenticated explorers of the county
-- Location of the Larkin's Childrens' Grant by General Bidwell, 1844
-- Canoe trip through Colusa County by Edward A. Farwell and Thomas Fallon
-- Visit of a party of trappers under Jack Myers
-- Manufacture of grindstones on Grindstone Creek, in 1845, by Lassen, Moon, and Merritt
-- Exploration of the valley by Dr. Robert Semple, in 1847. The First Settlers: John S. Williams, sent from Monterey by Thomas O. Larkin, in 1847. to settle on the Larkin grant
-- Williams succeeded by Charles B. Sterling in 1848
-- William B. Ide settles on the east side of the river
-- Watt Anderson locates at the present site of Sycamore
-- These three settlements the only ones within the present boundaries of Colusa County when the first of the forty-niners came.

CHAPTER III

Geography, and Flora and Fauna Page 28

Geography: Topography of the Sacramento Valley roughly Illustrated
-- General slope of the land
-- The Trough
-- Natural drainage features
-- General description of the surface
-- The "plains"
-- Distances and loca-

CONTENTS -- HISTORICAL


tion. Vegetation: Marked effect of seasonal changes on the appearance of the country in the early days
-- Luxuriance of the vegetation in the spring or early summer
-- Timber lands along the river
-- The "tule lands"
-- Vegetation of the foothill country
-- Timber lands along the western boundary
-- The profusion of wild flowers
-- The alkali lands and "goose lands." The Wild Animals of the County: Colusa County abundantly stocked with wild animals when the white man came
-- These quickly exterminated by the early settlers
-- Tragic fate of the vast herds of antelope and elk
-- The passing of the grizzly
-- The black bear
-- The mountain lion
-- The short-tailed wildcat
-- The crafty coyote
-- Raccoons, foxes, and skunks
-- Will S. Green, on the destruction of the elk and the antelope
-- The kindlier fate of the deer
-- The rabbit: Cottontails and jack-rabbits
-- The rodents: Rats and mice, ground-squirrels and gophers
-- The wild goose; numbers and depredations
-- The wild duck: Canvasback, mallard, sprig, teal, widgeon; numbers and depredations
-- The quail
-- The dove
-- Other birds: The swan, crane, mud hen, turkey buzzard, blackbird, meadow lark, hawks, owls, linnets, sparrows, woodpeckers, robin, blue jay, magpie, and chaparral cock
-- Yellow jackets and mosquitoes in the early days.

CHAPTER IV

The Indians Page 37

Attitude of the early settlers toward the Indians characterized by injustice and cruelty
-- Bidwell's estimate of the number of Indians in the county
-- Green's estimate of the number of Colus Indians
-- Effect of the epidemic of 1832 or 1833
-- The Indian villages
-- Origin of the name Colus
-- The chief village of the Colus Indians
-- No Indian villages on the plains
-- The foothill Indians the nearest neighbors on the west to the river Indians
-- The chief tribe of the foothill Indians located along Cortina Creek
-- Numerous settlements along Bear Creek, Stony Creek, and other streams
-- Migration of the foothill Indians in the dry season of 1844
-- Forage treaties of the Indians
-- The mountain tribes
-- Appearance of the Colusa Indians
-- Their dress
-- Their love of ornaments
-- Their customs in this respect somewhat different from those of the Indians of the East
-- Not essentially a warlike people
-- Development of their constructive faculty limited by climatic conditions
-- The villages intended for shelter during the wet season
-- Construction of their houses and sweat-houses
-- Manner of sleeping
-- Food of the Indian
-- Fish the great food staple, particularly of the river Indians
-- Manner of catching and drying salmon
-- The acorn; manner of gathering and storing, and method of preparation
-- Failure of the acorn crop a serious matter
-- Other articles of diet
-- Gathering of the oat crop
-- Manner of cooking grasshoppers and grubs
-- Capture of a large game animal an occasion for intemperate feasting
-- Inveterate improvidence of the Indian
-- Each tribe governed by a chief
-- Power of the chief
-- Wise and just government of the Colus Indians under Chief Sioc
-- Personality and character of Sioc
-- Organization of the Indian community
-- Marital relations
-- Religious beliefs but feebly developed
-- Various superstitious customs
-- Sickness; its cause and cure
-- The sweat-cure and its results
-- Funeral rites and burial customs
-- Other structures and articles constructed by the Indians, and their uses
-- Method employed in killing a deer
-- Capture of game birds
-- Evidence of the Indians' friendly attitude towards the whites
-- Attitude of the whites towards the Indians
-- Death of Chief Sioc
-- Factors that accelerated the rapid decline of the race
-- Uprisings and reprisals
-- Captain Hukely, successor of Sioc
-- The government takes a hand
-- Text of a treaty with the Colusa Indians, drawn up and signed in 1851, and transmitted to the United States Senate for ratification
-- The treaty pigeon-holed through political intrigue until 1905
-- Patient watching and waiting of the fast-dwindling tribes for the fulfillment of their deferred hope
-- Government provision for the Indians in 1907
-- Aid also extended by private subscription
-- Indian school founded through county appropriation
-- Present population and condition of the rancheria north of Colusa
-- The other Indians of the county.

CONTENTS -- HISTORICAL

CHAPTER V


The Early Settlers Page 49

But three settlements within the present boundaries of Colusa County when the first forty-niners came
-- John S. Williams
-- William B. Ide
-- Watt Anderson
-- Charles B. Sterling
-- Sterling's cache
-- The gold rush, and its effect on the settlement of the county
-- 1850: Admission of California to statehood, and authorization by the legislature for the organization of Colusa County
-- Robert Semple's trip up the Sacramento Valley, and his choice of a location for Col. Charles D. Semple at "Salmon Bend"
-- By mistake. Colonel Semple establishes his camp at Powell Slough
-- Trip of the Colusa
-- Colonel Semple relocates his town
-- Semple & Green's store building
-- Keeps and Hale's hotel
-- Sheppard
-- Semple & Green add hotel accommodations to their store building
-- The hotel department leased
-- The first white woman to live in Colusa
-- William Vincent and family
-- The first child born in Colusa
-- Population of Colusa in 1851
-- Settlement of lands along the river by cattle men and farmers in 1850 and 1851
-- Establishment of "hotels"
-- Competition between boatmen and teamsters, and between the two routes of passenger travel to the northern mines
-- Colusa becomes a shipping center and center for stage lines
-- Line of settlements established along the river, by 1851. from the northern boundary of the county to Wilkins' Slough
-- Hiram Willits, and the Seventeen-Mile House
-- J.M. Arnett, and the Sixteen-Mile House
-- J.P.J. Helphenstine
-- Sterling's Ranch
-- Thomas Parton. and the Eleven-Mile House
-- Charles Brooks and Ben Payne
-- L.H. Helphenstine. and the Ten-Mile House
-- Henry Russell Helphenstine
-- S.H. Cooper, and the Nine-Mile House
-- Robert Payne and James Hill, and the Seven-Mile House
-- Obed DeLong, and the Five-Mile House
-- Mysterious disappearance of Robert N. Parkhill
-- Farmers and stockmen located in the immediate vicinity of Colusa about 1851: J.T. Marr. White Brothers, Abbe Brothers, James Keefer, John Rogers, and Marion Tate
-- O.C. Berkey, George Carhart, and Silas Howard
-- The Gibson brothers
-- Jack Long
-- John Fitch and Joe Farnsworth
-- The Grimes brothers
-- E.R. Graham and Richard Welsh
-- Colusa County's first plow
-- The Graham family
-- J.C. Johnson, and the Ohio House
-- The east side of the river, the plains, and the foothills practically uninhabited in 1851
-- Similar settlements along the river in what is now Glenn County, but none on the plains
-- U.P. Monroe
-- Rivalry of Colusa and Monroeville
-- Settlement of the county rapid after 1851
-- Active settlement of the east side of the river begins in 1852
-- Henry Ahlf
-- Nick Laux
-- J.W. Jones
-- W.F. Goad
-- Frank Steele
-- Col. L.F. Moulton
-- Joseph McConnell. Clinton and Joseph McVay, Thomas Williams, and Jefferson Tate
-- The foothills settled next after the river district
-- Stock ranches located in Spring Valley in 1852 and 1853
-- John Sites and others settle in Antelope Valley
-- Mrs. Spear
-- Settlement of Bear Valley, as described by Godfrey C. Ingrim in 1877
-- Settlement of the Stonyford section
-- Lands about Williams, Arbuckle, and College City settled earlier than those about Maxwell and Delevan
-- Southern part of the plains settled earlier than the northern
-- E.B. McDow and W.S. Green on settlement of the plains
-- Semple and Green's ranch on Freshwater Creek, 1853
-- Joseph S. Gibson, 1854
-- W.H. Williams
-- Andrew Pierce
-- Julius and Gustav Weyand
-- J.W. Brim
-- William Kaerth
-- Joseph P. Sherer
-- J.C. Stovall, 1858
-- Conditions within Colusa County at the beginning of the Civil War.

CHAPTER VI


Organization of the County Page 59

Distribution of population. 1851

-- Rivalry of Colusa and Monroeville
-- Origin of the name "Colusa"
-- Boundaries of the county defined by state legislature
-- Name of county "Colusi" until 1854
-- Monroeville's petition
-- Election of January 10, 1851
-- County government established at Monroeville
-- Establishment of the seat of justice at Colusa
-- Monroeville again petitions
-- Election of July 11, 1851
-- Colusa secures the county seat, 1853
-- Contract let for new courthouse
-- Text of Judge Ide's report to the state treasurer, 1851
-- William B. Ide's unique place in

CONTENTS -- HISTORICAL


the early government of the county

-- The first county "jail"
-- Location of the old courthouse
-- The old court of sessions
-- Influence of U.P. Monroe in the early government of the county
-- Growth of the population
-- Bill introduced in state Senate, in 1852, providing for county division.

CHAPTER VII


Colusa County Politically Page 68

Political conditions in the county at the time of its organization, and after the removal of the county seat to Colusa

-- The slavery question
-- The presidential election of 1864
-- Colusa the "banner Democratic county of the state"
-- The waning of partisanship with the passage of non-partisan laws
-- Southern sympathizers' plan to celebrate President Lincoln's assassination
-- The plan frustrated by John H. Liening in true Western style
-- Arrest and imprisonment of the leaders
-- Indictment of Captain Starr, Mr. Liening, and others
-- The cases dismissed
-- "Camp Pap Rice" and John Miller Post
-- Colusa County, as at first laid out
-- The two centers of population
-- Territory transferred to Tehama County in 1855
-- Attempt to transfer territory from Colusa County to Lake County, 1864
-- Attempt to transfer territory to Butte County, 1866
-- Railroad completed to Willows, 1878
-- Willows begins agitation for county division
-- Public meeting in Orland, 1882
-- Bill introduced in 1887, providing for county division
-- County division in the campaign of 1888
-- Bill for county division passes both houses in 1889, but is vetoed by the Governor
-- The election of 1890
-- Arrests for ballot-box stuffing
-- The cases dismissed
-- The election of May 5, 1891
-- County division wins
-- Glenn County named after Dr. H.J. Glenn
-- The town of Princeton and Senator John Boggs' ranch transferred from Glenn County to Colusa County in 1893
-- Status of the liquor question in the county
-- Effect of the Progressive movement on the Republican party in the county
-- The Grange movement
-- People's Independent party, 1873
-- The Constitution party, 1879
-- Dr. H.J. Glenn Democratic nominee for Governor. 1879
-- Rise and growth of anti-Chinese sentiment, 1880-1890
-- Delegates appointed to the anti-Chinese convention in Sacramento, 1888
-- Passage by Congress of Chinese exclusion bill
-- Present relations of the two races
-- Some exceptions to Democratic success at the polls
-- The liquor question as a political issue
-- The county at first on a "wide-open" basis
-- The saloon long a power in politics
-- The Good Templars organize opposition to the saloons
-- J.D. McNary, Peter Earp, and Stewart Harris
-- First Good Templars lodge in Colusa, 1868; Col. J.F. Wilkins and O.S. Mason among its officers
-- Results of election called by temperance people, 1874
-- Organization of the Union Temperance Sunday School under J.D, McNary, Judge E.A. Bridgeford. and Charles B. Whiting. 1892
-- County license ordinance providing for precinct option introduced before the board of supervisors. December 10, 1908
-- Result of the vote by precincts, November 8, 1910
-- Passage of the Wylie local option law. 1911
-- All the districts outside the incorporated town of Colusa go dry, November 5, 1912
-- Results of recent votes.

CHAPTER VIII


Transportation Page 75

Importance of transportation facilities

-- Colusa County long content to be a "cow county"
-- Improvements in transportation during the last decade
-- Improvements to come. Steamer Transportation: Conditions favorable to making Colusa a steamboat terminal and distributing point
-- Obstacles that had to be overcome
-- Five boats go to Colusa or higher in 1850
-- The Martha Jane, 1851
-- The Benicia, 1851
-- The Orient establishes regular steamboat service to Colusa
-- Growth of steamboating on the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Feather Rivers
-- Combination of boat owners
-- Effect of the railroads on the steamboat traffic
-- The steamboat company sells out to the railroad company, 1876
-- Organization of the Sacramento Wood Company, 1860
-- This becomes the Sacramento Transportation Company and absorbs the railroad company's steamboat business north of Sacramento
-- Organization of the Farmers'

CONTENTS -- HISTORICAL


Transportation Company, 1901

-- The Valletta
-- Service of the Sacramento Transportation Company and the Farmers' Transportation Company between Colusa and San Francisco and Sacramento
-- Agreement between the two companies, 1917
-- Effect of the railroads on the passenger traffic of the boats
-- The California-Pacific Railroad's line of boats, 1873-1876
-- Freight rates in the days of the Orient
-- Present freight rates by boat. Railroads: The -"Colusa, Marysville and Nevada Railroad" projected, but never built
-- The Northern Railway enters the county. May 15. 1876
-- Celebrations at Arbuckle and Williams
-- The road continued to Willows in 1878
-- Colusa loses the main line
-- Colusa authorized to issue bonds for a connecting line, 1876
-- Circulation of subscription papers
-- Officers elected, and articles of incorporation of the Colusa Railroad Company filed
-- Determination of the location
-- First passenger train between Colusa and Colusa Junction, April 30, 1886
-- Company name changed to Colusa & Lake Railroad Company
-- Road extended to Sites, September 29, 1886
-- First locomotive arrives by barge in Colusa, November 30, 1885
-- George Ogden the first engineer
-- E.A. Harrington the first superintendent, succeeded by M.E. Burrows
-- The road operated for over twenty-nine years
-- The fare between Colusa and the Junction
-- Development of interurban electric roads
-- Agents of the Northern Electric secure land in Colusa for terminal purposes, 1906
-- Progress of the road
-- Officials of the road secure franchise on Market Street
-- The "Shasta Southern," and its activities in Colusa and Princeton
-- Activities of Southern Pacific representatives
-- The Northern Electric surveyors begin running lines in town for their road, December 31. 1906
-- The Shasta Southern's operations discontinued
-- The Northern Electric applies to the trustees of Colusa for an exclusive franchise along the river front
-- Verses by Mrs. R.M. Liening
-- Water-front franchise granted, but not exclusive
-- Terms of the first franchise
-- Delays
-- Offer made by the railroad people in 1911
-- Bonds placed with the people of the county
-- Articles of incorporation filed, Nov. 14. 1911
-- Contract signed for erection of the Meridian bridge
-- Contracts placed for grading the road
-- Progress of the work
-- First car to cross the bridge, and first train to arrive in Colusa
-- First outbound and first inbound freight
-- The carnival, June 13 and 14, 1913
-- First passenger train into Colusa
-- Regular passenger service established, June 16, 1913
-- The flood of February 3, 1915
-- Traffic resumed, October 15. 1915
-- Other roads projected
-- Cooperation of the Sacramento Valley Sugar Company with the Colusa & Hamilton, projected by the Southern Pacific
-- The proposed route announced
-- Progress of construction
-- Delay in ballasting
-- The road's first passenger train into Colusa
-- Freight service to Princeton established, September 1, 1914
-- Damage by the flood of February, 1915
-- Freight service resumed and improved
-- Freight rates
-- The West Side Electric
-- The meeting at Willows, March 27, 1911
-- Work of the committee, and progress of construction
-- Work suspended on account of financial difficulties
-- Proposed route
-- Railroad between Colusa and Chico advocated by W.S. Green
-- Surveys for the road made by Green and Moulton in 1875
-- Fruitless efforts made to interest the electric power line in 1900. Highways: The first "highway"
-- Roads laid out along section lines
-- Character of the early roads
-- Bond issue of 1868, for roads and bridges
-- Character of the gravel roads
-- Experiments with oiled roads and macadamized road
-- The state issues $18,000,000 worth of bonds for concrete highways
-- County bond issue defeated
-- Efforts to bring the state highway up the river and through Princeton
-- State aid dependent on the raising of One per cent, interest
-- Mass meetings at Williams and Colusa
-- $452,000 bond issue carried, March 17, 1914
-- Purposes of the bond Issue
-- Construction begins
-- The lateral from Williams to Colusa completed. 1916
-- Main line completed through the county from north to south
-- Plans for extension of the system
-- Wooden bridges replaced by concrete structures, 1914-1916. Stage Lines: Early mail and passenger service by stage
-- Baxter & Company and a Mr. Johnson operate rival lines between Colusa and Shasta
-- Most of the travel diverted from the Marysville to the Colusa route
-- Tri-weekly service between Colusa and Princeton, 1869
-- Opposition stage line between Colusa and Marysville
-- Reduction of fares
-- Organization of the Bartlett Springs & Bear Valley Toll Road Company,

CONTENTS -- HISTORICAL


and opening of the stage line between Colusa and Bartlett and Allen Springs, 1873

-- Increase of passenger traffic over the route
-- Stage lines established between Colusa and Chico and Colusa and Wilbur Springs, 1874
-- Nine stage lines out of Colusa in 1874
-- Line opened between Leesville and Fouts Springs, 1876
-- Tri-weekly service between Colusa and Willows, via Princeton, 1877
-- Effect of the coming of the railroads on the stage lines
-- Horse stages displaced by auto stages
-- Lines still in service. The Automobile in Colusa County: The first velocipede
-- The first steam "traction wagon"
-- Dr. W.T. Rathbun's steam Locomobile proves to be the chief feature of the county fair at Colusa in 1898
-- M.C. Dillman brings in the first gasoline car
-- Other early cars
-- Trip of Will S. Green's Locomobile from Sacramento to Colusa, 1900
-- Rapid increase in the number of automobiles in the county
-- The Ford in Colusa County
-- Introduction of the auto hearse
-- Auto trucks and tractors fast supplanting horse power. The Aeroplane: Various flights planned
-- Flight at the Odd Fellows' picnic at Grimes, 1917.

CHAPTER IX


Irrigation and Reclamation Page 92

Reclamation: District 67: Formed in 1867

-- Construction of the levee across the south end of Mormon Basin
-- District reorganized as District 479
-- Present trustees. District 108: Formed in 1870
-- Territory embraced
-- The district divided, and District 729 formed, 1902
-- The district as reorganized in 1911
-- First trustees
-- The river levee
-- Reorganization and construction work under Jesse Poundstone and Charles de St. Maurice
-- The back levee
-- The pumping plants
-- Cost of the improvements
-- Present trustees. District 124: Formed in 1871
-- Territory embraced
-- First trustees
-- The levee
-- Later trustees
-- Lapse of the district. Other Projects: Reclamation work on Col. L.F. Moulton's ranch
-- J.W. Parks' dam
-- Crocker Estate Company's levee
-- Sacramento and San Joaquin Drainage District; scope of the plans, and authorized cost of the project
-- Sacramento Valley West Side Levee District; scope of the project, and plan of assessment
-- The Iron Canyon Project.
-- Irrigation: Will S. Green's advocacy of irrigation
-- His connection with the Central Irrigation District
-- Lines run and route established for a canal through Colusa and Yolo Counties, to utilize the waters of the Sacramento River
-- Failure of the plan
-- Corporation formed and money raised to utilize the waters of Stony Creek
-- The project defeated by the owners of riparian rights
-- Green's advocacy of the district plan as against the plan of appropriators
-- Passage of the Wright Act, and organization of Central District
-- Text of Frank Adams' historical account of the district
-- The meetings of March 26 and April 22, at Maxwell, and the committees appointed
-- Mistakes made
-- The Central Canal and Irrigation Company extends the river branch to Princeton
-- Decision of the Supreme Court in 1915, and formation of a new district at Princeton
-- Construction of Central Canal, and installation of pumping plant
-- Financial straits of the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company, and sale of its lands
-- Failure of attempts to form irrigation districts at Arbuckle and College City
-- Formation and operations of the Amos Roberts Ditch Company
-- Directors of the company
-- System of the Colusa Irrigation Company
-- Directors of the company
-- Irrigation systems on Stony Creek, near Stonyford
-- Colonel Moulton's pumping plant, and the work of the barge Merritt
-- Private pumps installed along the river
-- Operations of the Moulton Irrigated Lands Company and their successors, the Colusa Delta Lands Company, in the irrigation of rice lands
-- Operations of Mallon & Blevins
-- The Cheney Slough Irrigation Company's operations
-- Directors of the company
-- Establishment of numerous small rice-growing projects
-- Meeting held at Maxwell, October 15, 1881, in the interest of tests for artesian water
-- Irrigation from artesian wells on the Melone ranch.

CHAPTER X


AGRICULTURE p. 104
Grain-Raising in Colusa County : Wheat and barley long the chief agricultural products of the county

-- Colusa County once the greatest

CONTENTS -- HISTORICAL


wheat-raising and barley-raising county in the world. Wheat: Two per cent, of nation's crop in 1880 produced in what was then Colusa County
-- Dr. H.J. Glenn's wheat ranch the greatest in the world
-- Production on the Glenn ranch in 1876
-- Present extensive operations in grain-raising
-- The beginning of grain-raising in the county
-- Effect of the dry years on the industry
-- Growth of the industry after the rains of 1864
-- Wheat becomes the leading crop
-- Increase of production from 1864 to 1884
-- 10,000,000 bushels of wheat in 1889. Barley: Decline of wheat-raising and growth of barley-raising
-- Barley the more profitable crop in Colusa County
-- Effect of seasons on yield of plains lands and tule lands
-- Varying yield
-- Crops and prices in 1917
-- Inroads of other crops on the barley acreage. Rice: Rise and growth of the rice industry
-- Early experiments by Colonel Moulton
-- Government experiments at Chico
-- Operations of W.K. Brown on the lands of the Moulton ranch
-- Production of rice on the Moulton ranch in 1914
-- Operations of Mallon & Blevins
-- Rice acreage of the county in 1915
-- Increase in land values
-- Introduction of the early-maturing Italian rice
-- Production of rice in 1915 by the Moulton Irrigated Lands Company and the California Rice Company
-- Operations of Mallon & Blevins from 1915 to date
-- The Cheney Slough Irrigation Company
-- Directors of the company
-- Growth of the industry at Maxwell
-- Rice acreage in the county in 1917
-- Demand for rice lands. Alfalfa: Introduction and growth of alfalfa culture
-- Production on irrigated lands, and on unirrigated lands
-- Crop returns
-- Importance of the alfalfa crop. Corn: Four kinds grown
-- Sorghum first grown in the fifties
-- Indian corn grown to some extent along the river
-- Egyptian corn grown on the overflow lands; a summer crop
-- Broom corn grown on the overflow lands; present prices and profits; operations of George F. McKenzie in 1914, and subsequent growth of the broom corn industry. Beans: At first grown for home consumption
-- The bean lands
-- Yield per acre
-- Center of the bean industry of the county
-- Increased demand for bean lands
-- Varieties grown, and prices. Beets: Efforts to introduce the sugar beet
-- John Boggs
-- Sugar factory offered by the Spreckels Sugar Company in 1896
-- Project for a factory in 1905
-- Project formed in 1911 for the building of the Colusa and Hamilton Railroad
-- The required acreage subscribed
-- The road not finished
-- Crops grown by the sugar company
-- Present prospects for the growth of the industry. Other Crops: Potatoes grown in limited quantities
-- Cotton: W.S. Green's attempt to introduce cotton-growing; experiments by Andrew Rutland and J.W. Bowden
-- Sweet potatoes and peanuts grown on the sandy lands along the river
-- Grandelia robusta, or rosin weed, gathered from the lowlands along the Trough; prices and shipments.

CHAPTER XI


HORTICULTURE Page 113

Scope of horticulture in Colusa County. Fruit-growing for Domestic Purposes: The wide variety of fruits grown

-- Conditions that have prevented the general introduction of fruit-growing. Grapes: Pioneer work of I.N. Cain in the raisin industry at College City
-- William Calmes' vineyard
-- Growth in vineyard acreage during the eighties
-- Colonel Moulton's vineyard
-- The Brim vineyard
-- Growth of the raisin industry during the last decade
-- Wine grapes
-- Table grapes
-- Crops and crop returns
-- Outlook for development. Prunes: Early prune orchardists: J.B. Dejarnatt, A.S. McWilliams, Colonel Moulton, P.V. Berkey. Henry Ahlf. D.H. Arnold, Richard Bayne, Dr. Gray, John Boggs, Poirier
-- Organization of the Colusa County Horticultural Society, and appointment of a board of horticultural commissioners
-- Operations of P.V. Berkey, J.W. Bowden, J.C. Bedell, and Joseph Boedefeld in 1894
-- The Boedefeld orchard
-- Production and returns
-- Growth of the industry during the past four years. Almonds: Arbuckle as an almond center
-- C.H. Locke's almond orchard
-- Growth of the almond industry from 1892 to 1907
-- Subdivision of the Reddington ranch in 1907, and beginning of the almond boom
-- Organization of the Superior California Fruit Lands Company and the Arbuckle Almond Growers' Association
-- Growth of the industry in the Arbuckle district
-- A.M. Newland the pioneer almond-grower of the county
-- The New-


CONTENTS -- HISTORICAL


land orchard

-- The Eureka almond
-- A. Fendt's orchard. Oranges: John T. Harrington's orchard; production and quality
-- Alva A. King's orchard. Lemons: Operations of James Mills, near Maxwell
-- The Mills orchard. Peaches and Apricots: W.L. Cotter's orchard, near Arbuckle
-- Acreage planted in the Arbuckle district
-- A.S. McWilliams the pioneer apricot orchardist ahout Colusa
-- Growth and decline ot the industry. Pears: The pear boom along the river in the eighties
-- Yields and returns
-- The epidemic of pear blight
-- The Boedefeld orchard
-- The Ahlf orchard; yield and returns
-- Orchards of W.G. Henneke and P.B. Pryor. Walnuts: Operations of J.C. Westfall
-- The Hugh L. Dobbins walnut nursery in Colusa
-- The walnut orchard at Arbuckle. Figs, plums, and Apples; The fig orchards of Richard Bayne and W.C. Roberts
-- The Ahlf brothers' plum orchard
-- Apple orchards in the western part of the county.

CHAPTER XII


Mining and Quarrying Page 122
Mining: Colusa County not a mining county

-- Minerals produced
-- Early activities (as outlined in the Rogers history) in the discovery and mining of copper, coal, gold and silver, quicksilver, sulphur, petroleum, chrome ore, and limestone
-- The oil excitement on Bear Creek in 1900 and 1901
-- Operations of the Williams Oil Company
-- Discovery of mineral paint deposit on Little Stony Creek in 1909, and organization of the Ruby King Mining, Townsite & Improvement Company
-- The cinnabar mines of Sulphur Creek
-- The Manzanita and Cherry Mines. Quarrying: Building stone quarry opened at Sites in 1892, and operated by the Colusa Sandstone Company
-- A second quarry opened by John D. McGilvray
-- Shipments to San Francisco
-- Buildings erected of Colusa sandstone
-- Quality of the stone
-- Production in 1905
-- Suspension of operations.

CHAPTER XIII


MANUFACTURING - Page 128

Local Economic Conditions Unfavorable to Manufacturing: Various attempts made to establish manufactures

-- Farming much more profitable than manufacturing in Colusa County
-- Relative returns as illustrated by the rice business. Sawmills and Flouring Mills: Morrison's mill at Sycamore, 1852; manufacture of lumber and flour
-- Dunlap & Turner's mill at Colusa, 1853
-- Quality of the flour
-- Later history of the mill
-- The flour mill at Princeton
-- John L. Smith's mill at Smithville
-- The Stony Creek Improvement Company
-- The Williams Flouring Mill
-- The Sunset Flouring Mills
-- The Colusa Milling Company
-- The Colusa Milling & Grain Company
-- The Williams Milling Company. Manufacture of Salt: The salt lake north of Sites
-- Salt Lake Ranch
-- Early operations
-- Operations of J.P. Rathbun
-- The Antelope Crystal Salt Company. Projects for a Sugar Factory: Early attempts to establish a factory
-- $100,000 subscribed toward a factory in 1905
-- Loss of the factory to Hamilton City. Canning and Packing: The Colusa Canning, Drying and Packing Company
-- Operations of the company
-- The Colusa Dried Fruit Company. Creameries: Activities of the Pacific Creamery Company and the Colusa Cream Association, and incorporation of the Colusa Creamery Company
-- Erection and operation of the factory
-- The Colusa Butter Company
-- Sale of the creamery to the Western Creameries Company
-- Purchase and operation of the plant by M.A. Sickels
-- The Stonyford Creamery
-- Erection and operation of the factory. Steam Laundries: J.R. Phillips' steam laundry in Colusa
-- Organization of the Colusa Steam Laundry Association
-- Purchase and operation of the plant by W.H. Graham
-- Madam Hordes' French steam laundry. Ice Plants: Manufacture of ice by J.B. Cooke
-- The Colusa Meat & Cold Storage Company
-- Erection and operation of the plant
-- Lease of the plant to the Union Ice Company. Iron and Steel Manufactures: The Williams Foundry and Machine Shop
-- The Colusa Agricultural Works
-- Operation under Gessner & Skinner, J. Grover, and Wulff & Lage
-- Operation as the Colusa Foundry and Machine Shop under Frank

CONTENTS -- HISTORICAL


Wulff

-- Later changes in proprietorship. The Brewery: The old building
-- Erection of the brick building
-- Operation under proprietorship of G. Kammerer
-- Sold at sheriff's sale. Light, Power, & Water Companies: The Colusa Gas Company
-- Purchase and operation of the plant by the Pacific Gas & Electric Company
-- The Williams Water & Electric Company. Manufacture of Brooms: Attempts of William Prater and J.W. Van Winkle to establish a broom factory in Colusa
-- Van Winkle's factory moved to Sacramento. Manufacture of Poultry Supplies: The Rogers Manufacturing Company, at Williams
-- Removal to Sacramento. Other Projects: Agitation for a rice mill; issuance and revocation of permit to sell stock
-- The Felts Electric Light & Power Company
-- The Western Acetylene Gas Company
-- The Snow Mountain Electric Power Company.

CHAPTER XIV


Newspapers Page 136

Colusa: The Colusa Sun: Founded January 1, 1862

-- Publication under Charles R. Street, T.J. Andus, and Will S. Green and the Addingtons
-- Publication and changes under the Colusa Sun Publishing Company
-- Influence of the Sun in the affairs of Colusa County. The Colusa Independent: Founded in 1873
-- Published from 1873 to 1877. The Colusa Herald: Founded in July, 1886, by Jacobs & King
-- Later owners
-- Transferred to a stock company in 1900
-- Changes under John L. Allison
-- Purchase and publication by C.D. McComish
-- Purchase and publication by Tompkins & Harriss. The Colusa Daily Gazette: Founded in 1889
-- Publication under E.I. Fuller, from 1889 to 1904. Williams: The Central News, of Williams: Founded in 1882
-- Edited by G.B. Henderson. The Williams Farmer: Founded in 1887
-- Publication and changes under S.H. Callen
-- Published under various lessees since 1911. The Williams Enterprise: Founded, and published for a few months, in 1911. by R.R. Kingsley. Arbuckle: The Arbuckle Autocrat: Founded by J.S. Taylor in 1890
-- Name changed to New Era
-- Leased in 1899 to J.H. Hudson, founder of the Arbuckle Independent
-- Acquired by W.W. Felts in 1902, and name changed to Arbuckle Planter
-- Purchased by J.P. Hall in 1909, and name changed to Arbuckle American
-- Publication and influence under Mr. Hall. Maxwell: The Maxwell Star: Purchased by W.W. Felts and James H. Hodgen in 1884
-- Publication suspended. The Maxwell Mercury: Founded in 1888
-- Publication under John G. and Charles C. Overshlner. The Maxwell Tribune: Founded in 1912, by Harden & Hardwicke
-- Publication under George B. Harden
-- Now leased to L.H. Bowen, and printed at the Williams Farmer office. Grimes: The Grimes Record: Founded in 1911
-- Published by J.P. Hall and printed at the Arbuckle American office. The Grimes Independent: Founded in 1917
-- Published and printed by L.H. Bowen at the Williams Farmer office. Princeton: The Princeton New Era: Founded in 1905 by Joel H. Ford
-- Printed at the Colusa Sun office. The Princeton Journal: A few numbers issued from the Colusa Herald office by Seth Bailey, in 1914. County Editorial Association: Meeting of the county editors at Maxwell, September 28, 1889, and organization of an association
-- Renewed attempt to establish an association in 1914.

CHAPTER XV


Schools, Churches, and Lodges Page 139

Schools: General excellence of school system

-- Effect of large landholdings on rural schools
-- First school established in 1855 in Colusa
-- First schoolhouse built in 1861
-- Subsequent buildings and projected improvements
-- Growth of the school system from 1861 to the present time
-- Five high schools at present
-- Colusa High School
-- Pierce Joint Union High School
-- Williams High School
-- Princeton Joint Union High School
-- Maxwell High School
-- St. Aloysius Convent School
-- Mrs. Clark's Select School for Young Ladies
-- Mrs. Lowery's kindergarten
-- Pierce Christian College
-- Its founder, Andrew Pierce
-- Its place in the educational history of the county
-- Father Wallrath, and

CONTENTS -- HISTORICAL


the founding of the convent school in Colusa. Churches: Churches of the county not in a thriving condition. The Methodist Episcopal Church, South: History of the Colusa congregation, prepared by J.W. Goad for the semi-centennial of Trinity Church
-- Preachers in charge since 1910
-- The churches at Arbuckle, Williams, Maxwell, Sites, Princeton, Stonyford, and Leesville. The Christian Church: The church in Colusa
-- Buildings erected
-- List of ministers
-- The churches at Williams, College City, Sycamore, Maxwell, and Grand Island. The Catholic Church: First church built in the county begun at Colusa under Father Crinnian, and completed by Father Wallrath
-- Influence of Father Wallrath
-- The churches at Maxwell, Stonyford, Williams, and Arbuckle
-- Funeral of Father Wallrath. The Baptist Church: The churches at Grimes, Arbuckle, and Maxwell. The Presbyterian Church: Organization of the congregation, and erection of the church, at Colusa, the only one in the county
-- First wedding and first funeral in the church
-- List of pastors
-- Improvements now being made
-- List of organists. The Episcopal Church: Organization of the church in Colusa, the only one in the county
-- Buildings erected. The African M.E. Zion Church: Incorporated in 1894
-- At present without pastor or regular services. Lodges: Of the many orders organized in the county, only a few now represented by active lodges
-- The various orders organized, and those now active. The Masons: Colusa Lodge, No. 142, F. & A.M.
-- Equality Lodge consolidated with Colusa Lodge, No. 142, to form Colusa Lodge, No. 240
-- Meridian Lodge, No. 182, at Arbuckle
-- Tuscan Lodge, No. 261, at Williams
-- Snow Mountain Lodge, No. 271, at Stonyford
-- Maxwell Lodge. No. 288
-- Knights Templar Commandery and Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, at Colusa
-- Veritas Chapter, O.E.S., at Colusa
-- Eowana Chapter, O.E.S., at Stonyford
-- Loyal Chapter. O.E.S., at Williams
-- Wild Rose Chapter, O.E.S.. at Princeton. The Odd Fellows: Colusa Lodge. No. 133
-- Princeton Lodge consolidated with Colusa Lodge
-- Central Lodge, at Williams
-- Grand Island Lodge, No. 266, at Grimes
-- Spring Valley Lodge, at Arbuckle
-- Maxwell Lodge
-- Colusa Encampment
-- Deborah Rebekah Lodge, at Colusa
-- Valley Rose Rebekah Lodge, at Grimes
-- Rebekah lodges at Arbuckle, Williams, and Maxwell. Native Sons and Native Daughters: Colusa Parlor, No. 69
-- Williams Parlor, No. 164
-- Colusa Parlor, N.D.G.W. Knights of Pythias: Oriental Lodge, No. 10, and successor, at Colusa. Loyal Order of Moose: Colusa Lodge, No. 834. Fraternal Order of Eagles: Colusa Aerie, No. 675. Independent Order of Foresters: Court Sioc, at Colusa. Ancient Order of United Workmen: Lapsed lodges at Colusa, Grand Island, Princeton, and Maxwell
-- Degree of Honor, at Colusa. Grand Army of the Republic: General John A. Miller Post, at Colusa
-- Women's Relief Corps. Confederate Veterans: Camp Pap Price, at Colusa
-- Winnie Davis Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy, at Colusa. Other orders: Ancient Order of Druids, at Colusa
-- Knights of Honor, at Colusa
-- Fraternal Brotherhood, at Colusa and Meridian
-- Good Templars, at Colusa, Sycamore, Grand Island, Arbuckle, Princeton, College City, Williams, Maxwell, and Lodoga
-- Sons of Temperance, at Colusa and Williams
-- The Williams Temperance Advocate
-- Antlers Club of the Elks
-- The I.D.E.S.
-- Colusa Lodge, No. 6, E. Clampus Vitus.

CHAPTER XVI


The Weather Page 156

Is the cimate changing?

-- The two seasons
-- The summer of 1844
-- General review of the seasons from 1849 to 1917
-- Various periods of high water
-- The floods of February, 1915
-- The hot spell of 1879
-- Two respects in which the climate has changed
-- Modifying effect of increasing vegetation
-- The cold spell of January, 1888
-- General characteristics of the normal climate of the county
-- Some variations from type: Late rains, accompanied by thunder and lightning; various hail-storms; snow-storms; earthquakes
-- Weather in the mountains.

CONTENTS -- HISTORICAL

CHAPTER XVII


Miscellaneous Facts : Page 161

Picnics, celebrations, and public gatherings
-- Public works and public buildings
-- Public utilities
-- Postal dates and postal data
-- Companies and corporations
-- Various organizations
-- Resorts
-- Personals
-- Facts and figures.

CHAPTER XVIII


Colusa County Today Page 168

General Features: A land of broad expanses, sparsely populated

-- Distribution of industries
-- One incorporated city
-- Unincorporated towns and villages. General Statistics: Area
-- Farms
-- Agricultural lands and grazing lands
-- Roads
-- Irrigation
-- Valuation
-- Assessed live stock. County Officials: Present officers
-- List of justices of the peace. Colusa: Location and population
-- Established in 1850
-- Incorporated in 1876
-- Growth and public improvements
-- List of business places. Williams: Population
-- Laid out in 1876
-- Public improvements
-- List of business places. Arbuckle: Laid out in 1875
-- Population
-- Public improvements
-- List of business places
-- Prospect of growth through almond and raisin industries. Maxwell: Laid out in 1878. and called Occident
-- Change of name
-- Population
-- Public improvements
-- List of business places. Princeton: A road house in 1851
-- Population
-- Public improvements
-- List of business places. Grimes: A road house in 1851
-- Origin of name
-- Population
-- Public improvements
-- List of business places
-- Center of sugar-beet industry
-- Subscriptions to Y.M.C.A. war fund. College City: The founding of Pierce Christian College
-- A community of high ideals
-- Present population
-- Public improvements and places of business. Stonyford: Only important mountain town in county
-- Originally called Smithville
-- Change of name
-- Present population
-- Public improvements and places of business. In Conclusion: Limitations and purpose of the work.
[page]
HISTORY OF GLENN COUNTY

By Mrs. Rebecca T. Lambert


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . PAGE

Introduction Page 177

Topographic and General, Industrial Features: Location and boundaries of Glenn County

-- Stony Creek and Stony Creek Valley
-- Willow, Walker, and Hambright Creeks
-- The "Trough"
-- Area of the county
-- Character of the surface, and distribution of industries
-- Economic history of the county concerned chiefly with the industries of the plains.

CHAPTER I


The Pathfinders Page 178

Hunters and trappers the first pathfinders

-- Jedediah S. Smith the first man to make the trip overland to California from the United States
-- His trips from Great Salt Lake to and through California, 1826-1828
-- Party sent out by Hudson Bay Company, under McLeod, who makes a successful hunting trip down the Sacramento Valley
-- Ogden follows McLeod's trail
-- Trip of Ewing Young and J.J. Warner
-- Sutter's activities and influence
-- Extract from John Bidwell's journal
-- Farreaching influence of Thomas O. Larkin
-- Bidwell's exploration.

CHAPTER II


The Indians Page 183

Their number and origin

-- Characteristics of the Digger Indians
-- Their mode of living
-- Manners and Customs
-- Tradition of a flood
-- Their morals
-- Attitude toward the whites
-- Removal to the Noma Lacka Reservation
-- Later depredations
-- The legend of "Bloody Rock"
-- Attack at the rancheria on the Millsaps place
-- Results of their contact with civilization.

CHAPTER III


The Missions. California Wins Her Independence Page 189

The Missions: The Spanish fail to realize the possibilities of the Sacramento Valley

-- Russian settlement at Fort Ross, followed by the founding of Spanish missions at San Rafael and Sonoma. California Wins Her Independence: Gen. John A. Sutter's grant
-- Sutter's hospitality
--Growing power of the American settlers
-- Fremont's surveying trip up the Sacramento Valley
-- The capture of Arce's horses
-- Capture of General Vallejo
-- The Bear Flag Revolt
-- The Battle of Olampali
-- Granville P. Swift, and others of the Bear Flag Party.

CHAPTER IV


Organization of State and County Page 194

California under military rule

-- State constitutional convention at Monterey, September 3. 1849
-- Constitution ratified and proclaimed
-- First legislature meets at San Jose, December 15, 1849
-- California admitted to statehood, September 9, 1850
-- Boundaries of Colusa County defined
-- Location of the county seat at Monroeville
-- Early elections
-- Transient nature of the population
-- Extract from a letter of William B. Ide
-- Anecdote of Ide
-- Transportation in the early days
-- Early grain-growers
-- Valuation and population in 1852
-- First legal execution, and first county jail
-- Removal of the county seat to Colusa.

CONTENTS -- HISTORICAL

CHAPTER V


Origin of Place Names. The Coming of the Stockmen Page 200

Origin of Place Names: Pioneers whose descendants still live In the county: A.S.C. Cleek, Martin Reager. Robert Hambright, Elijah McDaniel, and Mayberry Davis

-- Manufacture of grindstones on Stony and Grindstone Creeks, 1845
-- Pioneers whose names are perpetuated in the place names of the county: R.B. Ord, R.J. Walsh, A.C. St. John, Granville P. Swift, L.H. Mcintosh, Robert Hambright, Watt Briscoe, James Clark, Jeff Walker. The Coming of the Stockmen: The forty-niners turn from mining to stock-raising
-- Residents and landowners along the Sacramento River before 1858: Mayberry Davis, Elijah McDaniel, Joseph McVay, Bounds and Picknell, H.C. Nelson, Frank Steele. Levi Jefferson McDanlel, J.J. Winkler, John Price, Isaac Sparks, Watkins, George C. Pratt, R.B. Ord., U.P. Monroe. Richard Walsh, L.H. Mcintosh. Joseph and Michael Billlou, Martin
-- A. Reager and S.C. Cleek, James Ewing Mitchell, and Jubal Weston
-- Claims laid out along the courses of the streams
-- Improvement of the stock
-- Prominent sheep-raisers of the early days: James Ewing Mitchell, Jeff Walker, U.S. Nye, A.S. McWilliams, James Talbot. Patrick O'Brien, W.W. Marshall, Laban Scearce, William Murdock and Milton French. Settlement of the Foothills: First settlements made during 1855
-- Early settlers: A.D. Logan. "Zink" Garnett, James and Thomas Talbot, Oscar Stiles, James and S.D. Young, J.R. Tiffee, Robert Eggleston, Abe Musick, Jerry Schooling, Charley Brooks, U.S. Nye, Patrick O'Brien, Milton French, J.C. and S.P. Wilson, W.W. Marshall, Jeff Walker, H.B. Julian, I.W. Brownell, Laban Scearce. Noah Simpson, and Robert Hambright
-- Pioneers of the vicinity of Newville: James Flood, J.B. and Joseph James, M. Kendrick, James Kilgore, Lysander V. Cushman. Rufus G. Burrows, John Masterson,
-- B.N. Scribner. James A. Shelton and George W. Millsaps
-- Joseph Millsaps
-- Pioneers of Stony Creek Valley, between Elk Creek and Stonyford: L.L. Felkner, Robert Anderson, Watt Briscoe, Wilcox, Parrish, Bowman, J.S.B. West. Jack and Dave Lett, W.E. Green and W.W. and Alfred Green. The Drought of 1864: The drought state-wide
-- Widespread loss of herds and flocks
-- Effect upon the introduction of grain-growing.

CHAPTER VI


The Era of the Grain-grower Page 207
First Attempts at Grain-growing: Wheat and barley first planted in 1851

-- Squatter claims abandoned on the plains on account of drought and grasshoppers
-- Settlement of the plains fostered by the government
-- Dawning of the new era. Influx of Settlers: Grain-growers come in from Solano County
-- Grain farmers who settled in Glenn County from 1868 to 1873: Dr. Hugh J. Glenn, I.V. Devenpeck, Ad. Duncan, H.A. Greenwood, Henry W. Steuben, P.B. Lacroix, W.T. Troxel, Daniel Zumwalt, G.D. Mecum, Chris. Jasper and J.A. Smith. Growth and Decline of the Industry: Yield in Colusa and Glenn Counties increased to a million sacks by 1872
-- Some farmers go back to sheep-raising
-- Dr. H.J. Glenn's operations
-- Increased acreage sown to grain
-- Damage by rust
-- Depredations of wild geese and ducks
-- 1880 a banner year of the grain-growers; Dr. Glenn produces almost a million bags of wheat
-- Other large growers of 1880: George Hoag. William Murdock, Pierre Barceloux. P.B. Lacroix. Charles Merrill, I.V. Devenpeck, Ad. Duncan, Laban Scearce, H.B. Julian, Patrick O'Brien, Joseph Billiou and C.S. Chambers
-- Eight million bushels of grain produced in 1885
-- The "norther" of 1886
-- Advent of the combined harvester, 1887
-- Introduction of the steam tractor, 1889
-- Exhaustion of the soil and decrease in crop yields in the early nineties
-- Introduction of summer-fallowing, and association of grain-growing with stock-raising. Grain-growing on the Grant: Dr. Hugh J. Glenn at one time the largest grain farmer in the United States
-- His early operations in the state, in mining, freighting, and the live-stock business
-- He begins farming in Yolo County with Major Briggs in 1865
-- The Glenn ranch at Jacinto
-- Dr. Glenn's holdings increased until they

CONTENTS -- HISTORICAL


comprised about fifty-five thousand acres

-- About forty-five thousand acres farmed to wheat and barley
-- Pacts and statistics showing the extensive operations carried on by Dr. Glenn
-- Death of Dr. Glenn and subdivision of the great ranch
-- The Glenn home site at Jacinto, owned by Mrs. Ella Glenn Leonard
-- The estate of Charles H. Glenn
-- "Glennair," the home of Frank Buckner Glenn.

CHAPTER VII


County Division, and Organization of the New County Page 212

Location of county seat at Colusa inconvenient for residents of the northern portion of the county

-- Revenues of the county not equitably expended
-- The "Courthouse Ring"
-- Discontent in the north
-- Frank Freeman, editor of the Orland Times, espouses the cause of county division, 1880
-- The first plan for county division
-- Agitation renewed in 1882, and a bill introduced providing for the creation of a new county to be called "Glenn"
-- Circulation of petition
-- The bill defeated
-- Activities of the Divisionists and Anti-divisionists during the session of 1888-1889
-- Act creating the new county passed by Legislature, but not signed by Governor Waterman
-- Third bill introduced in 1890-1891, passed by both houses, and signed by Governor Markham
-- Commissioners appointed and election called to determine whether the new county should be organized
-- The election of May 5, 1891
-- Election canvassed by the commissioners. May 11, 1891, and act declared ratified
-- List of officers elected
-- Suit brought in the Superior Court of Sacramento County, praying for an order of court against the division of the county
-- Action decided in favor of division
-- Appeal made to the Supreme Court, and decision of lower court sustained
-- Suits instituted at Marysville, but finally dropped
-- The cause of county division championed by Frank Freeman from 1880 to 1891
-- The Hon. K.E. Kelley.

CHAPTER VIII


The Tears Immediately Following County Division Page 216
Pactions created by county division

-- The panic of 1893
-- Construction of county roads, bridges and buildings
-- Laying of the corner stone of the courthouse
-- Organization and service of Company G
-- Agricultural Association and the races
-- Famous trials
-- New enterprises
-- List of county officers, 1892-1916.

CHAPTER IX


The Era of Irrigation Page 225

Irrigation meeting of May, 1875, and the filing and location of private water rights

-- Early irrigation
-- Irrigation district projects
-- Will S. Green, and the Central Irrigation District
-- Orland Irrigation Project
-- Late canal irrigation development
-- Well and pumping-plant irrigation development.

CHAPTER X


Willows Page 234

Origin of the name

-- Early settlers and selection of the town site
-- The Southern Pacific enters Willows
-- Growth of the town
-- Early conflagrations
-- Organization for protection against fire
-- The solar eclipse of 1889
-- Musical organizations
-- Clubs
-- The period of growth
-- The passing of the saloon
-- The churches
-- Secret organizations
-- The schools
-- The library
-- Sheridan Park
-- The State Highway
-- The Federal Building
-- Stability and growth.

CHAPTER XI


Orland Page 245

Choice of the name

-- Settlement and early development
-- The college at Orland
-- The Bank of Orland
-- A patriotic event
-- Irrigation and development
-- The schools
-- The Orland Joint Union High School
-- The churches
-- Fraternal and civic organizations
-- The saloons
-- Industries
-- Appearance of the town
-- A list of the business places
-- The professions
-- The Glenn County Livestock and Agricultural Association.

[page]
INDEX--BIOGRAPHICAL

_______


A

Abel, George Lambert 817
Abel, John P. 818
Addington, Mrs Elizabeth 423
Addington, Stephen 420
Ajax, Thomas G. 835
Alexander, Charles 888
Anderson. Thomas Talbot 689
Annand, John 263
Applegate, William J. 994
Arbuckle, Tacitus R. 485
Arvedson. Charles Adolphus 956
Ash, Louis 683
Ash, Capt. William 930
Ash, William H. 626
Austin, C.L. 307
Austin, Frank Joseph 1063

B

Ballard, Leander S. 614
Ballard, Robert Bruce 610
Bane, Paul Davis 985
Bank of Princeton 1028
Bank of Willows 368
Barceloux Ernest J. 1051
Barceloux, Pierre 523
Barham, William 918
Bartlett, Clifford 982
Beckwith, Byron D. 569
Bedford, John Archibald 827
Beeck, John 589
Beguhl & Belieu 1001
Behr, Ernst E. 1012
Belieu, W.T. 844
Bell, Merton 988
Berens, Peter V. and Johannes J... 803
Berger, George A. 625
Beville, William Thomas 463
Bickford, Octavius Freeland 917
Billiou, Joseph 448
Birch, Theodore B. 775
Blake, Charles S. 1049
Blichteldt, Henry W. 853
Blichfeldt, John 854
Blondin, Mrs. Mae 738
Boardman, Frank Dayton 898
Boardman, Wilbur Warren 806
Boedefeld, Luke R. 556
Bondurant, Jesse L. 713
Boggs, Hon. John 260
Boren, Emil 770
Bostrom, C.N. 763
Boyd. James 296
Branham, Henry V. 1001
Brim, Elbert A. 820
Brough, John H. 989
Brown, David 391
Brown, George Lorenzo 617
Brown, Uriah Waverly 561
Brown, William Wallace 535
Brownell, Irving Woodbridge 434
Bruggmann, Jochim 904 [umlaut over u]
Brys, Cyprien 847
Buckner, George M. 810
Burger, Jerry Alexander 433
Burrows, Rufus G. 381
Burton. Benjamin Howell 608
Butler, Charles A. 696
Butler, Eugene Thompson 657
Butte City Ranch 1045

C

Cain, John Edgar 652
Calvert. Benjamin F. 796
Carpenter. William Gordon 831
Chaney, William 743
Clark, Andrew Jackson 815
Clark, Willard 970
Cockerill, Mrs. Charles W. 543
Colusa County Bank 583
Colusa County Free Library 826
Conklin, Marcus L. 686
Cowan, David C. 1009
Cramer, Douglas 393
Crane, Jefferson Davis 295
Crutcher, James Wilson 376
Crystal Baths and Amusement Park 951
Culver, A. Holly 786
Curry, John J. 866

D

Davis, Mayberry 409
Deacon, Arthur P., D.D.S. 938
DeGaa, Harrison Darrough 300
Delpapa, John. 729
De Thier, David 1067
Dickson, Walter 1070
Dodd, William 703
Domonoske, Henry 908
Donohoe, Charles L. 342
Douville, Mrs. Belle 959
Drew, Leland Stanford 784
Drew, Willis 386
Dunlap, Herman 871
Dunning, Robert Bruce 995
Durbrow, William 1015
Durham, John F. 895
Durham, Oscar Minton 525

E

Earp, Peter Asbury 492
Eibe, Pacific Ord 257
El Rio Rancho 1016
Erickson, Arthur 1050
Eubank, Joseph C. 671

INDEX-- BIOGRAPHICAL


Fallon. James P. 1048
Farnham, Lindley P. 670
Felts. Christopher Columbus.. 416
First National Bank and First savings Bank of Colusa 609
Fitch, Lucius Hubbard 1024
Flanagan. Ed 705
Flood. John 425
Flood, Mrs. Mary 425
Ford, Henry 1036
French, Curry M. 754
French. Milton 285
Fruchtenicht, Jacob 642

G

Garnett. Hugh M. 474
Garnett. James Richard 407
Garnett. Peter R. 312
Garnett. Mrs. Ruth A. McCune 319
Gatliff. William W., M.D. 558
Gattsch, John Henry 1017
Gelston. A.M. 993
Gibson. William Wallace 907
Gillaspy. George Richard 928
Girard, Alcid D. 901
Glenn, Hugh James 441
Gobel. Frank Leslie 897
Gobel. Obadiah 921
Golden. Edward J. 948
Golden, Michael 507
Graves, Fountain Columbus 340
Grealy, Rev. Father P.A. 725
Green, Edward E. 973
Green. Parley H. 371
Green, Mrs. Sallie B. 271
Green. Will Semple 264
Greenwood, Hiram A. 385
Greenwood, Willis A. 785
Grenfell. Roy W. 834
Grey. John H. 984
Grieve. Lundy Lloyd 1030
Griffin, Thomas David 596
Griffith, Jonathan 969
Grimes, Cleaton 281
Grimm, Peter Henry 529
Guenon, Gustave 1060
Guilford, William 1047
Guilford. William Sumner 1044

H

Hale. Edward F. 953
Halterman. John W. 812
Hamann. Jochim Frederick 1064
Hamilton, John C. 262
Hancock, Arthur Raymond 974
Hansen. Charles 809
Hanson, George M. 398
Hanson, Nicholas Wilson 398
Hanson, William P. 398
Harbison, James C. 480
Harbison & Kitchin 334
Harden, George B. 527
Harder. August F. 946
Harder. Hans Henry 977
Harelson, Adelbert James 760
Harelson, Charles M. 759
Harelson, Ellsworth C. 664
Harlan, Thomas Helm 514
Harlan, Thomas William 518
Harlan. William F., M.D., D.O. 356
Harrington, John Curry 968
Harrington, Tennent 454
Harrington, Hon. William Pierce. 353
Harrison, Jasper M. 774
Harrold, Herbert F. 1073
Hart, Fred 940
Haskell, Hardy J. 704
Hassig, Jacob 845
Hastings, George Washington 646
Haugh, Patrick Henry 577
Haworth, Thomas Eugene 1037
Hazelton, John B. 957
Heathcote, Edward 388
Held, Fred M. 1032
Henning, August 344
Henning, Walter M. 603
Hicks, Proctor Knott 744
Hicks, Thomas Jefferson 732
High, Mr. and Mrs. G.H. 652
Hine, Benjamin 511
Hochheimer, Hon. Amiel 331
Hochheimer, Ira 332
Hochheimer, Moses 330
Hoever, Mrs. John H. 451
Houchins, Henry Lewis 635
Houchins, Samuel 636
Hudson, Lindsey 999
Huffmaster, Leonard 885
Hulen. John Thomas 580
Hurlburt, Frank C. 800
Husted, Henry 789
Huttmann, Elmer J. 923
Hynes, Rev. Father M.J. 1043

J

Jacobsen, Richard 1040
James, Joseph 578
Jansen, Claus F. 602
Jasper, Carl Henry 555
Jellison, Miller H. 551
Johnson, Albert Henry 960
Johnson, Paul D. 1068
Johnson, William 573
Jones, Mrs. Mary G. 1058
Jones, P.G. 983
Jones, Ralph T. 804

K

Kaerth, Jacob William 701
Kaiser, Amiel 383
Kauffman, Bert F. 1035
Keegan, Mathew J. 906
Keim, William Henry 1006
Kelly, John 719
Kesselring, Francis Marion 89l
Kibby, Eli J. 996
Kidd, William T. 975
King, Charles Emmett 913
Kirkpatrlck, Margaret Ashurst 457

INDEX--BIOGRAPHICAL


Kirkpatrick, Thomas J. 457
Kirkup, William 870
Kissling, Jean 1072
Kissling, John 1071
Kissling, Peter 865
Kitchin, Allen 568
Klewe, William P. 843
Knight, John E. 445
Knock, Bayard 679
Knock, Thomas L. 329
Krohn, Peter 537
Kronsbein, Arthur F. 1000
Kuhlmey, Henry 504

L

Lacroix, Paschal B. 1004
Lambirth, Charles Leroy 879
Larsson, Siegfried A. 981
Laustau, John 1061
Laux, Frederick 927
Leachman, Ord L. 753
Leake, Mrs. Sarah 572
Leonard, John M. 1029
Logan, Hugh A. 279
Logan, John Stephen 347
Lovelace, Charles William 647
Lovelace, John H. 661
Lovelady, William J. 848
Lowe, Samuel James 397
Lucas, James LeRoy 934
Luce, Alonzo 567
Luce, Alonzo, Sr. 564
Luce, Zachariah 685
Ludy, William Wirt 935
Lundeen, Jonas 943

Mc

McComish, Charles Davis 471
McCune, John 469
McDaniel, Elijah 273
McDaniel, J.E. 282
McDaniel, Levi Jefferson 378
McEnespy, Frank Chapman 942
McGahan, Mrs. Edith Morris 925
McGowan, Henry W. 1008
McGrath, Rev. Father C.C. 538
McLouth, Charles M. 1055
McMath, Henry K. 990
McVay, Irwin Nelson 1020
McVay, Joseph Edwin 723
McVay, William Nelson 924

M

Macoun, David B. 767
Mallon, James F. 1026
Manor, Alexander B. 944
Manor, Harry W. 939
Manzanita & Cherry Mines, The 307
Markham, George W. 452
Maroney, Thomas E. 837
Marshall, Hubbard F. 720
Marshall, William W. 333
Martens, Hans H. 792
Martinelli, A.L. 896
Mason, George Lemuel 893
Masterson, Dennis Hugh 418
Masterson, Edward Kendrick 769
Masterson, James 581
Maxey, Roy 1031
Mehl. John 367
Mehrens, Albert 802
Mellor, George 680
Merrill, Morris A. 549
Miller, William Frank 362
Milligan, Henry 690
Minton, Perry William 961
Minton, Silas D. 955
Mitchell, James Ewing 668
Mitchell, Leo Arthur 793
Moline, Peter E. 950
Monroe, Daniel P. 323
Monroe. John William 613
Moore, Allen T. 731
Moore, Dick 881
Morey, Amos James 1018
Morris, John M. 857
Morrissey, James Byron 429
Morrissey. William Henry 749
Muller, Mrs. Caroline 841
Myers, Lucinda A. 966
Myhre, Chris 477

N

Nason, Fred Arthur 869
Nelson, Dorr S. 822
Nelson, Edward 1057
Nelson, John 259
Newland, Joel Francis 413
Newman. Mrs. Mary 301
Newsom, Thomas H. 667
Nichols, Leslie A. 717
Nichols, Richard Henry 842
Nichols. Mrs. Willie Bell 773
Nordyke. Joseph 905

O

O'Brien. James Patrick 322
O'Hair. Michael 562
Osgood. Harry P. 616
Ossenbriiggen. Matthias 308
O'Sullivan Brothers 859
O'Sullivan, Jeremiah 860
Otterson, William Harvey 310
Overholtzer, J. 718

P

Packer. Mrs. Clara C. 648
Papst, William H. 430
Paulson. John 1052
Peake. Edwin Henry 874
Pearson, Charles E. 663
Pence, George B. 658
Pence. Marvin Earl 876
Peterich, John Henry 986
Petersen. William J. 348
Peterson, Vincent A. 503
Phelps, Robert Evermont 902
Pieper, Amiel D. 678
Pinney, William M. 949
Pleau, Louis 1062

INDEX-- BIOGRAPHICAL


Pleck, John 864
Poirier, Chester G. 633
Potts, George Monroe and Martha Jane 736
Price, John 726
Prine, David 508
Provence, Harvey Edward 972
Province, Nathan 533
Pryor, Benjamin Pollard 875
Purkitt, Hon. Claude F. 439
Purkitt, George Henry 337
Purkitt, Mrs. Theodora Tiffee, M.D. 359

Q

Quigley, Patrick S. 919
Quint, Herman 408

R

Rademacher. Anthony 989
Rahm. Roscoe 863
Rasmusson, Julian Martin 741
Rathbun, William T., M.D. 607
Rawlins. Henry Grove 672
Rawlins, Thomas Franklin 587
Reager, Frank S. 470
Reager. Louis M. 392
Reed, Henry E. 920
Rees, J.S., D.D.S. 929
Rehse. Hans Henry 795
Rehse, Henry Edward 852
Reidy, Timothy 593
Renaud, Andre 1059
Retterath. George 780
Rice, Martin Luther 552
Rice, Thomas A. 546
Rider, Charles A. 1007
Roebuck, Francis H. 1003
Ryan, Francis J. 571
Ryan, James H. 707
Ryan, John Andrew 623
Ryan, John P. 684

S

St. Louis, Antwine T. 692
St. Louis, George E. 410
St. Louis, Henry B. 436
St. Louis, Raymond E. 952
Sale, Joseph S. 584
Sanderson, Joseph Virgil 926
Sanford, Charles P. 1027
Schillig, Frank 1039
Schmidt, Christian Friedrich 590
Schmidt, Frank K. 708
Schohr, Max Paul 620
Sears, David Price 1069
Seaver Brothers 619
Sehorn, Andrew Wallace 483
Sehorn, Cathy M. 349
Sehorn, Edward Marion 447
Sheldon, Charles C. 1019
Shellooe, Daniel 460
Shellooe, Daniel A. 461
Sickels, M.A. 735
Sidener, Flint W. 998
Sievers, Hans 574
Simpson, Preston L. 967
Sites, John 510
Sites, William Franklin 639
Slocum, H.P. & Son 1013
Smith, Eugene P. 987
Smith, John Andrew 415
Smith, Capt. Thomas Alexander 714
Snowden, George Washington 305
Snowden, James William 327
Soeth, John William 833
Somers, Charles Hugh 339
Spalding Ranch, The 1013
Sparrow Brothers 947
Speier, Leon 811
Spencer, Mrs. Maud 1034
Stahl Brothers 791
Stahl, Christopher 791
Stahl, John 791
Stanley, John 1041
Stanton, Claude D. 751
Stanton, Seth W. 979
Stillwell, Stephen A. 873
Stinchfield, Moses 498
Stinson, Rocsoe [sic] 1024
Stormer, Samuel Isaac 406
Stovall, Charles Edwin 764
Stovall, Jesse Curl 372
Sutton, Joseph A. 464
Sweet, Charles K. 976

T

Talbot, James Robinson 467
Taylor, George Newton 880
Teal, Franklin Pierce 1011
Templeton, Charles A. 858
Tennant, Robert L. 846
Tenney, Joseph G. 708
Tenney & Schmidt 708
Terrill, John Roach and Amanda 628
Thayer, Albert Austin 519
Thomas, John 954
Thompson, John Stickney 911
Thompson, Leonard 394
Tiffee, John R. 275
Tolley, James B. 937
Tremblay, Francis X., M.D. 355
Trexler, John Wesley 540
Triplett, Eli 630
Troxel, Frank W. 757
Troxel, George W. 697
Troy Laundry 978
Tucker, David C. 604
Turman, Hosea B. 395
Tuttle, Lewis Edmund, D.V.S. 742
Twede, Lars Hansen 674

V

Vanderford, George 932
Van Scyoc, Jackson 691
Van Syckle, Henry Weaver 494
Vestner, Charles A. 1005
von Renner, Rev. Herman J. 836

INDEX-- BIOGRAPHICAL


W

Walker. John 486
Walter, Karl E. 962
Ward, John C. 654
Ware. George A. 361
Waugh. Oscar 662
Weast. John Kyle 747
Webb, Joseph H. 777
Welton. Arthur T. 882
West, Alfred L. 838
West, Hiram Leroy 427
West. Richard Franklin, D.D.S. 941
Weyand, Hon. Ernest 473
Weyand. Julius 479
Wheeler, William Walter 992
White. James Albert and Edna 799
Whitsett, Charles A. 1054
Whyler, Edward Henry 805
Whyler, Frederick William 805
Wickes, Clarence R. 762
Wilderman, Joseph 997
Williams, Andrew 276
Williams. Mrs. Sarah W. Gary 375
Williams. Solomon Hasbrook 1022
Williams, William Henry 288
Wren. C. Hugh 1010
Wright. George E. 594
Wright, Eddie L. 768
Wright, Robert Mills 778
Wright, William Tolles 512

Y

Yarbrough, Robert 660
Yerxa, Woodford A. 963
Young. Robert Harvey 706

Z

Zornig, Julius August 1066
Zumwalt, Joseph 404
Zumwalt, William R. 673

[page]

[photo: 8-mule team, Williams, Cal. ?]
[photo: Scene at Fouts Springs ?]

HISTORICAL
[page]

HISTORICAL

_______

HISTORY OF COLUSA COUNTY

By Charles Davis McComish

FOREWORD

It occurs to me that possibly a history of Colusa County ought to begin with a history of the histories of Colusa County. For the present work is not by any means the first of its kind. At least two volumes have preceded it, devoted exclusively to a history of this county.

The first was a most complete and interesting work written by the late Will S. Green and published in 1880. It was exhaustive in its detail, was copiously illustrated, and forms an exceedingly valuable contribution to local historical literature, because much of the material contained in it was drawn from the author's personal experiences in the very earl' days of this county.

The second of the two histories of the county was written by Justus H. Rogers, a newspaper man of Orland, and was published in 1891. It, too, is a complete and valuable work, one whose interest and value will increase as time passes.

Besides the books above mentioned, Colusa County has had chapters in numerous histories of the state, histories of the Sacramento Valley, and the like, that have been published from time to time, but were more or less incomplete because of the wide fields they covered.

As thirty-seven years have elapsed since the Green history was published, and twenty-six years since the publication' of the Rogers history, and as history is made with exceeding rapidity in a comparatively new community, it has been deemed wise to undertake once again the recording of the events that have made the history of the county, bringing the account down to date and leaving the facts on record, so that future historians may take up the story and carry it along, in order that it may be kept continuous. For one of the chief differences between civilized and savage peoples is this, that the latter leave no written records of their activities.

The existence of the two works mentioned above, and the completeness with which they have gone into the early history of this county, will influence the present author to touch those

18 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES

early events comparatively lightly and to lay more stress upon the events of the period elapsing since the publication of the former histories of the county -- events that as yet are not permanently recorded. For the current events of today will be the history of tomorrow, and it will be read by the student of the future with just as much interest and profit as will the records of the beginnings of our county.
_______

CHAPTER I

Early History of California

A history of Colusa County naturally should be prefaced with a brief history of the state, in order to "lead up to the subject" properly. In the present case the preliminary recital of events will be very brief, merely enough to connect up the work in hand with the general events of the time, in order that as much time and space as possible may be devoted to the happenings within the county' itself.

When the year 1542, A.D., dawned, the eye of a white man, so far as we know, had never looked upon the empire we now call California. There are legends and stories extant to the effect that one Manuelo, a Spanish sailor, had been left for dead on the shores of San Francisco Bay by his companions, who had come ashore from their vessel for fresh water and got into a fight with the Indians. This is said to have been between 1535 and 1540, and Manuelo is said to have recovered and lived with the Indians for several years before he found his way back to civilization; but the story is so hazy and improbable that it is hardly worthy of belief. The voyage of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, one of the lieutenants of Cortez, up the coast from Mexico, where the Spaniards had a number of strong colonies, is the first visit to California by the whites, of which we have any definite record. This was in September of 1542, just fifty years after Columbus discovered America, and three hundred seventy-five years ago. For far the greater part of that three hundred seventy-five years, California was little disturbed by glances from the eyes of white men. It lay and slept in its mellow sunshine, walled off from the rest of the world by almost impenetrable mountains on one side and the almost boundless ocean on the other. Year after year the trees budded in the spring and shed their leaves in the fall; the grasses flourished and died away as the seasons passed over them ; rabbits, antelope, elk and other herbiverous [sic] animals roamed the plains and valleys in countless numbers ; the Indians fought or

COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 19

compromised with the grizzly bear and the mountain lion ; the seasons rolled on -- and the great state slept in its silent isolation.

It was thirty-seven years after Cabrillo explored San Diego Bay and died on the shores of California, that Sir Francis Drake, the Englishman, reached California, in 1579, on the memorable trip that took him around the world. He of course found no trace of any previous explorations or settlements, and believed that he was the first white man to reach these shores. He landed, and as was the custom of Englishmen, took possession of everything in sight -- and everything that touched anything in sight -- in the name of his sovereign. Then he headed across the Pacific for home.

During the twenty-three years following Drake's visit to California, three or four Spanish vessels visited the coast; but in each instance their stay was brief, and they accomplished nothing of permanence or value. The last of them came in 1602 ; and then again, for one hundred sixty-seven years, California was allowed to sleep absolutely unmolested by white men.

This brings us to the year 1769, when Father Junipero Serra established the mission at San Diego, the first permanent settlement in California, and the first of the famous California missions, the last of which was established in 1823.

The period from 1769 to 1833 marked the growth and prosperity of the missions in California. There were twenty-one of them, all told, extending in a line along or near the coast from San Diego to Sonoma. Most of them were prosperous, and some of them were exceedingly rich in lands, live stock, fruits and grains. Each had a population of from five hundred to two thousand people, most of whom were converted Indians. Of San Luis Rey, the largest of the missions, it has been said that "at one time it had a baptized Indian population of several thousand, owned twenty-four thousand cattle, ten thousand horses, and one hundred thousand sheep, and harvested fourteen thousand bushels of grain a year."

From 1769, when the establishment of the missions began, till 1824, when Mexico achieved her independence from Spain, the missions were subservient to the latter country; and it was the strictness of the Spanish laws governing commerce that kept them from becoming more of a power in the commercial world. They were allowed to trade only with Spain, and in Spanish ships; and as grapes, fruits, nuts, and wines were produced also in Spain, the only things Spain needed to buy of them were hides and tallow, which came to be the chief articles of commerce. Of course their commercial activities were thus greatly impeded and their isolation promoted.

20 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES

When Mexico shook off the yoke of Spain in 1824, California, because of the great distance from Spain, cast in her lot with Mexico, although the sympathies of the people of the missions and of the large ranchos surrounding them were largely with the mother country. At this time practically all of the white people of the state were Spaniards connected with the missions, the presidios or forts guarding the missions, and the ranchos in the neighborhood of the missions, the only exception worthy of note being a colony of Russians who established a fur-trading post at Fort Ross, in Marin County, in 1812.

But about this time American and British wanderers began to drift into the state, most of them being hunters and trappers. One of these was Jedediah S. Smith, a trapper who arrived in 1825 and was said to have been the first white man to cross the Sierra Nevada Mountains. A few of these adventurers settled down, married into the Spanish families, and made permanent homes here. Prominent among these early American settlers was one Chapman, who deserted from a pirate ship that had come up from the coast of South America and plundered some of the missions and ranchos during the troublous times of the Mexican-Spanish War. Chapman, it seems, was a sort of genius in mechanical and other ways, and he proved to be a great help to the padres of the missions in improving many of their domestic processes and operations. He finally fell in love with and married the daughter of Captain Ortega, the discoverer of San Francisco Bay, and lived a long, contented and useful life in the state. Conditions of life were extremely pleasant in those days, and it was easy to drift into a condition of dreamy contentment and luxury. Many a modern man, tired of the busy bustle of today, has wished devoutly that his lot might have been cast with the gay and care-free inhabitants of California before the "Gringos" came.

But the days of the missions were fast passing. As soon as Mexico had gained her independence, she staged the first of that series of internal revolutions that has lasted till this day. Mexico, from the beginning, has been a busy country, governmentally ; and naturally she had little time to give to the government of her colony, California. Most of the governors she sent up were politicians of the worst type ; and their task was not lightened by the fact that most of the Spanish population preferred Spanish to Mexican rule, while a large element of the people hoped to see California one of the United States.

Mexico, as soon as she had upon her hands the responsibilities of a self-governing country, ceased to send funds for the support of the government in California, having, no doubt,

COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 21

abundant use at home for all the funds she could raise. The local officials, in their need, turned to the missions, and for several years nearly all the governmental expenses of the colony were supplied by the padres.

When, in 1810, Mexico began her revolution against Spain, the Spanish authorities apparently believed that the California missions would take sides with, or at least would be a great help to, Mexico, and ordered that the missions be abolished. Spain did not have the power to have the order carried out, however, and the missions continued to exist for about twenty years. But, deprived of the protection of the mother country, and neglected and plundered by Mexico, the once prosperous missions came upon evil days. Their prosperity and happiness waned, and in 1833 the Mexican government completed their destruction by an order that they be completely secularized, that their lands be divided among the converted Indians, and the padres be sent to other fields.

The decay of the mission settlements and the disappearance of the peaceful pastoral life about them was rapid. The Indians were unable to take care of themselves without the guidance of the padres ; and they were speedily stripped of their lands, cattle and other possessions. During the period between 1833 and 1842, hunters, trappers and other adventurers were coming into the state with great frequency, and a new order in California was beginning. Captain John Sutter, the Swiss pioneer, arrived in 1839, and John Bidwell and party in 1811. By 1842 the fame of California's lands and climate had spread throughout the United States, and that year there occurred the first wave of the great flood of immigration to California. Hundreds of people came across the plains to see or settle in the wonderful new land.

By 1846 the new order was fairly well established. The Americans in the state were so numerous and so confident that they organized the Bear Flag army of some thirty-three men -- several of whom afterwards became citizens of Colusa County -- waged the Bear Flag war for the overthrow of Mexican rule, took General Vallejo prisoner, and cooperated with Commodore John D. Sloat, who had arrived about that time with two vessels and had captured Monterey, in the complete taking over of the government of California from Mexican to American domination and government.

In 1848 gold was discovered by James W. Marshall in the race of a sawmill he was building for Captain Sutter, forty miles east of Sacramento ; and a few months later the crest of the great flood of newcomers had struck the state. Of course many of the gold-seekers were disappointed; and this, together with the ad-

22 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES

mission of California as a state in 1850, led to the rapid exploration and settlement of all parts of the state -- which brings us directly to the history of Colusa County.
_______

CHAPTER II

Early Explorations and First Settlers

Early Explorations


Colusa County as we know it today (1918) is not the Colusa County that was organized in 1851. The county as first organized comprised all of what is now Colusa and Glenn Counties, and part of what is now Tehama County. But in 1855 the state legislature passed a bill cutting off, and adding to Tehama County, all that part of Colusa County lying north of township 22, the present northern boundary of Glenn County. The part taken away was six townships, or thirty-six miles, wide, and included the city of Red Bluff. In 1891 the county was again divided and Glenn County was formed, the line of division being drawn through township 18, north; and thus Colusa County lost another strip of territory, this one being about twenty-eight miles wide.

The present County of Colusa has its northwest corner on the summit of the Coast Range Mountains, in township 18, north, range 8, west, from the Mount Diablo base and meridian. The northern boundary runs parallel with, and a mile and a half north of, the line dividing townships 17 and 18, and is a straight line except near Princeton, where a section of it about six miles long is moved about two miles north. The intersection of this north boundary and Butte Creek constitutes the northeast corner of the county, and the east boundary is composed of Butte Creek and the Sacramento River. The south boundary is the line between townships 12 and 13, and the west boundary runs along the summit of the Coast Range Mountains to the northwest corner, the "place of beginning," as the land descriptions say. It is about thirty-one and a half miles in a straight line through the county from north to south, and about forty-eight miles from east to west at the widest point.

Having thus fixed the limits of the territory we are dealing with, we shall see that this history must differ with earlier histories of the county in that it takes in a great deal less territory For at the time those earlier works were written, Colusa County included what is now Glenn County, the historical record of which will be found in a separate department of this volume. The

COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 23

narrative that is to follow herein will deal only with what is now Colusa County.

Three hundred years passed after Cabrillo landed in California, and still the land that is called Colusa County remained unseen by white man. If you, dear reader, had happened along here only seventy-five years ago, you would have owned the first white man's eyes to gaze upon the broad expanse of your county. Possibly your eyes were not in seeing condition seventy-five years ago, but your father or mother might well have done so -- so short is the time it has taken this county to emerge out of the wilderness and evolve into the highly civilized community that it is today! At the beginning of 1843, this part of the world lay exactly as it had been created by Nature. No white man had ever set foot upon it, although it may be that this statement requires some qualification. We have some rather hazy accounts of a band or two of trappers who passed up and down the San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys ; but there is no record of their route through this valley, and as they were on the east side of the San Joaquin, they no doubt kept the east side of the Sacramento and of Butte Creek, and thus missed Colusa County altogether.

The first whites of whose entry upon Colusa County soil there is definite record are told of by Gen. John Bidwell. They were a party that had come from the Eastern States to Oregon in 1842, and in 1843 made the trip overland from Oregon down through the Sacramento Valley to Sutter's ranch, where Sacramento now stands. Their conduct seems to have been of such a nature as to inspire anything but pride in their achievements. General Bidwell tells rather fully of their journey through the valley; and as they were the first authenticated explorers of this county, and the story of their treatment of the Indians explains quite comprehensively why the Indian has not been able to withstand the advance of "civilization," I quote at some length from General Bidwell's narrative:
"This party had with them men. two at least, who might be styled 'Indian killers,' and on the way very frequently fired at Indians seen in the distance. The better portion tried to dissuade them from this uncalled-for conduct, with, however, only partial success. On arriving at the present site of Red Bluff, the company camped early in the day, intending to remain during the night, but broke up camp hastily owing to the following incident: One of the 'Indian killers,' seeing an Indian on the opposite side of the river, swam over, carrying a butcher-knife in his mouth. The Indian allowed him to approach till he came very close, but at last ran away. The man with the knife pursued him, threw a stone, and, crippling the Indian, completed
24 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES

his barbarous work by killing him with his knife. The party in camp, now fearing Indian retaliation, concluded to travel on. After a few miles an Indian was observed following them, no doubt out of curiosity and not because he had heard of the killing of a member of his tribe a few hours previously. One of the 'Indian killers,' seeing the opportunity for another murder, hid in the brush till the Indian came up, and shot him. The company continued to travel on the west side of the Sacramento River with more than ordinary haste, feeling very insecure lest the Indians, who were very numerous in the valley at that time, should exhibit hostility on account of what had occurred. One of the encampments, I remember, was near the river, below what is now called Stony Creek, then Capay River, in Colusa County. The Indians, however, came near in considerable numbers, and hence evidently had not heard of the shooting and kniving just mentioned. In the morning, as they were packing up to leave camp, one of the 'Indian killers' missed his bridle and swore the 'damned Indians' had stolen it -- a most unreasonable thing, since the Indians had no horses and never had. In his rage he fired at an Indian who stood by a tree about one hundred yards distant. The Indian fell back into the brush, while the rest of his frightened companions fled in great haste. The company was again rendered panicky by the blood-thirsty imprudence of the 'Indian killer,' hastened on their journey, and found the missing bridle in a few minutes under a pile of blankets.

"All that day the Indians on the east side of the river manifested great excitement as the company moved along down on the west side. For more than forty miles there was at that time no place where water could be found for the horses to drink, the banks being so steep or so grown up with jungle and grape-vine as to be unapproachable. The day following, however, the company encamped on the spot where Colusa now stands. The excitement among the Indians had now preceded them, and consequently numbers of them swarmed on the opposite side of the river. When the horses were led down to get water, in an almost famished condition, the Indians fired at them with their arrows, but no one was hit or hurt.

"The immigrants told their story at Sutter's place, and some here thought that the Indians where the shooting was done were hostile; but most of them, and the best-informed as I thought, did not blame the Indians, in view of previous occurrences. Sutter, however, concluded to punish them, and went, with about fifty men, and attacked the Indian camp at daylight. His forces were divided, a part of them going above and crossing on the

COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 25

Indian bridge. They were ready to begin a simultaneous attack at daybreak. The Indians tied and mostly jumped into the river, where they were fired on, and great numbers of them killed, after which the Indians in that part of the valley were never known to exhibit any purpose of hostility. I do not believe there was sufficient reason to consider them hostile before. At any rate, I remember no offensive act on their part, having occasion to go among them almost a year afterward, twice at least, and once with only five men with me, when we camped all night near a village without any molestation. Two years later, in 1846, I went from Sacramento during the prevalence of a great flood, passing not up the river but over the plains, which were like a sea of waters, and arriving in a canoe near the place where the Indians were killed in 1843, to trade for Indian twine, with which to make seines for taking salmon. No white man was with me, only two Indians to paddle the canoe, and I found the natives perfectly friendly."

The above account of the first visit of white men to Colusa does not constitute a particularly brilliant or satisfying chapter in the county's history; but as General Bidwell was a most intelligent observer, and a man of the highest character, we must accept the story as it is, although the reading of it should make a decent white man blush for his race.

It may be stated here, for the sake of clearness and accuracy, that although General Bidwell states in his writings that he passed through what afterward became Colusa County on his trip to the Red Bluffs in March of 1843, the route that he gives of that trip leads to the conviction that he did not pass through any part of what we of today know as Colusa County; for it must be remembered that the Colusa County of the present is much smaller than the original county.

But the next year, 1844, General Bidwell, executing a commission to locate a grant of land for the children of Thomas O. Larkin, merchant and United States consul at Monterey, did visit the county, and explored it rather thoroughly. Accompanied by an Indian, he came up the west side of the valley to a point west of where Colusa now stands, camped over night, and the next morning headed westward across the plains to see what sort of country lay between him and the Coast Range Mountains, which he could see in the distance. He struck the Stony Creek Valley, followed the creek down to its confluence with the Sacramento River, and there met Edward A. Farwell and Thomas Fallon, who had come up the river in a canoe to settle on a grant that they had obtained further up the river. These men must also have passed, though by water, through Colusa County.

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General Bidwell fulfilled his mission by mapping out and locating a large body of land lying west of the river in the vicinity of the present town of Princeton; and this territory is known to this day as the Larkin's Children's Rancho, although many years have passed since any of the Larkin children had anything to do with it. Then the explorer returned to Sutter's and told what he had seen.

Bidwell's story so interested a trapper named Jack Myers that he organized a party of trappers and came up to the scene of Bidwell's explorations to catch beaver, which were very plentiful. But these men had much less intelligence, humanity and patience than Bidwell, and were soon in a quarrel with the Indians, the result being the death of several of the Indians and the hasty withdrawal of the trappers. But they saw the future Colusa County, and are mentioned to make the list complete.

Peter Lassen, for whom Lassen County and Mount Lassen were named, with William C. Moon and a man named Merritt, came up to Stony Creek in 1845, and on a branch of that stream, now called Grindstone Creek, made a canoe load of grindstones, which they took down the river for sale at Sutter's and San Francisco. These men also passed through and saw the domain that was to be Colusa County, although there is no record of their being particularly impressed with it.

The exploration that was to bear immediate and lasting fruit in the way of colonization and settlement was made in 1847 by Dr. Robert Semple, a Kentuckian, who had been residing for some years at Benicia. Dr. Semple had occasion, in the year mentioned, to visit some friends who were located near where Red Bluff now stands. He made the trip up the valley on horseback, and was deeply impressed with the beauty and fertility of the land through which he passed. The luxuriance of the vegetation in the vicinity of the Colus Indian village convinced him that here would be a good place for a settlement. When he had finished his visit at the northern end of the valley, he determined to return by water and explore the course of the river thoroughly, to see whether it was navigable or not. Accordingly he made a raft of logs and floated all the way down to Sacramento, or Sutter's Fort, as it was then called, making careful observations, frequent soundings and many notes. He found navigation rather precarious till he reached the Indian village above mentioned, after which the channel was broader and deeper, and, in the explorer's opinion, capable of sustaining navigation the year round. This confirmed him in his belief that the site of the Colus village was an ideal location for a city, and he kept these

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facts in mind. When, two years later, his brother, C.D. Semple, arrived from Kentucky to settle in California, the Doctor had a location already chosen for him, and easily persuaded him to take it; and the result was the founding of the city and county of Colusa. Had it not been for the visit of Dr. Semple up the valley in 1847, the course of empire, as far as Colusa County is concerned, might, indeed would, have taken a vastly different way.


The First Settlers

This ends the list of travelers and explorers, so far as they are known, and brings us to the days of the actual settlers. And of these, a man named John S. Williams has the honor of being the first. In addition to being the first settler in the county, Mr. Williams built the first house ever erected in the county, and his wife was the first white woman who ever lived here.

John S. Williams was sent from Monterey by Thomas O. Larkin to settle upon and conduct as a cattle ranch the grant of land the Mexican government had given to the Larkin children, Larkin furnishing the cattle to Williams on shares. Williams, in the summer of 1847, brought his wife and his cattle up the valley to the Larkin grant, and selected as his headquarters a spot on the John Boggs ranch, where W.A. Yerxa now lives, a mile and a half south of Princeton on the west side of the river. Here he built himself a comfortable adobe house, and established the first home in Colusa County. The live-stock business prospered, and the Larkin stock soon covered the plains by thousands, where formerly herds of elk and antelope had been.

The live-stock business, though eminently successful, was not sufficiently attractive to counteract the lure of the gold fields, once Marshall's great discovery became known; and in 1848 Mr. Williams went over to the Feather River to pick up a fortune in nuggets. Charles B. Sterling was sent up to take Williams' place on the ranch, and became the second settler of Colusa County, although as yet there was only one settlement. He stayed for several years at this location, which became well known up and down the valley as "Sterling's Ranch."

Besides the settlement at Sterling's Ranch, there were only two other homes established in the county before the gold rush began. One of these was located on the east side of the river, about opposite where the Packer schoolhouse now stands, and was the home of William B. Ide, a man who took a very prominent part in the affairs of his time. He was one of the leaders of the Bear Flag army. Upon the organization of Colusa County, be was selected as one of the judges of the courts, and abandoned

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his home on the east side. The other settlement was where Sycamore is now located, and was the home of a man named Watt Anderson, whom Will S. Green describes as one who "had been all of his life a pioneer ; and while he liked neighbors, he said he did not like to be crowded, and when settlers got within five or six miles of him he left for the mountains of Mendocino County." Thus, if we have an idea of Colusa County in its primitive state, it is not hard to form a mental picture of the country as the first of the forty-niners saw it : one lone habitation a mile and a half below Princeton, on what is now the W.A. Yerxa place; another across the river, and two or three miles below this first one; and a third-where the village of Sycamore now stands. The rest of the county had much the same aspect as before Columbus discovered America, except that a few hundred cattle and horses were roaming the plains and mingling with the many herds of deer that fed on the rich grasses. And this would probably be the best place to diverge and give a brief description of the geography, the flora and fauna, the natives, and the general appearance of the county as the white men found it.
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CHAPTER III

Geography, and Flora and Fauna

Geography

Something has already been said of the location and boundaries of Colusa County, but something further should be said of the topography of the county. The Sacramento Valley might be represented by taking a piece of cloth, tacking it to two parallel pieces of wood, allowing it to sag slightly between them, and then placing a crooked wire under the middle of the sagging cloth and raising it slightly. The cloth represents the floor of the Sacramento Valley ; the pieces of wood, the mountain ranges on either side of the valley; and the crooked wire, the river, which comes clown the middle of the valley on a ridge which it has built for itself out of the sediment that it brings along with it from further up in its course. This ridge, on the crest of which the river runs, forms a broad, shallow depression, or "trough," on each side of it. The surface of Colusa County, then, roughly speaking, is a shallow trough, with its western side tipped up very high and resting on the top of the Coast Range Mountains, and its eastern side formed by the low ridge of the

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river, with a small piece extending across the river and sloping down to Butte Creek. The lowest part of this great trough lies about four miles west of the river, and is locally known as the "Trough." Into the Trough all the foothill and mountain streams of the county pour their waters, for be it known that south of Stony Creek no stream from the west side finds its way into the Sacramento River-- not even Cache Creek, the outlet of the great Clear Lake of Lake County. The waters of all of them are lost, in summer time, in the great plains they must cross; and in winter time they flow to the lowest land, which is the Trough. The overflow of the river also goes into the Trough, with the result that in a wet winter there is a great deal more water to be seen in the Trough than in the river.

I do not mean to say that the surface of the county is as regular as a piece of cloth hung between two sticks. It is far from that. About half of it is foothill and mountain country, in places extremely rough and rugged. The other half lies in the floor of the valley; but its surface is cut by low ridges putting out from the foothills with each stream, these smaller streams building for themselves ridges upon which to run, just as the river does. But the slope from the Trough to the foothills is so gradual, and the ridges of the small streams are so far apart and so low (probably fifteen to twenty feet high at the highest), that the general appearance of the valley part of the county is that of a great plain. The average distance from the river to the foothills, which is also the width of this plain, is about twenty miles. But the term "plains" is generally applied only to that part of it lying west of the Trough.

At its western edge this great plain runs into a range of hills or low mountains, the advance guard of the Coast Range. Back of these hills are a number of small valleys drained by the small creeks mentioned above; and then come the mountains proper, upon which the western boundary of the county rests.

Colusa County is seventy-eight miles north of San Francisco, and twenty-four miles north of Sacramento. The thirty-ninth parallel, north latitude, and the one hundred and twenty-second meridian, west longitude, pass through the county. The Mount Diablo meridian also passes through it, near the eastern border. The distance from the western border of the county to the Pacific Ocean, in a straight line, is fifty-four miles; and the distance from the eastern border to the base of the Sierra Nevada Mountains is about thirty miles. So much for the location of the county.

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Vegetation

How the country looked when the white man first came depended very much upon the season of the year. If he came in winter, after a wet spell, he may well have concluded that the Sacramento Valley was a vast inland sea, for he might have traveled for miles in any direction in a boat. Indeed, some of the early explorers did traverse a good deal of the county's surface by boat. In those days, it must be remembered, there were no levees, and it did not take much of a flood to send the waters of the river out over the adjacent land. If the early explorer came in the late summer time, he would have been justified in concluding that moisture never touched a large part of this fruitful county; for one old pioneer testifies that he traveled from near the river to the foothills without seeing "a spear of vegetation." He says the north winds had blown the plains as dry and bare as Sahara Desert, and it was not till he struck the protecting projections of the foothills that he found grasses and other herbage. His experience seems to have been an extreme one, yet there is no doubt that this territory must have looked rather forbidding to those who saw it at such a time. The plains still get rather hot and dry by the latter part of August, although conditions have greatly improved since 1843. It was the travelers who landed in the spring or early summer who saw the country at its best. Then it looked like a perfect' paradise. Wild grasses, especially wild oats and burr clover, were so thick and tall that an antelope fawn could hide in them, so that it couldn't be found. A man riding on horseback could tie the tops of the oats over his horse's withers, and in many places the early adventurers found difficulty in forcing their saddle horses through the heavy growth.

Along the river there was a strip of timber about a mile wide, and in some spots the trees were so interlaced with wild grape-vines and other vines as to form an almost impenetrable jungle. On the higher lands were oak trees, while on the lower, wetter lands there were willows, and some sycamores and others. The overflowed, swampy lands were covered with a rank growth of "tule," a species of huge bulrush about as thick as a man's finger, and sometimes eight or ten feet high. These "tule lands" were often hundreds of acres in extent, but much of their area is now drained and farmed. They have been, in their time, a paradise for duck-hunters.

The foothill country in the western part of the county was covered, more or less densely, with a growth of scrub oak,

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chamisal and manzanita ; and in the extreme southern part of the county this growth extended well down toward the Trough, the oak trees in this section attaining such size as to make the land very valuable to the early settlers for the wood it supplied. The extreme western edge of the county, which lies near the summit of the mountains, was, and still is, covered with a magnificent growth of pine, which to the present date has escaped the lumberman because of its inaccessibility.

Everywhere, especially in the spring and early summer, there was a profusion of wild flowers. Great patches of color -- blue, purple, white, yellow -- often acres in extent, were set in the green carpet of the valley. The most famous of these blossoms, possibly the only really famous one, is, of course, the California poppy, which makes the fields gay in some sections of the county. But there are other varieties that make almost as brilliant a showing in their season.

I do not mean to say that the early explorers and settlers found this verdant "carpet," of which I have spoken, entirely unbroken. The fact is, that there were many holes in it -- spots where a superabundance of alkali or an excess of moisture hindered or entirely prevented vegetable growth. Other areas produced only a sparse growth of small weeds ; and these areas later came to be known as "goose lands." Most of these barren spots occurred in the vicinity of the Trough, nearly all of the river, plain and foothill land being extremely fertile and productive, and covered with an abundant wild vegetable growth.

The Wild Animals of the County

Colusa County, in common with the rest of California, was abundantly stocked with wild animals, both carnivorous and herbivorous, when the white man came. There was no lack of game ; and it was well for the newcomers that it was so, for oftentimes game was the only food obtainable. And here again the white man did what he has so often done in other times, and other places, and other circumstances: he acted like an irresponsible, thoughtless, viciously spoiled child; and instead of conserving this beneficent gift of nature, he hastened with all speed to destroy it and put an end to it. Undoubtedly not all of the pioneers were offenders in this respect, but many of them seemed to be unable to resist the temptation to take a shot at any wild thing that crossed their path, with the result that thousands of game animals were slaughtered for the mere fun of killing. Even so sane and well-balanced a man as John Bidwell confesses that he chased a grizzly bear till it plunged into the river and swam across,

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and then shot it as it clambered up the opposite bank. leaving the huge carcass and hide to be eaten by coyotes or to rot in the tangle of undergrowth. General Bidwell, apparently feeling that he had done the only logical thing, thus naively describes the incident: "I shot, and the blood flew out of his nostrils two or three feet high, when he bounded off a hundred yards and fell dead. These scenes were a common occurrence; in fact, almost of hourly occurrence." These "common occurrences" had their inevitable effect. In less than ten years after the first white man set foot within the borders of the county, the chief game animals had almost entirely disappeared. Antelope, which at first were almost as common as cattle are today, and almost as tame, could not be found; elk had vanished completely; and deer had retreated to the brushy fastnesses of foothill and mountain. There is probably not a person in the county today who ever saw an elk or an antelope here, so quick and complete was the white man's slaughter. I trust that the race may rapidly advance to a point where even the ordinary reader may find it hard to believe the story of his ancestors' treatment of the Indians and animals they found here -- so foolish was it in its short-sighted cruelty.

Of the carnivorous animals, the grizzly bear was the most important and among the most plentiful. The reason for his numbers is easy to see. No other animal could match him in fighting power; the Indians did not have weapons or courage to vanquish him; and therefore, when he wanted to shuffle off this mortal coil he had to die a natural death or commit suicide. He seems to have been averse to the suicide route; so he "lived till he died." General Bidwell says, "The grizzly bear was an hourly sight. In the vicinity of streams it was not uncommon to see thirty or forty in a day. ... In the spring of the year the bears chiefly lived on clover, which grew luxuriantly on the plains, especially in the little depressions on the plains. We first saw one, which made for the timber two or three miles away; soon another, then more, all bounding away to the creek. At one time there were sixteen in the drove." Of course, the settlers had some excuse for annihilating the bears; for they were a menace to young stock, and would turn on a man if closely cornered. So the grizzly quickly disappeared from the open, accessible parts of the valley. He had found his match at last. A few remained in the thick brush and timber along the river for a few years, but today the grizzly has been banished from even the deepest mountain fastnesses.

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Black bears also abounded in the timber along the river, and there were a few in the mountains. Those along the River quickly succumbed; and the mountain bears have been compelled to follow suit, although more slowly. It is doubtful whether there is now a bear within the limits of the county.

The mountain lion has never been so plentiful as the numerous stories of his cunning and ferocity might lead one to think. A very few have been killed in the mountains in the extreme western part of the county, but the great majority of the settlers never came in contact with a mountain lion.

The smaller, short-tailed wildcats were also rare; but one has been found occasionally. They are shy and hard to get sight of, and it may be that a few of the tribe still make their home in the brushy canyons of the western mountains.

The coyote was, and still is, the most common and the most annoying of the predatory animals. In the early days of the county the coyote was widely distributed, not only infesting the broken hill sections, but also being very numerous on the plains and along the river. He was never dangerous to human life, but was a constant pest, sneaking into camps and stealing supplies, and working havoc among the calves, lambs, pigs. and poultry of the settlers. He was bold and impudent in those early days, before he had come to know the white man thoroughly; and the stories of his escapades are almost unbelievable. It is said that he would come into camp and steal meat from under a man's pillow at night. Naturally the white man resented such familiarities, and made life hard for Bre'r Coyote. Today he exists in the foothills, only by the exercise of a cunning and fleetness that seem positively uncanny. The ordinary traveler never sees one; and to the practiced eye he appears merely as a gray shadow disappearing around a hillside, or into a ravine or thicket of brush, at a great distance. The hunter or trapper who can catch a coyote is entitled to the credit of being a clever person. A liberal bounty paid by the county supervisors for coyote scalps stiumlates pursuit of them, but as yet they seem to be in no danger of extinction. No man who admires pluck and perseverance in the face of odds can fail to feel like taking off his hat to the coyote.

Raccoons and foxes were also here before the days of gold; and they are here yet, as they probably are everywhere in the United States. They are not plentiful because they both steal chickens; and, furthermore, there is a bounty on foxes, so their numbers are kept down by hunters. Another predatory pest is

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the skunk, but his depredations have never been serious enough to be worth mentioning.

Mention has already been made of the game animals of the county and the rapidity with which they disappeared after the white man came. The largest of these was the elk, which, although fairly plentiful in the beginning, was the first to succumb to the white man's onslaughts. He was too easy a mark to last long; and by 1853, or four years after the gold rush began, he was a matter of history. Will S. Green says, "They were mercilessly killed by hunters, killed not for their flesh, but for the fun of the killing."

The antelope also furnished an easy mark for the hunter ; and although the first comers found thousands of them in the county, they were exterminated almost as soon as the elk. It wasn't much more of a job to shoot one of them than it would be to go out and shoot a cow nowadays. Will S. Green says, When we kept the hotel in 1850-1851, we had a contract with a man by the name of Sneath to furnish one antelope a day for his board. He would go out and shoot down two, give one to an Indian for bringing the other in, and come home. He was hardly ever gone over an hour." Thus it can be seen that the great bands of antelope that roamed over the Sacramento Valley would have been a most valuable food asset to the settlers for many years if they had been protected and conserved ; but no such thought seems to have entered the minds of the early comers here. The truth is, they were too busy with other things -- things, to them, far more important. And so, although they sometimes caught and tamed an antelope fawn, and found it an exceedingly docile and gentle pet, they never withheld the rifle when there was an antelope in sight. To say that there were no individual exceptions to this rule would be erroneous ; but it was a rule so faithfully followed that the Sacramento Valley antelope melted away like a Sacramento Valley snow, and were gone.

Deer were plentiful in the county in early days ; and though they have been driven to the rougher parts of the mountains, they still survive. Moreover, because of increasingly stringent game laws and more watchful enforcement of them by state game wardens, the deer bid fair to survive indefinitely. As they are the only big game left in any numbers, sportsmen all over the state have united in having them protected. At present about a hundred of them are killed in the mountains in the western part of the county each season. The season has been shortened to about two months in the late summer and early fall, and only bucks older than yearlings or "spikes" can be killed. Each

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hunter is limited to two deer a season. Under these restrictions the deer have increased rather than diminished in numbers during the past few years.

The natural game animal for boy-hunters in this county, as in other parts of the United States, is the rabbit. Cottontails are plentiful in the brush along the river and the sloughs, and by most people are said to be "better than chicken." Oftentimes, when the low lands are covered by a flood, men and boys go along the levees or row to knolls of high land, or even bunches of willows and other brush, and catch as many cottontails as they can carry. Quails are very easily shot under these circumstances, too. The jack-rabbit, a larger, skinnier, longer-legged species of the genus, is more widely distributed than the cottontail, and is in less danger of extinction because he is not so highly prized for food. He is considered a pest rather than a game animal, especially by orchardists and gardeners, for he eats young trees, vines and vegetable growth of every kind. In the days of the Indians, jack-rabbits were present in droves, but the activities of farmers and horticulturists have greatly reduced their numbers. However, there are still enough of them left for all practical purposes, in the opinion of those who raise young plants.

Of the rodents, aside from rats and mice, ground-squirrels and gophers are the only common ones. Both live in the ground, and both are pests. Gophers are probably as common as they were in the beginning; but the numbers of ground-squirrels have been greatly decreased by persistent slaughter, chiefly by poisoning. The cooperation of state and county authorities in furnishing poisoned grain and instructions for its use has helped in the campaign against the squirrels. A few years ago local scientists discovered that ground-squirrels were carriers of bubonic plague, and this discovery gave a great impetus to the war against them.

In closing this chapter, let me mention briefly the winged creatures of the county. The "national bird" of Colusa County is undoubtedly the wild goose. In the early days literally millions of these birds covered the lowlands at certain seasons of the year ; and in their flight they made the sky dark over large areas. The encroachments of farming operations upon their resorts, together with constant slaughter (for until recently no game laws included the goose in their protection), have made great inroads upon their numbers. Market hunters, by soldering two double-barreled shotguns together and discharging all four barrels at the same time, or nearly the same time, have been known to kill one hundred ninety-six geese at one "shot" -- if such a bombardment could be called one shot. But let it not be understood that

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the goose is nearing extinction in Colusa County. In spite of the hundreds of thousands of birds that have been killed and shipped to the city markets, or otherwise disposed of, geese are yet so plentiful as to be a pest to the grain farmers, who must hire herders each winter to keep them off the young grain. As late as 1906 they were so plentiful as to extend in a broad, unbroken ribbon across the sky from one side of the horizon to the other, in their flight. Although their numbers are thinning each year, it will be many years before persons who like goose will have to go without game, especially since the law now throws some protection around them.

More toothsome and more eagerly sought after than the goose is the wild duck, which, although not so numerous as the goose, comes here in great number and variety during the fall and winter seasons. Canvasback, mallard, sprig, teal, widgeon, and others are all well represented in the bags brought in from the hunting grounds of this county, to which hunters come from all over the state and from other states. They are not nearly so plentiful as they were a few years ago; but hunters frequently succeed in getting twenty-five in one day, the limit allowed by law. Ducks are proving a nuisance to the newly established rice industry in this county, and the laws protecting them will probably be modified within the next few years. At present it can be truthfully said that Colusa County is a paradise for goose and duck hunters. The dove and the quail rank next in importance to the goose and the duck as game birds, in Colusa County. Quails, which were quite plentiful in the early days, are found in limited numbers in the brush along the river and the sloughs, and among the foothills. Civilization has been hard on them, and they are destined to become still scarcer as time goes on, in spite of the protective legislation they have enjoyed for years. The dove tribe seems to be more hardy in the face of its enemies, and these swift flying birds are widely and thickly distributed over plain and foothill country. Legal protection has helped them greatly, and they seem to be diminishing little, if any, in numbers.

Bird life was particularly abundant in the Sacramento Valley when the white man came, and most of the species have survived. Among the birds that the early settlers found here, and that yet may be found here, are the swan, the crane, the mud hen and a few other water birds, the turkey buzzard, the blackbird, the meadow lark, several kinds of hawks, owls, linnets, sparrows and woodpeckers, the robin, the blue jay, the magpie, and the chaparral cock, or road runner.

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A list of the "winged creatures" of the county ought to include two which, in the early days, were an almost unbearable pest, but which, happily, have so decreased in numbers as to be of little importance today. These are the yellow jacket and the mosquito. In 1850, yellow jackets were as thick along the river as flies are today, and no meat or fruit could be left outdoors unprotected without being quickly eaten by these voracious insects. Mosquitoes were unbelievably fierce and troublesome in the brush along the river. James Yates, who came to Colusa in 1850, before there was a house in the town, used to tell of his experience with mosquitoes when he was hauling wood at the Seven-Mile House, above Colusa. He said it was absolutely impossible to bring the horses to the river, even to water them, because of the fierce attacks of the mosquitoes. So he had to leave his team outside the timber line, two miles back from the river, and carry water to them. This he accomplished by tilling two buckets with water, running with them as long as he could stand the mosquitoes, and then setting them down and fighting off the bloodthirsty insects. This operation was repeated till the horses were reached, beyond the brush and timber line. Today one gives scarcely a thought to mosquitoes, although some still exist. The introduction of rice-growing, however, may again bring a mosquito problem.
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CHAPTER IV

The Indians

There is little in the history of the Indians of this county, and the record of their experiences with the whites, to give either the writer or the reader cause for pride. Indeed, the contact of the two races is so marked by thoughtlessness and callousness at the best, and by injustice and cruelty at the worst, that it makes a rather sordid tale. The quotation from General Bidwell's story of the early explorations of the county, given in an earlier chapter of this work, serves to show how the Indians were regarded, and consequently treated, by many of the white men. Little further along that line need be said, for it is now too late to make any fit reparation or restitution, the Indians of the county being reduced to fewer than one hundred in number. Of course not all the white men were unjust or cruel in their treatment of the Indians. On the contrary, many of them were the consistent benefactors of their guileless red brethren. But

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there are in every community a certain number of men with little or no regard for the rights of others; and as this condition was greatly aggravated in the unorganized communities of the early days, the Indian suffered correspondingly. Possibly one should not blame those whose natures led them to prey upon weaker fellow men, any more than one should blame a hog for being a hog; but it seems to me that the United States government is extremely blameworthy for its failure to meet the problem that the Indians presented.

Nobody knows how many Indians there were in this county when the white man came. Nobody ever did know -- any more than we of today know how many ground-squirrels or jack-rabbits there are in the county -- for nobody had time or sufficient interest in the matter to count the Indians, even if they had been rounded up and had stood still long enough to be counted. General Bidwell says there must have been ten thousand in the county when he first saw it ; but that estimate includes what is now Glenn County, and part of Tehama County. General Green says there were about a thousand of the Colus Indians, as nearly as he could estimate the number. These estimates of two of the most intelligent observers of the time are all the information available on the subject. About 1832 or 1833 an epidemic, probably of smallpox, swept over the valley, greatly reducing the numbers of the Indians, so that the first explorers and settlers of Colusa County undoubtedly found the population of the Indian villages at a low ebb. It is entirely possible that before the epidemic Colusa County contained more people than it does today.

When the white man came, he found Indian villages every few miles along the river. Some of them were hardly pretentious enough to be called villages, but they seemed to be more or less independent settlements, or even to belong to different tribes. There were about a dozen of these groups or settlements between Princeton and Sycamore, and several more between Sycamore and the southern boundary of the county. All the groups between Sycamore and Princeton belonged to a tribe that called themselves the Corn Indians. The natives pronounced the name more as a German than as an American would pronounce it, giving the "r" a rolling sound; and the whites, finding the name hard to get as the Indians gave it, corrupted it into "Coin," a corruption which the Indians seem to have adopted along with many other customs and practices of the white man.

The chief village of the Colus Indians was located about where the Municipal Water Works of Colusa now stands. It had apparently been quite a populous center, containing the residence

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of the chief and the seat of government for the entire tribe; but the epidemic of 1832, above referred to, had evidently made it an undesirable place to live, and when the first white men came they found that the chief, Sioc, had taken his lares and penates, his people, and all his earthly possessions across the river and established a new capital there. There were no Indian villages on the plains, because of the lack of water, and probably also because of the lack of shelter. To the west, the nearest neighbors the river Indians had were located in the foothills, the chief tribe of these living along Cortina Creek, near its entrance into the valley. There were numerous settlements along Bear Creek, Stony Creek, and the other streams of the mountains and foothills. General Bidwell found that in 1844, which was a very dry year, the foothill Indians had all migrated to the valley of Stony Creek, thousands of them having temporary habitations along that stream. The river and foothill Indians had, by tacit consent, divided the plains between them, so that the former never foraged west of a line about where the railroad now runs, and the latter never came east of that line, without permission of the other. Sometimes the hill tribes asked for and obtained leave to forage in the territory of the river Indians, and vice versa. A reciprocal agreement like this was often very necessary, owing to the failure of the food supply in a particular section of the country.

A third division of the tribes was found back in the high mountains, among the timber. They were not very numerous, and are now gone -- without leaving a trace of their former existence.

In appearance, the Colusa Indians were not exactly, true to type as laid down in the story books. Instead of being tall, sinewy, alert and active, as were the Indians that Daniel Boone tracked and slew, these aborigines were indolent, quiet, peaceable, and inclined to be fat. In size they ranked about with the white men. They had the true Indian hue of dark-brown copper; coarse, black hair in abundance; and small, beady black eyes. Their dress will not take long to describe. For the men it was absolutely nothing, save perhaps an antelope skin thrown over their shoulders when the weather was particularly cold. The women's garb consisted of a bunch of tule or wild hemp suspended from a cord around the waist, and hanging down in front to the knees or thereabouts. This garment was called a tunica; and it was not worn by very small girls. But although they had very few clothes, they had imbedded within them a great love for dress and ornament. As soon as the whites came, and they

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had opportunity to obtain colored beads, cloth and ornaments, they were not slow to decorate themselves in what they considered the most beautiful style. Before the advent of the white man, shells, feathers, carved bones and strings of bright-colored berries served as ornaments, and, with the exception of the tunicas of the squaws, as the entire wardrobe of the people. The California Indians did not use paints to make their faces hideous, as did the Indians of the Eastern States, nor did their chiefs go to the elaborate lengths of decoration of their hair with feathers, furs and other things, that characterized the chiefs of the Atlantic Coast. In fact, they seem to have had no "war togs," although they sometimes went to war. But war was not their principal business, as it was that of the Eastern Indians, and California Indians are never referred to as "warriors" or "braves." Their chief end in life was, not war and conquest, but a lazy enjoyment of the advantages of climate and other conditions of life among which fate had cast them.

Their dwellings and other structures were of the most ephemeral character. As they had to keep constantly moving about to follow the food supply, they found it, of course, inconvenient to have permanent dwellings. So in summer they lived in camps; in the spring, near the berry and clover patches; in the fishing season, under the trees along the river; and in acorn time, in the oak groves, their only shelter being brush or a few vines gathered together, under which to crawl when they slept. But in winter, or the wet season, they retired to their permanent villages, where they constructed houses of a somewhat more substantial nature. These were made by setting poles fifteen or twenty feet long in the ground in a circle, and then bending the tops together and fastening them to make a framework, which was covered with brush, sticks, leaves and, finally, dirt. An opening was left at one side for a door, and a hole at the top allowed the smoke to pass out. Those who have been in them say that; with a fire burning in the center of them, these houses were too warm rather than too cold. Besides the dwellings, the only building of the village was the sweat-house, which was similar in structure to the residences, only larger.

Elevated bedsteads or bunks, even of the crudest character, were not attempted, the entire family sleeping on tules or grass laid on the ground. They did not even have piles of skins, as the Eastern Indians did, because such things were not necessary in California.

In the matter of food, the Indians could and did get about the same kinds and variety as the bears did. Indeed, the bear and

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the Indian were very much alike in their food habits. Fish was the great food staple, of the river Indians at least; and salmon was the standard fish. The explorer who passed up the valley in 1832, before the great epidemic, relates that the huts of the Indians were red with drying salmon. In the spring of the year, when the salmon were running up the river, and again in the fall, when they were going down, the Indians lived on the river banks and caught immense numbers of them, which they dried for use throughout the year. The salmon were caught by a weir built across the river when the water was low. This weir was made of poles driven into the sand at the bottom of the river and interlaced with willow withes. This made a sort of rough netting, through which the larger fish could not go. One of the most complete and successful of these weirs was located near where the Municipal Water Works now stands, and for that reason the site of the future county seat was long known as Salmon Bend.

Next to salmon in importance, and heading the list of vegetable foods, was the acorn. This took the place, with the Indian, of all of our cereals. In the fall of the year the squaws gathered bushels of acorns in wicker-work baskets, and stored them on high rocks or in trees, covering them over with thatches of tules and grass to keep them safe for future use. The acorns were shelled, and in a stone mortar were ground into a coarse flour, which was taken to the river bank and spread out in a shallow basin made in the sand. Water was then allowed to percolate through it, and this washed the bitterness out of the flour, which was then carefully taken up and made into a mush or gruel that is said to have been quite palatable. When the acorn crop failed in one section of the country, long pilgrimages were made to other sections to gather the nuts. Permission thus to engage in foreign commerce had to be obtained from some other tribe, either by diplomacy or by war.

Acorns and fish, although the staples of the Indians' diet, did not by any means exhaust the list. Game of all kinds -- sometimes caught in most ingenious ways -- wild oats, berries, the tender shoots of clover and other early spring plants, succulent roots, and even worms and grasshoppers, were used to add variety to their fare. The oat crop, which was generally bountiful in the Sacramento Valley, was gathered by swinging baskets against the tops of the oats, thus causing some of the grains to fall into the baskets. The method of harvesting was not particularly economical of grain, but it can be said that the Indian got a good return for the money he had invested in the crop.

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Grasshoppers and grubs were cooked by building a fire in a hole in the ground, letting it burn down to a bed of coals, scraping out the coals and putting the food in and covering it up for a few minutes, when it came out crisp, brown and delicious.

At its best, the life of the Indians was an alternate feasting and fasting, for he made absolutely no effort to cultivate any plant or domesticate any animal. When a deer, elk, antelope or other large animal fell into the clutches of a village, there was a period of intemperate gorging, followed possibly by a long period of slim fare; and when the acorn or salmon supply for any reason failed, there was destitution, and sometimes actual starvation, in the tribe. Hundreds of years of experience with such conditions, however, failed to impress their lesson; and the white man found the Indians, as I have said above, little more provident than the bears.

Each Indian tribe was governed by a chief, whose authority was absolutely supreme. The chief had the power of life and death over his subjects; and as there was no appeal from his edicts, his subjects were thoroughly, if not wisely, governed. But in the case of the Coins Indians, at least, the government was remarkably wise and just; for their chief, Sioc, was a man of more than ordinary capability. Sioc was over six feet tall, and as straight as the spear he carried; and he dressed exactly as nature garbed him. He was kind and just, both to his own people and to the white man, whose coming, with the consequent degeneration of his people, added such a burden to his life that he died two years after Colusa was founded.

The Indian community was organized much as all savage communities are. The women did the work. It was the squaws who collected the oats, gathered the acorns, cured the fish, cooked the meals, and, when moving, carried the baggage. Sometimes the bucks took a hand at catching fish or trapping game, but ordinarily they lay around and ate. When a young man took a wife, the chief qualification he required of her was that she be able to keep him supplied with plenty of food. It can be said in their favor that each man had only one wife, and stuck to her as long as she was willing and able to keep him supplied with food; but just what was entailed in their marriage vows is hard to determine. The bride was bought from her parents with offerings of shells, food or anything else of value, much as an American business man buys a European "noble" for his daughter; and any breach of fealty to her husband by the bride was severely punished, even with death. There is no record of such severity toward the husband; and indeed it does not seem

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to have been necessary, for there was apparently little tendency for husbands to roam, matrimonially. Young folks, when thrown together, were not apt to remain continent; much self-restraint could hardly be expected of them. But fear of the chief and the inexorable rules laid down for their guidance kept the women remarkably chaste. They married young, and the hardships they endured in providing for their families soon aged them, so that the squaws were not usually attractive in appearance. Occasionally one of them lived to a great age, but the average life of the Indian was not great. He was like the rabbit; there were too many things against him.

Religious belief was but feebly developed among the Indians of this county; and consequently religious ceremonies were few. They apparently believed in a hereafter; for they buried the weapons and other personal belongings of the dead in the grave with the body, in order that these things might be on hand for use in the future life. An evil spirit to be propitiated was the central theme of their religion, rather than a good spirit to be pleased or served. As they would not eat the flesh of the grizzly bear because they believed it had once been a person, they must have believed in a sort of transmigration of souls. Just how far they had developed this belief no one seems to have taken the trouble to find out, if, indeed, it could have been found out. One thing, however, is certain, and that is that religion and religious ceremonies played no great part in the lives of the Colusa Indians. They lived along, in an indolent, dreamy animal life, with no regrets for the past, little hope or fear for the future, and no great concern for the present. Their regard for the grizzly was not so much a feeling of reverence or worship as it was a wholesome fear of his physical prowess; and all of their superstitions were of this childishly primitive Sort, hardly rising to the dignity of a religion.

Sickness was, as with all savages, attributed to the evil machinations of some enemy, and was, of course, cured by incantations principally, although at times the sweat-house and bleeding played some part in the cure. The sweat-house was like the dwellings, only larger, and was the center of the ceremonial life of the village. In taking the sweat-cure, the sweathouse was filled with Indians, and a fire was kept going in it till it was baking hot and the inmates were streaming with perspiration, when they would rush out and plunge into the river till they cooled off, after which the process was repeated. This treatment, while possibly beneficial in some diseases, was sure death in others; but the Indians did not seem to be able to differentiate

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between one disease and another, and so hundreds of them perished every time an epidemic came along.

When an Indian died, a doleful mourning was kept up for a couple of days, especially by the women. The squaws would dance around the grave and wail most mournfully. The body was prepared for burial by doubling it up, with the head between the knees and the ankles up against the thighs, and wrapping it tightly in this shape with cords of bark or fiber. A small child was always buried alive with its mother if she died, because none of the other members of the tribe cared to be burdened with providing for it.

I have mentioned "other structures" of the Indians in addition to their houses. These other structures were not many, nor very complicated. Besides the sweat-house, already mentioned, and the fish dam across the river, about the only things the Colusa Indians made were a rude bridge across the river, constructed much like the fish dam; crude rafts of brush and tule; bows and arrows and spears, their only weapons; a few rough mats of tule; and the wicker baskets for holding food. The rafts were used for taking food across the river, although any Indian in the tribe, man, woman or child, could swim across with almost as much as he could carry on land. They could all swim as well, almost, as seals, from childhood up. Their weapons were not very effective against large game. When hunger drove an Indian to kill a deer, it is said that he would stalk it till he had approached within very short range, when he would shoot it in the groin and then follow it till the pain caused it to lie down to rest. Then he would again sneak up and shoot an arrow into it, repeating the maneuver till loss of blood gave him the prize. This process oftentimes took all day. It is also said that the bucks were very ingenious in snaring ducks, geese, and other birds, and added much to their larders in this way.

From the beginning the Indians were tolerant of the white man and friendly to him. General Bidwell says that when he first came among the Stony Creek Indians, they hastened to bring him baskets of food and other presents, till he was entirely surrounded with gifts; and at no time was he the object of any violence or ill will. The ignorant natives apparently regarded him as a kind of god come among them, and they treated him with then greatest respect. Their acquaintance with white men did not go much further, however, till they found that the treatment accorded them in return was far from godlike. Enough has been said in a previous chapter to indicate the attitude the newcomers took toward the red men. The great majority of whites regarded the

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Indians as little better than beasts, to be preyed upon at pleasure. They paid absolutely no attention to the property rights of the guileless savages, and took their land without compunction of conscience or even serious thought. They even commandeered the services of the men, paying them when and what they chose. But worst of all, they dragged the women into a "white slavery" which, historians tell us, soon made a race of syphilitics of the entire population. Will S. Green says that his friend. Chief Sioc, died in 1852 of a broken heart, because of the loss of virtue in his people.

Nature was often unkind to the Indian, pelting him with storms and failing to supply him with food. To the unkindness of Nature the Indian added a great burden to himself and his race when he destroyed his own children or attempted to cure his bodily ills with superstitious ceremonies. The additional handicap of the white man's unkindness was more than the race could bear, and the red men perished like flies after the white man came. In 1880, thirty years after the county was first settled, the ten thousand Indians in Colusa County (including what is now Glenn County) had dwindled to five hundred, or five per cent, of the whole. Nine thousand five hundred of them, or ninety-five per cent., had succumbed. Today, sixty-seven years after the settlement of the county, there are less than one hundred Indians within its boundaries. The more intelligent Indians saw from the beginning that the white man was destined to inherit the land ; but they knew no way to stop it, and submitted stoically. There was no Indian war in Colusa County worthy the name. On two or three occasions, after Indians had committed minor depredations, bands of white men went after them and killed a few of them, a procedure which the victims apparently took as a matter of course. These disturbances invariably took place in the mountains or hills, no conflict of any kind with the river Indians being recorded after the brutal and unjust punishment inflicted upon them by General Sutter in 1843.

Captain Hukely was the successor, and a worthy one, of Sioc as chief of the Coins Indians. He was a man of the highest character and standing, not only among his own people, but also among the settlers. It was said of him that his "credit was good at any store in the county." He died on December 2, 1877, after having ruled over his fast-dwindling tribe for twenty-five years.

The more just and considerate settlers realized from the beginning that the Indians were not getting a square deal; and the United States had no sooner got control of the country than steps were taken to give the red man his dues, in part at least. Intelligent Indian agents were sent out by the government to

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investigate the claims made in behalf of the Indians and arrange that justice he done them. The result was that the following treaty was drawn up with the Colusa Indians, which, accompanied by strong recommendations from the United States Commissioner of Indian Affairs and the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for California that the treaty be ratified, was sent to President Millard Fillmore, who transmitted it to the United States Senate for ratification:
A treaty of peace and friendship made and concluded at Camp Coins, on the Sacramento River, California, between the United States Indian Agent, O.M. Wozencraft, of one part, and the chiefs, captains and head men of the following tribes or bands, viz. : Coins, Willays, Co-ha-na, Tat-nah, Cha, Doc-Duc, Cham-net-co, Toc-de.

Article 1. The several tribes or bands above mentioned do acknowledge the United States to be the sole and absolute sovereign of all the soil and territory ceded to them by a treaty of peace made between them and the republic of Mexico.

Article 2. The said tribes or bands acknowledge themselves, jointly and severally, under the exclusive jurisdiction, authority and protection of the United States, and hereby bind themselves hereafter to refrain from the commission of all acts of hostility and aggression towards the government or citizens thereof, and to live on terms of peace and friendship among themselves, and all other Indians which are now or may come under the protection of the United States.

Article 3. To promote the settlement and improvement of said tribes or bands, it is hereby stipulated and agreed that the following district of country in the State of California shall be and is hereby set apart forever, for the use and occupancy of the aforesaid tribes or bands, to-wit : Commencing on the east bank of the Sacramento River, at a point where the northern line of Sutter's claim is said to strike said river, running out in said line in an easterly direction three miles ; thence in a southeasterly direction fifteen miles to a point within three miles of the Sacramento River; from said point in a line due west to the Sacramento River; and from said-point up said river to the point of beginning. It is furthermore understood and agreed upon by both parties that the tribes or bands of Indians living upon the adjacent Coast Range, on the Sacramento River, from the mouth of Stone Creek to the junction of Feather and Sacramento Rivers, and on Feather River to the mouth of Yuba River, shall be included in the said reservation; and should said bands not come in, then the provisions, etc., as set apart in this treaty, to be reduced in a

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ratio commensurate with the numbers signing the treaty. Provided, That there is reserved to the United States government the right of way over any portion of said territory, and the right to establish and maintain any military post, public building, schoolhouse, houses for agents, teachers, and such others as they may deem necessary, for their use in the protection of the Indians. The said tribes or bands, and each of them, hereby engage that they will never claim any other land within the boundaries of the United States, nor ever disturb the people of the United States in the free use and enjoyment thereof.

Article 4. To aid the said tribes or bands in their subsistence while removing to and making allotments upon the said reservation, the United States, in addition to the few presents made to them at this council, will furnish them, free of charge, with two hundred and fifty (250) head of beef-cattle, to average in weight five hundred (500) pounds, seventy-five (75) sacks flour, one hundred (100) pounds each, within the term of two years from the date of this treaty.

Article 5. As early as convenient after the ratification of this treaty by the President and Senate, in consideration of the premises and with a sincere desire to encourage said tribes in acquiring the arts and habits of civilized life, the United States will also furnish them with the following articles, (to be divided among them by the agent according to their respective numbers and wants,) during each of the two years succeeding the said ratification, viz. : one pair strong pantaloons and one red flannel shirt for each man and boy; one linsey gown for each woman and girl; one thousand yards calico, and two hundred and fifty yards brown sheeting; ten pounds Scotch thread and five hundred needles, three dozen thimbles and one dozen pairs of scissors; one two and a half point Mackinaw blanket for each man and woman over fifteen years of age; five hundred pounds iron and fifty pounds steel; and in like manner, in the first year, for the permanent use of said tribes, and as their joint property, viz.: forty brood mares and three stallions, one hundred and fifty milch cows and eight bulls, two yoke of work cattle with yokes and chains, five work mules or horses, eleven ploughs assorted sizes, forty-five garden or corn hoes, thirteen spades, and two grindstones. Of the stock enumerated above, and the product thereof, no part or portion shall be killed, exchanged, sold or otherwise parted with, without the consent and direction of the agent.

Article 6. The United States will also supply and settle among said tribes, at or near their towns or settlements, one practical farmer, who shall superintend all agricultural operations, with two assistants, men of practical knowledge and indus-

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trious habits; one carpenter, one wheelwright, one blacksmith, one principal school teacher and as many assistant teachers as the President may deem proper to instruct said tribes, in reading, writing, etc., and in the domestic arts upon the manual labor system; all the above named workmen and teachers to be maintained and paid by the United States for the period of five years, and as long thereafter as the President shall deem advisable. The United States will also erect suitable schoolhouses, shops and dwellings for the accommodation of the schools, teachers and mechanics above mentioned, and for the protection of the public property.

In testimony whereof, the parties have hereunto signed their names and affixed their seals, this ninth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one.

O.M. Wozencraft,
United States Indian Agent.
For and in behalf of the Coins:
Sci-Oac, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Willays:
Ho-Oak, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Co-ha-na :
Louis, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Tat-nah:
Hoo-Ka-Ta, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Cha :
La-Look, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Doc-Duc:
Mi-Ka-La, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Cham-net-co:
Wi-Te-Bus, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Toc-de :
Co-Ne, his X mark.

Signed, sealed and delivered, after being fully explained, in presence of

Thomas Wright, Second Lieutenant, 2nd Infantry,
Commanding escort.

C.D. Semple.

Politics in the meantime had gotten in its fine work, and this treaty was never ratified. It lay in the secret files of the Senate until 1905, when the injunction of secrecy was removed and the terms of the treaty were made known. This, however, was after all those connected with the treaty had been long in their graves. The Indians of Colusa waited and watched patiently for the ful-

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fillment of the treaty, and most of them died in the hope that it would some day be fulfilled.

In 1907 the government bought forty acres of land on the west side of the river, four miles north of Colusa, and all the river Indians in the county, about sixty, were moved there. With the aid of private subscriptions they were established in fairly comfortable cabins, and a little later the county supervisors made an appropriation for a school among them. Rev. and Mrs. F.G. Collett, who had been indefatigable in their efforts in behalf of the Indians, were the first teachers ; and they have a worthy successor in the person of Dr. H.E. Burbank, who still has a flourishing school at the rancheria.

The population of the rancheria north of town is at present about fifty. They are under the leadership of Captain Thomas Odock, a man of fine character. They raise some fruit and vegetables, but most of their living is made by laboring on the neighboring ranches. The women have not gained any great degree of skill in the arts of civilization, especially the caring for their children; and the tribe seems destined to disappear utterly.

Of the other Indians in the county, about thirty-five live on Cortina Creek, and eight or ten in the neighborhood of Stonyford. These are dying off very rapidly, and in a few years will be gone.
_______

CHAPTER V

The Early Settlers

The day of the gold rush to California dawned with only three settlements in what is now called Colusa County, as we have seen. The first of these was made by John S. Williams, who had settled the Larkin's Children's Grant at what is now the W.A. Yerxa place. It is interesting to note that Mr. Williams came from Missouri; and that state has continued to hold her preeminence as a source of population for Colusa County. Mr. Williams died in 1849, and never saw the great development which the county experienced in the next year or two. His only son moved back to Missouri to live.

One of the other settlers was William B. Ide, of whom mention will be made further on. He was a Massachusetts Yankee, and was probably the most prominent man in the organization of the county. He was stricken with smallpox in December of 1852, while holding the office of county treasurer at Monroeville, and died on the twentieth of that month, leaving a wife

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and nine children. His is one of the most stirring and eventful careers among the pioneers of California -- and I am moved here to remark that his wife's job was no sinecure, for this daring adventurer had accumulated little property, and what money he had was stolen from the county safe by means of the key taken from under the sick man's pillow by the man who nursed him during his last illness. The women of those early days could probably tell tales of far more interest than anything that will appear in this volume, and it is a pity that they have left such meager records of their privations and sufferings.

The third settler, Watt Anderson, who lived where Sycamore now is, was a bear-hunter, who boasted that he ate no meat but bear meat. He had a wife and family, and apparently preferred their society to that of other white people, for he kept well in advance of the van of civilization. When Colusa was laid out, he considered the country too crowded, and moved westward into the mountains where there was more room.

Charles B. Sterling, who came up from Monterey to take John S. Williams' place on the Larkin ranch when Mr. Williams went to the mines to dig gold, was a native of Louisiana who had come to California as purser on a United States war-ship and was secretary to Thomas O. Larkin at this time. He proved to be a capable man, and "Sterling's Ranch" become known the length and breadth of the Sacramento Valley. Will S. Green tells us of Sterling that "in the spring of 1849 he wanted to go over to the mines on Feather River, and not liking to bury his money around home for fear of being watched, he put several thousand dollars in a square gin bottle and carried it with him to the bank of a slough, in a direct line from his place to French Crossing on Butte Creek, and there buried it, marking the place by a bunch of weeds he would know again. He stayed over there longer than he expected, and when he came back the weeds had been burned, and he could not find the place ; and so that bottle with its treasure lies buried there yet." Young man, there is your opportunity to dig for gold.

All those whose names are mentioned above were pioneers in the truest sense of the word. They came to the great, unknown West because they loved the wideness and the solitude, and because the spirit of adventure was strong within them; and they remained here because they saw the possibilities of this county as an agricultural community and a place for homes. Most of those who came to the county after this period were lured to California by the hope of gold in great abundance, had tried their hands at mining and had been disappointed, and then had turned to farm-

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ing or to the other pursuits in which they had been engaged in their Eastern homes.

In 1849 the great gold rush to California began. The next year, 1850, the settlement of Colusa County began in earnest. That was the year California was admitted as a state and Colusa County was authorized by the state legislature, neither of which events, however, had any particular influence on the settlement of the county. The time had come when these rich lands were to be sought after ; and their acquisition by settlers would have taken place just when it did, even if the state had not been admitted and no county had been formed by the legislature.

In the year 1847, Robert Semple was a doctor living in Benicia, Cal., to which place he had come from Kentucky. That year he took his horseback trip up the Sacramento Valley, and was so greatly impressed with the beauty and fertility of the lands about the Colus Indian village that he made a note of the matter and kept it for future reference. When, in 1849, his brother. Col. Charles D. Semple, came out from Kentucky to look for a location in California, the doctor told him of the Sacramento Valley location and advised him to try to obtain some of the land and settle it. Colonel Semple took his brother's advice; and that was the first step in the founding of the town of Colusa, which was the first town in Colusa County as at present bounded.

Colonel Semple found that John Bidwell, who had also been impressed with this wonderfully fertile land, had obtained a grant of two square leagues of land surrounding the Colus Indian village, just where the colonel wanted to settle. He bought the grant from Bidwell, and in the spring of 1850 came up the valley to locate his new town, which was to be placed on the site of the old Indian village at "Salmon Bend." But he missed the place and went instead to where Powell Slough puts out from the river, seven miles above Colusa, and later the location of the old Seven-Mile House. He had mistaken a temporary Indian camp for the place he was looking for, and did not discover his mistake till he had laid out a town there and established a camp of men, who were set to clearing off the land round about, and cutting cordwood for the steamship line that was soon to be established.

In the meantime Dr. Semple, at Benieia, had been laying the foundations for this same steamship line. He had been building a steamer, which was finished in June and was named the "Colusa" in honor of the town between which and the outside world she was to ply. About the first of July, 1850, she started on her first and last trip up the river, having on board Will S. Green, then a youth of eighteen, a stock of goods which Green and Colonel Semple

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owned in partnership, and enough lumber to build a store to house the goods. The Colusa made good progress till it struck the bend just above the town's present location, when rapids, snags and short turns in the river so harassed the little boat that one of the engines gave out, and it took several days to make the remaining seven miles to her destination.

The cargo of the boat had hardly been unloaded and she had proceeded back to Benicia, when Colonel Semple discovered the mistake he had made in the location of his town. He proceeded at once to move it to its present and proper location. Green had brought up a carpenter named Hicks on the boat to build the new store; and while Semple hauled the goods to the new location, Hicks began the erection of the building and Green stayed at the old location to watch the remaining property till all was safely hauled. As soon as they had their store up, Semple and Green laid out the town and proceeded to make a metropolis of it. That it isn't a city of a million people is no fault of theirs; for they both spent their lives, and died, booming it.

Semple & Green's store building was a story and a half high, and was located on Levee Street, between Fifth and Sixth. The river has so encroached upon the land that the levee now covers the site. This was not the first building in the town. By the time Colonel Semple reached his permanent location, he found that two men, named Heeps and Hale, had started a little shanty on what is now Fifth Street, between the Riverside Hotel and the river. In this they opened up a hotel, remained for a few weeks, and then departed. A man named Sheppard had also started a log cabin at what is now Sixth and Main Streets, where the Eagle Stable now stands ; but Sheppard abandoned his building before it was finished.

After Heeps & Hale abandoned their hotel, Semple & Green had to add a hotel department to their store. This they did by installing a bar in the store and building on an addition in the rear for a kitchen and dining room. Business was good, for there was a great deal of travel up and down the valley, between the mines of Shasta and the bay; and the new landlords found that there were quite a number of hunters, trappers, homeseekers, prospectors, teamsters and other travelers to be cared for, even at that early elate. After conducting their combined store and hotel through the winter, Semple & Green leased the hotel department early in 1851 to two men named Hendricks, and a little later to Mr. and Mrs. Davis. Mrs. Davis was the first white woman to live in Colusa. She didn't stay long, however, and for most of the summer of 1851 the town did not have the beneficent presence of woman to cheer it. But in September, 1851, William Vincent


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arrived by boat with his wife and little daughter; and from that time on, Colusa was never without women folks. The Vincents were the first permanent family in Colusa ; and they resided in the town for many years, Mr. Vincent being at one time county treasurer. The little daughter grew up and married a later county treasurer. A son was born to the Vincents in November, 1851 ; and he was the first child born in the town.

During the year 1851 Colusa grew to be a town of about twenty people, and nearly that many business establishments; for almost every man in the town was the proprietor of his own business. The country round about, especially up and down the river, also began to be taken up and settled in 1850 and 1851 quite extensively. The cattle men were naturally the first to come; but because of floods and droughts the cattle business was a more or less precarious enterprise, and many stockmen later turned their attention to farming. A great impetus was given to farming operations by the heavy demand for hay and barley to feed the teams engaged in hauling supplies up the valley to the mines. To meet this demand, rather than to establish homes, a number of men began farming in the county during the two years mentioned. A number of others established "hotels" at various points along the route to the mines, also with a view to aiding the teaming business, which had by this time grown to great proportions.

Even at this early date, Colusa County was the scene of two earnest, though rather quiet, competitions. One was between the men who were interested in boat traffic and those who moved goods by team; and the other was between the two routes of passenger travel to the northern mines, one up along the eastern foothills of the valley, via Marysville and Chico, and the other up the middle of the valley, along the river, via Colusa. Colonel Semple's dream, when he located his town at the head of deepwater navigation, was that it should become a great steamboat terminus and distributing point ; but, in the first place, steamboating required a large outlay of capital, and, in the second place, it was a hazardous business because of the many snags and shoals in the river. So, while Colonel Semple was struggling to get a permanent line of steamers established between Sacramento and Colusa, hundreds of tons of supplies were being taken north through Colusa to the mines by wagon; and after he did get the Orient and her successors to going regularly, Colusa became, not only a transfer and shipping center for freight, as he had hoped, but also a busy center of stage lines. At this time there were sometimes as many as fifty great freight wagons loaded and started from the town in a single day.

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It can be readily seen that all this activity created an urgent demand for horse feed, a demand that the alert prospectors and travelers through the county were not slow to see and appreciate. As a consequence, farming operations commenced and were stimulated. No complete list of those who settled at that time within the present limits of the county can be given; but the names of some of them are known, and they will be found below. From these the reader may obtain a fair idea of how populous the county was when it considered itself ready to be organized as a county.

Beginning at the present north line of the county, we find that in 1850 and 1851 a continuous line of settlements had been made down the river to Wilkins' Slough, which is below Grimes. The first one to occupy our attention is the Seventeen-Mile House, which Hiram Willitts established for the entertainment of the traveling public. After wagon traffic to the mines fell off, Mr. Willits left Colusa County and went to Mendocino County, where he founded the town that now bears his name. The house got its name from the fact that it was seventeen miles from Colusa. The other "mile houses" were named for a similar reason. A mile down the river from Willitts' was the Sixteen-Mile House, established by J.M. Arnett, who remained but a short time and was succeeded by J.P.J. Helphenstine. Princeton is now situated upon the location of the Sixteen-Mile House. About two miles below Princeton was Sterling's Ranch, the first settlement in the county; and a mile below that was the Eleven-Mile House, established by Thomas Parton. (It will be seen that the figures given do not tally; but the early settlers did not try to be particularly accurate.) Two stockmen and ranchers, Charles Brooks and Ben Payne, had settled near Parton's place, on what was later called the Hubbard ranch, and which was recently the scene of the "Thousand Acres" fiasco. A mile further down, the Ten-Mile House had been established by L.H. Helphenstine. His son, Henry Russell Helphenstine, still lives there. This is the only place between Princeton and Colusa, and almost the only place in the county, along the river, that still remains in the name of the original founder. The Helphenstine place has been the Helphenstine place for sixty-seven years, and bids fair to remain so for at least that many years to come. The present owner was born there in 1858, and is one of the oldest citizens, in point of residence, in the county. A mile below Helphenstine's, S.H. Cooper established the Nine-Mile House; and two miles further down, Robert Payne and James Hill were running the Seven-Mile House. This was located a few hundred feet south of where the county road crosses the railroad, near Tony Wohlfrom's residence. It was the original location of the town of Colusa. Two

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miles below the Seven-Mile House, Obed DeLong had the Five-Mile House. This is where the Maxwell road leaves the river road, and it is now known as the Seavers place. Robert N. Parkhill, a refined and educated man, one of the first election officials in the county and a member of the first grand jury, took up a "wood ranch" on the east side, three miles above Colusa, in 1851, and was active in the county's affairs till 1855, when he disappeared from his cabin, leaving money and all his effects undisturbed. He was never seen or heard from again; and his dispearance was a mystery that was widely speculated upon at the time, but that has never been solved.

Below Colusa, almost on the outskirts of the town, J.T. Marr, White Brothers, Abbe Brothers, James Keefer, John Rogers, and Marion Tate had come in and were doing a little farming or were herding bands of stock. A little further down the river, O.C. Berkey, father of Supervisor P.Y. Berkey, had established a stock ranch in partnership with George Carhart and Silas Howard; and four brothers named Gibson had located in the bend of the river above the present town of Meridian. Jack Long had a big cattle ranch about where Sycamore station on the Northern Electric now is ; while John Fitch and Joe Farnsworth had settled just south of Sycamore Slough, where the town of Sycamore now stands. Mr. Farnsworth was one of the few pioneers who "stuck," and he became quite prosperous. Mrs. Farnsworth still lives a couple of miles below Sycamore, on the ranch her husband took up. They reared a family of sturdy children; and one of their sons, George, is a member of the Colusa County Exemption Board, whose duties are so important in forming the national army that is to go to Europe to take part in the great war.

In 1851, the Grimes brothers came up the river and settled at what is now the town of Grimes. Within one hundred yards of where he built his first cabin, Cleaton Grimes continued to reside till he was ninety-four years old, dying in 1909. When the Grimes brothers arrived, they found E.R. Graham and Richard Welsh already located near by, doing a prosperous farming business. These neighbors, with the help of a Sacramento blacksmith, made the first plow ever brought to Colusa County. Mr. Graham afterward became the father of E.R. Graham, the present county treasurer, and two other sons, and also of five daughters. One of these married E.C. Peart; another, W.H. Cross; a third, C.G. Stinson; a fourth, R.L. Welch; and the fifth, J.W. Eustis.

The above are most of the settlers along the river prior to 1852. There was one settlement out on the plains, J.C. Johnson having established the Ohio House south of where College City

56 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES

now stands. When the county was mapped out by the legislature in 1850, and organized in 1851, the east side of the river, the plains and the foothills were practically uninhabited. In that part of the county which is now Glenn County, there were similar settlements along the river, but none out on the plains. U.P. Monroe had started a town that he called Monroeville, and naturally the settlers up that way gave their allegiance to the town nearest them; so when the county government came to be organized, there was a strong contest between Colusa and Monroeville as to which should be the county seat. The particulars in this contest will be given in the chapter on the organization of the county.

Settlers came in so fast, after 1851, that no particular mention of them can be made in a work of this scope. In examining the list of names given above, it will be noticed that there are very few mentioned who remained permanently or left families to perpetuate their names. In the years 1852 and 1853, and those immediately following, however, quite a number of settlers came whose names are well known in the county today. Active settlement of the east side of the river began in 1852, about a dozen men settling there that year and as many more the year following; but the names of nearly all of these have disappeared from the community, only about half a dozen of them having left any trace of their existence, so far as present population is concerned -- certainly a pertinent commentary on the transitory nature of human life.

Of those whose names are still known, there was Henry Ahlf, who settled two or three miles above Colusa in 1853. He was the father of George, John, Herman, Adolphus and Miss Emma Ahlf. Nick Laux first settled on the McConnell place, but afterwards sold it and moved to a place near by. J.W. Jones, grandfather of J. Morris Jones, of Colusa, settled on a ranch up the river in 1853, as did also W.P. Goad, brother of J.W. Goad, now of Colusa. Mr. Goad was one of the organizers of the Colusa County Bank, and was its first president. Frank Steele's grandchildren now reside on the place he settled upon in 1853. Col. L.F. Moulton also arrived about 1853. Colonel Moulton impressed himself most decidedly upon the future life of his county. He was one of the most courageous, liberal, and persistent experimenters along reclamation and general agricultural lines that the state has known. To his energy and initiative is due much of our knowledge of the possibilities of Colusa County from an agricultural standpoint. Joseph McConnell, Clinton and Joseph McVay, Thomas Williams, and Jefferson Tate all settled on the east side about 1853 or 1854, and reared families there; and some of their descendants still survive.

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After the river district, the next section of the county to be settled was the foothills, becanse water could be obtained there more easily than on the plains. Two or three men located stock ranches in Spring Valley in 1852, but most of the early settlers in the foothill region arrived in 1853 and thereafter. Spring Valley received two or three new settlers that year. Antelope Valley was settled by at least four men, one of whom was John Sites; and a Mrs. Spear, with her two sons, had settled at Stone Corral, but later moved to Antelope Valley.

The settlement of Bear Valley is best described in the words of one of the pioneers, Godfrey C. Ingrim, in the Colusa Sun of January 6, 1877. This, in part, is what Mr. Ingrim says :
"In the fall of 1853, in company with old man Beers and J.M. Blanchard, I left Sacramento City for Bear Valley (then nearly unknown). On our way we stopped one night at the Ohio House, kept by Ike Rice; and the next night we stopped at Jo. Bowies', in Spring Valley, who, with M.A. Britton, had just settled in that pretty little valley. One thing I noticed on entering Spring Valley was the wild oats. They were as tall as a horse's back and as thick as they could stand on the ground. From Spring Valley we went up Salt Canyon to Antelope Valley. T.A. Botts and Dr. William V. Henry had settled there. The latter still resides in the valley, but not in the same place. From Antelope we went across the mountains to Bear Valley, entering the valley on what is the Turner ranch now. I found clover in the valley that was seven feet long by measurement. There were plenty of deer, antelope, bear, and some elk at that time. I explored the valley and picked out my present place. I then thought this a beautiful and healthy place, and after twenty-two years' residence I am of the same opinion.

"On the 20th of January, 1854, in company with John H. Clark, I settled where I now reside. This valley received its name from a bear that was killed just below my house, at the old crossing, by a party from Colusa, in 1852, two of whom were Dr. Spaulding and Horace Pike. At the time I came into the valley there were no settlers, nor for six months after. John Royce and A.T. Noyes came next, and settled in the lower end of the valley. J.M. Blanchard, old man Beers, and Hull -- the man that was killed on Hull's Mountain by a grizzly, and after whom it takes its name -- were the next. Stephen Reese, Stewart Harris, Fielding and Waller Calmes next came in. William Robertson came about the same time. Reese, the Robertson family, and myself are all that remain of the old settlers in the valley.

"... Four miles from Bear Valley are what are called Wilbur's Springs; but the right name for them is Cantrall
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Springs, for Joshua Cantrall is the man who took those springs up, and lived there until he died. Gil Roberts then bought them. They passed into the hands of Simmons and went by his name until he died. Then Wilbur came into possession, and the springs took his name and retained it."

Three or four years after Bear Valley was first settled, the Stonyford country began to receive the attention of settlers; but those who first located there passed on, leaving the country to new people.

There was a peculiarity about the settlement of the plains that is hard to account for. The lands in the vicinity of where Williams, Arbuckle and College City now are began to attract settlers in 1853, or shortly thereafter, especially along the sloughs and creeks; while in the vicinity of Maxwell and Delevan the lands lay, for ten or twelve years longer, absolutely untouched for farming purposes. When the southern part of the county, on the plains, was "thickly settled," as settlements went in those days, the northern part was a great, uninhabited stretch of "no man's land." Why this was the case is hard to tell, because some of the finest land in the county is in that section. E.B. McDow, who came from Iowa and settled on Funk Slough in the fall of 1861, says: "When I first came here to live, William Campbell, in the hills four miles from me, was my nearest neighbor on the west; Joseph Gibson, nine miles, and F. Calmes, seven or eight miles, south and southwest; the Willows ranch nearly fourteen miles north ; and nine miles to any settlement on the river east." Will S. Green says: "North of a due west line from Colusa there were no settlements on the plains, for agricultural purposes, until about 1868." He ascribes the slowness with which the plains were settled to the fact that the secret of raising grain by the summer-fallow method had not then been discovered.

One of the first ranches to be taken up on the plains was that located by Dr. Robert Semple, of Benicia, and W.S. Green, of Colusa, on Freshwater Creek ; but it could hardly be called a settlement, for both the owners were non-residents. That was in 1853. The next year Joseph S. Gibson came in and laid the foundations for the great estate of the present J.S. Gibson Company, which is among the foremost breeders of blooded stock in the state, or in the world. Between 1853 and 1857 the plains country received a number of settlers who were destined later to become closely connected with the county's development and history. Among them were W.H. Williams, who tried a small crop of wheat and barley in Spring Valley in 1853, and made a similar experiment in 1854 near where he afterward founded the town that bears his name. Andrew Pierce, the founder of Pierce Chris-

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tian College, settled near the site of College City in 1855. The same year Julius Weyand, father of Superior Judge Ernest Weyand, settled, with his brother, Gustav, near Arbuckle. J.W. Brim came in 1856, and located west of Williams. William Kaerth located northeast of Arbuckle in 1857; and Joseph P. Sherer settled north of College City about the same time. J.C. Stovall, one of the founders of the Stovall-Wilcoxson Company, which now owns thirty-five thousand eight hundred acres of land in the county, came in 1858 and settled six miles west of Williams, on what is now a part of the great Stovall-Wilcoxson ranch. There were others who came about this time, or a little later; but obviously the list cannot be continued indefinitely. Those named found the land untouched in their several localities when they came, and they proceeded to hew homes out of the wilderness. They succeeded even beyond their dreams ; and as a result of their foresight and energy, the descendants and successors of these pioneers now cultivate broad, fertile fields, live in fine houses, and drive powerful motor cars over improved highways, where once there was but a silent waste.

The settlement of the county was substantial and rapid after this time. The mines became less and less able to furnish profitable employment to all who came into the state ; river transportation had become fairly regular and dependable; stage lines were being extended in all directions ; implements were more easily obtainable ; the demand for farm products was steady and strong ; and last, but by no means least, wives and sweethearts were coming to make home something more than a camping place, so that by the time of the Civil War Colusa County was a well-established and highly organized community.
_______

CHAPTER VI

Organization of the County

There was in 1851, as we have seen, a fringe of settlers along the Sacramento River from the mouth of Stony Creek, on the north, to Wilkius' Slough, below Grimes, on the south. Most of them were keepers of "road houses," institutions that in those days served a purpose different from that which they serve today. There were also two very small, but very ambitious, towns along the river: Colusa, Colonel Semple's town; and Monroeville, founded by U.P. Monroe south of the mouth of Stony Creek, in what is now Glenn County. Each wanted and expected to be the

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county seat of the new county; and tins question was not settled till after a spirited factional fight, the first of several that have disturbed the calm of the county's political existence.

When Colonel Semple came up the river to lay out his town, the first state legislature was in session, and he had it define the boundaries of the county and give it the same name as the town. Semple and Green formed the name by adding an "a" to "Colus," the name of the Indians as the white man understood it. Mr. Green says this "gave a very euphonious name." But the legislature had a committee on the names of counties (General Vallejo was one of the committee), and this committee reported the name as "Colusi," although the founders of the town insisted on its being "Colusa"; and when the statute defining the boundaries of the county was adopted, it read as follows:
"Section 22. County of Colusi. Beginning at a point on the summit of the Coast Range due west from the Red Bluffs, and running thence due east to said bluffs on the Sacramento River; thence down the middle of said river to the northwest corner of Sutter County; thence due west along the northern boundary of Yolo County to the summit of the Coast Range ; thence in a north-westerly direction, following the summit of said range to the point of beginning. This county shall be attached, for judicial purposes, to Butte County, until a county government shall be organized for the same in the manner to be prescribed by law."

Thus the county was created "Colusi"; and thus it remained, officially, till 1854, when it was changed to conform with the name of the town. It will be seen that the legislature had provided boundaries and a name for the new county, but no county seat. Colonel Semple had evidently overlooked this point; or more probably he took it for granted that the county seat of Colusa County would, as a matter of course, be Colusa town. He was not to carry away the honor so easily, however.

The same legislature that defined the limits of the county passed a statute providing that counties in which a county government had not yet been organized might organize by petitioning the district judge, the state at the time being divided into judicial districts. The people living in the vicinity of Monroeville, headed by U.P. Monroe, got up a petition and presented it to Judge Bean, county judge of Butte County, instead of district judge, asking him to call an election for the purpose of electing officers and organizing Colusi County. The people of Monroeville were perhaps excusable for ignorance of the law or a superabundance of enthusiasm in the matter, but his Honor should have known his limitations. Nevertheless he called an election for January 10, 1851, for the purpose of electing "one County Judge, Clerk, Sher-

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iff, Assessor, Recorder, Treasurer, Surveyor, Coroner and County Attorney." The judge seems to have formulated his election proclamation on instructions from Monroeville; for he named U.P. Monroe as inspector of the election, and designated "Monroe's ranch" as the place at which it was to be held, naming no other election officials or polling places. Evidently, though, he intended that there should be other voting places ; for the proclamation says, "It is the duty of the first Inspector to carry the returns to Sterling's ranch by Wednesday, the 15th day of January, and with the Inspectors of the other polls held within the county, to canvass the returns of all the votes, and prepare certificates of election for the candidates having the highest number of votes within the county." Apparently the court of Butte County was not aware of the existence of Colusa, for no mention is made of it in the election proclamation, although it was a thriving city of one house and half a dozen people; but the records of disbursements of the county treasurer show that J.C. Hicks, the carpenter who built the one house in the city, received pay for services on the election board that day, as did also Robert N. Parkhill, a Colusa settler mentioned heretofore in these pages, which would tend to show that the citizens of Colusa had an opportunity to vote at this first election. Apparently they took little interest in it, however; for W.S. Green does not remember it at all, and Colonel Semple is not mentioned at all, in any connection. Under the circumstances, it is not a hard matter to forecast the result of the election. Monroeville carried the day and elected the only two officers who qualified. They were J.S. Holland, county judge, and U.P. Monroe, clerk and recorder, both of Monroeville. Naturally they preferred Monroeville as a county seat ; and without further ceremony they established the county government there. Colonel Semple, seeing that local events were working the defeat of his cherished ambition to have the county seat at Colusa, took another tack. He went before the legislature, which was in session at the time, and had the. act defining the boundaries of the county amended by adding the words, "the seat of justice shall be at the Town of Colusa." The next step in the controversy was the following petition, circulated in the early part of June, 1851, by the adherents of Monroeville :

"To the County Judge: The undersigned, electors of the County of Colusi, and State of California, being dissatisfied with the location of the seat of justice of this county, as fixed by the late Act of the Legislature, pray your honor for the removal, and that an election be held to determine to what place it shall be removed."

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The election, as above petitioned for, was held on July 11, 1851 ; and once again Monroeville was victorious. In spite of the act of the legislature, the county seat continued to remain there for nearly three years. At the general election in the fall of 1853 the county seat question was again voted upon, and this time the result was in Colusa's favor by three hundred ten votes to Monroeville's fifty-two. A short time later the records were removed to Colusa; and on June 6, 1854, a contract was let for a new courthouse at the new seat of justice, the contract price being three thousand dollars.

The best record to be found of the events connected with the organization of the new county is the report of Judge Ide, who was also county treasurer, to the state treasurer; and it is here given in full :
Monroeville, Colusi County,
State of California,
December 10, 1851.

Statement of the Treasurer of Colusi County to the State Treasurer:

On the 1st day of December, instant, the present Treasurer of Colusi County was appointed to the office by the Court of Sessions of said county, to supply and fill the vacancy of Gr. P. Swift, Treasurer, resigned October 21st ; bond filed 6th of December, instant, which was justified instead of being accepted by the County Judge, by reason that said Judge was personally interested, and the said Treasurer this day enters upon the discharge of the duties of said office, by complying as far as practicable with the requirements of Section 49, in the latter clause; and to guard against the penalty imposed by the fifty-second section of the Revenue Act. Owing to the peculiar circumstances in which this county has existed during the six months past, relative to services rendered by its officers, our officers (present) will be detained somewhat (if not in some essential cases wholly impeded) in the collection of the state and county tax for 1851. Only $93.07 has been collected and paid into the treasury. Of this $11.97 1/2 is for court house; $25.95 for county purposes; and $55.14 1/2 for State and State loan on interest tax. The tax list was delivered to the Sheriff, or to the Under-Sheriff, J.C. Huls, who, as near as I can learn from information derived from unofficial sources, has collected some $401.46, exclusive of his own fees, and has resigned without making payment thereof either to the treasury or to his principal, December 8th. December 10th H.P. Bemis was appointed Under-Sheriff, and is proceeding to give notices as the law directs, except as to time, and will, it is expected, make a vigorous effort to collect the said taxes, which
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amount in the aggregate to $5,147.25, of which $1,838.30 1/2 is for State purposes; $551.49 is interest on public State loan tax; $1,383,30 1/2 is for county purposes; and $918.15 for court house and jail. Further, there are 101 polls assessed at $3--$202 for State purposes, and $101 for county purposes. The State Comptroller has received the Auditor's duplicate, together with a very brief statement of some of the difficulties under which we labor.

Some of the principal taxpayers (or who should be tax-paying persons) positively refuse to pay any tax. There was collected by former Treasurer, G.P. Swift, some $600 or $700 of poll and other tax on personal property. Of this I cannot specify, as the said ex-Treasurer has not, as yet, although ordered so to do by the County Judge, delivered over the money and papers pertaining to the office of Treasurer of Colusi County. It is expected that most of the tax will be collected within thirty or forty days from this time, although it will be, and is probable that a considerable portion of our tax for this year will remain delinquent, from the fact that many persons have removed from the county, and some from the state. I am unwilling to trouble you with so long a communication, but it may be essential to the welfare of the interests of our county, in this manner and at this time, that I, their County Judge and Treasurer, at present should explain.

This county, as you probably know, was organized under an order obtained by the petition of its legal voters, of Judge Bean, of the adjoining Butte County -- election 10th of January, 1851. J.S. Holland was elected County Judge, and U.P. Monroe was elected Clerk and Recorder. The other officers elected either did not qualify or failed to give bonds according to law. At an election called and held on the 25th of February, other officers were elected ; of these, William G. Chard and Joseph C. Huls, the former Assessor and the latter County Surveyor, and John F. Willis, Sheriff, qualified and gave bonds, which were accepted by Judge Holland. The Court of Sessions was organized on the 8th of March, by the election of William B. Ide and Newell Hall to the office of Associate Justices, being the only Justices of the Peace qualified to vote at said election. Judge Holland was then quite unwell, and only able to superintend the said organization, which completed, he, being quite sick, left the newly elected Justices (a lawful quorum) to proceed in the county business. The said court divided the county into precincts, townships, road districts, etc., and ordered that the taxes for county purposes the year ensuing should be the highest rate allowed by law, which was then twenty-five cents to each $100, this county then not being in debt subsequent to the present year. Judge Holland lingered in an inconvalescent state and died on the 12th of April.
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An election was called on the 3rd of May, when John T. Hughes received a majority of the votes cast for County Judge. Newell Hall, Esq., removed from the township in which he was elected, and the office of Junior Associate Justice became vacant, and there was no other qualified Justice within the county except the Senior Associate. An election was called, and Justices called to supply vacancies. One Justice, viz., J.C. Huls, qualified and gave bonds ; and he became in due time a member of the Court of Sessions. Judge Hughes held one term of the Court of Sessions in Colusi only, and the only business brought before that session was the appointment of a road-viewing committee. On the second Monday of August, the Associate Justices met in accordance with the old law (Judge Hughes being absent from the county), when for the first time was presented William G. Chard's Assessor's list -- so indefinitely expressed that it was utterly impossible to equalize the said list, and the said Chard and his assistants were all absent from the county ; moreover, at this time we received the scattered fragments of the new Acts of legislation, by which we learned that since May 1st our acts were not in accordance with the supreme law of the land.

We had no longer any evidence, by the letter of the law, that we, the Associate Justices, constituted a legal quorum to do business ; that we are not lawfully, by any provision of the said new law, convened, not being called by order of the Judge for special term, nor yet convened in general term-time, and further, we are of the opinion that there existed on the 1st day of May, 1851, a vacancy in the office of County Judge of Colusi County. And having the Acts of the Legislature of California for our guide, we conclude that if a vacancy did exist on the said first day of May, it could only be filled by an appointment of the Governor. An opinion prevailed in the minds of said Court, that if an officer be illegal, all his acts, official, are illegal also; and if so, the Court has become disorganized by lack of a legal quorum. In conformity with this opinion, the Junior Justice refused to act, and the Court dissolved without adjournment. In this state the business of the county was suspended until the first Monday in October last, when, in accordance with the law, I, having been elected at the general election to the office of County Judge, and being duly sworn, convened three Justices of the Peace, being all the qualified Justices resident in said county, and organized again the Court of Sessions, which was engaged four days in the transaction of criminal business, when the Junior Associate was absent, and the other, after one day's further attendance, left also. A called session was ordered expressly for the purpose of hearing complaints and for the purpose of equalizing the assessment roll.
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and five notices were posted in the several precincts. On or about the first of October the Assessor returned to the county, and was ordered to go over his assessment again, or to appear and give such information as would enable the Court to equalize the list or assessment roll. On the 17th, one of the Associate Justices only appeared, and the vacancy could not be filled, and the Assessor being sick did not attend, nor did he procure and return to the Court any description of the personal property of the taxpayers, whereby the Court could be informed, in any wise, of the impartiality of the assessment, the amount of the personal property being given in the sum total, expressed by figures ; and it does not appear that any oath was required, or of what the amount of personal property consisted. The Court not being able to come to any decision on the subject of equalization of the assessment roll, the Court was adjourned to the 4th of November following. On the 3rd of November I repaired to the county seat for the purpose of holding the first County Court since the first organization, and having discovered on the 27th of October that the Probate Court had previously no record of its existence, I now discovered that the County Court and Court of Sessions were in the same condition, as also was the District Court, except such minutes as I myself, as a member of the Court of Sessions, had taken, and excepting the minutes signed by Judge Sherwood, of the District Court, Ninth District.

Thinking that these interests might suffer from such scattered condition of the only legal evidence of the existence of these Courts, I issued a special order to U.P. Monroe, County Clerk, ordering him to perform these several duties of the County Clerk himself, or to cause them to be duly performed by some one duly appointed and sworn as his deputy. And, there being no person willing to devote his whole time in keeping the office open, according as the law requires, at the county seat, and who was able to procure the requisite bonds, as I was bound in compliance with my official duties to be at the county seat to attend twenty-four distinct sessions of various courts per annum, and considering I should save 2,000 miles of travel, I rented out my rancho and accepted the service as Deputy County Clerk, and am become my own Clerk, in accordance with the old maxim, "If you would have a good servant and one you like, serve yourself." But to resume more particularly this long narration, of our county affairs in relation to taxes ; the said Court of Sessions, being on the 17th of October, adjourned to the 4th of November, and from the said 4th of November from day to day, until one of the Associate Justices was in attendance, at which time the equalization of the assessment roll was again attempted but again laid over to the
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regular term in December, first Monday, in consequence of the inability of the presiding Judge legally to act in deciding a question in which himself and children were interested. During the interim, the County Assessor, being recovered of his sickness, appeared at my office and made some explanations in the manner of the assessments, also some corrections, and signed his assessment roll, officially, which was not done before. November 24th I received an answer from the Comptroller of State to a statement I had made in relation to abstract of taxable property in Colusi. I came to the conclusion that I had better proceed at once to make the Auditor's tax lists, and have them ready to be accepted or rejected by the Court of Sessions at its December term. I did so and made up the books (duplicates) on a basis of equalization proposed and signed by the only Associate Justice hitherto in attendance. On the first day of the December term. Dr. H.P. Bemis being appointed Clerk for the term, I called up the deferred business of equalization, and it was passed by the vote of both Associate Justices, and was so entered by the Clerk on the minutes. The aforementioned tax duplicates were examined and an order issued for their delivery to the Sheriff and Treasurer, with the order and execution on the backs thereof, for collection, duly executed and signed by the Clerk and presiding Judge.

The above represents our true state in relation to the past ; what it will be, in future, a little time will tell; the taxed swear they will not pay, and threaten combination to prevent the sale of property.

I shall be pleased to receive any advice or direction in the matter and shall conform to the requisition of the law as far as practicable.

Your very obedient servant,
Wm. B. Ide,
Treasurer of Colusi County, Cal.

From the above it will be seen that for the first year of its existence the government of Colusa County was William B. Ide, County Judge, Treasurer and Deputy County Clerk, and unofficially performing such duties of the other offices as were performed. Judge Ide seems to have been the only official who took office-holding seriously, and to him must go whatever thanks are owing by posterity for the fact that the county got going as a county in 1851. Apparently he held himself personally responsible for the proper performance of all county official duties, and did many things that could not have been expected of one man, even in those unsettled and unorganized days. Among the unusual services he performed for the county was

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the construction of a cage, or iron cell, for the safe-keeping of prisoners. There was no county jail, and it was a problem with the court how to safeguard prisoners while the processes of law were being gone through with. The difficulty was solved by Judge Ide, who sent to San Francisco for some bar iron, and with his own hands cut the bars into proper lengths, drilled the holes, and constructed the "jail," which served its purpose admirably . While the county seat was at Monroeville, this "jail" remained out under a tree, where the whole town could take a hand in seeing that the prisoners did not escape; and when the seat of government was transferred to Colusa, the jail went along with it and was installed in the new courthouse, where it served its original purpose for a number of years. The "new courthouse" will be remembered by many people as the old house that stood just east of the Colusa Theater and was used by Judge J.B. Moore as a residence before he built the house he now lives in.

The court of sessions, mentioned by Judge Ide, was abolished many years ago. It was composed of the county judge and two associate justices chosen by the justices of the peace of the county from among their number. Its first sessions in this county were rather unsatisfactory, as will be noted from Judge Ide's report, and caused him a good deal of worry.

Although Judge Ide appears from the foregoing to have been the most prominent, and certainly the most painstaking, man connected with the organization of the county, Will S. Green, in his history of the county, intimates that Ide was under the control of U.P. Monroe; for he administers a neat slap to the Judge by saying that Monroe disappeared "after running the county government for some time."

By the end of 1852 county affairs were running quite smoothly, and ever since that time there has been no lack of men to fill the offices. As an evidence of the growth of population, it might be stated that the United States census gave the entire population of the county as one hundred fifteen in 1850; while in 1852 there were two hundred seventy-six men who paid poll tax, and of course a great many others who didn't. In the latter year a bill was presented in the state Senate providing for the division of the county into two counties, to be called Leco and Avena. The bill was referred to the proper committee, and the committee reported that there was not population enough for two counties, and county division was postponed for forty years.


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CHAPTER VII

Colusa County Politically

Colusa County was born in a warm time, politically. When the infant county first opened its eyes, it beheld a spirited "scrap" in progress over the location of the county seat -- a "scrap" that lasted for four years, and was finally settled when the county records and the county jail were brought from Monroeville to Colusa. Ever since those early days, moreover, the political pot has occasionally been the scene of violent ebullitions -- contests that have not at all indicated that the people are of a disputatious nature, but rather that they are alive and awake to political questions. It will be a sad day for the country when the people cease to take an active interest in politics, local and national.

For several years after the removal of the seat of government from Monroeville to Colusa, the political life of the new county flowed along smoothly. Men were too busy developing the land to take much time for politics. There was no newspaper to unite the people in a common bond of public sentiment. The county offices were not particularly desirable; and no local question arose to create especial interest.

But the slavery question, which was looming up more and more portentously each year in the East, was beginning to throw its shadow across California and Colusa County. The founders of the town of Colusa were Southern men, as were many of the early settlers. Naturally they wrote back to their friends and relatives of the beauties and advantages of the new country, and induced many of them to settle here. And the casual settler, looking over the state for a home, naturally chose the location where there was a nucleus of his own people. The result was, that when the great storm broke in 1861 this county had a preponderance of Southern people and Southern sentiment. This was partially offset by the fact that the state remained loyal to the Union, and that upon one or two occasions United States troops were sent here during the war to temper the enthusiasm for the South; so that it is fairly accurate to say that Northern and Southern sentiment were equally divided, or at least equally influential, during the unpleasantness.

Of course there could not help being some display of partisanship at a time when there was so much at stake on both sides ; but there were remarkably few scenes of violence during the entire period of the war. The Presidential election of 1864,

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between Lincoln and McClellan, was a fierce contest in this county, neither side leaving anything undone to insure victory. McClellan carried the county, of course, for this was then the "banner Democratic county of the state"; and it has borne that title ever since. It also used to be said that the "left wing of Pap Price's army had settled in Colusa County"--a saying that may be taken as an indication of the number of ex-Confederate soldiers who located in the county after the war. So the county came by its Democracy honestly enough, and has maintained it uninterruptedly from those days till this, although in recent years much more moderately than in the days immediately following the war. In some of the counties of the high-tariff, rock-ribbed protection state of Pennsylvania, it used to be said that you could hunt all day with a shotgun without finding enough Democrats to make a mess. A similar statement might have been made of the Republicans of Colusa County many years ago. Timid Republicans kept their politics under cover, lest their taking sides with the minority party might "hurt business." One Colusa business man told me that he lived in the town for seven years before anybody knew that he was a Republican. Today fierce partisanship is one of the things that were, and are not. The final chapter in its passing was written when the state legislature passed a law making county, school and judicial offices non-partisan. Where the newspapers used to record after each election that "The entire Democratic ticket was elected by a large majority," we now find the county offices filled by men from both parties; and there are probably dozens of people in the county who don't know what party the various officers belong to, and don't care. People and papers who once worked night and day "for the good of the party," now work equally hard, I hope, for the good of the country -- and the two jobs are sometimes vastly different.

In 1865 came the close of the Civil War and the abnormal conditions attending it, and shortly thereafter came the announcement of Lincoln's assassination. At this time, when there was every reason to begin to forget the old animosities, the flames of partisanship burst out more fiercely than they had ever done before in the county. Some of the more hot-headed of the Southern sympathizers announced that they intended to fire an "anvil salute" in celebration of Lincoln's death. The blacksmith shop and the anvil were located across Fifth Street from the Riverside Hotel; and the story goes that John H. Liening, proprietor of the hotel, a man of German birth but a rabid Union man, who is said to have feared neither man nor devil, took his Winchester rifle and, repairing to the upper balcony of the hotel,

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announced that he would shoot any man who tried to fire the anvil. No firing was done, but the matter did not end there. Someone reported to Captain Starr, commander of the troops stationed in Colusa, that certain citizens had been guilty of disloyal utterances ; and the result was that the commander had eight prominent men arrested and taken to the Federal military prison on Alcatraz Island, where they were confined at hard labor for about two months. Captain Starr, Mr. Liening, J.C. Treadway and H. Hadley were a few months later indicted by the grand jury for kidnapping, the jury holding them responsible for the arrest of the eight citizens. After one jury had disagreed in Liening's case, the second acquitted him, and after one disagreement in Treadway's case, the cases were all dismissed. After that the sectional feeling engendered by the war was allowed to slumber till it gradually died out. Today there is scarcely a trace of it left. To be sure, the old Confederate soldiers of the county formed "Camp Pap Price," of the United Confederate Veterans, and the old Union soldiers formed General John Miller Post, G.A.R. ; but the two organizations have, for many years, united in decorating the graves of their dead on Memorial Day. They will hold only a few more such reunions, however, for there are scarcely half a dozen members of both organizations left in the county. The annals of the Civil War will soon have been written, as far as its active participants are concerned.

The work of plotting out the counties of the state in 1850 was largely a matter of guesswork on the part of the legislature, inasmuch as the state had never been surveyed; moreover, there were large areas with almost no population, and there was no way of telling where the centers of population would be. Colusa County, as at first laid out, was almost a hundred miles long from north to south, extending from the present southern boundary of the county to a point north of Red Bluff. Two centers of population at once sprang up, one at the southern end of the county, and one about Red Bluff; and for the sake of convenience it was deemed wise to cut off a strip of territory thirty-six miles wide from the northern end and add it to Tehama County. This was done in 1855, and met with no objection.

In 1864 a bill passed the Assembly fixing the boundary between Lake and Colusa Counties east of Bear Valley, thus putting Bear Valley and the Stonyford country in Lake County. This arrangement met with fierce opposition from Colusa County people, and the bill was killed in the Senate. Two years later, in 1866, the Senate passed a bill adding to Butte County all the territory lying east of the river. A big remonstrance against

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this bill was circulated and signed, and it was also killed. Eternal vigilance seems to have been the price of territory, and there were times when even that failed.

After the completion of the railroad to Willows, in 1878, that village soon became a town -- some of her citizens thought -- with all the qualifications of a county seat except the county; and it was proposed to furnish that by dividing Colusa County. As early as 1882 the discussion had progressed so far that a public meeting was held at Orland to consider the matter; but the agitation was dropped at that time for want of support. The Willows people were anxious for a county of their own, however; and in January, 1887, a bill was introduced in the Assembly providing for county division. It passed the Assembly after a hot tight, but was defeated in the Senate by one vote. The next year county division was made the chief issue in the campaign for Assemblyman from this county; and the Democratic candidate, who was outspoken against division, was defeated by his Republican opponent, who put the soft pedal on the county division issue. In the matter of being downed, Banquo's ghost had nothing at all on the county division question. It simply would not be downed, much as the people of Colusa and the southern part of the county generally wished it to be. It rent the people of this county as no political question had ever done before or has ever done since. In 1889 it was up before the state legislature again ; and this time it passed both the Assembly and the Senate, but the Governor vetoed it. Senator John Boggs and Assemblyman J.C. Campbell, of this county, both opposed it; but their opposition was ineffective. Open and vigorous charges were made that money had been used to influence the legislature, and on the whole more ill feeling was engendered than was necessary in the settling of even so important a question.

Still the county division question would not down. In the election of 1890 it was the chief issue in the fight between J.C. Campbell and H.P. Eakle for the Assembly, a fight which resulted in the arrest of several Willows citizens for ballot-box stuffing. These cases were taken to Marysville to be tried, and occupied the attention of the courts there for some time; but as no convictions were secured, they were dismissed on June 17, 1892. The advocates of county division finally won out in the legislature; and on May 5, 1891, an election was held to determine the question. Division carried, and from that time on, Colusa County was twenty-eight miles shorter from north to south. The new county was called Glenn County, in honor of its largest landowner and leading citizen. Dr. H.J. Glenn. The

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town of Princeton and a large part of the ranch of Senator John Boggs were in Glenn County, as at first created; but Senator Boggs induced the legislature of 1893 to change the boundary line between the two counties so as to throw his ranch and the town into Colusa County. This ended the county division matter, and left Colusa County as it is today, as regards its boundaries.

Since the settlement of the county division question there has been no great contest of a political nature to divide the people into factions. To be sure, the liquor question has been ever present, with the anti-saloon forces gradually driving the liquor traffic to the wall; and the Progressive movement, in the years following 1910, badly disrupted the Republican party in this county as well as all over the nation; but such fluctuations in the political current of a self-governing people must be expected. In 1873 the Grange movement was at its height, and created considerable discussion in the county. In that year the People's Independent party put a county ticket into the field and succeeded in electing its candidates for sheriff, district attorney and treasurer. In 1879, this element of unrest, of protest against the existing order of things, called itself the Constitution party and put a ticket into the field. The Constitution party endorsed the Democratic nominee for Governor that year, Dr. H.J. Glenn, of Colusa County, which is as near as this county ever came to furnishing a Governor for the state.

The decade from 1880 to 1890 witnessed the rise and growth of the anti-Chinese sentiment in the state and county. Tens of thousands of Oriental laborers had been brought into the state to help build the railroads and to assist in other great enterprises. When the work for which they were imported was finished, they spread over the state and threatened to supplant white labor in nearly all lines. Colusa County had received her share of them, and the sentiment against them was growing very bitter. On the 5th of April, 1882, a great mass meeting was held at Colusa "for the encouragement of American and European immigration," and a little later the American and European Labor Association was formed. The association and its object were purely anti-Chinese; but instead of stating its object bluntly as "Down with the Chinese!" the association used more diplomatic language and said it was to "bring domestic help, hired girls, from the crowded cities of the East and secure employment for them as cooks and house servants," intending thus to relieve the county of its pestiferous and insolent Mongolian colony, who had now assumed to dictate the wages at which their countrymen should be employed. Branches of the anti-Chinese league were organized in all the towns of the county,

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and in 1888 the supervisors appointed six delegates to the anti-Chinese convention in Sacramento. After Congress had passed the Chinese exclusion bill, the antipathy to the Mongolians in this county subsided; and today the two races live together on the most friendly terms.

It has been intimated in the foregoing pages that the Democratic party was invariably successful at the polls, which is true as a general statement. But there were a number of notable exceptions to the rule. Prominent among these was the election of 1873, when the Independent People's party elected their candidates for sheriff, treasurer and district attorney; the election of 1890, when E.W. Jones, the Republican nominee, was elected county treasurer, although the rest of the ticket went Democratic by as high as 1182 votes; the election of 1892, when Ernest Weyand, Republican, was elected district attorney, and W.A. Vann was elected to the Assembly on the People's party ticket; and tinally, the election of 1914, when Hiram W. Johnson, great apostle of Progressiveism, beat the Democratic nominee for Governor, John B. Curtin, by a vote in this county of 1229 to 1208, and William Kent for Congress beat his Democratic opponent 1764 to 751. The great size of the vote is accounted for by the fact that women had been given the ballot, but the flop from rock-ribbed Democracy to Progressiveism can be accounted for only on the theory of a growing political intelligence of the electorate, one of the evidences of which was a breaking away from the old party-above-everything-else fetich, a fetich to which some of the earlier politicians of the county seem to have dedicated their lives -- at least their political lives.

Other exceptions to the general rule of Democratic success at the polls are found in the cases where a special requirement for the office limited the number of possible candidates, as in the case of J.D. McNary, who, as a Republican, has held the office of coroner and public administrator for nineteen years, and J.W. Kaerth and Charles de St. Maurice, who were repeatedly elected county surveyor on the Republican ticket. These exceptions were few and far between in the "good old Democratic days," but of recent years they have been more common. The Democratic majority was strong enough, however, to make a nomination by that party almost as good as an election, clear down to the day the non-partisan law went into effect. In this connection it is interesting to note that the Democrats of this county were so dissatisfied with Horace Greeley's nomination for president, in 1872, that the great editor's lead over General Grant in this county was only nine votes.

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Finally, we come to the liquor question as a political issue in the county. This question, while one of the most persistent ones that the voters of the county have had to deal with, has never aroused the bitterness that some other questions have, probably because it has never become a sectional issue. To be a first-class trouble breeder a political question must be of such a nature that the people of one community or section can take one side of it and the people of a different section the other. A question, both sides of which are upheld in the same community by people who must do business with each other, cannot long divide the people. And so the liquor question has been up in many a spirited campaign, but has left no permanent animosities. By successive steps the county has gone from very wet to almost totally dry; and the people have accepted the changes as they came, quickly forgetting what the old order was like.

In common with other parts of California, Colusa County started out on a "wide-open" basis. The license fee for saloons was so low as to be merely nominal, and little or no regulation was attempted. The saloon was the common meeting place, and therefore came to be more and more of a power in politics. For nearly twenty years after the organization of the county there was no organized opposition to the saloon. But in the late sixties lodges of the Good Templars, an anti-liquor order, began to spring up over the county; and in 1882 the County Central Committee of this order put a partial county ticket into the field. The candidates on this ticket were: Assemblyman, Warren Green; sheriff, John M. Pugh; assessor, W.J. Ford; county clerk, Julius Weyand; superintendent of schools, W.H. Reardon; coroner, Joseph M. Walkup; surveyor, A.T. Welton. They polled a good vote, but were defeated, of course.

One of the notable figures in the anti-liquor movement in this county has been J.D. McNary, who joined the Good Templars in Kentucky in May, 1867. Shortly after coming to California in 1877, Mr. McNary identified himself with the Good Templars here; and for forty years he has been a consistent and effective battler in the cause of sobriety. Two other leaders of the temperance forces in the early days were Peter Earp and Stewart Harris, both of whom did much to organize and keep alive the sentiment against the liquor traffic.

The first Good Templars lodge was organized in Colusa in 1868; and among the officers of this lodge were Col. J.F. Wilkins, father of Mrs. Richard Bayne, and O.S. Mason, father of O.R. Mason, of Colusa. By 1874 the temperance people were strong enough to call an election in the six townships which then comprised the county, namely, Colusa, Monroe, Grand Island, Fresh-

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water, Union and Spring Valley Townships; and all of them went dry except Colusa Township, which went wet by twenty-one votes, and Grand Island, which went wet by eight votes. But those that went dry didn't stay dry.

On February 14, 1892, a Union Temperance Sunday School was organized in Colusa for the study of the temperance question. The men at the head of this organization were J.D. McNary, Judge E.A. Bridgeford, and Charles B. Whiting; and it was influential in shaping public opinion.

On December 10, 1908, a county license ordinance was introduced before the board of supervisors by Supervisor J.F. Campbell, and seconded by Supervisor W.A. Vann. It provided for precinct option; that is, that the people might vote on the liquor question by precincts. On November 8, 1910, they did so vote; and Stonyford, Sites, Maxwell, Goads, Butte Creek, College City, Cooper, Cortina, Grand Island, Newland, Washington, and Williams No. 2 went dry, while Arbuckle, Fouts Springs, Freshwater, Leesville, Princeton, Sulphur Creek, Sycamore, Venado, and Williams No. 1 went wet. The legislature of 1911 passed the Wylie local option law, making the supervisoral district the unit on the liquor question; and on November 5, 1912, Colusa County, all but the incorporated town of Colusa, again voted, and every district went dry. Since then a number of votes have been taken in the various districts, but they have always gone drier than they did the first time. Several votes have also been taken in Colusa; but it has always gone wet, once by a majority as low as sixteen votes.
_______

CHAPTER VIII

Transportation


As the transportation facilities of a community are, so is the community. A community without water transportation, with inadequate facilities for railroad traffic, and with bad roads cannot hope to be prosperous and progressive in any great degree ; and the possession of these advantages goes a great way toward counteracting the lack of others.

Colusa County has for many years known the truth of the above principle, but it is only recently that she has acted upon her knowledge. For years she was content to be known as a "cow county," because the natural advantages of the country were sufficient to insure comfort and prosperity to those who had settled here, and they didn't care whether the county kept pace

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in growth and improvements with the rest of the state or not. Indeed many of them were so well satisfied with existing conditions that they were openly hostile to any change, or any measures that would bring in new settlers who might disturb the old order. Within the past decade, however, sentiment on the transportation question has undergone a great change. During that time an electric railroad giving excellent service has penetrated the county; a second electric road, part of which was actually built, was projected across the county from north to south; a branch steam railroad has been laid across the county along the river; forty miles of substantial concrete highway have been built; plans for seventy miles more are under way; and dozens of permanent concrete bridges have been built, some of them hundreds of feet in length. The next decade will witness a wonderful improvement in the road system of the county, and probably a considerable extension of its railroad facilities. The one department of transportation over which no change has come is steamboating ; and as it was the first one in operation, I shall take it up first, for I want to tell briefly of all the different modes of transportation in the county.

Steamer Transportation

When Colonel Semple located his town, he had visions, as I have said, of its becoming a great steamboat terminal and distributing point for the northern part of the state. The navigability of the river from Colusa to its mouth had been established, the northern mines were using immense quantities of supplies, and there were no roads or railroads. But there were many obstacles in the way.

While there was plenty of water in the river, there were more than plenty of snags, sandbars, and sharp turns, which proved disastrous to the early pilots, who, of course, were unfamiliar with the channel. The consequence was that it took a hard struggle to get a permanent and regular line of boats established to the new town. But Colonel Semple persisted and finally had the satisfaction of seeing Colusa and San Francisco connected with a dependable and satisfactory line of river transportation -- with cheap freight rates, too, which was a material factor in the upbuilding of the town and county.

As early as the spring of 1850 two small steamers had come up the river as far as Colusa, probably more for exploring purposes than anything else, for there was no town north of Sacramento with which they could trade. In July of 1850 the Colusa, Dr. Robert Semple's home-made boat, came up from Benicia,

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having as pilot Will S. Green, and as cargo the lumber and other material for the beginnings of Colusa City. The Colusa made only that one trip ; for upon her return she went to San Francisco, where she was tied up till she rotted at the wharf.

Two other boats were persuaded to make the trip up the river in the late summer of 1850. One of them went up to Chico Landing, where she struck a snag and sank. Her timbers were used to build a hotel at Mouroeville. The second boat was captained by James Yates ; but she was so slow that when near Grimes, on the way up, she ran out of provisions, and some of the crew had to walk to Colusa to renew the supply. This made five boats to Colusa or higher in 1850, but they made only one trip each.

The next boat to reach the town was the Martha Jane, which came up in the early spring of 1851. She was the first boat to make more than one trip. She made several, but also struck a snag and was wrecked. As the Martha Jane had made most of her trips with little or no freight, shippers not having learned to use the river. Colonel Semple was getting desperate. He started out to find a boat to make regular trips to Colusa, and to find cargoes for it. He found both. In August of 1851 he loaded a steamer called the Benicia with goods for a Shasta merchant, and started up from Sacramento, bound for Colusa, where the goods were to be transferred to wagons and hauled to Shasta. Near Knights Landing the Benicia struck a snag and went down. Colonel Semple and the owner of the goods hurried back to Sacramento to get a boat to take the cargo off and bring it on up to Colusa.

They got the Orient, which had just come out from Maine; and with her they established the first regular steamboat line to Colusa. She made many trips during the next three years, often going as far north as Red Bluff; and although she struck snags or stuck on sandbars several times, she made money for her owners and demonstrated the navigability of the upper Sacramento River.

After the Orient's success a great number of boats rushed into the Colusa trade; and as the same conditions existed on the San Joaquin and Feather Rivers, a number of the leading boat owners formed a combination or trust, which for many years controlled the steamer trade to Colusa. At first the boats ran regularly to Red Bluff; but when the railroad was completed up the east side of the valley in 1872, the boats quit going further than Chico Landing, except at time of high water or on other special occasions. When the railroad was completed through Colusa County in 1876, it took away most of the passenger traffic and some of the freight from the boats, and the steamboat company sold out to the railroad company.

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In 1860 the Sacramento Wood Company was formed for the purpose of supplying Sacramento and San Francisco with wood from up the river. It later became the Sacramento Transportation Company, and went into a general river transportation business against the railroad company's boats, with the result that the Sacramento Transportation Company absorbed the railroad company's business north of Sacramento, and for years was the only important boat line to operate into Colusa. Of course there was spasmodic competition; but none of it succeeded in gaining a foothold until 1901, when a number of ranchers and business men, chiefly from about Grimes, headed by J.M. Miller, organized the Farmers' Transportation Company and put on the steamer Valletta, a boat that differed from those of the Sacramento Transportation Company in that it towed no barges, but carried its cargo on its own decks, while the other boats were all towboats.

Since 1901, both the Sacramento Transportation Company and the Farmers' Transportation Company have run a line of boats regularly to Colusa from San Francisco and Sacramento, the former company having a twice-a-week service and the latter a weekly service for most of the time. About two years ago, each company put on a fine, new boat of larger capacity than any of the older boats, and for several months both companies ran a twiee-a-week service; but in the spring of 1917 they reached an agreement whereby they each took one boat off the service, and the Farmers' Transportation Company went back to a weekly service.

In the early days the boats carried passengers, and made lively competition for the stage lines ; but the advent of the railroad put an end to the passenger traffic of the boats. In 1873 the California-Pacific Railroad established a line of boats between Colusa and Knights Landing, connecting at the latter place with the recently completed railroad for Sacramento and San Francisco, and furnished a fairly rapid and satisfactory service; but when the Northern Railroad was completed through the county in 1876, this line became obsolete and passed out of existence. At present the only persons who travel as passengers on the boats are those occasional ones who want to see the river and spend a few days on the water.

In the days of the Orient the freight rates were one hundred dollars a ton between Sacramento and Red Bluff, and correspondingly high to Colusa. Today the rate to Colusa, on rough freight, such as coal or lumber, is twenty-three cents a hundred pounds from Sacramento, and twenty-nine cents from San Francisco. The highest rate, which applies to furniture and other bulky or easily

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damaged goods, is forty-six cents a hundred from Sacramento, and fifty-seven cents from San Francisco. This low rate modifies, of course, all freight rates in the county, and has been of inestimable benefit to the people in keeping down rates.

Railroads

In the year 1870, what is now the Southern Pacific Railroad was being built from Roseville up the east side of the Sacramento Valley toward Portland, Ore. It passed twenty-eight miles east of Colusa County; but some of the leading spirits of the county at once saw the possibility of securing railroad connections, and in that year a bill was introduced into the state Senate providing for the incorporation of the "Colusa, Marysville and Nevada Railroad Company," one of the provisions of the bill being that Colusa County was to put up ten thousand dollars in cash as soon as the road had entered its boundaries. This road was never built, because six years after it was promoted the county got a road from another direction.

It was in 1876 that this county saw its first iron horse. The Northern Railway, now the Southern Pacific, was building a line from Davis up the west side of the valley; and on May 15 of that year the rails were laid across the southern boundary line and the first locomotive entered the county. Ten days later the road reached Arbuckle, and that town held a celebration in honor of the event ; and on June 23, 1876, Williams held a celebration in honor of the completion of the road to that town. Williams was the terminus of the road till 1878, when it was continued to Willows.

The people of Colusa at once began to plan for a connection between their town and the new road. They had been offered the main line itself, on condition that they grant some concessions as a reimbursement to the railroad for building its line across the Trough; but some of the most influential of the town's people felt sure that the road would come through Colusa anyway, and so they refused to grant the concessions -- and the road kept on its way up the almost uninhabited plains west of the Trough, leaving Colusa isolated, and up against the problem of getting a rail connection with the new line. In 1876 a bill passed the Assembly authorizing Colusa to issue bonds for a railroad to connect the town with the Northern Railway; but nothing of practical value was done for ten years. In June, 1885, subscription papers were circulated in Colusa to raise money to build the connecting road. The business men of the town subscribed so liberally that the road was assured, and the subscribers met and elected E.A. Harring-

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ton, W.P. Harrington, E.W. Jones, J.B. Cooke, and W.D. Dean directors, and B.H. Burton treasurer. They also tendered a vote of thanks to E.A. Harrington for his work in promoting the road. There were one hundred fifty stockholders, with subscriptions aggregating $41,200; and on July 17, 1885, articles of incorporation of the Colusa Railroad Company were filed.

Work was started on the road at once. At first it was intended to connect with the Northern Railway at Williams; but the citizens of that town did not "come through" with the financial assistance the promoters of the road expected, and they determined to take it to a point due west of Colusa, where J.W. Potts had donated a tract of forty acres of land for a town site. The location of the road was partially determined by the fact that, a few years before, the town had built directly west a grade for a wagon road, which it donated to the new railroad, thus obviating the necessity of much grading.

On April 30, 1886, the first passenger train was run between Colusa and Colusa Junction; and Colusa County had her second railroad. The event was marked by a free excursion and a big celebration. On June 8, 1886, the name of the company was changed from Colusa Railroad Company to Colusa & Lake Railroad Company, and steps were taken to continue the road to Sites, which was accomplished on September 29 of that year.

The road was a narrow-gauge, and on November 30, 1885, a barge arrived in Colusa carrying the first locomotive for the service, and the first locomotive ever seen in Colusa. George Ogden, a native of the county, was the first engineer employed by the company. The first superintendent was E.A. Harrington, who served till his death and was succeeded, on December 1, 1903, by M.E. Burrows. Mr. Burrows served as superintendent till May 21, 1915, the day the road made its last freight run, passenger service having been discontinued on August 5, 1914. It had been operated for over twenty-nine years, and in all that time had missed only one run, and had never killed or seriously injured a passenger. The coming of the Northern Electric and the encroachments of the automobile finally took away so much of its traffic that it had to quit. It served its purpose well, but was never a paying enterprise financially ; for the company never paid a dividend, although the fare was eighty cents between Colusa and the Junction, a distance of less than ten miles.

The end of the nineteenth century witnessed a great development in interurban electric roads in California. Among the roads promoted about this time was the Northern Electric, connecting Sacramento, Marysville and Chico. In 1906 agents for the North-

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ern Electric came quietly into Colusa and bought a block or two of land for terminal purposes ; and as soon as this became known, there were many rumors of an immediate construction of the road. On December 3 of that year the main line was finished, and trains were started on a regular schedule from Chico and Oroville to Marysville; and it was announced that eighty per cent, of the road from Marysville to Sacramento was finished. On that same day, December 3, officials of the company appeared before the town trustees of Colusa and asked for a franchise for the road for the full length of Market Street. Three days later the franchise was granted, and there was a great deal of quiet excitement and elation in the town, manifested chiefly in a perceptible quickening of real estate values.

The excitement was certainly pardonable, for the Northern Electric wasn't the only road that had been flirting with the town that year. An electric road called the "Shasta Southern" had been promoted earlier in the year, and on March 19 had dug up Main Street, between Fifth and Sixth, and laid a couple of rails to hold a franchise. It had also laid some rails in Princeton for a similar purpose. The Shasta Southern was to connect Hamilton City with Colusa, Grimes, Woodland and the Bay ; and the Pacific Sugar Construction Company had guaranteed that it would be built at once as far as Colusa, provided that fifteen hundred acres of sugar beets were pledged between Colusa and Princeton. Its chief purpose was to supply the sugar factory at Hamilton City with beets. In December of 1906 it established offices in Colusa, and had a force of fourteen men running lines between Colusa and Princeton. With two electric lines knocking at the door, Colusa's excitement was only natural, especially as Southern Pacific representatives were looking over the ground with a view to running a road from the main line, in the vicinity of Arbuckle or Harrington, through Colusa and on up to Hamilton. On the last day of 1906, Northern Electric surveyors started running lines in town for their road; and four days later the Shasta Southern engineers reached the borders of the town with their line. Colusa considered itself a very busy railroad center just then; but not long after that rumors began to fly that, owing to inability to get rails and ties, the Shasta Southern would be delayed for a year -- and that was the last of the Shasta Southern.

On January 7, 1907, the Northern Electric applied to the trustees of Colusa for an exclusive franchise along the river front, and thus precipitated a discussion that crowded out all other topics for a time. The trustees didn't want to make the franchise exclusive, to the detriment of any other road that might come along ; but the Northern Electric insisted that it be exclusive, and many of the

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citizens feared that the road wouldn't come at all if its request were not granted. The following verses are part of a poem that was written by Mrs. R.M. Liening and published as part of the discussion :
"O Town Trustees! O City Dads!
This whole round world is full of fads,
And old Colus' hain't had her share;
Therefore we hope you'll do and dare,

"And give us these electric roads,
To run on down by Jimmy Goad's,
And way on out to everywhere.
O Town Trustees, do make a dare!

"Oh! do run down our streets them keers,
If every horse in town it skeers;
If one is now and then killed off,
You know there still will be enough.

"Oh, how we'll love to see'em go!
We've been so used to travelin' slow,
The people will come flockin' roun'
To see them keers come into town.

"I s'pose no woman'll wash a dish.
Or care much whether meat or fish
Gets fried a bit too much that day.
For every man will be away.

"The 'lectric will bring some things in
That we have hankered for like sin ;
And some things that we do not like
Will get a move on them and hike

"To other fields and pastures new.
We're sure we do not care. Do you?
I tell you it will just be grand
When City Dads take such a stand.

"Oh, don't you hear that big bell ring?
Oh, don't you hear them children sing?
Oh, don't you hear the big brass band!
Oh, can't you see the big glad hand!
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"'Tis stretched to you from East and West.
Of all the lands, we love this best,
Where we have lived for many a year.
Where we have many a friend, and dear,

"And where we know we sure will die.
O Town Trustees, again we cry,
Do let old Coins' have her share.
O City Dads, do make a dare!"

The town trustees finally granted the water front franchise, but did not make it exclusive ; and during the subsequent delay in the coming of the road they were subjected to much unfair and unjust criticism for not acceding to the wishes of the railroad people.

The first franchise granted the Northern Electric provided that work must be begun within ninety days. 'When the ninety days were up, no work had been done, and the railroad people appeared and asked for an extension of one hundred eighty days, which was granted. When this time had expired, they asked for ninety days more; and finally it was announced that there would be no road to Colusa in 1907, because the bridge couldn't be finished. Interest in the road then died out, and was not renewed till 1911, when the railroad people offered to spend $1,250,000 to bring the road from Marysville to Colusa if the people on the west side of the river would buy bonds to the amount of $200,000. In August of that year, J.F. Campbell and Robert D. Hunter were sent out to place the bonds with the people of Colusa County ; and although the response was anything but hearty, such progress was made that articles of incorporation of the Marysville-Colusa Branch of the Northern Electric Railway were filed on November 14, 1911. Just a week later, representatives of the company bought from J.W. Goad fifty acres of land adjoining Colusa on the east, thus giving the road easy access to the town with its right of way.

From that time on, progress on the new road was rapid. On January 3, 1912, the officials of the road and the county supervisors took up the matter of building a joint bridge across the river at Meridian, the expense to be borne in equal shares by the railroad company, Colusa County, and Sutter County. The details of the bridge were settled on January 11, and the contract was signed on February 4, by which the railroad company was to build the bridge for $240,000. The railroad tracks were to be in the middle of the bridge, and a wagon road on each side. The contract for the grading from Marysville to Colusa was let to Maney Brothers on

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March 13, 1912, and they at once sublet the different portions of it, Harlan Brothers, of Williams, getting the contract for that part of the road lying in Colusa County. The work of laying the tracks on the streets of Colusa began on December 9, 1912, and at once there arose an animated discussion among the people of the town as to whether the poles for the trolley wires should be in the middle of the street or along the curb. The original franchise had provided that they be in the middle of the street, but public sentiment had so changed that when they were finally set they were placed along the curb.

Work on the track and on the Meridian bridge proceeded rapidly; and on April 1, 1913, at 5:30 o'clock in the evening, the first car crossed the bridge into Colusa County. On May 14 the first train, a work train, came into Colusa, and just a week later the first carload of freight went out. It consisted of three transformers from the Pacific Gas & Electric Company's substation. On May 30 Colusa received its first carload of incoming freight, a carload of ice for the Union Ice Company. A two-day carnival celebration was held on June 13 and 14, 1913, to celebrate the advent of the road ; and the first passenger train into Colusa was. an excursion train to the carnival. It arrived on Friday, June 13, 1913, a fortuitous combination that may or may not be responsible for the fact that the road was, not long after, forced to suspend operations into Colusa for many months. Regular passenger service began on Monday, June 16, 1913, and consisted of nine trains each way daily. Colusa County then had her third railroad, and to the people it served it was extremely satisfactory. This satisfaction lasted, however, only a little over a year and a half; for on February 3, 1915, the worst floods in the history of the valley washed away a concrete pier and the west approach to the Meridian bridge, together with a mile of roadbed and track between Colusa and Meridian, the result being that traffic to Colusa over the Northern Electric was completely suspended till October 15, 1915. On that date it was resumed, however, and has been uninterrupted ever since. This break in the service of the Northern Electric was the most inconvenient interruption of traffic that Colusa had suffered since 1894, when a strike on the Southern Pacific had shut the county off from mail for two weeks.

The Northern Electric did not have the undivided attention of the public, by any means, during the time that it was building into Colusa County. At least two other roads, besides the Shasta Southern, were headed this way at that time. One was the Colusa & Hamilton, or "Beet Line," as it was called, and the other was the Sacramento Valley West Side Electric. They were both pro-

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moted in 1911, stimulated, no doubt, by the activities of the Northern Electric. A prerequisite for the beet road was a pledge that at least three thousand acres of sugar beets would be raised along its line in Colusa County ; and on January 31, 1911, representatives of the Sacramento Valley Sugar Company met with some of the leading Colusa County landowners and business men, to take steps to have the farmers pledge this acreage. The Southern Pacific officials had said that they would build from Hamilton to Colusa as soon as this acreage was pledged, and would probably build later to a point on the main line in the vicinity of Arbuckle. The result of the above-mentioned meeting was that in June the announcement was made that the road would be built as far as Colusa ; surveys for the line were begun in August ; and in October the announcement was made that the road would be continued through Colusa, Grimes, and College City, striking the main line at Harrington, and that it would be 60.5 miles long. With the beginning of 1912, work on the road was being actively pushed, five grading camps being established and in operation between Colusa and Princeton in February. But after grading and track-laying were finished, the road lay for many months unballasted, the reason given being that Orland gravel was to be used, and it could not be obtained conveniently till the Glenn condemnation suit was settled and the road was pushed through to its northern terminus. The first, and to date the last, passenger train came over the road to Colusa on August 10, 1913. It was a baseball excursion from Woodland, and had to run very slowly because the road had not been ballasted and was very rough. A regular freight service as far north as Princeton was put on September 1, 1914. The flood of February, 1915. washed out a great deal of the grade between College City and Grimes, between Grimes and Colusa, and between Colusa and Princeton, and for many months the road lay unused. In the summer of 1916, however, a twice-a-week freight service was resumed between Harrington and Princeton, and this summer (1917) it was increased to a daily service; but as yet no passenger service has been established, although there are occasional rumors that there will soon be a regular passenger schedule on Colusa County's fourth railroad.

The freight service was really put on before the road was ready for it, the idea being to give the farmers along the route a chance to market their grain. The rates fixed on grain to Port Costa were: From Grimes, $2.00 per ton: points from Grimes to and including Colusa, $2.25 per ton ; points to and including Princeton, $2.50 per ton; points north of Princeton, $2.75 per ton.

86 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES

The West Side Electric, whose lines have yet to be built into the county, had its beginnings, so far as Colusa County is concerned, in a meeting held at Willows on March 27, 1911, at which Charles L. Donohoe explained that for $1,000,000 an electric road could be built down the west side of the valley from Redding to Woodland, and that each of the counties interested should raise $5,000 by voluntary subscription for preliminary work upon the road. J.F. Campbell J.H. Balsdon, J.W. Forgeus, and J.M. Stovall were appointed at the meeting as a committee to raise the preliminary expense fund ; and they were given power to add to the committee a member from Arbuckle. The $5,000 was raised and the surveys were made, and about eleven miles of the road were actually built between Dixon and a point on the Oakland, Antioch & Eastern; but the road got into financial difficulties and never reached Colusa County. It was to have crossed the county from north to south, keeping west of Arbuckle, Williams and Maxwell.

The West Side Electric wasn't the only road that almost reached the county. All of his life that king of boosters, W.S. Green, had been advocating a railroad connecting Colusa and Chico ; and on March 17, 1875, he and Col. L.F. Moulton began the survey for such a road. After running the lines, they were more enthusiastic than ever; but capital was shy, and the scheme had to be abandoned for the time being. In 1900, however, when the electric power line was being built across the country into Colusa, these men tried to interest the power company in an electric road, but to no avail; and so the road was never built. So much for the railroads of the county.

Highways

We now come to the highways as a means of transportation. The highway system of Colusa County had its beginning in 1851, when Will S. Green dragged a brush across the plains to mark out a road over which to haul lumber from Dogtown, now Magalia, to Colusa. That road, of course, never became a permanent one, nor did any of the early roads on the plains ; for when the county was laid off into townships and sections, the roads were made to follow the section lines, as a usual thing, a practice that is responsible for many miles of extra travel. Of the early roads there is little to say. They were of dirt, very dusty in the summer and absolutely bottomless in the winter. On many of them no attempt was made to travel during the worst part of the season; yet it must be said that the people as a whole made no great

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efforts to improve them, despite the constant agitation of the matter by Mr. Green and others. Then came the era of gravel roads, an era that is not yet passed, although the dawn of the concrete era seems to be at hand.

Away back in the early days the practice of hauling gravel upon the roads began; and although they were of a more or less temporary character, it was not a bad practice. In 1868 a bond issue of $50,000 was voted for roads and bridges, the roads made being all of gravel. There have been, and are, in Colusa County, some very fine roads made of gravel ; but the quality of the roads could have been very materially improved if care had been taken to use only coarse, screened gravel. The chief trouble with the gravel roads of this county, however, was that most of the gravel was sand, and the surface did not hold up during the wet season. As a result, the roads were sometimes fearful to contemplate. No historian will ever be able to tell the trouble, labor, isolation, expense and general dreariness that have been caused by bad roads in this county, although this county is no worse in that regard than the average.

About fifteen years ago the oiled-roads fad was on, and Colusa tried the then popular method of road-building, notably on the road leading from Colusa to Princeton. But time proved that oiled roads would not stand the heat of summer in this climate, and neither would they hold up through wet weather; so the road between Colusa and Princeton has since been graveled. About ten years ago some rather expensive machinery was bought, and a half mile of experimental macadamized road was built west of Williams; but it was so expensive that the machinery was laid away, and no more road was built.

It was in 1910 that modern road-building got its first boost, and it is chiefly of that period that this chapter is to tell. In 1910, and the years following, a great awakening or regeneration swept over California, a wave of moral and political reform that reached clear down to road-building. I do not want to deprive the automobile of its just share in bringing about better roads. It was undoubtedly an important factor; but the most important, it seems to me, was the spirit of improvement that swept over the people and resulted in the issue of $18,000,000 worth of bonds for concrete highways throughout the state. Colusa County people can't take any great amount of credit for the bond issue, because on February 8, 1910, they voted on an issue by the county of $600,000 worth of bonds for good roads, and it was defeated by a heavy majority. Nevertheless, when the state made first-class roads available, the people of this county took steps at once to

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set their share, even though it cost thousands of dollars. As soon as it was announced that one line of the state highway was to go up the Sacramento Valley, the people of Princeton, headed by W.A. Yerxa, inaugurated a movement to have it go up the river and through Princeton; and on February 2, 1912, they met with members of the Colusa County Chamber of Commerce to further their plans. The state authorities decided, however, to have the highway go up along the Southern Pacific main line; and Princeton is yet without a highway, although in high hopes of one soon.

The state fixed the interest on the highway bonds at four per cent.; but when the time came to market the bonds, it was found that investors would not take them at less than five per cent. The state therefore issued notice that the counties which wanted highway would have to make up the difference between four and five per cent, on the amount of money that was to be spent in the county. On January 19, 1914, the citizens of Colusa County held a mass meeting at Williams to consider the matter of making up this difference of one per cent, on the bonds that were to be used in building that part of the state highway which ran through this county. On March 7 another meeting was held in Colusa, where several other bonding propositions were discussed, and the result was that on March 17, 1914, the voters of the county carried a bond issue of $452,000, to be used for the following purposes: For a new Hall of Records, $60,000; for interest on the highway bonds, rights of way for the highway, and bridges and culverts, $290,000; for Colusa County's half of the cost of the Princeton river bridge, $57,000; for Colusa County's half of the Grimes river bridge, $45,000. That was a great day for the good-roads movement in Colusa County. The state highway officials promptly got the work under way, and before the year was out the county had several miles of concrete highway. The most important piece of highway to be built in the county, in the estimation of many people, was the lateral from Williams to Colusa; and as the preparations for this seemed to be lagging, a meeting was held in Colusa on July 15, and Dr. F.Z. Pirkey, L.L. Hicok, J.C. Mogk, J.H. Balsdon, and M.J. Boggs were appointed a committee to see the highway commission at Sacramento and, if possible, have the lateral built at once. A week later a delegation of about fifty citizens of the county went to Sacramento to urge that the Colusa-Williams lateral be built without delay. The highway commission promised to do all it could in the matter; but it was 1915 before the work on the lateral was started, and 1916 before it was finished. In the meantime the

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main line had been completed throngh the county from north to south; so that, early in 1916, Colusa, Arbuckle, Williams and Maxwell were all connected by concrete highway -- the beginning, it is earnestly hoped, of a system that will unite all sections of the county. Plans for an extension of the system, to connect Princeton, Grimes, and all the towns of the county, are even now under way.

During the years 1914, 1915 and 1916, many of the wooden bridges of the county were replaced with modern concrete structures, the largest and most important of these being the bridges across the Trough on the Colusa-Maxwell, Colusa-Williams, and Grimes-Arbuckle roads.

Stage Lines

We have seen that the founders of Colusa intended that it should be a steamboat terminus and distributing point for Northern California, and that for a few years after they got a line of boats running regularly their hopes were realized and a great deal of merchandise passed through the town. Naturally, as the surrounding country became populated, stage lines were established for the carrying of mail and passengers. Baxter & Company operated the first and leading stage line out of Colusa, but a man named Johnson soon put on an opposition line. They ran from Colusa to Shasta, and made the trip in one day. The rivalry between them was fierce, and very hard on horse flesh; but the speed they made soon diverted most of the travel to and from the northern mines from the Marysville to the Colusa route. In 1869 a tri-weekly express service was put on between Colusa and Princeton, and that year also an opposition stage line was put on between Colusa and Marysville, with the result that the fare was reduced to two dollars. In November of 1872 the Marysville stages reduced the fare to twenty-five cents; and the daily trips became horse races, so fierce was the competition. On February 12, 1873, B.C. Epperson succeeded in having his Bartlett Springs & Bear Valley Toll Road Company organized ; and the same year a stage line was put on between Colusa and Bartlett and Allen Springs. This line carried six hundred passengers that first season. The next year another line or two began business, and over two thousand passengers were hauled. On August 7, 1874, a stage line from Colusa to Chico was started; and on September 23 of that year a line was established between Colusa and Wilbur Springs. Altogether, in 1874 there were nine stage lines running out of Colusa. In 1876 a line was established between Leesville and Fouts Springs; and the next year a tri-weekly service was

90 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES

put on between Colusa and Willows, via Princeton. The coming of the railroad in 1876 did away, of course, with the stages between Colusa and the mountains ; but communication is still maintained between Williams and the various springs resorts, the auto stage having taken the place of the old horse stage. The coming of the Northern Electric killed the stage line to Marysville; but there are still three stage lines out of Colusa, all of them auto stages. One of them runs to Chico via Princeton; another runs to Arbuckle via Grimes, Grand Island, and College City ; and the most important one connects Colusa with the Southern Pacific at Williams. All of these will probably pass out of existence when a regular passenger service is established on the Colusa & Hamilton Railroad.

The Automobile

Let me close this chapter on transportation with a brief history of the automobile in Colusa County; for the auto is having a decided effect on the history of the county. The first horseless vehicle, outside of the wheelbarrow, ever seen in the county was a velocipede, which arrived in Colusa on March 13, 1869, and drew great crowds of spectators. William Ogden brought the first steam "traction wagon" to the county on May 25, 1872. But the first real automobile ever seen in the county, and the fifth machine in the state, belonged to Dr. W.T. Rathbun, although we would hardly call it a real automobile today. It was a little steam Locomobile, of the type later referred to as a "road louse," but it was considered a wonderful machine in its day. That was in 1898. Dr. Rathbun then lived in College City, and his first trip to Colusa in his new machine was made on a visit to the county fair, which was being held here. As he and Dr. Gray drove into the fair grounds, the people lost all interest in the races and the rest of the fair, and crowded around to have a look at the "horseless carriage," the first one most of them had ever seen. In order that the crowd might see it perform, the management of the fair had Dr. Rathbun drive it around the track a few times ; and this proved to be the great feature of the fair.

M.C. Dillman, now of Grimes, but in those days running a machine shop in Colusa, claims the honor of having the first gasoline car in the county. Not long after Dr. Rathbun's steamer appeared, Mr. Dillman got an Oldsmobile, a four-horse-power machine of one cylinder. It was also the object of much inspection and many remarks.

Just who got the next machine I have been unable to learn definitely. About that time Frank Wulff built a car, and also got

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a Rambler from the factory; and George Showier and several others got cars. In 1900, Will S. Green, having carefully investigated Dr. Rathbun's machine, got one just like it for the use of the Colusa Sun. It was a four-horse-power steam Locomobile, and W.K. DeJarnatt received it at Sacramento and drove it home. It made the trip of seventy-five miles in five hours, fifteen miles an hour, and so pleased the owner that he gave it nearly a half-column write-up in the Sun. A modern machine would have reached Colusa about the time the Sun's Locomobile reached Woodland, but fifteen miles an hour was so much better than horses could do that the elation of the editor was entirely natural and pardonable.

Automobiles came very rapidly in this county as elsewhere, once they were introduced; and in 1905 there were twenty-seven machines in the county. In 1906 there were thirty machines in Colusa and its immediate vicinity, and after that the number increased so rapidly that they could not be kept track of. Today Colusa County has a larger number of automobiles in proportion to its population than any other county in the state, the total number being in the neighborhood of seven hundred -- seven hundred twenty-eight, to be exact.

An interesting feature of the development of the use of autos in this county was the reluctance displayed in accepting the Ford. Arbuckle was the pioneer in the discovery of the Ford. In 1912, when Frank L. Crayton took the agency for the Ford in Colusa, there were only two ears of that make in the town. Several traveling representatives had been here and tried to establish an agency, but without success, although at the time, in other parts of the state, about half the cars sold were Fords. Finally the people of the county began to discover that the Ford was in a class by itself, but this county still has a greater proportion of the higher-priced cars than any other place I have visited.

The first auto hearse was brought to the county on June 24, 1914, by J.D. McNary; and today one seldom sees a horse-drawn funeral procession.

Within the past two or three years auto trucks have very largely supplanted teams for hauling on the roads, especially long-distance hauling. Cooks water and Bartlett water are now hauled by auto truck instead of the great ten- and twelve-mule freight teams, with their two or three wagons and jingling bells. Ninety per cent, of the rice crop, and a great deal of the barley crop, are hauled to the warehouses by auto trucks. The big machines have entirely supplanted teams for hauling between towns, as when a family moves from one town to another; and as tractors

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are very generally supplanting horse power in fanning operations, the long-looked-for holiday of the horse seems to have about arrived. We are fast passing into the age of gasoline, as far as local transportation is concerned. The change has brought many advantages ; so let it he complete!

The Aeroplane

The hum of the aeroplane is as yet little known in this county. A number of exhibition flights have been planned; but for some reason or other they have all fallen through, with the exception of the one at the Grimes Odd Fellows' picnic in 1917. The aviator in that case unloaded his machine at Arbuckle, flew to Grimes, gave an exhibition, and flew back to Arbuckle to take the train.
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CHAPTER IX

Irrigation and Reclamation

Nobody knows just when a householder in Colusa County first took a shovel and threw up a few shovelfuls of earth to keep the water from his front door or out of his corrals ; neither does anybody know just when the first bucketful of water was put around a cabbage plant or rose bush. So this chapter will not attempt to tell of the many private plans of individuals who have tried irrigation and reclamation on a small scale in this county, but will deal with the organized efforts of considerable magnitude.

District 67

To begin with reclamation, the first reclamation district in the county was composed of what is known as "Mormon Basin," the land between, Sycamore and Dry Sloughs. Dry Slough branches off from Sycamore Slough near where Sycamore Slough branches off from the river, somewhat in the shape of a wishbone ; and as each slough had, in ages past, built itself up upon a broad, flat levee, the land between them was by nature fairly well protected, except at the lower end, where the sloughs empty into the "Lower Basin." In 1867, the owners of the land in Mormon Basin, seeing that the water could be kept off their land at comparatively little expense, combined and formed a reclamation district which was called District 67. The chief work that they had to do was to build a levee across the south end of the district, between the two sloughs, which they did ; and although this levee has broken on several occasions, the land in Mormon Basin has been comparatively free from flood troubles. After a few years. District 67 lapsed ; but it was later renewed as District 479, which is alive and

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active today. The present trustees of the district are J.H. Balsdon, president; F.W. Schutz, secretary; and J.J. Morris. Some of the best land in the county is in this district.

District 108

The greatest reclamation district in the county, although it is not entirely within the county, is District 108. It is also one of the greatest reclamation districts in the state, or in any state. It was formed in 1870, and as first organized embraced the land between the Sacramento River and the Trough from a point near Grimes southward to Knights Landing. About ten miles south of the northern boundary of the district a point of high land, called Howell Point, runs out from the river toward the Trough. In 1902 it was thought advisable to divide District 108 at Howell Point, forming the southern part into a new district called District 729. In 1911, District 108 was reorganized, taking in District 729 again, with the exception of the Great Fair Ranch near Knights Landing, which in the meantime had been formed into a district of its own. The original district contained a little over seventy-four thousand acres; the district as reorganized in 1911 contained about fifty thousand acres. Since then some additions have been made to it, so that it now contains about fifty-five thousand acres. The first trustees of the district were A.H. Rose, Charles F. Reed, and L.A. Garnett. Mr. Reed superintended the work of the district till 1879, when Robert Cosner took his place, which he held for many years.

Apparently the original intention of the organizers of the district was to gain protection from the river only; they built a levee along the river from Knights Landing to Sycamore Slough, paying little or no attention to the back water. For the first ten years the district was greatly troubled by breaks in the river levee or by back water, and in 1879 a party of men from Sutter County crossed the river and cut the levee at the mouth of Wilkins Slough, claiming that to dam the slough threw the water over on their lands. The levee was quickly repaired; and two weeks after the act was committed twenty-seven men were arrested for it and bound over for trial. The history of the district from that time to 1910 was one of alternating good and bad years. When the levees held, the lands produced a wonderful crop. When they didn't hold, which was about every other year, the crop was drowned out, and the landowners went down into their pockets for another assessment. The total sum spent in reclaiming District 108 now amounts to millions.

In 1910 plans were made for an enlargement and reorganization of the district, and for extensive protection works. Charles de

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St. Maurice was the engineer in charge, and the business management of the enterprise was in the hands of Jesse Poundstone, whose name, for many years past, has been synonymous with the name of District 108. One of the chief things planned was an immense back levee, twenty-eight miles long, two hundred feet wide at the base, twenty feet wide on the crown, and twenty-two feet high. Night and day for nearly three years, beginning in 1912, from two to five monster dredgers worked on this levee, some of the dredgers, the Monterey and the Argyle, having booms one hundred eighty-five feet long and buckets weighing ten tons. It was also planned to have this levee faced with concrete, but that has not yet been done.

Another important feature of the work done on the district at this time was the pumping plant at Rough and Ready Bend. This plant consists of five fifty-inch pumps, and was at that time the largest in the world. It is capable of throwing one million five hundred thousand gallons a minute when all of its five three-hundred-horse-power motors are going. The district already had at Howell Point a pumping plant consisting of one forty-inch and one thirty-six-inch pump, the former driven by a three-hundred-horse-power electric motor and the latter driven by steam. These pumps are so arranged that in a dry year water can be pumped or siphoned backwards through them, and be distributed over the district by a system of canals that diverge from the pumps. The yield of barley has been greatly increased in this way.

The improvements of 1911 and the years following cost over a million dollars. Some of the individual landowners in the district put up ten thousand dollars a month for six months at a stretch to keep the work going. Now they have an empire worth many millions, and producing each year as much as it cost. The present trustees are Jesse Poundstone, J.H. Balsdon, and J.W. Browning.

District 124

The year following the organization of District 108, District 124 was organized. That was in 1871. It embraced fourteen thousand acres north of Sycamore Slough, in what is known as the "Upper Basin." It included what is now known as the Davis tule. The first trustees were E.A. Harris, Moses Stinchfield, and A.H. Rose. They leveed the river from Sycamore Slough to the mouth of Powell Slough. In 1880 A.H. Rose, T.C. King, and Howell Davis were elected trustees. Some years later the district and it is now a thing of the past.

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Other Projects

One of the most active advocates of irrigation and reclamation in the early days was Colonel L.F. Moulton, who owned most of what is now Colusa County east of the river. His ranch comprised twenty-two thousand acres, most of it overflow land, and he spent several princely fortunes on levees, ditches, and other more or less experimental work. His land lay between Butte Creek and the river, and overflowed very readily ; and when District 70 built its levees to the south of him, forcing the flood waters to pass to the east and go down Butte Slough between the district and the Buttes, Colonel Moulton's troubles were multiplied. But the final and worst blow came when J.W. Parks, a large landowner in the Sutter Basin, built a levee or dam across the slough from District 70 to the Buttes. Mr. Parks' intention was to stop the flow of the water through Butte Slough, force it to go back into the river at the mouth of the slough, and thus protect his lands below the dam. The effect of the dam was to put Colonel Moulton and his east side neighbors on the bottom of a great artificial lake. The result of all these circumstances was a stormy career for the dam while it lasted. Meetings of protest were held, resolutions against it were passed, the legislature was invoked, the dam was washed out by floods several times, and on several occasions it was surreptitiously cut at periods of high water. It was first built in 1871, and in 1876 Colonel Moulton secured from the state supreme court an injunction restraining Mr. Parks from maintaining the dam.

In 1905 the Crocker Estate Company, a party of San Francisco capitalists, bought most of the Moulton ranch. They at once put three hundred men and one thousand head of stock to building a great levee around that part of the ranch just south of the Moulton "break." The waves from the back water washed much of the new levee away the following winter, and no good was ever gotten from it, although it had cost over one hundred thousand dollars.

In 1913, following an act of the state legislature, the Sacramento and San Joaquin Drainage District was promulgated. It was a comprehensive scheme for draining the flood waters from the entire Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, one of the features of the scheme being a great drainage canal to follow the Trough down through the Colusa and Yolo Basins to the Bay, a plan that had been dreamed and talked of for years by reclamationists. Another feature of the scheme was a similar canal beginning at the Moulton break, about twelve miles above Colusa on the east side, and following the low land of the east side down to the Feather River. The preliminary work on this latter canal has been authorized, the cost to be fifteen million dollars. The

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lands of the entire district, reaching as far north as Chico, were to be assessed to pay the cost of these canals and the other works necessary for the district ; and at once a number of landowners of Colusa County, especially the northern part of it, protested against having to pay for draining the swamp lands farther down the valley. A meeting was held in Colusa on March 19, 1913, to organize the opposition; and the result was that the original plan of the district was modified, and lands that could not be benefited by the district were left out of it.

In 1915 the Sacramento Valley West Side Levee District was created by the legislature, its object being to form the west side of the valley, from the river on the east to the Trough on the west, and from Colusa on the north to Knights Landing on the south, into a great protection district which should have charge of and keep up the levee on the west side of the river from Knights Landing to Colusa. At first it was provided that all lands in this district should be assessed alike ; but this aroused so much opposition from those whose lands would receive little or no benefit from the district, that a new plan of assessment had to be adopted, namely, that of assessing the lands in proportion to benefits received. This district includes District 108, and will hereafter have charge of the river levee of the latter district.

If this chapter were to include all the reclamation plans and projects that have been promulgated but have never materialized, it would fill the entire book. One of these projects, however, is of sufficient importance to Colusa County to deserve mention here. I refer to the Iron Canyon Project, which is a scheme, partially fostered by the state and the United States government, to dam the Sacramento River at Iron Canyon, seven miles above Red Bluff, collect the flood waters during the rainy season in an immense reservoir there, and allow them to escape gradually into the channel or into irrigating canals in the summer. This scheme, if it works, will keep the river from getting too high in winter and too low in summer, two consummations devoutly to be wished. So much for reclamation, which I have taken up ahead of irrigation because the people of the county did the same.

Irrigation

This is not a personal history of Will S. Green; but he was so intimately connected with many of the early affairs of the county, that one cannot investigate them far without encountering his influence. Irrigation was the great hobby of Will S. Green. As long as the breath of life was in him he talked irrigation, wrote irrigation, urged irrigation, and worked for irrigation. He hoped to see every level acre in the county under irrigation; but such is

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the irony of fate that, when he was called to his reward in 1905, only a few acres had heen irrigated, while, in the twelve years since, thousands upon thousands of acres have been brought under water. The project to which Mr. Green devoted much of his time, for many years, was the Central Irrigation District, by far the most important attempt at irrigation made in this county, and one of the most important ever made anywhere.

In 1864, Mr. Green made an examination of the river with a view to locating the intake of a canal that would irrigate the great plains of Colusa County. He was convinced that such a canal was feasible; and, securing the services of a competent engineer, he ran lines and established a route for a canal through Colusa and Yolo Counties. But by the time the canal was fully laid out, it had developed into a great shipping canal one hundred feet wide at the bottom, which would cost twelve million dollars to complete ; so it was dropped, although the legislature in 1866 appropriated eight thousand dollars to pay the expenses of the survey.

Mr. Green was undaunted by this first failure, and kept talking irrigation for twenty years more. In 1883, he met at Willows with H.B. Julian, N.D. Rideout, and John Boggs, to see what could be done with the waters of Stony Creek. They found that there was water enough in that stream to irrigate nearly the whole Sacramento Valley, and a corporation was formed and the money raised to develop the project ; but the opposition of men who already had riparian rights in the stream defeated the enterprise. This second failure had no chilling effect on Mr. Green's enthusiasm, for he was a natural-born booster and promoter.

Up to this time all irrigation had been done by "riparian owners" or "appropriators," who secured the right to take a certain amount of water from a stream at a certain point, and then sold it or distributed it over the land. Mr. Green had been advocating the district plan as against the plan of appropriators, and at the Fresno Irrigation Congress he succeeded in getting a committee appointed to go before the state legislature and advocate a law providing for the formation of irrigation districts. The committee was not successful in having such a law passed; but the next legislature, the session of 1887, passed what was known as the Wright Act, which gave farming communities the right to form a district with powers similar to those of a municipality. The Wright Act was approved March 7, 1887, and Central District was the fourth district to organize under it. The following history of the district, written by Frank Adams, Irrigation Manager for the United States Department of Agriculture, and published as part of a bulletin, "Irrigation Districts of California," by the State

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Department of Engineering, is so brief and clear that it is here given in full :
"The district was organized November 22, 1887. Entirely feasible physically, it was still a disastrous failure because of the legal and financial troubles that beset all of the districts in the early nineties, but most of all because the forced irrigation of the great holdings included, averaging 870 acres for the entire district, and with forty owners holding an average of 2,225 acres each, could not possibly succeed under settlement conditions existing then or even now.

"The petition for the formation of Central Irrigation District was signed by sixty-four (supposed) freeholders, and was accompanied by the objections of nine non-resident landowners whose attitude in a way seems now to have forecasted the failure of the undertaking. Still engaged in the 'bonanza' grain-growing of the earlier and more remunerative period, when both yields and prices were higher, they conjured up visions of ruin with the bringing in of irrigation water. Irrigation would be bad for fruit, they said. It would even produce chills and would be a detriment to alkali lands. And besides, the irrigation of wheat and barley was not a success, anyway. All of the lands included, they averred, were not irrigable from the same source ; the boundaries of the district were improperly described ; and the Wright Act was unconstitutional. Further, these objectors intended in the near future to include their lands in an irrigation district of their own, which would include their residences, so that they would have a voice in the proceedings. When election time came, the opposition mustered only 51 votes out of 322, and organization prevailed.

"Unlike many of the Wright districts. Central Irrigation District started with a relatively complete engineering outline. The estimated cost was $638,900 ; and to meet this cost a bond issue of $750,000 was authorized by a vote of 189 to 36. In 1891 the estimated cost was raised by the consulting engineer to $940,364, and an additional bond issue of $250,000 recommended. The justification for this increase was said to be in the omission of allowances for organization, rights of way, and litigation in connection with construction, the three items amounting to $181,000 ; in an increase in the cost of excavation from 8.5 and 8.75 cents per cubic yard under the first contracts to 13.5 and 15.5 cents in 1891 ; and in unexpected and excessive costs of rights of way, in one case reaching as high as $212 per acre, with the usual rates $50 to $70 per acre. Bonds to the amount of $150,000 are said to have been sold for cash, and for a time the district had ample funds with which to meet contract installments. The market for bonds, however, soon became sluggish, and there were no buyers. Therefore, outside of
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small blocks given for engineering and legal services, rights of way, and preliminary purposes, the balance of the issue was mainly turned over to the superintendent of construction by nominal sale, and by him disposed of to contractors on the best terms he could get. In these various ways a total of about $570,000 of the bonds were put out. While the method of financing construction that was adopted carried the work forward for a few years, the time came when contractors would no longer accept the bonds, and in order to bolster up the market a special report on the project was made in 1891 by a consulting engineer of wide reputation, who was then largely engaged in reporting favorably on California irrigation districts. The district still remained, however, in financial distress, the opposition continuing their fight against it. In October, 1893, in order to clear up legal uncertainties and thus to stimulate bond sales, the district board brought confirmation proceedings under the then recently enacted statute permitting such proceedings. The superior court granted the confirmation sought by the directors ; but the old opposition, now ninety-one strong, appealed to the supreme court and finally succeeded in obtaining a decision that the organization proceedings of the district were illegal and null and void. In a previous case. Central Irrigation District had been upheld, but on other grounds, the correctness of which was not questioned in the later case. The main points of the later decision were that the organization petition of 1887 was not properly signed, and that the signers of an organization petition must be bona fide owners of agricultural lands desiring to improve their lands by irrigation, and not merely the owners of town property and lots, as was the case with many of the signers of the Central Irrigation District petition. While holding that bond sales made subsequent to this decision would be null and void, the validity of bonds already issued was not considered. In conformity with the decision, the matter went back to the lower court; and the new decree of the lower court, rendered March 1, 1902, was never appealed.
"The adverse decision of the supreme court above cited put an end for all time to any thought of continuing the old undertaking; and outside of a brief formal activity in 1902 and 1903, for the purpose of leasing Central Canal, no effort has been made to revive the old organization. Work on the system had practically ceased by 1891. At that time, while about forty miles out of a total of sixty-one and thirty-five hundredths miles of main canal planned had been built, the system was not continuous, and so could not be utilized ; nor had any headworks been constructed, thus preventing the running of water in the portion of the canal that was ready to receive it. The leasing of Central Canal, Jan-
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nary 6, 1903, had for its purpose the placing of the old district system in the hands of interests that proposed to utilize a portion of it for conveying water to lands along Sacramento River wholly or largely lying outside of the old district. This lease was made to W.M. Sheldon, and was for a term of fifty years. Some years previously, hut after the failure of the district, B.D. Beckwith had made filings on Sacramento River, and had planned to utilize a portion of Central Canal in connection with his appropriation. Lacking capital, he interested Sheldon; and these two, after the execution of the lease of the canal, formed the Sacramento Canal Company, which later was taken over by the Central Canal and Irrigation Company, and finally by the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company. From this point forward the history of Central Irrigation District becomes merged with the history of the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company and of its subsidiary, the Sacramento Valley West Side Canal Company. When these companies were organized, it was supposed that Central Irrigation District was finally entirely eliminated, in so far as its legal existence was concerned. The Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company gathered up most of the widely scattered bonds at a cost to it of thirty-five cents on the dollar, including accrued interest; and as one of the conditions of options secured on a large acreage of land in the old district, it agreed to guarantee lands not purchased under such options against any lien for these bonds. Later, a compromise was sought to be entered into with the landowners by which certain concessions should be made to the company in rights of way and certain other matters, in return for the destruction by the company of all of the old bonds held by it. Litigation brought on by those opposing this compromise, however, has entirely upset previous theories as to the existence of the old district and as to obligations incurred by the new company in taking over the old Sheldon lease from the district and a Congressional grant of a right to divert nine hundred cubic feet of water per second from the Sacramento River, obtained by the Central Canal and Irrigation Company, April 16, 1906. The final decision in this litigation, rendered by the supreme court, April 29, 1915, held among other things that lands within the old Central Irrigation District constitute the primary territory to which the original public use contemplated by the district and by the grant of Congress extends and continues, and that when demanded such lands must be served with water from the new system before it can lawfully be taken for use on outside lands. Through the agency of these two companies. Central Canal has been reconstructed and extended, water has been made available to approximately one hundred thousand acres of land, and considerable irrigation devel-
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opment, including irrigation by pumping from wells, has taken place. Thus, at this late date the old district comes in to complicate operations of the new companies that were organized on the theory that the old district was no longer of moment, and could not in any way limit the delivery of water to the lands outside of it, purchased, and later largely sold, by the various companies succeeding Sheldon and Beckwith. An even later decision of the California Railroad Commission, rendered June 14, 1915, that holds the Sacramento Valley West Side Canal Company to be engaged in public service, while not in any way affecting the old district, so changes the basis of water distribution by the new companies that ultimate entire reorganization, probably under one or more new districts, now seems altogether probable."

From the above history of Central District, it will be seen that this perfectly justifiable and praiseworthy attempt to better the condition of the farmers of the plains resulted chiefly in litigation, bitterness and strife that lasted for twenty-five years. It may be said that no one was to blame. Some of the men who had to do with the project may have been mistaken, but the chief difficulty was in getting all who were interested to cooperate. Another disadvantage was the newness of the law under which the district was formed. The Wright Act was approved on March 7, 1887; and on March 26, 1887, a meeting was held at Maxwell to discuss the formation of a district under it. George M. Sutton was chairman of that meeting and H.P. Eakle, J.P. Rathbun and R. DeLappe were appointed a committee to get the sentiment of the people affected. The sentiment seemed to be favorable; and on April 22 a second meeting was held at Maxwell to take further steps in the formation of a district. G.M. Sutton, H.P. Eakle, P.R. Garnett, G.F. Packer, G.B. Harden, and W.P. Harrington were appointed a committee to make arrangements for a survey and the necessary petition to the supervisors. The vote, both on the district and on the bonds, was decisive enough on the face of it to warrant the further prosecution of the matter; but it was a mistake to accept on the petition the names of those who did not own agricultural lands, and probably also a mistake to allow them to vote at the election. Moreover, a mistake in the mechanical part of the work was made when the ditch itself was commenced on some of its lower reaches instead of at the intake. Of course, it is easy to point out mistakes in some other man's work; and one of the troubles with Central District was that it had too many people doing that.

One beneficent result of the Central District affair was the bringing of water to Princeton. When the Central Canal and

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Irrigation Company took over the system in 1903, it extended the river branch to a point three miles south of Princeton, with the result that one of the very finest communities of small farmers in the county gathered there. Incidentally, a great injustice was done these people, for they bought their lands with a water right included, and then, by the decision of the supreme court in 1915, were deprived of the water right. They are now forming a district of their own, and will pump water from the river.

The Central Canal itself is sixty feet wide on the bottom, and is made to carry six feet of water. The original contractor was the San Francisco Bridge Company, which had a special excavating machine built to dig the canal. The machine weighed two hundred seventy-five tons and cost fifty thousand dollars. It worked night and day, employing a crew of thirty men during the day and twelve at night, and doing the work of four hundred men. In twenty-two hours it excavated about four thousand cubic yards of earth.

On September 26, 1906, the Central Canal and Irrigation Company, having completed the canal to its intake, began to install a pump to put water into it. The capacity decided upon was one hundred cubic feet a second, capable of irrigating twenty thousand acres. The original district contained one hundred fifty-six thousand five hundred acres.

For several years the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company has been in financial straits, and has been selling off its lands. Thus the lands are passing back into the hands of individual owners, where they should be, and the strife and turmoil caused by the old Central Irrigation District are almost at an end.

In the year 1888, the year after the passage of the Wright Act, two efforts were made to form districts under that act, in the vicinity of Arbuckle and College City. Both attempts failed, and Arbuckle and College City are yet without irrigation.

For over ten years after Central District was launched, the question of irrigation lay dormant in this county; but in 1902 a number of farmers living just northwest of Colusa united and formed the Amos Roberts Ditch Company. They put in a pump and a system of ditches capable of irrigating the fifteen hundred acres in the district. This district was not organized under the Wright Act, but was a cooperative corporation, all profits being absorbed in the shape of lower water rates. The moving spirit in this enterprise, which has been eminently successful from the beginning, was L.L. Hicok, who has been the president of the company since its organization. The first directors, besides Mr. Hicok, were W.C. Roberts, A.E. Potter, W.R. Merrill, and J.

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Grover. The present directors are L.L. Hicok, A.E. Potter, J.C. Mogk, George Stafford, and J.S. O'Rourke. Some of the finest fruit and alfalfa in the state are grown under irrigation from this ditch, and the Roberts Ditch Company deserves great credit for the improvement it has made in the appearance of the country about Colusa.

On September 23, 1907, work was begun on the Colusa Irrigation Company's ditch, which is located on the east and south of Colusa, just across the town from the Roberts ditch; and when it was finished, Colusa was entirely surrounded by irrigated lands, except on the north, where it fronts on the river. This system covered at first one thousand acres ; but it has since been enlarged to nearly twice that size, furnishing water last year for about five hundred acres of rice southwest of the town. The company first installed a twenty-inch pump, and claimed that it could put a foot of water on an acre of land for thirty-two cents. The first directors were M.J. Boggs, J.W. Goad, J.C. Mogk, C.J. Wescott, and J.R. Tennant. The present directors are C.J. Wescott, Phil B. Arnold, U.W. Brown, George Ahlf, and J.C. Mogk.

Two or three small systems for using the waters of Stony Creek for irrigation were installed about the year 1890 ; and they make the region about Stonyford look like a paradise in summer, with its beautiful green fields of alfalfa and its thrifty, wide-spreading shade trees.

In 1890, Colonel Moulton put in a pumping plant ; and that year the barge Merritt went up and down the river pumping water for the farmers who wanted it. The charge was one hundred sixty dollars for twenty-four hours, the farmer to furnish the fuel. The outfit pumped twenty-three thousand gallons a minute, which would cover eighty-eight acres a foot deep in twenty-four hours.

A number of private pumps had been installed along the river by John Boggs, George F. Packer, J.B. DeJarnatt, J.W. Browning, and others; but no other irrigation districts were formed till the introduction of rice-growing, about the year 1912. That year the Moulton Irrigated Lands Company put seventy-five acres under water, and the next year they increased it to eight hundred acres. Their ditches, or rather the ditches of their successors, the Colusa Delta Lands Company, now cover twelve thousand acres, with about seventy-five users, or tenants.

In 1914, James F. Mallon and R.E. Blevins formed a partnership under the name of Mallon & Blevins, leased forty-four hundred acres of the Compton and Wohlfrom ranches near Princeton, and put in a ditch system for the growing of rice. They sublet the land to the actual rice-growers, and the enterprise proved to be eminently successful. They sold out this project, and

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the next year leased fourteen hundred acres of the Clara Packer ranch and installed another ditch system for rice-growing. In 1916 they added twenty-one hundred acres to this system; and they are now contemplating raising it to ten thousand acres.

In 1915, Phil B. Arnold promoted the Cheney Slough Irrigation Company, and a ditch system was built to cover ten thousand acres of rice land with water. The company installed one thirty-six-inch and two twenty-six-inch pumps on the river at the north line of the Mitchell ranch, and the first crop under this ditch was raised in 1916. It was not entirely successful, because the ditch was not ready in time for early planting; but this season (1917) an immense crop was raised. The directors of the company are W.H. Ash, president; Phil B. Arnold, secretary; R.M. Hardin, J.P. O'Sullivan, and W.F. Klewe.

Numerous small projects have been established for rice-growing, and the industry is growing at such a rate that it is safe to predict that all the Trough land and much of the other low land in the county will be under irrigation within the next five years.

On October 15, 1881, a meeting was held at Maxwell to take the preliminary steps in having the county tested for artesian water. Canvassers were appointed to solicit funds, but little success attended the venture. About 1914, however, a couple of artesian wells were developed on the Melone, formerly the Knutzen, ranch on the Colusa-Williams road; pumps were placed in sumps dug at the mouths of the wells; and about fifty acres of rice was irrigated from them. The experiment was not wholly successful, and has not been repeated. Well water is too cold for rice.
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CHAPTER X

Agriculture

Grain-raising in Colusa County

Agriculture has meant in Colusa County, during most of its existence, the raising of grain, or, more specifically, the raising of wheat and barley ; and the county has no reason to be ashamed to base its claims for fame on its achievements along this line. This is essentially an agricultural county. In fact, it is one of the great "cow counties" of the state. (For the benefit of future generations, let me here explain that "cow counties" was the name applied by the San Francisco delegation in the state legislature a few years ago to the agricultural or rural counties, when

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said counties failed to line up with said delegation to put over some particularly raw piece of pilfering. Those who knew the San Francisco delegation in those days will understand that "cow counties" is distinctly an appellation of honor.) This county once held the honor of being the greatest wheat-raising county of the world. It held a similar record for barley.

Wheat

In 1880 this county produced, with the help of what is now Glenn County, two per cent, of all the wheat raised in the United States. This county also had the honor of having the greatest wheat ranch in the world, Dr. H.J. Glenn's fifty-eight-thousand-acre ranch, which the vagaries of fate later gave to Glenn County. Dr. Glenn made one sale of eighteen thousand tons of wheat in 1876 that brought him $594,000, and which, at present prices, would have brought him $1,400,000. This county has one farmer who raised fifty-seven thousand sacks of barley this year. This county has been, and is, the scene of so many stupendous farming operations that they excite no comment here. For this is essentially an agricultural county.

The cultivation of wheat and barley began in 1851, the year after the county was started, though in a small way. A year or two later, however, as I have said before, the need of grain for the freight teams that were hauling supplies to the mines gave a great stimulus to agriculture, and the acreage sown to grain increased very rapidly. But a number of dry years in the decade ending in 1864 held farming back and discouraged many of the settlers, so that they left the country. On November 25, 1864, however, after two years of exceedingly dry weather, a two weeks rain began to fall, and the farmers went to work with great energy. Only seventy-five hundred acres of wheat and twenty thousand acres of barley had been sown the year before, and it had been mostly lost; but that year the acreage was quadrupled, and the farmers were well repaid, for it turned out to be a wonderful year. Many new warehouses had to be built, and times were prosperous. In 1866 one Sacramento firm sold twenty thousand dollars' worth of farming implements in the county. Wheat was especially profitable, and for many years it was the leading crop.

Good and bad years followed along for ten years, till in 1874 another exceptionally big crop was harvested, and the warehouses had to be increased in size and number. The year 1878 was the best crop season the county had ever had up to that time, and in 1879 the wheat crop was "sold for $3,000,000. In 1880 the north wind whipped out $1,000,000 worth of wheat ; yet the yield

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was 2,900,000 sacks. In 1884 there were ninety threshing machines at work in the county, turning out an average of eight hundred sacks per day each; and they continued to work from the beginning of harvest in June till the end of August. The yield of wheat and barley that year was 11,000,000 bushels. The next four years were also good for the grain farmer, but it was in 1889 that he reached the high-water mark of prosperity. In that year the first harvester pulled by a tractor came to the county, 403,008 acres were sown, and the yield of wheat was 10,000,000 bushels, the largest the county had ever seen. The next year was also a fine one. Good rains, good crops and good prices, owing to a scarcity in Europe, enabled many a farmer to lift the mortgage on his ranch.

Barley

But the climax of wheat-growing had been reached. For forty years the lands had been sown to this crop, and now the yield began to fall off. As a consequence more and more barley was sown, and less and less wheat, till it finally came to a time when there was hardly a thousand acres of wheat in the whole county. The war has stimulated the raising of wheat the past two years, but barley is still the leading crop.

Barley, although not so high-priced a crop as wheat, is more profitable in this county, because it produces more sacks per acre, and is not so liable to damage by the north wind. There is never a perfect crop, and, on the other hand, there is never an absolute failure. There cannot be a perfect season for all parts of the county; for a dry season is bad for the plains lands, and a wet season is bad for the tule lands. Every season starts out either too wet or too dry, too hot or too cold, or too something, according to the prophets, and winds up "much better than expected"; and that will probably continue to be the program. In 1896 the barley crop was good ; but on May 12, 1898, ten car loads of corn arrived at Williams from Kansas "to distribute among needy farmers," which shows that crops were not good that year. Most years have been fairly good, however, and this year of 1917 capped the climax for good crops and high prices at the same time. This has undoubtedly been the best year Colusa County farmers have ever had. It started out too dry; but the weather remained cool till the grain was matured, and then, as if ordered by the farmers themselves, turned hot to make the barley harvest well, mature the rice, and sweeten the prunes. War prices were received for all products, and many farmers made a fortune this single year. Barley, which has been sold here as low as eighty cents, a hundredweight, went up to two dollars and fifty-five cents

[photo: Scene at Colusa. Shipping rice by boat]

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this year, or possibly a little higher for small lots. I don't mean to say that all the farmers got two dollars and fifty-five cents or more for their barley. Many of them were holding for three cents, and held till they had to sell at about two cents. But they all made money.

Orchards, vineyards, alfalfa, rice and other crops are making great inroads upon the barley acreage; and it is safe to say that this crop, too, has reached its maximum limit in this county, although it will be many years before it will cease to be an important factor in the prosperity of the people.

Rice

The sudden rise and marvelous growth of the rice industry in this county reads like an Arabian Nights tale. Prior to 1911 there wasn't an acre of rice in the county. Years ago, Colonel Moulton made some experiments with rice; and just prior to 1911 some experiments had been made at the government experiment station at Chico, with the result that those in charge were convinced that rice could be profitably raised in this climate. W.K. Brown, of the Moulton Irrigated Lands Company, which had bought the Moulton ranch from the Central California Investment Company in 1907, was watching the experiments carefully, for the Moulton ranch contained a great deal of land that was apparently well adapted to rice, but hadn't been of much use for anything else up to that time. In 1911 Mr. Brown planted seventy-five acres to rice, and to him and that seventy-five-acre patch belongs the credit for bringing rice to Colusa County. It would have come later, of course, if there had been no Brown; but it wouldn't have come when it did. and might not have come for many years. In 1912 Mr. Brown increased the acreage on the Moulton lands to eight hundred acres, and this crop was so successful as to leave no doubt as to the future of the industry. The year 1913 saw an increased acreage on the Moulton ranch, and an average crop of seventy-three and one-half sacks per acre, a yield unheard of in the older rice-growing communities. In 1914 there were twenty-nine hundred forty acres in rice on the Moulton ranch, and some of it yielded eighty sacks per acre. The average yield was sixty-five sacks, and the price that year was from one dollar and eighty cents to two dollars per hundredweight. The total yield on the ranch that year was 150,000 sacks.

Mallon & Blevins started their first rice project in 1914. They leased forty-four hundred acres west of I.L. Compton's residence, put in a ditch system with the pumping plant on the river bank just back of the Packer schoolhouse, and subleased the land to rice-growers. That was the first rice project on the

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west side of the river. In 1915 the rice acreage of the county had increased to twelve thousand acres. On January 23 of that year a twenty-three-car train loaded with rice was sent out of Colusa, with large banners on it announcing its identity; and it gave the county great prominence as a rice-growing center. San Francisco and the rest of the state were greatly excited over the marvelous stories of rice profits, and dozens of men came every week to Colusa to investigate the new industry. The Moulton people had taken the rice prizes the year before at the Butte County Rice Exposition at Gridley, and that fact had its effect. Land that could have been bought the year before for fifteen or twenty dollars an acre jumped to eighty dollars an acre, and today there are many owners of "goose land" who wouldn't take one hundred dollars an acre for land which they would have been glad to sell in 1912 for eight dollars an acre.

The one great drawback in the rice business was the uncertainty in getting the crop harvested ahead of the rains. Up to this time the varieties planted had been of a slow-maturing kind that did not ripen till late in October or in November. The fall rains in an ordinary season were apt to catch much of the rice uncut. Efforts were being made to find or develop earlier varieties; and in 1915, with this object in view, the Moulton people planted one hundred acres of Italian rice. They finished harvesting it on September 23 that year; and there was much joy among the rice men, for they felt that the industry would soon be relieved of its greatest handicap, a late-maturing crop. Much progress has been made along this line since then. A total of 450,000 bags of rice was produced by the Moulton Irrigated Lands Company and the California Rice Company in 1915. The latter company had twenty-six hundred acres planted, and got from fifty to sixty-five sacks per acre. In the fall of 1915 Mallon & Blevins sold thirty-two hundred acres of their first project to the Rice Land & Products Company for $250,000, and that winter developed a new project on fourteen hundred acres at the west end of Mrs. Clara Packer's ranch. Last year they added twenty-one hundred acres to this project, and now they are making preparations to add sixty-five hundred acres more to it, making it ten thousand acres in all.

Another great rice project is that of the Cheney Slough Irrigation Company, organized in December, 1915, through the efforts of Phil B. Arnold. This project covers ten thousand acres, and is supplied with water by three pumps located at the river, about six miles north of Colusa. The ditches extend to the O'Hair ranch, south of the Colusa-Williams highway. The direc-

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tors of the company are W.H. Ash, Phil B. Arnold, R.M. Hardin, J.P. O'Sullivan and W.F. Klewe.

There were many smaller projects and many individual growers in the county this year and last, but not all of these can be mentioned. A considerable acreage under the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company's ditch in the vicinity of Maxwell has been planted to rice during the past two years, and that little town has become quite a rice center. The total acreage planted in the county this year was about thirty thousand acres. Today the demand for rice land is tremendous. One can hardly walk a block on the street without being asked for rice land. Every owner of suitable land has from a dozen to fifty applications for it. Land that was rented for a dollar an acre three years ago now brings ten dollars an acre. The industry seems to be only in its embryonic state as yet. What the future will bring, no man can tell with accuracy.

Alfalfa

The great forage crop of this county is alfalfa. I have been unable to learn definitely just when and how it got into the county; but it came many years ago, at least forty years. The acreage has kept steadily increasing since its introduction, so that today there are about twenty' thousand acres in the county devoted to alfalfa. The alfalfa fields of the county may be divided into two classes : those under irrigation, which grow only hay and pasture; and those not irrigated, which grow a crop of seed each year, in addition to hay and pasture. Five or six crops of alfalfa are cut from irrigated lands, each crop making from a ton to a ton and a half per acre. Unirrigated lands produce three or four crops, the last of these being threshed for seed. It was reported that the alfalfa on the Sherer ranch near College City produced two tons of hay and six hundred pounds of seed per acre in 1912. The hay sold for eleven dollars per ton, and the seed for sixteen cents per pound, making the total returns one hundred eighteen dollars per acre. The hay from this same ranch sold this year for twenty-seven dollars per ton, which would make the income one hundred fifty dollars an acre if other conditions were the same as in 1912. Most of the alfalfa grown in the county is fed to dairy cows and other stock. Up till the year 1912 irrigation meant alfalfa; but now rice takes much more water in this county than alfalfa does, although alfalfa will probably always be the main standby of the small farmer and home-maker.

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Corn

Four kinds of corn are grown in the county, Indian corn, Egyptian corn, broom corn and sorghum. There isn't enough of the last-named, however, to bother about. It was first grown in the fifties by a settler who wanted some syrup for his own use, and it has been grown to about that extent ever since. Indian corn has never been raised to any great extent either. The plains are too dry for it, but it grows luxuriantly along the river. Because it takes some rather tedious cultivating and hoeing by hand, it has never become popular with the farmers of this county, who like to spread their efforts over wide areas. Egyptian corn, used for stock and poultry food, is grown principally on the overflow lands along the river. It is a summer crop; and where irrigation can be had, it is sometimes planted after a crop of barley has been harvested. Broom corn is also grown chiefly on overflow lands, and both it and Egyptian corn are largely grown by Chinese and Japanese. There was a fortune in broom corn this year; for the crop was good and the price went up to two hundred seventy-five dollars a ton, whereas there is a good profit in it at sixty-five dollars a ton, the usual price in the past. In 1914, George F. McKenzie, a broom corn grower from Illinois, came to this county, rented some land from the Moulton Irrigated Lands Company, and put out a crop of corn. He cured it in the shade instead of in the sun, and got one hundred seventy-five dollars a ton for it instead of sixty-five dollars, as the Chinamen had been getting. Since that time the quality of broom corn produced hereabouts has greatly improved, and the acreage has more than doubled; but the industry is still largely in the hands of Japanese and Chinamen.

Beans

Beans follow the American wherever he goes, or, more properly, go with him. There probably wasn't an immigrant wagon to California without a liberal supply of beans among its stores. My guess, therefore, is that beans first came to Colusa County in 1850, the year the county was first settled, although their coming was not recorded, because there was no newspaper in the county at that time, nor for thirteen years thereafter, to record the event. For years beans were grown in this county only for home consumption; but after a time it was found that the sandy, friable lands along the river were ideal bean lands, because they were easily cultivated and because they held moisture remarkably well. Overflow land that is of such character that it can be worked into a fine mulch on top cannot be beaten for beans; and

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thus land that is useless for most other purposes becomes the most valuable land in the county when devoted to this crop. In Monterey County, from eight to ten sacks is regarded as a good bean crop. There are hundreds of acres of bean land in this county that produce forty sacks or more per acre. The center of the bean industry in this county is on the lower end of the Moulton ranch, where there are some of the most productive bean fields in the world. When beans were from two to five cents a pound, their production made no great commotion in Colusa County agricultural circles. But when, three or four years ago, they went up to ten and fifteen cents a pound, bean land came into great demand. Today hardly an acre of good bean land can be had for love or money. A man told me a few days ago that he had canvassed the territory along the river from Knights Landing to Red Bluff, and he couldn't get a piece of bean land of any kind. Of course this situation is natural, in view of the enormous profits that have been made in the last three or four years. Among the varieties most commonly planted in this county are the Lady Washington, or small white, the pink, and the blackeye. In 1913 Lady Washingtons were selling for three cents a pound, pinks for two dollars and sixty-five cents a hundredweight, and blackeyes for two dollars a hundredweight. In 1915 whites sold for six dollars and seventy-five cents and pinks for four dollars and seventy-five cents. Within the past year the small whites have sold for fifteen cents a pound, wholesale, with the other varieties two or three cents lower. Here again, as with corn, a great deal of land is farmed by Orientals ; and thousands of dollars of Colusa County's bean money are now in China and Japan. Of course, prices cannot always stay up as they are now, making fabulous profits possible ; but there will always be money in beans along the Sacramento River.

Beets

The sugar beet is not by any means a stranger to Colusa County, but it has never succeeded in becoming a leading crop. Many efforts have been made to get it established, but most of them have failed. In 1895 an effort was made to establish a beet sugar factory at Colusa, but it came to nothing. In April of that year John Boggs planted forty acres to beets as an experiment, and they did well, but not well enough to convince farmers in sufficient numbers to supply a sugar factory with beets. The next year the Spreckels Sugar Company agreed to erect a sugar factory if the farmers would plant even one thousand acres to beets. The farmers wouldn't, and Spreckels kept his factory or

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put it somewhere else, and the matter rested for ten years. But in 1905 another earnest, even desperate, effort was made to get a sugar factory for Colusa. One hundred thousand dollars was subscribed toward the enterprise; but again the farmers were reticent about the beets, and the factory eluded us. The next move toward beets was made in 1911. On January 31 of that year a group of men connected with the sugar factory at Hamilton City met with a number of farmers in Colusa to try to induce them to plant three thousand acres of beets, which, they said, would insure the building of the Colusa & Hamilton Railroad. The required acreage was fully, or nearly, subscribed, and work on the road was started a year or two later; but it isn't finished yet, and the beet industry is still in a languishing condition. The sugar company itself leased several hundred acres from J.W. Browning at Grimes about that time, and has raised several crops of beets on it ; but aside from that, not a great deal has been done at growing beets. The delay in getting the Colusa & Hamilton Railroad into operation to Hamilton City and the temporary suspension of activities at the sugar factory, said to be due to tariff uncertainties, have conspired to retard the spread of beet-growing in this county, but it seems to be about to take on new life. An agent of the sugar company was in the county last year signing up acreage, and the next few years will no doubt find Colusa County with several thousands of acres of sugar beets.

Other Crops

Potatoes have, of course, been grown here since the beginning, but never in sufficient quantities to disturb the potato markets of the world. In fact, most of the potatoes that are eaten in the county today are shipped in. Some of the lands along the river are well adapted to potato-growing, when the season is favorable; but small patches have been the rule, and not many even of them. Twenty-four years ago D.H. Arnold raised fifty tons of potatoes near Colusa, and that is the largest crop of which I have found any record.

The year 1874 was a cotton year in Colusa County. A widespread discussion of the merits and possibilities of the crop was going on at that time. W.S. Green sent for fifty sacks of seed to be distributed among the farmers, and offered a prize of twenty-five dollars for the best bag of cotton raised in the county. The most enthusiastic grower was Andrew Rutland, of the east side. He brought in the first sample of cotton, grown on the McConnell farm on the east side. He had fifty acres planted to cotton, and figured his profits at six hundred eighty-two dollars.

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He said that if there had been no overflow and two weeks more of good weather, his profits would have been doubled. For two or three years more he experimented further with cotton, but finally gave it up. About 1890, J.W. Bowden was experimenting for several years with cotton. He finally came to the conclusion that cotton could not be grown at a profit on land worth one hundred dollars an acre; but that on low-priced land, with cheap labor, it would pay about thirty dollars an acre, gross. Apparently that wasn't enough profit to tempt the agricultural fortune-hunters of Colusa County, for cotton-growing never got beyond the infant stage.

Sweet potatoes and peanuts are both grown to a very limited extent on the sandy lands along the river, but not in sufficient quantity to supply the home demand.

A novel agricultural product has been furnished by the lowlands along the Trough for several years past. It is grandelia robusta, or rosin weed, which grows in a wild state, is cut and baled like hay, and shipped to an Eastern drug-manufacturing concern to be made into some sort of drug or medicine. It brings the shipper thirty-five dollars a ton usually, and affords a good profit at that price, as two men can gather a ton of the weed a day. One firm ships from twenty-five to fifty tons of rosin weed from Colusa each season.

I have made no attempt to make a complete list of the agricultural products of the county, but have mentioned some of the more important ones, and especially those that have had an influence on the development of the county, and on the industrial life of the people.
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CHAPTER XI

HORTICULTURE

Horticulture, according to Webster, means the culture of gardens and orchards. In Colusa County it means the growing of fruits and nuts. Commercially, as applied to this county, its meaning may be even more restricted ; it means the growing of prunes, raisins and almonds, for these are the only fruits and nuts that are grown in the county on such a scale as to be considered commercial products. By that I do not mean to say that prunes, raisins and almonds are the only Colusa County products that those unfortunate enough not to live here ever have a chance to taste. Not by any means! Oranges, lemons, apples, pears, figs,

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plums, table grapes and walnuts are shipped to a very limited extent; but there are less than a half dozen growers of each of these products, so that they add no great burden to the channels of commerce.

Fruit-growing for Domestic Purposes

Fruit-growing in this county began, of course, as a domestic proposition, many of the settlers planting out orchards of many varieties of fruits for family use. And what an opportunity for variety they had! I am sure there isn't another section of the whole wide world where the husbandman could have "his own vine and fig tree" in so many different shapes and forms as here. Oranges, lemons, grape fruit, limes, apples, peaches, pears, apricots, plums, prunes, nectarines, grapes of a dozen kinds, cherries, figs, pomegranates, quinces, almonds, English and black walnuts, pecans, olives and many kinds, of berries can be had in rich abundance and with a minimum of effort. But notice that I said in the first sentence of this paragraph that "many of the settlers" planted orchards. That is true ; but it is also true, sad to say, that many others did not. Many of the early settlers gave no time to the minor comforts of life, and many of the later settlers have followed closely in the footsteps of these improvident ones in this respect, with the lamentable result that today there are not a few ranches in the county without a fruit tree or a vine growing on them. This class of farmers, raising barley, raised nothing but barley ; raising wheat, they raised nothing but wheat ; raising hay, they bought the vegetables for their tables; raising cattle, they raised nothing but beef cattle, and bought their butter. Consequently the people of the county ship in more fruit of many of the varieties than they ship out. This is true of apples, grape fruit, limes, peaches, apricots, cherries, pecans, olives and berries of all kinds. But this chapter is concerned with fruit-growing as a commercial industry rather than fruit-growing for home consumption.

Grapes

College City has the honor of being the pioneer community in the matter of producing fruit for shipment. College City specializes in raisin grapes, and did so from the beginning. It is now one of the raisin centers of the state, with a raisin history going back almost to 1874. In that year I.N. Cain, father of T.D. Cain (present county clerk and recorder) and a pioneer who had come to Grand Island in 1851, moved to College City, and shortly thereafter set out one thousand Muscat grapevines. They

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thrived and bore well, and became the nucleus of the raisin industry of College City. At first Mr. Cain had no idea of marketing them, but gave them away to all the neighbors for miles around. This would have been a convenient way of disposing of them if there had been enough neighbors; but there weren't, for one thousand vines in the College City section will produce an amazing quantity of grapes. So Mr. Cain was compelled to dry some of them, making the first raisins in Colusa County. His neighbors followed his example, and soon made the College City country famous for its raisins. In 1891 William Calmes, of College City, got fifty cents more per box for his raisins than any other man in the state. His returns that year from a twenty-seven-acre vineyard were five thousand dollars. The same high quality has always been maintained.

Throughout the eighties there was a steady growth in vineyard acreage, not only at College City but also in some other sections of the county. Colonel Moulton, for example, set out a vineyard, and on January 7, 1891, sold thirty thousand pounds of raisins to J.K. Armsby. Vineyards were planted at Williams and Maxwell also. The industry has never made much headway at those towns, although one of the finest vineyards in the county is the Brim vineyard, located about six miles west of Williams. The raisin industry has made a greater growth in the last ten years than it did. in all the years of its existence before. The county statistician gave the acreage for 1905 as three hundred fifty acres. Today there are one thousand four hundred thirty acres in raisin grapes, the greater part about College City. Most of the bearing vineyards are in Muscats, but last year nearly everybody planted the Thompson Seedless. There are also one hundred sixty acres in wine grapes ; but this industry is not in a very flourishing condition at present, owing to the threatened destruction of the liquor traffic in the state.

The Arbuckle-College City section also grows a few table grapes, principally Tokays. Arbuckle has had the honor for the past several years of sending East the first car load of Tokay grapes to leave the state; but the territory planted to Tokays is small, probably not over seventy acres in the whole county.

The net returns from raisins have averaged high. There have been seasons, of course, when slender crops and sluggish markets have reduced profits almost to the vanishing point; but for the past two or three years it has been no uncommon thing for growers to realize three hundred dollars an acre, gross, from their grapes, especially the Thompson Seedless. One hundred and fifty dollars an acre may be said to be a fair average return.

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There are thousands of acres in the county now devoted to barley that would make as fine grape land as there is in the state ; and if prices remain high, as at present, there will be a great development in grape-growing in the next few years.

Prunes

Prune-growing as an industry in Colusa County began in 1884, when J.B. DeJaruatt set out a small prune orchard on his Brentwood farm north of Colusa. California was just finding itself as a fruit-growing state, and the air was full of excitement over the possibilities. Scattered trees in family orchards here and there along the river had demonstrated that this valley is the natural home for the prune, and a number of progressive farmers were ready to try their luck growing the fruit. A.S. McWilliams, who at that time owned the land adjoining Colusa on the northwest, closely followed Mr. DeJarnatt with a small orchard. In 1888 Colonel Moulton set out the orchard at the north end of the Colusa bridge; and therein he acted wisely, for that orchard has returned many thousands of dollars to its owners since then. P.V. Berkey, Henry Ahlf, D.H. Arnold, Richard Bayne and Dr. Gray were among the early prune orchardists ; and not long afterwards John Boggs set out forty acres on his ranch south of Princeton. The Poirier orchard, on the east side, was also among the early ones set out.

In the ten years following 1884, there was great interest in the county in fruit-growing in general, and in prune-growing in particular. In 1888 the Colusa County Horticultural Society was formed, with Colonel Moulton as president and Frank Willis as secretary. A board of horticultural commissioners was appointed, with J.R. Totman, Sr., as president and Frank Willis as secretary. F.M. Johnson was the other member. These bodies were both active, and in 1891 the horticultural society received a premium of five hundred dollars for its exhibit at the State Fair. Many orchards and vineyards were set out in various parts of the county, and many experiments were made along horticultural lines. Prunes proved to be the most certain and the most profitable crop, and they outdistanced all other fruits in acreage, as well as in record of profits.

In the spring of 1894, P.V. Berkey, J.W. Bowden, J.C. Bedell and Joseph Boedefeld set out forty thousand prune trees on the east side of the river. Take the Boedefeld orchard as an example of what these orchards have done and are doing. It consists of forty acres situated on the overflow lands two miles back from the river. It ordinarily produces about one hundred forty tons of

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prunes, which this year sold for seven cents a pound, on an average, or one hundred forty dollars a ton. The Berkey orchard did as well or better. In 1911, W.C. Roberts got eight hundred eighty-five dollars and five cents from two acres of prunes. The same year six thousand three hundred eighty pounds of prunes from a half acre on the Laux place on the east side sold for three hundred dollars. Last year the Strickland prune orchard of six acres produced three thousand one hundred dollars' worth of fruit, which explains why the Strickland ten-acre ranch recently sold for eight thousand dollars. These figures also explain why four hundred fifty thousand prune trees have been set out in the county in the past four years. In 1914, W.A. Yerxa imported two hundred fifty thousand young prune trees from France, and had them all sold before they arrived. The prune industry seems to have "arrived" in this county. There are a number of orchards in the county containing from two hundred to three hundred acres each.

Almonds

Of all of its horticultural products, Colusa County is best known for its almonds. And speaking of almonds, one thinks of Arbuckle; not because Arbuckle produces all the almonds grown in the county, or produced the first ones, but because it is an almond center, and because it advertises. The way Arbuckle got started in the almond business reads something like this: C.H. Locke was a Montana miner transplanted to Arbuckle. His periscope and other observation apparatus being of good quality and in good working order, he observed that the oak trees about Arbuckle bore immense crops of nuts, sometimes known as acorns. From this he reasoned that the Arbuckle country must be a good nut country. In fact, it was he who discovered that Arbuckle is the home of the nut, a discovery that his successors in interest have made much of. In 1892, Mr. Locke, acting upon the above-mentioned theory, planted twenty-one acres to almonds, which grew and thrived and bore heavily. Under such circumstances the neighbors generally follow suit, sometimes so quickly that some of them think they did it first, and claim the credit. But Mr. Locke's neighbors didn't rush matters. In the next fifteen years after he showed them how, they put out only seventy-five acres of trees, including his twenty-one acres. Then 1907 came, and the Reddington ranch was subdivided and put on the market. The next year fifty acres of trees were set out, and the almond boom was on. In 1910, D.S. Nelson struck the town, and the almond boom at once increased its speed. Mr. Nelson organized the Superior California Fruit Lands Company, and proceeded to make almond history. The

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Hyman tract was subdivided, and in 1911 forty thousand trees were set out, besides a lot of vines. That same year the Arbuckle Almond Growers' Association was organized, and the marketing end of the business was put on a business basis. From that day to this the industry has been steadily growing, and today there are five thousand two hundred acres in almonds in the Arbuckle district, with forty thousand trees, or eight hundred acres, to be planted next spring.

A.M. Newland, residing three miles north of Colusa, was the pioneer almond-grower of the county. Mr. Newland came to this county as a small boy in 1853. Ten years later they set out a few almond trees, and later added to these till there was quite an orchard. In the course of time the trees got old and were dug up, and the present orchard was planted in the year 1889. Mr. Newland's orchard, being along the river, of course suffers considerably from frost. In the twenty-eight years of its life, at least half of the crops have been thus destroyed ; but Mr. Newland says that if he gets a crop only once in every three or four years it pays better than to sow the land to barley. The Newland orchard contains forty acres; and when the frost does not catch it, the yield is heavier than from any other orchard in the county.

Mr. Newland is the originator of the Eureka almond, a species that has the size and flavor of the Jordan combined with a soft shell. It has not been planted as widely as it deserves, because it is not adapted to all conditions and has not been advertised; but it bids fair to be one of the leading varieties of the state.

A. Fendt, whose land adjoins that of Mr. Newland, followed the example of the latter and set out an orchard of almonds about the year 1905; and the trees have made a wonderfully thrifty growth. Being near the river, it, too, has suffered from frost; but worse than that, it has been attacked by the root knot and Mr. Fendt is digging up many of the trees.
Oranges

There is little more to be said of commercial fruit-growing in the county, because there is little more fruit grown on a commercial scale. There are two orange orchards of nine acres each, both on the edge of Colusa, one belonging to Col. John T. Harrington and the other to District Attorney Alva A. King. Part of Colonel Harrington's trees are thirty-five years old, and he has a few seedlings forty years old, planted at the same time as those in the courthouse yard. From this orchard as many as two thousand boxes of fruit have been taken in a year, some of the older trees producing four hundred boxes per acre. For many years Colonel Harrington's entire crop was taken by the Palace Hotel in San Fran-

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cisco, because it was superior to any other oranges produced in the state. Another significant fact is, that Colusa County oranges took the prize at the Midwinter Fair in San Francisco in 1894. Mr. King's orchard, better known as the Cooke orchard, was planted by the late J.B. Cooke about fifteen years ago. The trees are hardly in full bearing yet, but have produced twenty-five hundred boxes in a year. These are the only orchards in the county that ship oranges ; and the present prospects are that they will be the only orchards for some time, as there seems to be but little interest in oranges just now.

Lemons

Although not known at all as a producer of lemons, Colusa County is said to have the largest lemon orchard in the world. In 1912 James Mills, an extensive fruit-grower of the South, bought the Houx ranch, four miles west of Maxwell, and proceeded to establish a lemon principality. He had concrete pipe made on the premises and laid so as to carry water to the tops of all the rolling hills, of which the ranch is largely composed, leaving openings at convenient points for bringing the water to the surface and conducting it through contour ditches to the roots of the trees. A tract of four hundred acres was planted to lemons that first year, and that acreage has been added to since, until there are seven hundred twenty-four acres in all. The older trees have begun to bear, and Colusa County has been, for the past year or two, a shipper of a car load or two of lemons. The Mills orchard also contains forty acres of oranges, two hundred forty acres of almonds, and twenty acres of pomeloes, all non-bearing.

Peaches and Apricots

In the year 1880, W.L. Cotter planted four acres of peaches and apricots on his ranch four miles south of Arbuckle. They thrived wonderfully, and for a time created some excitement over the fruit prospects in that neighborhood. For some reason or other, however, Mr. Cotter's example was not widely followed, and the Arbuckle district is not yet famous as a peach or apricot district, although there are about fifty acres of the former and about one hundred acres of the latter in the district at present.

A.S. McWilliams planted the first apricot orchard about Colusa. That was in 1884, and for a time apricots were a "leading industry" about the county seat. But as the trees grew old they did not do so well, and the orchard was dug up about ten years ago. J.B. DeJarnatt, P.V. Berkey, H. Ahlf, and others also tried apricots; and for many years it was a familiar sight on the

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streets of Colusa in apricot season to see a spring wagon loaded with the best girls in town, bound for the apricot orchards to "work in the fruit." But a change seemed to come over the spirit of the people, and it became very hard to get girls to help with the apricots ; so Mr. Berkey planned to pull up the last of his apricot orchard, although the trees bore abundantly this year. The Ahlfs, however, still dry a few apricots.

So the apricot perished from the earth, as far as production commercially in most of Colusa County is concerned ; and the peach has suffered the same fate. The most magniticent peaches on earth can be grown here, but many of the peaches we use are brought down from Glenn County or over from Sutter County. Why should we worry with peaches, anyway, when we can put out a patch of rice and in five months have several thousand dollars with which to buy peaches?

Pears

The history of the Bartlett pear industry has been about the same as that of peaches and apricots. Along in the eighties the business had a boom along the river, where the land and the climate are well adapted to pears. Henry Ahlf, Joseph Boedefeld, Hagar & Tuttle, P.V. Berkey, J.B. DeJarnatt, John Boggs, T.C. Hubbard, Perry Wills, and others planted pears ; and for a time the returns were all that anyone could wish. In those days pears were only fifteen dollars to twenty dollars a ton, but the yields were so abundant that the growers were well satisfied. Then came the pear blight, which was epidemic in the state; and in spite of all that the growers did, their orchards were practically ruined and had to be dug up. The Ahlf, Hubbard and Boedefeld orchards were the only ones that survived ; and one of those, the Hubbard orchard, was dug up a couple of years ago by J.L. Langdon, who had come into possession of it. This leaves only the Ahlf and Boedefeld orchards today. The Boedefeld orchard is out on the overflow lands and does not produce so well ; but the Ahlf orchard, which is near the river, yields an average of three hundred boxes of fruit per acre. As pears have been selling for from forty to sixty dollars a ton, it will be seen that they are a profitable crop to those who take care of them.

W.G. Henneke, who lives near Cooks Springs, has about ten acres in pears and realizes well on them. F.B. Pryor has a small orchard on Grapevine Creek, which produces well ; but like Mr. Henneke's orchard, it is so far back in the hills that marketing the crop is expensive.

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Walnuts

J.C. Westfall is the walnut king of this county. In 1907 he got a picture in his mind of a nice twelve-acre orchard of English walnuts that he hoped to have. Then he planted a black walnut tree in each spot where an English walnut had been in the picture in his mind. Two years later he grafted English walnut buds on the black walnut trees ; and then he watched them grow. The first year the grafts grew thirteen feet. The second year the nuts took a prize at the State Fair, and people began to ask Mr. Westfall how to grow walnuts. Four years after grafting, the twelve acres produced fifty sacks of nuts that took all the prizes they were entered for, and Mr. Westfall was recognized as an authority on walnuts. In 1911, Mr. Westfall grafted two acres more ; and since then he has added still further to his acreage.

Hugh L. Dobbins is about the only other man in the county who is interested in the walnut as a commercial possibility. Mr. Dobbins has conducted a small walnut nursery in Colusa for several years past, and next spring will set out ten acres to walnuts on the Swinford tract east of town. Some attempt was made a few years ago to start an orchard at Arbuckle, but it never amounted to much. There may have been other attempts, but there are no other orchards. There are, however, many individual trees, or rows of trees, the product of which is sold.

Figs, Plums and Apples

There are two small fig orchards in the county. One of these is an orchard of four or five acres a mile north of Colusa. This orchard belongs to Richard Bayne, and is cultivated by Emil St. Louis. It is an orchard of black figs, and it produces well and is highly profitable. The trees were planted twenty-seven years ago, and now yield in prodigal profusion. W.C. Roberts also has one acre of figs, from which he has taken four tons of fruit in a year.

Ahlf brothers have about twenty acres in shipping plums on their ranch on the east side ; and the success they have had has interested a number of others, who will plant plum trees next spring.
The other fruits that I have mentioned, and possibly still others, are grown in yards or family orchards throughout the county, but are of no especial interest to the reader of history. There are some small apple orchards in the hills in the western part of the county, but very little of their product is marketed outside of the county limits.

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CHAPTER XII

Mining and Quarrying

Mining

Colusa County cannot, by any stretch of the imagination, be called a mining county. It has some mines, and it has had some mining stampedes ; but it is lucky that it does not have to depend entirely on the income from its mines for its wealth, for the mining industry in this county has been more or less of a fizzle. It is true that several compartments in the county recorder's office are filled with the articles of incorporation of mining companies; but mining companies are not mines. The fact of the matter is, there has been much more money put into the mines of this county than has ever been taken out of them, although the same thing could be said, probably, of mines in general.

Small quantities of copper, coal, quicksilver, gold, silver, oil, sulphur, salt, limestone, and chrome ore have been produced in the county; but none of these has been obtained in very profitable amounts. No better history of the early mining activities in the county could be given than that written by Julius Weyand and published in the Rogers history some years ago ; and I reproduce it here:
"Copper. -- About November 1, 1863, the first discovery of copper was made in township seventeen north, range six west, on south side of Little Stony Creek, by F.M. Rice and J.B. Turner, in finding a large nugget of native copper, and also rock containing considerable copper, on the grounds located by the discoverers and five of their friends as the Mary Union claim.

"The news brought within a few days many of the people from Colusa and the county at large, and also people from other parts of the state, to the locality.

"On November 4, 1863, the Commonwealth Mining District was formed. The Mary Union lode was traced in southern and northern course, and claims were located as follows : 1, Extension Copper Hill; 2, Blue Hill; 3, Colusa; 1, Little Giant; 5, Sacramento; all south of Mary Union. On the north were: 1, North Star; 2, Indian Valley; 3, Grand Island; this comprised thirty-seven thousand two hundred feet on that ledge or lode, or seven miles long in distance by six hundred feet wide. Separate lodes were found and claims located, as: The Eagle, the Blazing Star, the Wyandotte, the Lion, the Settlers' Claim and the Pioneer. A town was surveyed and laid out on the twenty-eighth section, township seventeen north, range six west, by Judge H.W. Dun-
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lap and others, named Ashton, east of Little Stony, situated on lands now owned by Josh. C. Smith and Jonathan Ping, two hotels, two stores, livery stable, blacksmith shop and mining offices constituting the town.

"Further discoveries required the formation of districts as follows :

"Stony Creek District, December 24, 1863; St. John District, January 2, 1864; Snow Mountain District, January 5, 1864; Pacific Mining District, February 6, 1864; Mountain District, March 14, 1864; Lane District, also in March, 1864. In many of these locations the principals were: W.M. Rice, T.M. Rice, J.B. Turner, R.G. Burrows, James M. Berry, N.J. Greene, G.W. Keys, J.L. Howard, C. Dixon, J. Hop. Woods, Harry Pevton, J.A. Rush, H. Fairchild, W.K. Estill, G.W. Ware, Amos Roberts, J.K. Weast, J.W. Lane, Gil. Roberts, Judge H.W. Dunlap, Fred Clay, Mart Gibson, H.A. Van Dorsten, A. d'Artenay, William Johnson, J.J. Lett, H. Mitchum, W.M. Gassuway, Dav. Lett, Henry McCausland, J.C. Johns, A.N. Greene, Thomas Votaw, W.W. Greene, D.A. Greene, Jackson Hart, L.H. Baker, Joseph Whitlock, J.W. Goad, Stewart Harris, W.W. Noble, Charles Denmark, G.W. Noble, Joseph Ingrim, Thomas Talbot, J.W. Brim, James Taggert, A.J. Slye, and Julius Weyand, all of Colusa County, besides many persons from adjoining counties and the state.

"The agents of Flood & O'Brien, of San Francisco, had located a claim (the Ophir) running over and into the lines of the Mary Union Company, and a dispute arose between the parties, which was adjusted by a miners' meeting on February 4, 1864, deciding that Flood & O'Brien had to abandon their location. The parties did do so at once, and left for San Francisco, and, as appeared afterwards, to the injury of the further exploration of the locality. Their instructions were to spend a large sum of money before they should give up the work.

"The ores found in all this territory were native copper, red and black oxides, blue carbonates or indigo copper, and gray ore, the red oxides always carrying a trace of gold, and the gray ore a small per cent, of silver. Assays run as high as thirty-three per cent, copper.

"Strata of ore were found all over the country, claimed to be well-defined ledges, and as such were located, though hardly ever worked to prove their value.

"All well-defined ledges ran from southeast to northwest.

"The most work was done on the Mary Union, Copper Hill, the Colusa, the Sacramento, the Pacific, the Lion ; and all of them undoubtedly will develop into mines of value if worked properly.
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"During the first excitement of the new discovery, there were incorporated the following claims:
    Nov. 14, 1863,  Mary Union Co.,    1200 shares, at  40  $18,000
    Dec. 17, 1863,  Colusa Co.,         345 shares, at 100   34,500
    Dec. 31, 1863,  Pioneer Co.,       3300 shares, at   5   16,500
    Jan.  8, 1864,  Copper Hill Co.,   4500 shares, at   5   22,500
    Jan. 25, 1864,  North Star Co.,    4500 shares, at   4   18,000
    Jan. 25, 1864,  Blazing Star Co.,  3900 shares, at  10   39,000
    Feb.  6, 1864,  Pacific Co
    March 7, 1864,  Sacramento Co.,    5400 shares, at   5   27,000
    June 15, 1867,  Lion Co.,          5400 shares, at  20  108,000
    

"The work in 1864 shows the Mary Union shaft about fifty feet and several cuts or short tunnels; the Copper Hill shaft, ninety-five feet ; the North Star tunnel, sixty feet ; the Lion shaft, forty-two feet, and incline about sixty-five feet. The quantity of ore was small, the quality good. In the fall of 1864 the development of the mines was not satisfactory to the stockholders, the assessments became delinquent, and a great portion of the stock had to be taken by the company, for the assessment. Outside mining speculators and prospectors paid no more attention to our mining region, from the date of the Flood & O'Brien agents leaving the locality, and our home capitalists and stockholders only offered to sell what they had, never offered to help develop the lodes.

"Work was suspended for the season, and several attempts were made in 1865 to resume work; the only company continuing work was the Lion, which took out some fine ore.

"A. d'Artenay, the principal owner, had assays made on Lion ore. These appearing satisfactory, he made preparations for erection of smelting works near the mine. In 1866, when every preparation for the enterprise was arranged, he died. His brother, T. d'Artenay, and Fred Schrieber, of Marysville, proceeded in behalf of the company. Professor Isenbeck erected a fire-clay cupola furnace, steam engine for crushing ore and blast, at a great expense of money. The taking out of ore, hauling to smelt the ore and coal, and running the smelting works, were only commenced when the furnace failed to do the work. A steady flow of the molten mass could not be accomplished; several trials were attempted, but all failed, and the furnace was declared unfit to smelt this kind of ore. Coffee & Risdon, of San Francisco, offered to put up a Haskell iron, water-lined furnace, warranting the same to smelt the Lion ore profitably and satisfactorily. The company agreed to their proposition, and the furnace was erected, and put under the management of their agents, Messrs. Johnson and Norcross, both being experienced smelters. They could run out a few copper brick in good shape; but after one or two hours' run, the metal would chill or freeze, and the furnace had to be. cleared of the substance causing the failure. This proved to be
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asbestos, which does not melt nor flow off, and, when completely covering the surface of the furnace, will prevent its flow.

"Mr. Norcross gave his opinion that only a reverberatory furnace of the Swansea pattern could successfully and profitably smelt this quality of ore. The Haskell furnace was shipped back to San Francisco, and other attempts to smelt this ore have not been made since ; the trustees continued to develop their lode, and as their ore, assayed by State Assayer Hanks, showed twenty-one per cent, copper, they shipped several tons to San Francisco in 1876, but did not realize enough for cost of production. The company has a quantity of ore on the dump, but cannot figure out a profit to keep at work, and therefore have suspended.

"In 1877 J.W. Brim, Jackson Hart, George Heath and W.K. Aldersley took several tons of ore from the Mary Union and Copper Hill grounds and shipped it to San Francisco, but failed to pay expenses and discontinued.

"In 1880, E.A. Frenzel, H. Gehrt, G.W. Hopkins, and James W. Warwick relocated claims on the Mary Union and Copper Hill grounds, working two seasons, finding new deposits, and running a tunnel to main lode, but suspended work to await a better value of copper.

"In 1883, J.L. Jordan, of Santa Rosa, and J.W. Cook, now of Maxwell, relocated the grounds of the Colusa Company, working some time ; but they suspended, and since that time nothing has been done in these mines.

"Coal was discovered in the foothills on the road between McMichael's, in Antelope, and G.C. Ingrim's, in Bear Valley, in the spring of 1855, by Isaac Howell and son; but no developments were made.

"In 1865, J.B. Turner also found coal on the left bank of Little Stony Creek, near Ashton, of good quality, but never developed any of the seams.

"In 1882, E.S. Ashley, in Antelope Canon [with tilde], one half mile east of Sites, found coal of fine quality. A tunnel was started to examine the extent of the deposit; but this not appearing satisfactory, work was stopped.

"In 1887, John Arnett discovered a good vein on Little Stony Creek, two miles southeast of Smithville. Not considering it profitable, no further exploration was made by him. As coal exists in many places in the western part of the county, the discovery of large deposits will depend on the pospector [sic] of a future day.

"Gold and Silver.-- In 1864, J.W. Brim, J.K. Weast and others found quartz containing both metals on Trout Creek, at the foot of Snow Mountain, situated a few miles west of Fouts

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Springs. They put up an arrastra and worked a few months ; but returns not being satisfactory, they suspended.

"About the same time the Manzanita mine, at Sulphur Creek, was worked by Woodruff Clark and William Cherry, for gold, paying fairly well. There were other silver claims prospected, namely, the Foolcatcher, by San Francisco parties, but only to a very small extent.

"Quicksilver was discovered in 1865, in the western part of Bear Valley, and across the line in Lake County.

"The Abbot mine for several years paid well. The Ingrim, Buckeye and Sulphur Creek were developed and beginning to pay a profit, when the price of the metal fell to fifty per cent, of former values, and the production was not profitable. J. Furth, J.W. Brim, J. Hart, W.S. Green, G.C. Ingrim and others were prominent in that industry. Their works were closed and have never been reopened.

"Sulphur exists in large deposits at Sulphur Creek, whence Johnson, of Sulphur Creek, shipped a great quantity in 1866 and 1867. The shipment is now discontinued.

"Petroleum was found in many places in Antelope and Bear Valley in February, 1865. The Lane Mining District was organized at that time. Quite an excitement was created by the news, and people came rushing to the hills to locate claims, and to bore for oil. Louis Lewis bored with hand-drills, on what is known as the Glotzbach place, on Freshwater, a well about four hundred feet deep, the same now being a flowing well emitting a strong inflammable gas, burning freely if conducted through a funnel and set afire. The oil was not in sufficient quantity, and the gas could not be used profitably ; so the place was deserted by Lewis.

"Hughes and Mrs. Warner, of Sacramento, used a steam engine in boring for oil at Mr. Lane's, now McMichael's place. They never succeeded in finding oil worth mentioning.

"Taylor, of Virginia City, bored at the Gilmore ranch, in Bear Valley; and several others bored in different places in the foothills. Not being successful, they suspended work, and no new effort has been made since to prospect for oil.

"Chrome Ore. -- This ore was discovered in township nineteen north, range six west, on Big Stony Creek, by J.P. Rathbun, William Needham and others, several years ago.

"Several shipments of the ore were made; its quality was reported to be good, but the work was discontinued from some cause not known. A mine is now being opened southwest of Newville.

"Limestone was also found by Rathbun Brothers, in township sixteen north, range five west, two miles north of Leesville,
[photo The Stone Corral ]

[photo Stone Quarry at Sites ]

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on the Indian Valley road, in 1878. They erected a limekiln and burned lime of very good quality ; but the limited demand in the vicinity was the cause for stopping further prosecution of work."

It will be noticed that Mr. Weyand says that after the little excitement of 1865 no new effort was made to prospect for oil. Mr. Weyand's statement was made in 1890, and was true at that time; but ten years later the western part of the county was in the midst of one of the greatest oil excitements it had ever known. In 1901 nineteen oil companies filed articles of incorporation with the county clerk, and there were dozens of individual prospectors and locators of claims. Somebody had found a little pool of oil seeping through the ground at the edge of Bear Creek, between the lower end of Bear Valley and the mouth of Sulphur Creek. At once the theory was developed that this was boiling up from an immense reservoir of oil down beneath the surface of the earth, and men made haste to be among those who would share in the tapping of this great reservoir of oil and wealth. Borings were made, not only in the vicinity of the first discovery, but as far away as the Mountain House; and it took four or five years to discourage the prospectors. One company kept on for nearly ten years, but finally gave it up. This was the Williams Oil Company, which had between six hundred and seven hundred acres of land leased, and drilled at least three wells.

A deposit of mineral paint was found on Little Stony Creek, near Cooks Springs, in 1909, and the Ruby King Mining, Townsite & Improvement Company was formed to develop it. Owing to inadequate transportation facilities, the mine has never been developed to any great extent ; but it may yet prove to be a paying investment.

When the war sent prices soaring in 1914, interest was revived in the cinnabar mines of Sulphur Creek, and work was resumed in some of the mines there. An account of the Manzanita and Cherry mines will be found elsewhere in this volume.

Quarrying

In 1892, six years after the railroad was completed to Sites, a quarry was opened up a half mile east of the town; and from there some of the finest building stone ever seen in the state has been shipped. The Colusa Sandstone Company was the first to operate; but a few years later John D. McGilvray, the man who put up the buildings at Stanford University, opened up a second quarry and shipped hundreds of tons of Colusa sandstone to San Francisco, where it was used in some of the finest buildings in the city, or any city, The Ferry Building, the Spreckels Building,

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the Emporium Building, and the Kohl Building are some of those in which Colusa sandstone was used; and it was found at the time of the great fire in 1906 that this stone resisted heat better than any other stone used in the city.

In 1905 the quarries produced 118,051 cubic yards of sandstone, worth $289,451. For some years before the Colusa & Lake Railroad suspended operations, the quarries had not been doing much, as concrete had largely taken the place of stone in building; and when the railroad quit, the quarries were of course put entirely out of business.
_______

CHAPTER XIII

Manufacturing

Local Economic Conditions Unfavorable to Manufacturing

This chapter will necessarily have to be short. I am not sure but that it would have been more appropriately headed "Attempts at Manufacturing"; for it must be admitted that Colusa is not a manufacturing county. We produce immense quantities of raw material; but it is shipped as raw material, and the finished product is manufactured elsewhere. Continually we hear the cry, "What this town needs is a pay roll"; and every town in the county has answered the cry by establishing, or trying to establish, a factory of some sort. Most of the attempts made, however, have met with failure. We have tried to turn our broom straw into brooms, but a larger town took the factory out of the county. We have tried to turn our timber into lumber, but the timber supply gave out. We have tried to turn our water into ice, but the trust gobbled us. We have tried to turn our paddy into rice, but capital avoided us. We have tried to turn our beets into sugar, our barley into beer, our fruit into cans; but something always happened, and kept happening, to thwart our desires. And so we've seen our fondest hopes decay, and again decay, with apparently no economic formaldehyde at hand to prevent or check the disintegration. A number of reasons might be cited in explanation of this state of affairs; but one reason overshadows all the rest: We haven't time to waste with manufacturing.

Let me explain. Manufacturing requires a constant and plentiful supply of labor. Labor necessarily works for wages. But how are you going to get a man to work for wages when he can go to the edge of his home town, put in a crop, and for every grain he sows get a hundred grains a few months later ? For I want to submit this : Farming, under ideal conditions, is the most profit-

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able legitimate business on earth -- except manufacturing Ford cars; and farming conditions, along many lines, are so nearly ideal in Colusa County that nobody wants to fool away time and capital in a manufacturing concern that may, perhaps, pay six per cent, a year, when he can put in a crop and make five hundred per cent, on his investment in six months. To illustrate my point, take the rice business. It costs about thirty dollars an acre to plant and harvest a rice crop. An acre will produce, under good conditions, and has produced in this county many a time, sixty sacks of rice, worth at present three dollars per sack. That makes one hundred eighty dollars per acre, or six hundred per cent, on the investment. You have there the big reason why factories haven't made much headway in this county. There aren't enough poor people to work in them.

Sawmills and Flouring Mills

The history of manufacturing in Colusa County goes back to 1852, when a man named Morrison built a combination grist and saw mill on the bank of the river about a mile below Sycamore. The sawmill made lumber out of the oak trees that grew in the neighborhood. But it wasn't good lumber; it warped badly, and when dry was so hard that you couldn't drive a nail into it. Moreover, the oak trees were very hard to work; and as the supply was limited, they had to be brought from an increasingly long distance each year. So the sawmill part of the enterprise was abandoned after two or three years. The grist-mill, however, continued to run for over thirty years ; but it now is also abandoned.

And now that I have begun the discussion of grist-mills, or flouring mills, as they are more commonly called today, let me treat the subject in detail. Colusa has the honor of having the second flouring mill in the county By the end of 1852 the lands along the river had been pretty well settled up; and there soon came to be a considerable production of wheat, as well as a growing demand for flour. Dunlap & Turner built a sawmill in Colusa in 1853 ; but, seeing that wheat was more plentiful than timber, and was becoming more plentifiul while timber was becoming scarcer, they soon took out the saws and changed their mill to a grist-mill. They made a brand of flour that captured the premium at the State Fair in 1867, and commanded a higher price than any other flour in the Marysville or Sacramento markets. The mill was often forced to run night and day to keep up with the demand. Charles Spaulding operated this mill for many years, but in 1874 J.D. Gage and Gil Jones bought it. Gage & Jones erected a new building, put in new machinery, and increased the already wide reputation of the Colusa mill; but the mill became

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worn out and obsolete, competition from more modern mills in neighboring towns pressed it closely, and it was finally abandoned and torn down. The lot where it stood has gone down the river, for it was located about one hundred feet northwest of the present foot of Sixth Street, where the middle of the river now is.

Some time in the sixties, but just when, I have been unable to learn, a flour mill was built at Princeton, which continued to operate for over twenty years. It was run by steam and was what was called a burr mill; that is, one in which the grain is ground between revolving stones. By 1885 the old mill was about worn out ; and as its business was being absorbed by more modern mills, it was closed and later torn down.

In 1863 John L. Smith settled near the junction of Big Stony Creek with Little Stony Creek, and laid out a town which he called Smithville. Evidently Mr. Smith came to share the general belief that every town needs a pay roll, for in 1878, fifteen years after his town was born, he built a flour mill, which was run by water from the Big Stony. This he operated till 1890, when he sold it, with the rest of his holdings, to the Stony Creek Improvement Company. The company moved the mill to a better location, rebuilt it, and put in modern machinery; but as the boom they had planned for the town did not fully materialize, the mill was closed down after a few years. Lack of wheat was also responsible in part for the closing of the mill.

The next community to tackle the flouring-mill business was Williams. In 1879, a year after Mr. Smith built his mill at Stonyford, a company was formed at Williams to build a flouring mill. It was called the Williams Flouring Mill, and the capital stock was twentv-five thousand dollars. The directors were J.C. Stovall, H.P. Eakle, W.H. Williams, John Stanley and J.O. Zumwalt. The business was highly successful, and would no doubt have continued to this day had not the mill burned down, leaving Williams without a mill for many years.

The building of the Colusa & Lake Railroad in 1886 stimulated business in Colusa, and in the fall of that year a second flouring mill was begun in the town. It was. called "Sunset Flouring Mills," and was ready for the installation of machinery in January, 1887. It turned out its first flour on April 5, 1887. On August 1, 1889, the Colusa Milling Company was incorporated with a capital stock of forty thousand dollars, and the Sunset Mills were bought of W.E. Browning & Company. The officers of the company were W.P. Harrington, president ; George Hagar, vice-president; E.C. Barrell, secretary; and J.C. Bedell, superintendent. The Colusa Milling Company continued to grow and prosper for twenty-seven years. In 1916 they sold out to the

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Colusa Milling & Grain Company, of which E.H. Weckbaugh is president and general manager. The mill is doing a very prosperous business at present.

In 1916 Williams decided to try the milling business again. The Williams Parmer had been repeatedly calling attention to the fact that Williams, although in the center of a great wheat-growing district, was buying its flour from outside. Finally the Williams Milling Company was formed, and a mill was built adjoining the Southern Pacific tracks in the southeast part of town. It is a modernly equipped mill, with every facility for doing good work, and has established a good business. The directors who launched the project were H.W. Wakefield, Roy Welch, B.L. Fouch, W.W. Percival and W.C. Percival.

Manufacture of Salt

In the account of his exploring trip to Colusa County in 1844, John Bidwell mentions a salt lake which he found in the hills north of where the town of Sites now stands. The water was so salt that neither men nor horses could drink it, although they were almost famished for water. Peter Peterson afterward acquired the land about there and called it "Salt Lake Ranch." The possibilities for making money from its saline water very early excited the imagination of those who saw the lake. Salt was made there as early as 1860, but only in small quantity. In 1889 J.P. Rathbun took up the work in earnest, and made several tons of salt; and the next year he made ten tons more. The water contained from fifteen to forty per cent, salt, and Mr. Rathbun was enthusiastic over the prospects. In 1892 the Antelope Crystal Salt Company was formed with fifty thousand dollars capital stock, and plans were made to manufacture salt on a large scale. The directors of the company were J.P. Rathbun, Peter Peterson, W.P. Harrington, W. S. Green, G.B. Harden, P.H. Graham and R. DeLappe. The company did not get very far till it discovered that it could not make salt in competition with ocean-water salt, and the enterprise was therefore abandoned.

Projects for a Sugar Factory

I have told something of the attempts to establish a sugar factory in this county. The first attempt was made in 1895, and the second in 1896. Then the matter rested till 1905, when it was taken up with renewed vigor and one hundred thousand dollars was subscribed toward building a factory ; but this attempt also resulted in failure. After that the factory was built at Hamilton City; and as it will furnish a market for all the Colusa

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County beets that can be grown, this county will probably have to do without a sugar factory.

Canning and Packing

Beginning with 1884, the fruit industry about Colusa boomed. Many orchards of pears, peaches, prunes and apricots were planted up and down the river. No provision had been made for handling the fruit, however ; and there was much talk of a canning factory. Several preliminary meetings were held; and in April, 1889, the Colusa Canning, Drying and Packing Company was incorporated, with W.P. Harrington, W.T. Beville, L.L. Hicok, E.A. Bridgford, J.B. DeJarnatt, F.W. Willis, and A.S. McWilliams as directors. The enterprise was launched with great enthusiasm; and that fall forty thousand five hundred sixty-six pounds of raisins, prunes and canned fruits were shipped. On August 15, 1891, the following appeared in a local paper concerning the cannery :

"Twenty tons of fruit are now in the cannery, and they expect to have fifty tons more. About sixty hands are employed at present, and one hundred more are wanted. The warehouse just now contains about forty thousand cans of fruit, and fifteen thousand cans have already been shipped East. The cannery people expect to ship about two hundred thousand cans altogether this season. They have finished with apricots and have just commenced with pears. About the nicest peaches they have gotten so far came from the Henry Ahlf place on the east side of the river."

Less than three years after the above was written, the cannery was a matter of history. It did not pay, and therefore operations were suspended. The Colusa Dried Fruit Company opened up for business in the brick building at Seventh and Market Streets in 1900, where it was operated for a few years; and then it, too, succumbed.

Creameries

So far as I know, there have been only three creameries in the county to date, although every little town ought to have one. On November 23, 1895, a representative of the Pacific Creamery Company came to Colusa to interest the dairymen in a cooperative creamery. He may have interested them, but he didn't establish a creamery at that time. On January 6, 1897, the Colusa Cream Association, headed by H.B. Turman, bought a lot on which to establish a creamery ; and in March following, the Colusa Creamery Company was incorporated with H.B. Turman, H.

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Morris. Frank Wilkins, E.C. Peart, and U.W. Brown as directors. A creamery was built, and was operated for a year or two; but there weren't enough cows to keep it going, and consequently it failed. Its building was on the north side of Market Street, between Third and Fourth, and is now used as an ice house.

In 1903 the Colusa Butter Company was incorporated with L.L. Hicok, E.B. Vann, D.W. George, O.J. Kilgore, and J.H. Kilgore as directors. This company built a creamery and under the careful and skillful guidance of Mr. Hicok, operated it with success and profit till 1909, when it was bought by the Western Creameries Company and went into the great creamery trust that was being organized at that time. The trust proved to be a failure, "and in 1912 the Western Creameries Company sold its Colusa plant to M.A. Sickels, one of the best creamery men in the state, who is turning out every week about twelve thousand pounds of the finest butter that can be produced, butter for which the consumer has paid as high as sixty-two and a half cents a pound.

In 1913 the Stonyford Creamery was organized with A.T. Welton, F.M. Kesselring, Bruce H. Sutlitf, W.E. Whitcher, and G.T. McGahan as directors. They built a fine little creamery, installed the latest machinery, and made a product that could not be improved upon. This creamery shut down for a year or two, but it has been reopened and is now in operation.

Steam Laundries

On March 20, 1895, J.R. Phillips opened a steam laundry in Colusa ; but Chinese competition killed it, and it had to close for lack of patronage and competeut help.

In 1911 John C. Mogk promoted and organized the Colusa Steam Laundry Association, with himself, G.A. Olson, Herman Jacobson, Wilson Scarlett, and B.C. Maves as directors. The new enterprise couldn't compete with the Orientals, however, and kept running behind each month till December, 1913, when the plant was sold to W.H. Graham. Mr. Graham has made a success of it, in spite of very poor support by people who ought to patronize it. The assosiation assessed its members six dollars each to pay its debts, and disbanded.

Madam Bordes started a French steam laundry in 1911, but it burned down a year or two later and was not rebuilt.

Ice Plants

Colusa has also tried the ice business. In January, 1880, J.B. Cooke, of the Colusa Waterworks, began the manufacture of ice; but the venture did not pay and was discontinued.

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In January, 1907, Eybel & Webber bought a lot on Market Street ; and in "1908 Mr. Eybel organized the Colusa Meat & Cold Storage Company. W.C. Blean finished a ten-thousand-dollar concrete building for the company on January 1, 1909 ; and at once an ice and refrigerating plant was installed. The first ice was turned out on May 4, 1909 ; and for two years the business was apparently prosperous. Then the Union Ice Company came in, and an ice war began on May 1, 1911. The result was that in March of 1913 the Colusa Meat & Cold Storage Company leased its ice plant to the Union Ice Company, which closed it down ; and a perfectly good ice plant is now rusting in the basement of the building. That was the end of homemade ice for us.

Iron and Steel Manufactures

Factories for working iron and steel have been practically limited to the blacksmith shops. In 1882 the Williams Foundry and Machine Shop was organized by J.C. Stovall, W.H. Williams, Henry Husted, J.O. Zumwalt, J.G. Moyer, J.W. Woodland and F.M. Boardman, and did a modest business.

In 1888 the people of Colusa were made to believe that their town was the proper location for a great factory for the making of farm machinery of all kinds. A firm named Gessner & Skinner were ready to undertake such an enterprise, provided the proper inducements were forthcoming. So the town got behind the project to the extent of at least a site for the building; and on February 4, 1889, the Colusa Agricultural Works was put in operation for the purpose of turning out plows, wagons, buggies, traction engines and agricultural implements. Gessner & Skinner lasted about a year, and then J. Grover had to take charge of the remains. He sold them in 1892 to Wulff & Lage ; and a short time later Frank Wulff bought his partner out. For twenty-one years Mr. Wulff conducted the Colusa Foundry & Machine Shop. In 1914, after Mr. Wulff's death, Mrs. Wulff leased the works to T.E. Maroney and H.S. Hern ; and they later bought it. Mr. Hern has retired from the business, and Mr. Maroney is now the sole proprietor.

The Brewery

About the year 1870 a brewery was started in Colusa. The first building was of wood, and was located near the corner of Main and Eighth Streets. Some years later a new brick building was erected at the corner of Main and Eighth. For many years, under the proprietorship of G. Kammerer, this brewery supplied much of the local demand for beer. It was sold in 1891 by the sheriff, to satisfy a mortgage; and since that time Colusa people have been compelled to drink imported beer if they drank any.

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Light, Power, and Water Companies

On March 31, 1886, the town of Colusa emerged from the coal-oil era and began the manufacture of gas. The Colusa Gas Company was organized, and began operation under the following directors : J.W. Goad, D.H. Arnold, George Hagar, W.D. Dean, A. Bond and E.W. Jones. This company sold out to the Pacitic Gas & Electric Company when it came to Colusa in 1900, and the town still uses gas made on the premises.

In 1909 C.K. Sweet launched the Williams Water & Electric Company, and supplied the town of Williams with light, power and water.

Manufacture of Brooms

There have been two attempts to establish a broom factory in Colusa. The first attempt was made in 1893 by William Prater, of Red Bluff; and the second, in 1909, when J.W. Van Winkle made brooms for a time in J.C. Mogk's warehouse, near the old Colusa waterworks. After being here a few months, Mr. Van Winkle moved his factory to Sacramento.

Manufacture of Poultry Supplies

In March of 1912, M.C. Rogers, George Ash, W.H. Ash, G.C. Comstock, and A.H. Burns incorporated the Rogers Manufacturing Company at Williams, for the manufacture of portable, sanitary chicken houses and other poultry supplies. The company was moved to Sacramento last year, depriving this county of one of its chief factories.

Other Projects

It would be practically impossible to mention all the factories of various kinds that almost got going in the county. There were dozens of them, and one of the most prominent was a rice mill for Colusa. This project has been agitated two or three times since the rice industry came; but the greatest effort was made in 1913, when a permit was obtained from the state authorities to sell stock. The response, however, was far from encouraging; and in 1915 the permit was revoked.

In 1895 W.W. Felts, E.F. Peart, G.F. Scott, J.K. Bartholomew, C.C. Felts, G.B. Harden, E.E. Scott, W.F. Ford, and U.W. Brown organized the Felts Electric Light & Power Company, for the purpose of making and putting on the market a wonderful new electric battery that had been invented by Editor W.W. Felts. The battery did not materialize as a commercial proposition.

In 1899 C.D. Stanton, H.H. Seaton, A.F. Shriver, G.F. Scott, and U.W. Brown organized the Western Acetylene Gas Company,

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principal place of business, Arbuckle, for the purpose of manufacturing and installing acetylene gas plants. They did some business, including the fitting out of the Golden Eagle Hotel in Colusa with an acetylene plant, but not enough to keep the wolf from the door.

In 1907 A.S. Lindstrom, C.H. Glenn, C.R. Wickes, B.H. Burton, Tennent Harrington, M.J. Boggs, and H.C. Stovall organized the Snow Mountain Electric Power Company, for the purpose of putting in an electric power plant just where the north fork of Stony Creek enters the main stream. They built a fine mountain road from Fouts Springs to the site of the power house, and then abandoned the work.

This chapter will have to end somewhere, and it may as well end here. Other corporations and enterprises, not of a manufacturing nature, will be mentioned in a later chapter, under head of the various towns in which they are located.
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CHAPTER XIV

Newspapers

Colusa

Colusa County worried along for twelve years, in the beginning, without a newspaper. The Colusa Sun was the first paper ever published in the county. It was founded on January 1, 1862, by Charles R. Street, who published it till some time in the summer of 1863, when he sold it to T.J. Andus. On September 26, 1863, Mr. Andus sold it to Will S. Green and John C. Addington; and in 1873 Stephen Addington bought half of his brother's half interest, and thereafter edited the paper whenever Mr. Green chanced to be away. In 1886 the Colusa Sun Publishing Company was formed, and it has since published the paper. For many years the Sun was a weekly paper ; but when in 1889 the Daily Gazette appeared, the Sun was forced to meet the competition, and on November 1, 1889, its first daily edition appeared. It also issued a semi-weekly in connection with the daily, and later changed the semi-weekly to a tri-weekly, which, with the daily, it now issues. Will S. Green was editor and guiding spirit of the paper until his death in 1905, and since that time Mrs. Green has had editorial charge. Jack McCune has been in charge of the mechanical department for the past twenty-five years, and has made the paper mechanically one of the best in the state. The Sun has had a decided influence on the shaping of affairs in Colusa County in the last half century. It has always been radically Democratic in politics.

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The Colusa Independent was established in 1873. It lived almost four years, passing away in 1877.

The Colusa Herald was started as a Republican weekly in July, 1886, by Jacobs & King. Mr. King sold out his interest to Frank Radcliffe, and the paper later passed to C.D. Radcliffe. S.H. Callen owned it for a short time, but in 1897 John L. Allison bought it. In 1900 the ownership was transferred to a stock company, of which J.L. Allison, G.A. Ware, James Balsdon, A.A. Thayer and G.C. Comstock were directors. On July 25, 1900, Mr. Allison made a daily of the Herald, and for a time Colusa had three dailies. On January 1, 1905, the paper was changed back to a weekly ; and on June 1 of that year it was sold to C.D. McComish, who continued it as a weekly till May, 1910, when it was changed to a semi-weekly. On February 1, 1916, Mr. McComish sold the Herald to Tompkins & Harriss, who came from Lexington, Ky., to take charge of it. They still own it, and have made a triweekly of it, adding a telegraph news service.

The Colusa Daily Gazette was established in 1889, making its first appearance on August 23. Its editor and publisher was E.I. Fuller, and he led about as exciting a life as could be found off the melodramatic stage. Mr. Fuller's literary forte was criticism, sometimes of a very caustic nature. His wife kept a tamale parlor; and his paper was generally, almost universally, called the "Tamale Wrapper." The Herald referred to the Gazette as E.I. Fooler's blacksmith shop; and although I have never seen a copy of the Gazette, I could till the rest of my space with stories of this eccentric editor's antics. The paper ceased publication about 1901.

Williams

The first newspaper to be established in Williams was called the Central News. It was first issued on February 20, 1882, and was edited by G.B. Henderson. It was not well supported, and didn't last long.

The Williams Farmer is the only paper that has ever made a success of the publishing business in that town. It was started by S.H. Callen on August 18, 1887, and at first was a six-column four-page paper. Later Mr. Callen got a cylinder press so small that it wouldn't print a six-column paper; so he changed the Farmer to a four-column eight-page paper. In 1890 he sold a half interest to George W. Gay, but in 1892 bought it back again. Mr. Callen died on July 24, 1911, since which time Mrs. Callen has leased the paper to various parties. R.R. Kingsley, H.M. Keene, and J.P. Hall are among those who have directed the destinies of the

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Farmer at different times since 1911. Leo H. Bowen is the present lessee. Under Mr. Callen the Farmer was a Democratic paper, but of recent years it has been independent in politics.

The Williams Enterprise was established in 1911 by R.R. Kingsley, who had been an employe on the Farmer. After a few months of precarious existence, the Enterprise was throttled by its owner, who leased the Farmer for a time, and then suddenly left town. For a time afterwards there was a good deal of speculation as to what had become of him, but he finally turned up down about the bay cities.

Arbuckle

Arbuckle has had at least one newspaper ever since 1890. On April 4 of that year J.S. Taylor first issued the Arbuckle Autocrat. It was independent in politics; but in 1892 it supported the Prohibition party. Mr. Taylor some time later changed the name of the paper to the New Era ; and on January 1, 1899, he leased it to J.H. Hudson, who had established the Arbuckle Independent. W.W. Felts came into possession of the paper about 1902, and changed the name to Arbuckle Planter. Mr. Felts continued as proprietor till 1909, when he sold the paper to J.P. Hall. Mr. Hall changed the name once more, this time to the Arbuckle American. He made it a very live and interesting paper, and is still the editor and publisher. The American has had a big part in making Arbuckle a widely known almond center.

Maxwell

Just when Maxwell's first paper was started I do not know ; but it was some time prior to 1881, for in that year W.W. Felts, a veteran newspaper man, and James H. Hodgen bought the Maxwell Star. It continued publication only three or four years after the change of ownership, and then passed away and left the field clear for the Maxwell Mercury, which was first issued on July 14, 1888, by John G. and Charles C. Overshiner. The Mercury struggled along for a few years ; and then it, too, gave up the ghost, leaving Maxwell without a paper till 1912. In January of that year Harden & Hardwicke started the Maxwell Tribune, with George B. Harden, prominent business man, capitalist and booster, in the editorial chair. Mr. Hardwicke soon dropped out of the combination, and thereafter Mr. Harden ran the paper alone for several years, making it one of the most interesting news sheets in the valley. The patronage wasn't sufficient, however, to support the kind of paper Mr. Harden was making, and the Tribune last year

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suspended publication. L.H. Bowen, of the Williams Farmer, leased the plant a few months ago, and has revived the Tribune, doing the printing at the Williams Farmer office.

Grimes

Grimes has had two papers within the past seven years. On March 3, 1911, the Grimes Record was first issued, the editor and publisher being J.P. Hall, of the Arbuckle American, and the printing being done in the American office. Mr. Hall, who liad also established a paper at Meridian, soon decided that one country newspaper can make all the trouble any ordinary mortal needs; and so he discontinued all his papers except the American. About six months ago, L.H. Bowen decided to try his hack in Grimes ; he established the Grimes Independent, which is still being published, the work being done at the office of the Williams Farmer.

Princeton

Princeton has also had at least two newspapers. In March, 1905, the Princeton New Era was launched by Joel H. Ford. The printing of the paper was done at the Colusa Sun office. After a few months, however, the New Era died of inanition, and since then Princeton has been without a paper, except that in 1914 Seth Bailey issued, from the Colusa Herald office, a few numbers of the Princeton Journal, and then gave up the attempt.

County Editorial Association

On September 28, 1889, the editors of the county met at Maxwell and formed a County Editorial Association. This did not last long. About the year 1914, J.P. Hall again got the editors of the county together; but the association formed at that time also proved not to be permanent.
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CHAPTER XV

Schools, Churches, and Lodges

Schools

Their school system is one of the things in which the people of this county take especial pride, and on which they spend money freely. The result is, that they have the very best schools obtainable, both in material equipment and in teaching force. They pay liberal salaries, ranging from seventy-five dollars a month for the

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smaller country schools to sixteen hundred dollars a year for the principalships of some of the town grammar schools ; and for the high schools, from one thousand to twenty-one hundred dollars a year. Moreover, some of the best school buildings in the state are to be found in this county.

The one great drawback to the progress of the rural schools of the county has been the immense size of the landholdings. For many years there was a tendency for the ranchers to add to their holdings rather than to cut up the ranches and sell them off to small holders. This of course made farm homes few and far between ; and as a result the history of some of the rural school distracts has been a record of a constant series of lapses and revivals, while others have lapsed and have never been revived. In 1891, according to Will S. Green, there was a stretch of territory extending from Colusa north along the river for fifty-five miles to Tehama, containing two hundred seventy square miles,' in which there were only three school children attached to the land -- that is, belonging to landowners. Similar conditions have obtained in all parts of the county ever since the first settlement, and in some sections will probably continue to exist for years to come. The dislike that most people have for solitude, and the consequent tendency to move to town, where the social advantages are greater, have also been hard on the country schools. Take Bear Valley for example : For many years two flourishing schools were maintained in the valley, one near Leesville and one at the lower end of the valley. The school in the lower end lapsed about 1907, and has never been revived; and today there are hardly children enough in the entire valley to maintain the Leesville school. Many other rural sections have suffered in the same way.

For ten years after Colusa County was organized there wasn't a schoolhouse in the county, and for half that time there wasn't a school. This is not at all to be wondered at, for the early comers were grown-ups, and most of them were men. About 1855 enough children to form a school had gathered in Colusa, and a school was established in the courthouse, where it was held for five or six years. In 1861 School Trustee John H. Liening raised eight hundred dollars by public subscription, and a schoolhouse was built at Fourth and Jay Streets, the first one in the county. It was of brick, twenty-eight feet long and twenty feet wide, and served its purpose till 1871, when a ten-thousand-dollar building was erected on Webster Street, between Fourth and Fifth. This building, with an addition erected in 1875, was the one torn down this year to make room for the magnificent new building that is being erected.

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During the ten years from 1861 to 1871 the number of school children in the county grew from twenty-nine to five hundred fifty-nine, and the number of schoolhouses from one to eleven; but it must be remembered that the county then included what is now Glenn County. No figures for that time for the present Colusa County are available. In 1879 the number of children was two thousand seven hundred eighty-seven, and the number of schools sixty-two. In the meantime the secret of farming the plains by summer-fallowing had been discovered, the railroad had come, and the wide stretches of territory had been peopled, at least sparsely.

In 1892, the year after the county was divided, there were thirty-eight schools, fifty teachers, and two thousand ninety-eight school children in the county; but since that time the number of children has gradually but steadily decreased in the rural districts, so that there are now over six hundred fewer children between the ages of five and seventeen in the county than there were twenty-five years ago. Today there are fifty-three teachers in the elementary schools, besides three special music teachers and twenty-five high school teachers; and the schools, under the enthusiastic and efficient leadership of Miss Perle Sanderson, county superintendent, are keeping fully abreast of all progress in educational methods. There are one thousand two hundred sixty pupils enrolled in the elementary schools, and two hundred thirty in the high schools.

The county is particularly proud of its high schools. There are five of them, one each at Colusa, College City, Williams, Maxwell and Princeton; and in physical equipment, personnel, and character of work they rank with the very best in the state. Colusa High School, which was established in 1893, has a teaching force of six and an enrollment of seventy-nine. In 1903 a fine new building was erected, and since then manual training and domestic science have been added to the curriculum. Pierce Joint Union High School was established at College City in 1897, the buildings of Pierce Christian College being used. It has a faculty of five members and an enrollment of forty-four. Williams and Princeton High Schools were both established in 1909. The school at Williams has a faculty of five and an enrollment of forty-one. The school at Princeton is a joint union school, the district taking in part of Glenn County. It has a faculty of five and an enrollment of fifty-two. Maxwell, the youngest high school in the county, was established in 1912. Its teachers number four and its students, forty-two. Maxwell, Princeton and Williams have beautiful, modern buildings and thorough equipment. The Princeton buildings cost forty-two thousand dollars and the Maxwell buildings, twenty-four thousand dollars.

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A number of private schools have been started in the county, but none has survived uninterruptedly. Only one is in existence now, St. Aloysius Convent School in Colusa. The first private school to be established was "Mrs. Clark's Select School for Young Ladies." In 1868 the first old brick school building in Colusa had been so far outgrown that all the pupils could not crowd into it. To meet the difficulty, Mrs. A.E. Clark organized her school for girls. Being unable to find quarters for it, she accepted the offer of the county supervisors to allow the use of their room in the courthouse; and her school was conducted there for two years, the supervisors holding their meetings in the county clerk's office. In 1870 Mrs. Clark bought a lot at Seventh and Jay Streets, and a building with accommodations for sixty pupils was erected for her. After a busy year in the new building, Mrs. Clark's health failed and she had to go East. The school was closed, but was later reopened in a building at First and Oak Streets, where it continued to run for ten or twelve years with varying success, finally closing permanently.

Mrs. D.B. Lowery opened a kindergarten in the old Methodist Church on Oak Street, Colusa, in September, 1879, and continued it for a few years, but finally gave it up and removed to Sacramento.

The most famous private school the county has had was Pierce Christian College, a sectarian college under the auspices of the Christian denomination, at College City. The founder of the college was Andrew Pierce, a Massachusetts Yankee who came to California in 1849. Mr. Pierce had been a shoemaker at home. In California he at first drove a freight team; but in 1855, after a trip back home, he settled down at the present site of College City and raised sheep. He was thrifty and frugal and soon became wealthy. In 1871, at the age of forty-eight, he died of consumption, leaving the bulk of his property for the founding of a college. Steps were taken to carry out his plans ; and in September, 1874, classes were begun in the church, the first college building being then under construction. In January, 1875, the college was moved into the new building, and the next year another larger building was completed. For many years the institution was prosperous, the attendance ranging from one hundred to one hundred seventy-five students ; but after a time the attendance began to fall off, and in 1894 the college closed its doors. The College City High School now uses the larger of the college buildings. Some of the most prominent men and women of the Sacramento Valley are alumni of Pierce Christian College, and it

[photo Pierce Christian College at College City]

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is a matter of genuine regret that the institution could not continue to live.

In 1882 Father Michael Wallrath, the untiring builder of the Catholic Church, secured a block of land in Colusa and began planning for a convent school. It was six years before the actual building was begun; but in 1888 ground was broken for a beautiful twenty-five-thousand-dollar building, and two years later it was opened for educational work. Its work has not been uninterrupted from then till now. Several times lack of patronage or lack of teachers has caused the convent school to suspend for a time; but it has always reopened, and is in operation today, giving promise of a vigorous existence for many years. The teachers are usually sisters or nuns of one of the various orders ; those at present in charge are Sisters of the Humility of Mary. The attendance this year is about one hundred.

Churches

Colusa County people cannot be charged with an overmastering fondness for church-going. They spread their activities over a number of lines, and some of these they emphasize much more than church attendance. Most of the churches of the county are weak; but there are some that have stood for nearly sixty years, pillars of defense in the cause of righteousness, and the story of the struggles of this department of the county's activities should find place here.

The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, has more church buildings in the county than any other denomination, and of course the chief congregation is to be found at Colusa. The following history of the Colusa church was prepared by J.W. Goad for the semi-centennial of the church in 1909 :
"My friends, we are here tonight to celebrate the fiftieth year of our existence as a church, which was organized by Brother James Kelsey in the year 1859. Rev. Moses Clampit was the first presiding elder of what was then called the Marysville District; and James Kelsey was the pastor of Colusa Circuit, which embraced Grand Island, Colusa, Princeton and Marvin Chapel, then known as Davis schoolhouse.

"Brother Kelsey told me that, the first time he came to Colusa, about a mile below the town he met a man in a wagon, and he stopped him and inquired if he could tell him if there were any Christians in Colusa. The man looked at him apparently a little surprised, and said, 'Mister, you are a stranger to me, but I will bet you this jug of whiskey against five dollars that you can't find a Christian in Colusa.'
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"Brother Kelsey came on a little further, when he came to a gallows where they had hanged a man a few days before. But the sainted Kelsey did not let these things move nor discourage him; he came on to town, and here he found a few faithful Christian men and women -- W.F. Goad, Mrs. George F. Jones, of Chico, J.T. Marr and his good wife, and a few others. He then organized this church, and preached here once a month in the old courthouse, which was used for preaching at that time. It was the house occupied by Judge Moore as a residence until a few years ago.

"A Sunday school was then organized, and W.F. Goad was the first superintendent. In the year 1860, Rev. B.R. Johnson was our presiding elder, and J.G. Shelton preacher in charge. That year we built the parsonage now occupied by Brother Horn. In 1861 T.C. Barton was presiding elder, and J.G. Johnson preacher in charge. In 1862 O. Fisher was presiding elder, and T.C. Barton preacher in charge. In 1863 O. Fisher was presiding elder and I.G. Hopkins preacher in charge. We then had preaching and all church services in the new courthouse. In 1864 T.C. Barton was presiding elder, and T.S. Burnett was preacher in charge. Brother Burnett was the brother of the first governor of California. In 1865 T.C. Barton was presiding elder, and J.G. Shelton was preacher in charge. That year the first church choir was organized in Colusa by Mrs. Ella B. Wall. She had given a concert and purchased an organ. The choir had met several times for practice and were prepared to give good music. District court had been in session for several days, and preaching was in the court room. Judge Keyser and a number of distinguished attorneys from abroad were in the congregation. Brother Shelton arose in the judge's stand and announced the first hymn, read the first two lines, and turned to the choir and said, 'You may sing it now, after a while, or not at all, just as you please.' One of the choir said, 'We will sing it now'; and they did. This was the beginning of choir singing in Colusa.

"In 1867-1868 P.O. Clayton was presiding elder, and J.G. Shelton was preacher in charge. During these years, the little old church was built by Brother Shelton, and dedicated by Bishop Marvin, and Colusa was changed from a circuit to a station.

"In 1868, at the conference in October, P.O. Clayton was appointed presiding elder, and L.C. Renfro preacher in charge; and they were here three years, until 1871.

"In 1871-1872 T.H.B. Anderson was presiding elder, and G.W. Fleming and E.K. Miller preachers in charge. During 1873-1875 T.C. Barton was presiding elder, and E.K. Miller preacher in charge. In 1873 the Pacific Annual Conference was held in
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Colusa by Bishop Doggett. On Sunday morning Bishop Doggett preached in the theater; and Brother Hoss, now Bishop Hoss, preached at night. In 1876 T.C. Barton was presiding elder, and J.C. Heyden was preacher in charge. In October, 1876, Rev. George Sim was appointed presiding elder, and T.H.B. Anderson preacher in charge. During the pastorate of the latter, this Trinity Church was built, the corner stone being laid on the 15th day of August, 1877, under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of California. Hon. W.C. Belcher, of Marysville, acted as Grand Master. The day was beautiful, and all Masonic lodges in Colusa County were represented. Brothers Sim and Anderson were here two years. James Kelsey was presiding elder, and T.H.B. Anderson preacher in charge, from October, 1878, to October, 1879.

"The building committee that built this church was T.H.B. Anderson, chairman; J.W. Goad, secretary; W.R. Merrill, J.T. Marr, C.C. Crommer, Jackson Hart, George Hagar and E.W. Jones. J.B. Danner was the builder of the brick work. Rice and Beach were the carpenters, and A.A. Cook, of Sacramento, architect. The cost of the building and furniture was $25,000, or thereabouts. It was dedicated February 20, 1881.

"The preachers that have served this congregation since then are as follows: In 1880, C.C. Chamberlain ; 1881 to 1883, T.A. Atkinson; 1883 to 1887, T.H.B. Anderson; 1887 to 1890, J.C. Simmons; 1890 to 1892, R.J. Briggs; 1892, E.A. Garrison; 1893, C.E.W. Smith; 1894 to 1898, R.F. Allen; 1898 to 1900, C.M. Davenport; 1900 to 1904, J.E. Squires; 1904 to 1906, W.P. Baird; 1906, J.R. Ward; 1907 to the present date, J. W. Horn.

"This church has been a power for good in this community; its influence cannot be estimated in this town and county. Among the beautiful pictures that hang on my memory's wall is this church and its membership. When I think of Kelsey, Shelton, Miller, Barton, Fisher, Chamberlain, Simmons, Garrison, Allen, and a host of others that have labored here with us, and that have gone on before and are now walking the golden streets, I almost wish that I were there. When they meet, it may be that they wonder why it is that we. Brother Anderson, tarry here so long. My prayer is, that we may so live that when the summons comes for us to join the innumerable company, we may hear the welcome plaudit, 'Well done, good and faithful servants'."

The preachers since 1910 have been H.V. Moore, H.M. Bruce, and J.W. Byrd, who is at present in charge. H.V. Moore, as eloquent and elegant a gentleman as ever drew the breath of life, was in charge when the present parsonage was erected. The

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old one was located at Sixth and Oak Streets, and is now occupied by Mrs. George Scott as a residence.

This denomination has churches at Arbuckle, Williams, Maxwell, Sites and Princeton. The first Arbuckle church was built in 1878, and a fine new one was erected in 1913. The congregation is now in charge of Rev. R.L. Sprinkle, as preacher. The Williams, Maxwell and Sites churches are combined in one charge, and Rev. J.B. Needham is the preacher. The Williams church was organized in 1880, and the Sites church in 1889. The Princeton church is combined with the church at Marvin Chapel, in Glenn County, and Rev. L.C. Smith is the preacher. The Methodist Church, which is the only church in Princeton, was dedicated on October 4, 1874. The Methodists also had churches at Stonyford and Leesville, but these have disintegrated.

The second Protestant denomination to have a church in Colusa was the Christian Church, which built its first church in town in 1869. The present structure was erected in 1881. The congregation has been a strong one in years past, but has fallen off recently. The ministers that have been in charge are J.C. Keith, W.H. Martin, C.A. Young, W.P. Dorsey, G.T. Nesbit, Guy W. Smith, H.G. Hartley, W.F. Reagor, E.W. Seawell, R.W. Tener, W.L. Neal, H.J. Loken, J.K. Ballon and R.C. Davis. The Christian Church at Williams was incorporated in July, 1881, and for many years was a thriving institution; but since the departure of Rev. J.A. Emrich, a few months ago, the church has had no minister and no regular services. The only church in College City is a Christian church, the pastor being Rev. A.A. Doak." This church was dedicated in 1893, and has always been vigorous until the past few years, during which the membership has fallen off. A Christian church was organized at Sycamore in May, 1875, and was served by the College City pastor for a number of years. The membership was never large, and for many years there have been no regular services in the church. A Christian church was built in Maxwell in 1886. In June of that year, while the church was under construction, a heavy wind blew it down, but it was later completed and dedicated. No services have been held regularly in it for many years. The youngest Christian church in the county is the Grand Island church, located near Dry Slough, south of Sycamore. This church was dedicated on November 11, 1900, and must be regarded as a monument to the public spirit and energy of Mrs. Maria Farnsworth, one of the early and finest pioneer women of the county. The Grand Island church has no pastor, but irregular services are held by the pastor at Colusa or others.

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The Catholic Church people built the first church in Colusa County. That was at Colusa, and the dedication took place on December 8, 1867. Up to this time all church services had been held in the courthouse, in schoolhouses or in private homes. On May 27, 1866, Father Crinnian held services in Colusa, and eighteen hundred dollars was subscribed for a church building; but a year and a half passed before the building was ready for dedication. Father F.C. Becker was the first resident priest. He remained eighteen months; and then Father A. O'Donnell came for two years, and Father Ed Kelly for eight months. After that came Fathers Coffee, Hagarty, Quigley, and Cassidy; and then, on March 27, 1877, came an epoch in the church's life, the arrival of Father Michael Wallrath. Father Wallrath found the church building that had been begun in 1867 still unfinished. He quickly finished it, and before he had been in charge for three years the congregation had grown so much that they were planning a new church. A little over ten years after Father Wallrath's administration began, the present fine brick building was finished. It was dedicated on October 9, 1887. From the beginning of his pastorate in 1877 to the day he was transferred to Woodland in 1911, Father Wallrath was a potent influence in the affairs of the Catholic Church, not only in this county but also in the entire Sacramento Valley. He held frequent services in the towns throughout the county, helped get a church in Maxwell in 1881, and built the Mt. St. Zachary Church near Stonyford. This church was later moved to Stonyford. It has never had a resident priest. Father Michael Hynes, of Maxwell, serves the churches at Maxwell, Stonyford, Williams and Arbuckle. Father C.C. McGrath, a genial son of old Ireland, has been pastor of the Colusa church since Father Wallrath left. Father Wallrath, who served the Colusa congregation for thirty-four years, died in 1917, and his funeral was one of the largest and most impressive ever held in the state; a special train was run from this county for the occasion.

The Baptists have three active churches in the county : one at Grimes, one at Arbuckle, and one at Maxwell. The Grimes church, which cost four thousand dollars, was completed in 1875, and is the only church in the town. It is therefore more or less of a "community" church, as, indeed, many of the other churches in the small towns are and ought to be. Rev. Walter F. Grigg is the pastor at Grimes, and Rev. H.G. Jackson ministers to the congregations at Maxwell and Arbuckle. The Maxwell church was incorporated in 1883, and the Arbuckle church in 1894. Both congregations are small.

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The Presbyterian Church in Colusa is the only one of that sect in the county. On Saturday, April 18, 1874:, a small company of people met in the schoolhouse in Colusa and organized a Presbyterian church with fourteen members. J.D. Gage, John Cheney, Dr. C.W. Hansen, E.B. Moore, and S.P. French were chosen trustees. The next day Rev. Thomas Fraser, who had been sent to oversee the organization of the church, preached to a great crowd in the Christian Church, which had been kindly loaned for the occasion, and a number of names were added to the membership roll. Rev. J.H. Byers was secured as pastor at a salary of twelve hundred dollars a year, and the Odd Fellows' Hall was secured for holding services. During the summer a building committee was appointed, and it selected the lot at the corner of Fourth and Jay Streets as a site for the church. Col. George Hagar and Jonas Spect donated the site to the congregation ; and in November, 1874, the contract for a three-thousand-dollar church building was let. The new building was dedicated on March 27, 1875, and before the end of the year was free of debt. A. Montgomery built the fence around the church lot at a cost of three hundred twenty-five dollars, and donated it to the congregation; and in 1888 Mr. Montgomery gave the church five thousand dollars in cash.

The first wedding in the church was that of John Henry Rowland and Miss Nellie Reed, which took place on June 6, 1875. The first funeral was that of Mrs. John Cheney, who died on May 11, 1876. Mrs. Cheney was one of the most faithful among the founders of the church, and one of the best women it has known. The first pastor was followed in 1875 by H.B. McBride, who came at a salary of one thousand dollars a year. From 1876 to 1879 W.P. Koutz was the pastor ; and then came James M. Smith, A. Fairbairn, George A. Hutchinson, J.C. Eastman, George R. Bird, and H.H. Wintler. In 1900 H.T. Dobbins, one of the finest of earth's fine men, took the pastorate and held it till the end of 1917, when he resigned. His successor has not yet been selected.

There is now under construction an addition to the church that will add a Sunday school room, a choir loft, and a kitchen to the equipment, and, it is hoped, will add new life to the membership. For many years Mrs. Florence Kirk, now Mrs. Florence Albery, was organist and had charge of the music of the church ; and later Miss Elizabeth Murdock, now Mrs. C.A. Poage, was organist. For the past fifteen years Mrs. Dobbins has been organist and choir director, a position that she has filled most efficiently.

The Episcopal Church of Colusa, which is the only one of that faith in the county, was organized about twenty-five years ago.

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For a time the congregation met in Odd Fellows' Hall, and later in a small building on Main Street; but in 1894 they erected a church building. This is a missionary parish, the membership being very small, and it is combined with Willows; the rector, Rev. C.H. Lake, serving both parishes. A very comfortable rectory is part of the church equipment.

The African M.E. Zion Church was incorporated on February 10, 1894. It has a church building, but no pastor or regular services.

Lodges

One who wanders along the path of lodge history in Colusa County will tind the way strewn with many wrecks. As a matter of fact, of all the lodges established, more have succumbed than have survived. Out of eighteen or twenty orders that have instituted lodges in the county, not more than six or eight now have lodges in active operation. The others have all fallen by the way or are in a comatose condition. The Masons, Eastern Star, Odd Fellows, Rebekahs, Workmen, Druids, Native Sons, Native Daughters, Grand Army of the Republic, Women's Relief Corps, Confederate Veterans, Daughters of the Confederacy, Knights of Pythias, Moose, Foresters, Eagles, Knights of Honor, Federated Brotherhood, Sons of Temperance, Good Templars, and perhaps some others that I cannot now recall -- for I am naming them from memory -- have all been represented in the county at one time or another; but the Masons, Eastern Star, Odd Fellows, Rebekahs, Native Sons, Native Daughters, Knights of Pythias, Moose, and possibly the Eagles, are all that hold regular meetings at present. New orders are organized from time to time, and now and then old ones give up the struggle, keeping the number of active orders in the county about the same. The march of time accounts for the passing of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Confederate Veterans, and their allied associations, whose ranks could not be filled from the oncoming generations; but only the natural inertia and apathy of the human race, coupled with the fact that there are more lodges than are necessary, can account for the decline and decay of most of the benevolent orders that have passed away.

The Masonic fraternity, the first one to plant a lodge in the county, now has five active lodges here, one each at Colusa, Arbuckle, Williams, Maxwell and Stonyford, with a total membership of two hundred sixty-six. These five lodges comprise the fifteenth district of the Jurisdiction of California; and Herman Jacobson, of Colusa, is Inspector.

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Colusa Lodge, No. 142, Free and Accepted Masons, was organized in Colusa on November 19, 1859, with seven charter members. In July, 1875, Equality Lodge was organized; and in 1880 each of these lodges had fifty-six members. On April 1, 1882, the two lodges were consolidated under the name of Colusa Lodge, with J.B. Cooke as Worthy Master, J. Furth as Senior Warden, W.N. Herd as Junior Warden, J.W. Goad as Treasurer, and W.T. Beville as Secretary. Mr. Seville has continued as Secretary ever since, with only one or two trifling breaks. He has been installed as Secretary thirty-eight times. The Masonic Temple, which stands at the corner of Fifth and Jay Streets, was begun in 1891, and was dedicated June 8, 1892. It is a frame structure, sixty-five by seventy feet in size, and cost ten thousand dollars. The lodge is in a flourishing condition, having at present eighty-five members. The officers for 1917 are W.L. Merrill, Master; W.T. Beville, Secretary; H.F. Osgood, Treasurer; Joseph Baum, Senior Warden; McPherson Montgomery, Junior Warden; J.D. McNary, Chaplain; C.J. Wescott, Senior Deacon; Frank L. Crayton, Junior Deacon; C.W. Young, Marshal; C.T. White, Senior Steward; Daryl DeJarnatt, Junior Steward; Leon F. Hicok, Tiler.

I do not have the dates of organization of the other Masonic lodges in the county, But they have all been in existence for many years. Meridian Lodge, No. 182, at Arbuckle, has fifty-one members and is officered by George C. Meckfessel, Master; S.A. Pendleton, Secretary; Douglas Cramer, Treasurer; J.R. Lindsay, Senior Warden; Milton F. Struckmeyer, Junior Warden.

Tuscan Lodge, No. 261, at Williams, has fifty-seven members and the following officers: Leroy Schaad, Master; P.H. Northey, Secretary; G.E. Franke, Treasurer; E.J. Worsley, Senior Warden; S.G. Linn, Junior Warden; G.W. Gibson, Senior Deacon; L.A. Mace, Junior Deacon ; A.A. Entrican, Marshal ; J.F. Abel, Senior Steward ; S.S. Eakle, Junior Steward ; B.F. Peters, Tiler.

Snow Mountain Lodge, No. 271, at Stonyford, has thirty-eight members and the following officers: G.L. Mason, Master; A T. Welton, Secretary ; D.J. Westapher, Treasurer ; R.H. Yearnshaw, Senior Warden; Samuel E. Stites, Junior Warden; Roy L. Walkup, Senior Deacon; G.J. Westapher, Junior Deacon; W.J. Lovelady, Marshal; Charles Alexander, Senior Steward; F.M. Kesselring, Junior Steward; J.M. Morris, Tiler.

Maxwell Lodge, No. 288, at Maxwell, has thirty-five members; and the present officers are S.E. Crutcher, Master; A.J. Fouch, Secretary ; F.H. Abel, Treasurer ; H.J. Arvedson, Senior Warden; C.E. Brennir, Junior Warden; J.W. Marshall, Chaplain; J.W. Danley, Senior Deacon; G.M. Clark, Junior Deacon;

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G.B. Harden, Marshal ; W.H. Lovelace, Senior Steward ; Horace Fisher, Junior Steward; M. Mathieson, Tiler.

In March, 1884, J.B. Cooke, J.B. DeJarnatt, C.E. de St. Maurice, and Rev. T.H.B. Anderson went to Marysville to obtain permission to establish a commandery of Knights Templar in Colusa ; and the organization formed as a result of that visit is in existence today. The present membership is forty-five, and the officers are W.C. Blean, Commander; C.D. Stanton, Generalissimo; B.H. Mitchell, Captain General; U.W. Brown, Prelate; Oscar Robinson, Senior Warden; Dr. E.S. Holloway, Junior Warden; F.J. Mendonsa, Warder; W.L. Merrill, Recorder; J.C. Mogk, Treasurer.

A chapter of Royal Arch Masons was also formed, and it has about forty-five members. The present officers are G.W. Moore, High Priest; F.J. Mendonsa, King; J.C. Mogk, Scribe; Oscar Robinson, Principal Sojourner; W.L. Merrill, Recorder; C.D. Stanton, Treasurer; W.C. Blean, Master of the Third Veil; U.W. Brown, Master of the Second Veil; Phil B. Arnold, Master of the First Veil.

Veritas Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, was organized at Colusa in 1884. It has always been an exceedingly active organization. The present officers are Miss Myrtle Hicok, Worthy Matron; Herman Jacobson, Worthy Patron; Mrs. Robert Cosner, Secretary; Mrs. C.D. Stanton, Treasurer; Mrs. Lloyd Merrill, Conductress; Miss Orlean Herd, Associate Conductress.

Eowana Chapter, O.E.S., was instituted on May 30, 1914, at Stonyford, the chapter being named by Mrs. Mary Turman, daughter of Dr. Robert Semple. The first officers were Mrs. Edith McGahan, Worthy Matron; D.J. Westapher, Worthy Patron; G.T. McGahan, Secretary ; J.M. Morris, Treasurer.

Loyal Chapter, of Williams, and Wild Rose Chapter, of Princeton, are also active organizations. The officers of Wild Rose Chapter are Mrs. Carrie Clapp, Worthy Matron ; Oscar Steele, Worthy Patron; Minnie Noe, Secretary; Mrs. C.M. Archer, Treasurer. Mrs. Leroy Schaad is Worthy Matron of Loyal Chapter; Bert L. Fouch, Worthy Patron ; Ida Entrican, Secretary ; Carrie I. Fouch, Treasurer.

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows has five lodges in the county; and there are also five lodges of the Daughters of Rebekah. Colusa Lodge, No. 133, was organized May 2, 1867. At first it met in a room on Main Street; but later Chris Swank built a hall for the lodge on Market Street, opposite the courthouse, and it was housed there till 1892, when the present building was erected at Fifth and Market Streets. It was dedicated

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on December 16, 1892, with impressive ceremonies. The charter members of the lodge were Moses Stinchfield, W.F. Goad, A.S. Gulp, T.G. Shelton, Jackson Hart, W.B. Pollard, John H. Byers, O. F. Cook and Charles Spaulding. The lodge now has ninety-five members and is exceedingly prosperous. It practically owns the building now, and will soon own it entirely. Recently it installed a handsome and expensive Edison phonograph for the pleasure of the members. The present elective officers are Algernon Butler, Noble Grand; Raymond Stewart, Vice-Grand; A.H. Walworth, Secretary; George H. Hall, Treasurer. Colusa Lodge had the reputation at one time of doing the best degree work in the Sacramento Valley. For nearly twenty years, under the management of W.D. Cook, the lodge ran a steamboat excursion each spring to the Odd Fellows' picnic at Grimes; but of late the growing use of automobiles cut down the patronage of the excursions so much that they were discontinued in 1916.

Princeton Lodge was organized at Princeton on January 15, 1877. It had thirty-five members at one time ; but the membership later waned to such an extent that it was merged with Colusa Lodge, about twenty years ago.

Central Lodge was instituted at Williams on March 8, 1875, and for a time it was in a flourishing condition ; but for the past fifteen years it has languished considerably. It has about seventy members, and the present elective officers are L.A. Manor, Noble Grand; J.H. Forsythe, Vice-Grand; Charles Haller, Secretary; C.C. Welch, Treasurer. The Noble Grand and Vice-Grand were both called to the colors shortly after being installed, and the lodge lost a number of other members in the same way.

Probably the livest lodge in the county is Grand Island Lodge, No. 266, which was organized on October 10, 1877, at Grimes. It owns its own hall, gives a picnic once a year that is the great social event of the county, and sends out snappy, well-drilled degree teams. It has about one hundred five members, and the present elective officers are Robert Allison, Noble Grand; Chris Hoy, Jr., Vice-Grand; Edward Smith, Secretary; Peter Grimm, Treasurer.

Spring Valley Lodge was instituted at Arbuckle on September 4, 1884. This lodge is in a flourishing condition. The present elective officers are C.E. Arvedson, Noble Grand; W.T. Day, Vice-Grand; G.F. Weyand, Secretary; W.D. Bradford, Treasurer.

Maxwell also has a flourishing lodge of Odd Fellows. On March 23, 1912, they dedicated a magnificent new hall that cost twenty thousand dollars. The elective officers are S.F. Watt, Noble Grand; Forest Danley, Vice-Grand; S.A. Hineline, Secretary ; J.P. Nelson, Treasurer.

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Colusa Encampment, I.O.O.F., was organized in Colusa in 1876 ; but it has long since lapsed.

Deborah Rebekah Lodge, of Colusa, was instituted in 1893, and has always been an institution in which its members take great pride. Its elective officers at present are Mrs. Raymond Manville, Noble Grand; Miss Lorena Newland, Vice-Grand; Miss Hattie Bell Caswell, Secretary ; Miss Ladye Edith Cartmell, Treasurer.

Valley Rose Rebekah Lodge, of Grimes, was organized in 1909, and now has about eighty members. The present elective officers are Mrs. Peter Grimm, Noble Grand; Mrs. Andrew Clark, Vice-Grand; Miss Irene Brown, Secretary; Mrs. Henry Houchins, Treasurer.

There are also Rebekah lodges at Arbuckle, Williams and Maxwell. The officers of the Williams lodge are Viola Forsythe, Noble Grand ; Kate Kissling, Vice-Grand ; Ada Schaad, Secretary ; Mary Graser, Treasurer. The officers of the Maxwell lodge are Myrtle Hineline, Noble Grand ; Irma Jacobson, Vice-Grand ; Elizabeth Nelson, Secretary; Elizabeth Nissen, Treasurer.

A parlor of Native Sons of the Golden West was organized in Colusa on October 5, 1885, with forty-one charter members ; but it failed to endure. Colusa Parlor, No. 69, was organized in 1903, with J.W. Kaerth, President; Fred Watson, Past President; Phil B. Arnold, First Vice-President; W.B. DeJarnatt, Second Vice-President; Parker L. Jackson, Third Vice-President ; J.M. Jones, Treasurer; W.C. Spaulding, Recording Secretary; J.S. O'Rourke, Financial Secretary. This lodge is still alive and healthy, and has done a number of things toward the improvement of the community, among them the restoration of the historic old stone corral in the foothills west of Maxwell. The present officers are J. Deter McNary, Past President; Warren Davison, President ; J.E. Roderick, First Vice-President ; Grover Power, Second Vice-President; George Martin, Jr., Third Vice-President; Phil Humburg, Jr., Marshal; M.W. Burrows, Recording Secretary; George Fromhertz, Financial Secretary ; G.L. Messick, Treasurer ; Bert Smith, Ben Ragain and Fred Muttersbach, Trustees; William Duncan, Inside Sentinel ; J.R. Manville, Outside Sentinel.

Williams Parlor, No. 164, of Native Sons was organized on November 1, 1907, with twenty-six charter members. Julian Levy is the President now.

The first parlor of Native Daughters of the Golden West was organized in Colusa on June 24, 1887 ; but it lapsed. On January 30, 1912, a second parlor was organized by District Deputy Grand President Mrs. Mae Hartsock, with the following officers: Past President, Mrs. W.J. King ; President, Miss Revella Burrows ; First Vice-President, Miss Loga Sartain; Second Vice-President,

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Miss Hazel Webber; Third Vice-President, Miss Florine Poirier; Marshal, Mrs. E.P. Jones; Inside Sentinel, Miss Genevieve Faughnan; Outside Sentinel, Miss Lulu May Roche; Recording-Secretary, Mrs. Alva King; Financial Secretary, Miss Mabel Kurtz; Treasurer, Mrs. W.S. Brooks; Trustees, Misses Rhetta Green, Kathryn Hankins and Ladye Edith Cartmell; Organist, Miss Eva Joseph. The present officers are Miss Eva Joseph, Past President; Miss Elzie Lopez, President; Mrs. A.M. Hampton, First Vice-President; Mrs. Max South, Second Vice-President; Mrs. George St. Louis, Third Vice-President; Miss Ladye Edith Cartmell, Treasurer; Miss Orlean Herd, Recording Secretary; Miss Loma Cartmell, Financial Secretary; Mrs. Frank Fogalsang, Marshal; Miss Ruth St. Louis, Mrs. Alva King, and Miss Myrtle Davis, Trustees ; Mrs. G.W. Hougland, Inside Sentinel ; Mrs. J.V. Stanton, Outside Sentinel ; Mrs. E.P. Jones, Organist.

On December 1, 1869, a lodge of the Knights of Pythias was instituted in Colusa. This was Oriental Lodge, No. 10; and O.S. Mason, E.W. Jones, and A.P. Spaulding were among the first officers. It lapsed after some years; and the county was thereafter without a Pythian lodge till October 9, 1909, when a second lodge was organized with twenty charter members. The present officers are George Mannee, Chancellor Commander; M.P. Montgomery, Vice-Chancellor ; C.C. Johnson, Keeper of Records and Seals ; A.P. Staple, Master of Finance ; Val Carson, Master of the Exchequer; H.D. Braly, Master of Works; F.W. Farnsworth, Inside Guardian ; John Hanlon, Outside Guardian.

The largest regular lodge ever started in the county was Colusa Lodge No. 834, Loyal Order of Moose, organized on December 13, 1911, with two hundred three members. Ninety were initiated in one night. The first officers were O.R. Mason, Past Dictator; F.W. Farnsworth, Dictator; F.M. Fogalsang, Vice-Dictator; W.E. Lewis, Prelate ; Albert Farnsworth, Sergeant-at-Arms ; W.S. Brooks, Secretary; J.O. Mason, Treasurer; H.D. Braly, Inside Guardian; George South, Outside Guardian; John Hanlon, J.T. Ward, and Fred Roche, Directors. This is the only Moose lodge in the county.

There is one lodge of the Fraternal Order of Eagles in the county. This is Colusa Aerie, No. 675; and it was instituted in June, 1904, with fifty-one members. For a time the lodge was in a very apathetic condition, and on February 2, 1912, E.J. Sanford arrived here to revive it. His efforts were successful, and the lodge is still in existence, but not very active. The present officers are Emil St. Louis, President ; George St. Louis, Vice-President ; Percy J. Cooke, Secretary; E.P. Jones, Treasurer.

Court Sioc, of the Independent Order of Foresters, was organized in May, 1892, with J.D. McNary as Chief Ranger and A.H.

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Caswell as Vice Chief Ranger. It was an insurance order, and greatly increased assessments drove many of the members out and worked a great hardship on those who stayed in. The present officers are G.W. Moore, Chief Ranger; J.P. Muttersbach, Vice Chief Ranger; C.C. Johnson, Secretary; J.F. Rich, Treasurer. The lodge does not hold regular meetings, and probably will soon be a matter of history.

The greatest fiasco in the lodge history of the county was furnished by the Ancient Order of United Workmen. This order, from 1871 to 1885, placed six lodges in the county; but there isn't a vestige of one left. On March 15, 1871, a lodge was organized at Colusa ; but it lapsed. O.S. Mason was the Master. On November 26, 1878, a second lodge was organized at Colusa, with W.H. Belton as Master. In 1879 a lodge was organized at Grand Island; and in 1881 a lodge was organized at Princeton, with twenty-six members. Arbuckle got a lodge in 1885, and Maxwell also had a lodge. They are all gone. A Degree of Honor, the allied feminine order of the Workmen, was also organized at Colusa, in 1893; but it, too, has passed away.

General John A. Miller Post, Grand Army of the Republic, was organized in Colusa on March 31, 1886. A.E. Potter, A.B. Cooper, Ed Riley, W.G. Henneke, and W.F. Landers are about the only members of this organization left. The Women's Relief Corps, the affiliated organization, established a branch here in 1891. with Mrs. S.R. Murdock as president ; but most of its members have also passed away. The only ones living that I know of are Mrs. G.W. White, Mrs. G.G. Brooks, Mrs. Alphonsine Poirier, Mrs. A.B. Cooper and Mrs. A.E. Potter.

Camp Pap Price, of the Confederate Veterans, was organized in Colusa on August 6, 1901 ; and at one time it had fifty-five members, although not all of them were from Colusa County. Major J.B. Moore has been Commander ever since the camp was started, and W.T. Beville is Adjutant. John L. Jackson, John T. Harrington, T.B. McCollum, J.P. Smart, M.R. Blevins, and Luther Hoy are among the members of the camp who are still living. Winnie Davis Chapter, United Daughters of the Confederacy, also flourished at Colusa for a time ; but death has greatly thinned the ranks of its members. Mrs. W.S. Green is the president; Mrs. H.M. Albery, vice-president; and Mrs. C.O. Jordan, secretary.

A lodge of the Ancient Order of Druids was organized in Colusa on May 28, 1875; but it lapsed after a few years. The Knights of Honor went by the same route. The latter was organized in Colusa in 1879. It was to pay the widow or orphans two thousand dollars upon the death of a member, an undertaking too big to be carried out. The Fraternal Brotherhood organized a

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were at all optimistic ; but in November, 1864, a copious rain fell, and for several years thereafter the county was untroubled by drought. Of course there were seasons when a little more rainfall wouldn't have hurt, and other seasons when the rainfall was poorly distributed from the farmer's standpoint ; but since 1864 the county has suffered much more from floods than from droughts. In the twenty years following 1864: the driest one was the season of 1876-1877, when the rainfall was a little over eleven inches ; but it was so distributed that a good crop was raised. The rainfall for the season of 1850-1851 was 7.42 inches ; hut the only season since which approaches that one in paucity of rainfall was the season of 1897-1898, when 9.38 inches fell. "The spring of 1913 was also dry; and the spring of 1917 gave promise of being a bad one for the farmers because of scarcity of rain, but the weather remained so cool till harvest time that an excellent crop was matured. The normal rainfall is eighteen inches. In the sixty-seven years since 1850 it has fallen short of this amount fifteen times and exceeded it fifty-two times.

On going through the newspaper files, one would be led to believe that the seasons had been growing increasingly wet ever since the foundation of the county. No less than a dozen times I ran across the statement, "Highest water ever known in the county," or "Rains the worst in history," or some similar statement. This can be accounted for partly by the license which the newspaper man sometimes takes with the facts, and partly also by the fact that as the river was more and more confined by levees it did rise higher and higher, and as improvements became more plentiful floods became more damaging. The average rainfall has not increased at all.

The heavy rainfall of the winter of 1867 made the roads of the county impassable for two or three months, and greatly decreased the acreage of grain sown. On the night of December 10 of that year the river rose three and one half feet, and "Colusa and its environs became an island in a yellow waste of water. Between here and the Coast Range the county presented the appearance of an inland sea." The spring of 1878 holds the record for heavy and continuous rainfall. Beginning January 13 of that year, it rained 10.73 inches in three days and four nights; and from the 14th to the 30th the rainfall was 12.65 inches. Thousands of sheep were drowned and much other damage resulted. The "greatest flood ever known" occurred on February 5 and 6, 1881. The Feather River came across the valley past the Buttes, and rushed up Butte Slough to its junction with the Sacramento River in such volume that the current was carried clear across the river and washed out the levee on the west side. In 1884 another

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"highest water" came, breaking the levees in many places and flooding thousands of acres of land. The year 1889 was another flood year. On March 17, 1893, it rained an inch in four hours. Heavy wind and heavy damage accompanied the rain. In 1894, 1895 and 1896 there were floods in January, and since then there have been a number of floods that have broken the levees. On March 6, 1911, it rained 3.12 inches, and on April 5, twenty-six thousand acres of grain went under water in District 108. The floods of February, 1915, were probably the most damaging in the history of the county. The river levee on the west side broke eight miles north of Colusa, two miles north, a mile south, at the Meridian bridge, and a mile above Grimes. The Northern Electric bridge at Meridian was wrecked, two miles of track between Colusa and Meridian were washed away or damaged, several miles of the Colusa and Hamilton Railroad were washed out, the power lines were broken, and Colusa was for a time cut off from all communication in any direction except by boat, and was without light or power for a week. No serious flood has occurred since then. Up to 1884, the latest date on which the heavy rains had begun was January 13. That year no heavy rains came till January 26, but there were floods in April.

The hottest spell the county ever knew was in 1879, when for forty-four consecutive days the thermometer went above one hundred degrees. The hottest summer of recent years was 1913, which had twelve days, not consecutive, with the thermometer over 100. The past ten years haven't averaged five days on which the temperature was over one hundred. There are two respects in which the climate has changed, or been modified. One is in regard to the heat of summer, and the other is in regard to north winds. The summers are cooler and do not have the long periods of hot north wind that used to be so disastrous. The change is due, no doubt, to the increased planting of alfalfa, and rice, and trees, which prevent the surface of the earth from becoming so hot. The most disagreeable element in the climate is the north wind, scorching hot in summer and cold in winter. In the early days the north wind sometimes blew for three weeks at a stretch, doing frightful damage to the grain if it came at the right time. But as I have said, orchards, alfalfa and rice seem to have moderated the wind, and it is seldom, of recent years, that we get more than three days of it at a time.

In the valley part of the county the thermometer has never gone below twenty-two degrees above zero, and seldom as low as that. In January, 1888, there was more suffering from cold than at any other time on record. With the thermometer at twenty-two above, a strong wind sprang up, and the people of the county had

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an experience that they have remembered. Ripe oranges were frozen on the trees, an occurrence that is so rare as to be remarkable. The fall of last year was also an exceptionally cold one, and the orange trees were considerably damaged.

The normal climate of Colusa County is made up of three months of ideal weather in March, April and May ; a warm June ; fairly hot weather in July and August ; a mixture of warm weather and cool, with possibly a little rain, in September; a beautiful October, with some rain ; cool weather, and more rain, in November ; colder weather, with occasional rain-storms, in December and January; and warmer weather, with showers, in February. Of course, there are many variations of this program. There have to be, or it would become monotonous. Sometimes there is rain in June or July or August, when the schedule calls for absolutely clear weather. For example, in four days, beginning June 12, 1875, it rained 1.31 inches and did a great deal of damage. Lighter showers have frequently come in the summer, always causing inconvenience, if not damage. In June, 1905, it rained and hailed both. Summer rain is generally accompanied by thunder and lightning, another unusual weather phenomenon in the Sacramento Valley. The county has been visited by a number of hail-storms, notably on March 16, 1861, when five inches of hail fell along Sycamore Slough; on February 17, 1873, when a terrific fall of hail occurred; and on June 21, 1890, when the "severest hail-storm ever seen" passed over Sites, Maxwell and Colusa, and the hailstones were "an inch in diameter and covered the ground a foot deep." On April 13, 1895, a heavy hail-storm struck Maxwell, killing small chickens and doing other damage. Other lighter hail-storms have come, but they are rare.

Snow comes on an average of every four or five years. On July 12, 1865, a little snow fell in Antelope Valley. On December 3, 1873, a foot of it fell in Colusa, and from twelve to eighteen inches on the plains, causing hundreds of sheep to die. On January 11, 1898, snow fell to the depth of four inches, and again in 1907 there was a heavy snow. About five inches fell on January 8, 1913; and on January 1 last year there were five inches of snow, and on the 28th, four inches more, making nine inches for the month. Anywhere from a trace to an inch or so has fallen on numerous other occasions.

The county has also felt a number of earthquake shocks, but none severe enough to do any damage or cause any alarm.

The foregoing discussion applies only to the valley part of the county. In the mountains there are snow and cold weather every winter.

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CHAPTER XVII

Miscellaneous Facts

I find, as I near the end of my work, that I have a large assortment of notes on subjects that didn't seem to fit in anywhere in the regular chapters of the history. I do not pretend that the list is at all complete, and I have made no attempt to weave them into a connected story; but they are undoubtedly interesting, and possibly valuable, and so I shall set some of them down here.

Picnics, Celebrations, and Public Gatherings

Colusa County has had several famous celebrations, some of them in series. For twenty years or more it has been the custom of the Grand Island Lodge, I.O.O.F., to hold a picnic near Grimes, to which practically the entire county goes. The event is always held on some Friday in May.

Since 1910 College City has held an annual barbecue and old-fashioned reunion about October 1.

Arbuckle has held an Almond Day annually for the past three years, and has gotten much permanent good from these events.

Stonyford holds a picnic every year, and the entire mountain population attends, together with hundreds of people from Colusa, Willows, Maxwell, Williams, and other valley towns.

Princeton held a celebration on March 18, 1893, because Governor Markham had signed the bill changing the boundary line so as to throw the Boggs ranch and the town entirely within Colusa County. Princeton also celebrated on April 30, 1910, the occasion being the presentation to the town of a drinking fountain by the widow and children of the famous pioneer, Hon. John Boggs. The celebration took the form of a rose carnival and barbecue ; and the rose carnival has been an annual event ever since, the one this year being held at Williams in conjunction with the people of that town.

Colusa held its first water carnival on June 18, 19 and 20, 1909. The attendance was five thousand. The second was held on May 28, 29 and 30, 1910. The crowd was not so large and the carnival was not so good as the first one, and those who hoped to see the water carnival an annual event realized that two events of the kind were all that would interest a Colusa County crowd.

The students of Colusa High School held a baking contest and pure food show on April 11 and 12, 1913, in Colusa Theater. Mrs. R.M. Liening captured three first prizes for bread.

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Colusa celebrated the coming of the Northern Electric with a carnival on June 13 and 14, 1913. About three thousand guests were present.

Colusa held its first, last and only municipal Christmas tree in 1911. Ernest Weyand acted as Santa Claus.

March 27, 1915, was Colusa County Day at the Panama-Pacific Exposition; and a special train was run from Maxwell to San Francisco, carrying about one hundred people from Colusa and as many more from other points in the county. The county donated $17,000 to the exposition, and the commissioners to see that it was spent properly were J.W. Kaerth, H.H. Schutz, J.J. Morris, G.B. Harden and G.C. Comstock. The manager of Colusa County's exhibit was F.B. Pryor.

Colusa County's first Chautauqua opened on June 6, 1915, and has been an annual event since then.

Williams celebrated the coming of the state highway on May 6, 1916, and entertained an enormous crowd.

Colusa held her first goose stew on October 31, 1914, to celebrate the laying of the corner stone of the new Hall of Records. Thirteen fifty-gallon kettles of stew, containing, among other things, eight hundred sixty wild geese, were served in the park to a crowd of three thousand people from all over the valley.

Public Works and Public Buildings

On March 16, 1883, a new Hall of Records was completed in Colusa at a cost of $25,000. On May 6, 1914, the contract for the present Hall of Records was let for $45,585.

A free reading room was opened in Colusa on July 3, 1890. The new Carnegie Library at Sixth and Jay Streets was first occupied on October 1, 1906.

The contract for a wooden bridge across the river at Colusa was let on September 2, 1881, at a cost of $16,500. The bridge was completed and accepted on December 28, 1881. A celebration marked the event. The present iron bridge was built in 1900 at a cost of $42,800, but the approaches and other extras brought the total cost up to $50,000.

Public Utilities

The telephone was first introduced into the county in 1878. In 1901 the Home Telephone Company was organized to build a line to Sycamore and Grimes. In 1906 the Colusa County Telephone Company was organized with C.L. Schaad, Oscar Robinson, W.T. Rathbun, P.R. Peterson and G.C. Comstock as directors; and for two years the county suffered the inconvenience of two telephone systems. In 1909 the two systems were combined.

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Telephone rates were raised in Colusa County in 1911, and many citizens signed a protest to the company, but without avail.

Grimes Lighting District was established in July, 1912; Princeton Lighting District, in 1915.

Postal Dates and Postal Data

Colusa was made a money-order post office in 1866.

Colusa was connected with the postal telegraph system on May 5, 1887, by a wire from the main line at Williams.

The largest mail that ever came to Colusa arrived on December 19, 1915, when fifty-nine sacks were unloaded.

In 1870 the people of Bear Valley, Sulphur Creek and Stonyford came to Colusa for their mail.

The post office at Arbuckle was established on September 11, 1876, with T.B. Arbuckle as postmaster. The post office at Maxwell was established on April 5, 1877.

Companies and Corporations

On February 3, 1894, the Colusa County Cooperative Company was formed for the purpose of attracting settlers to the county.

The Sacramento Valley Development Association was organized on April 27, 1900, largely through the efforts of W.S. Green.

The College City Rochdale Company was organized in 1901 ; the Arbuckle and the Grimes Rochdale Companies in 1903; the Colusa Rochdale Company in 1906; and the Maxwell Rochdale Company in 1907. The Colusa Rochdale Company filed a petition to be dissolved on December 11, 1911, after the shareholders had been assessed heavily to pay up its debts.

The Central California Investment Company bought the Moulton ranch on the east side in 1904, and sold it to the Moulton Irrigated Lands Company in 1910. The Moulton Company, under the direction of W.K. Brown, made some extensive improvements and sold the ranch a few months ago to the Colusa Delta Lands Company.

A party of ten Chicago business men bought the Hubbard ranch, three miles south of Princeton, in 1911, and under the management of one of them, H.J. Stegemann, proceeded to lay out a conmiunity settlement, which they called "Thousand Acres." They devoted forty acres in the center of the tract to village purposes, laying out a large oval around which their homes were to be built, and each was to have a share of the rest of the land as his own property. After about eighty dollars an acre, in addition to the cost of the land, had been spent in developing the land, the members of the party became dissatisfied. Mr. Stegemann died

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in 1913, and after his death the land of the settlement reverted to the previous owners.

On March 11, 1912, the Yolo Land Company bought thirteen thousand five hundred acres of the Tubbs-Tuttle land south of Grimes and began a colonization project.

The Colusa County Bank was organized in 1870, and ever since that time it has been one of the strongest financial institutions in the state. Its building, which at first was a two-story one, was remodeled in 1910 into its present form. B.H. Burton is now president; and Tennent Harrington, cashier.

The Farmers Bank opened for business on July 20, 1874 ; but it was not successful, and on February 20, 1876, the stockholders voted to disincorporate.

The Farmers and Merchants Bank was organized in 1902. Owing to the failure of its San Francisco correspondent, the California Safe Deposit and Trust Company, and the defalcations of J. Dalzell Brown, manager of the San Francisco bank and president of the local bank, the latter was compelled to suspend business on December 10, 1907. It reopened on March 2, 1908, and prospered thereafter. It became a national bank in 1911, and changed its name to The First National Bank of Colusa, organizing, at the same time a savings department. The First Savings Bank of Colusa. In 1912 the two banks, which are under one management, moved from the Odd Fellows building to their own new stone building across the street, where they do an immense business. U.W. Brown is President ; H.F. Osgood, cashier; and Everett Bowes, assistant cashier.

The Colusa County Bank established a branch at Maxwell in 1911, one at Princeton in 1912, and one at Grimes in 1913.

Various Organizations

The enrollment of Company B, National Guard of California, was completed on June 16, 1887. B.H. Mitchell was Captain; F.C. Radcliff, First Lieutenant; and James Moore, Second Lieutenant. The company was called to Sacramento on July 20, 1894, to help quell the railroad strike, and returned on August 4, 1894. The company was also called out for the Spanish-American War in 1898, but got only as far as Oakland. Interest in the company waned, and it was mustered out on September 24, 1910.

The Colusa County Chamber of Commerce, better known as the C.C.C.C, was organized in 1906, and hired John H. Hartog as professional booster, at a salary of two hundred fifty dollars a month.

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The Colusa County Humane Society was organized in 1911 under the presidency of Mrs. Tennent Harrington, who has been at the head of it ever since.

The Colusa Gun Club, owning one thousand acres of tule land on Butte Creek, decided in 1893 to build a boat-house on the creek. The shares, or memberships in the club, with a par value of $100, have been for many years worth $500, and recently advanced to $1,000 each.

The Trolley League of baseball clubs was first organized in 1913. It survived for three or four years, W.M. Harrington being its guiding star ; and then the Great War took its place in the limelight.

It was in 1913 that the swimming craze struck Colusa. A swimming club was formed; and everybody in town and the surrounding country, that had any sporting blood at all, bought a bathing suit and went down to the beach on the east side of the river, below the bridge, every afternoon and evening, and swam or tried to learn to swim. By the next siunmer the enthusiasm had dwindled amazingly, and the third summer and thereafter swimming was confined to the youngsters and a very few enthusiasts. For the past year or two there has been great enthusiasm for swimming at Arbuckle, where a fine bath house with swimming tank has been erected by A.J. Strong.


Resorts

Fouts Springs was opened up on March 17, 1874, by John F. Fouts. The resort has been owned for many years by Charles H. Glenn, of Willows, who has spent thousands of dollars in improvements.

Cooks Springs resort was bought in 1899 by the Cooks Springs Company, the present owners, who created a wide market for the bottled water.

A.A. Gibson bought Wilbur Springs in 1907, and sold it to J.W. Cuthbert and others in 1908. Mr. Cuthbert bought Jones' Springs from J.A. Ryan in 1914, and consolidated the two resorts.

Personals

Cleaton Grimes, one of the county's first settlers, died in 1913, at the age of ninety-seven years.

Sallie McGinley Greely, the first girl born in Colusa, died in Vermilion, Mont., on January 16, 1890.

James Yates, one of the first men to settle in the county, died September 1, 1907.

Col. L.F. Moulton died on December 8, 1906, as the result of a runaway accident.

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In 1891 Hon. John Boggs offered to sell one thousand acres of his best land along the river for forty dollars an acre.

W.S. Green was appointed Surveyor-General of California on March 24, 1894, by President Grover Cleveland.

On February 20, 1874, Henry Booksin, of Freshwater Township, sold 5,858 acres of land for $70,303.

In January, 1884, F.T. Mann and Ed Harrington presented every widow in Colusa with a sack of flour. It took forty-seven sacks.

On February 17, 1894, E.C. Peart and Andy Bond started soliciting funds for a District Fair at Colusa. They raised $2,385.50.

Miss Marcia Daly eloped with Rev. J.R. Ward on October 23, 1907, and, so far as the public knows, has never been heard of since.

In the spring of 1890 Colonel Moulton gave everybody in Colusa who wished them, walnut trees to replace the locust trees along the streets.

The Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company in 1910 offered a five-hundred-dollar registered Holstein cow as a prize for the most successful intensive farming. The prize was won by W.F. Burt, of Princeton. Mr. Burt showed that he put $1,500 in the bank each year from his seven-acre farm, besides educating a family of five children. Mr. Burt's returns were received from the following: Pears, $25; peaches, $105.15; apricots, $18.40; grapes, $25.15; berries, including strawberries, blackberries, raspberries and loganberries, $45.09 ; melons, $100.60 ; cows, $900 ; hogs, $200 ; chickens and turkeys, $175; onions, $7.80; cabbage, $8.25; string beans, $9; cucumbers, $8; sugar corn, $41.30; tomatoes, $69.84; potatoes, $19.35; green peppers. $106.70; honey, $100; total, $2,064.72. Besides the foregoing, Mr. Burt raised oranges, lemons, pomeloes, figs, olives, plums, prunes, alfalfa, bees and sheep.

A company of about fifty I.W.W.'s struck Colusa County in March, 1914. There was much excitement and some trepidation, as they were reported to be desperate men, but they committed no acts of violence. Williams gave them their breakfast and sixty dollars for cleaning up the cemetery; but Arbuckle and Colusa gave them nothing but hostile looks and good advice. So they went on over into Sutter County, where they disbanded.

John L. Jackson, W.A. Vann and George N. Farnsworth were appointed by President Wilson in 1917 as Colusa County's Exemption Board to handle the draft of soldiers for the war. Colusa County's first quota of soldiers under the draft numbered eighty-two; and they were sent to Camp Lewis, near Tacoma, Wash., in four contingents.

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Facts and Figures

The Colusa Theater was dedicated on June 19, 1873.

A company was formed in Colusa in 1866 to go to Texas to settle.

An epidemic of a sort of pneumonia in January and February of 1868 carried off many babies.

Colusa had its first moving picture show in 1908. The Criterion Theater was opened on April 1, of that year.

On July 8, 1893, Bowden & Berkey shipped one thousand pounds of blackberries from Colusa to Williams and Arbuckle.

Three hundred and ninety-five oranges were picked from one tree in Colusa on January 20, 1894.

Bert Manville caught thirty-seven swarms of bees in the spring of 1914. One colony made seven dollars and fifty cents worth of honey in a season.

A ton of fish a week was shipped from Colusa in February, 1913. They were mostly salmon, although there were many bass and catfish among them.

The first shad was put into the Sacramento River on June 25, 1871. E.T. Niebling brought some carp down from Julius Weyand's place near Stonyford in 1883 and put them in the river, but these were probably not the first carp in the river.

In June, 1881, ten merchants and saloon-keepers of Maxwell were arrested for keeping their places of business open on Sunday.

In 1873 there were twenty-nine people in the county owning over five thousand acres each. Col. L.F. Moulton was first, with 30,429 acres.

In 1850 the population of the county was 115 ; in 1860 it was 2,274; in 1870 it was 5,088; in 1880, 9,750; in 1890, 14,640; in 1900, after county division, 7,364 ; and in 1910, 7,732.

The town of Sites was laid out on July 21, 1886. The shutting-down of the quarries about 1910 hit it a lick that almost laid it out again, and the decease of the Colusa & Lake Railroad in 1915 practically finished the job.

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CHAPTER XVIII

Colusa County Today

General Features


Colusa County today is indeed a prosperous land. It is not the closely populated territory, with a home on every twenty acres and a village every three or four miles, that the early settlers who had come from such conditions hack East thought it would he long hefore this time. In some respects it is in certain sections much as the pioneers found it, with broad expanses of level land, and a house or a fence only here and there to break the view to the horizon. Of course these great expanses now grow barley, where once they grew wild flowers and wild oats; but the people who inhabit them have much the same freedom as pioneers. The fact that the county is not thickly populated makes more room and more freedom and more wealth for those who are here, and they like it.

Roughly speaking, the county today is a vast barley field, with an orchard or a patch of alfalfa interspersed here and there, a section of almonds and grapes about Arbuckle and College City, a fringe of fruit trees and alfalfa along the river on the east, a fringe of mountains on the west, and a streak of green rice fields along the Trough and extending out onto the plains in the Maxwell country. One incorporated city of the sixth class, Colusa, and seven unincorporated towns or villages contain that part of the population which is inclined to be urban in its tastes. These towns are Princeton, Grimes, College City, Arbuckle, Williams, Maxwell and Stonyford; and I shall take them up more in detail a little later on. Sites, Lodoga, Leesville, Sulphur Creek, Venado, Berlin, Colusa Junction, Delevan and Sycamore are very small places, all of which, except Colusa Junction and Sulphur Creek, have post offices, and most of winch were at one time more prosperous than they are today. The winds of fate, which blow business and population from one town to another, and sometimes play strange pranks with bustling communities, have left these little places to one side of the current of life, where they dream in quiet somnolence. This may not be altogether true at present of Sulphur Creek, which is undergoing a boom just now, owing to the greatly increased price of quicksilver.

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General Statistics

Colusa County contains 1080 square miles of territory, or 691,200 acres, divided into 750 farms averaging 920 acres to a farm. Of this land, 450,000 acres is well adapted to agriculture, 30,000 acres is rather rough foothill grain land, and the balance is grazing or mountain land. There are 1140 miles of public road, 40 miles of which is paved with concrete. In 1905 there were six miles of irrigating ditches watering 500 acres. Now there are 150 miles of ditches watering 35,000 acres.

The assessed valuation in the county is $15,594,796. There are in the county 19,732 cattle, 12,744 hogs, 3,244 mules, 4,459 horses, 28,084 sheep, 147 goats, and 1,116 dozen poultry ; and there are 34 veterans exempt from part of their taxes. (I am giving the statistics as I find them on the assessor's rolls.) I have given the statistics on the various industries in their proper chapters, and they need not be repeated here.

County Officials

This county is blessed with as fine a set of county officers as could be found anywhere. It is many years since we have had any kind of scandal arising from malfeasance in office, and from present appearances it will be many more years before we have any. The present officers are Ernest Weyand, Superior Judge; T.D. Cain, County Clerk and Recorder; C.D. Stanton, Sheriff; E.R. Graham, Treasurer; J.F. Rich, Auditor; Adam Sutton, Assessor; Miss Perle Sanderson, Superintendent of Schools; J.W. Kaerth, Surveyor; Alva A. King, District Attorney; Ed. W. Tennant, Tax Collector; J.D. McNary, Coroner and Public Administrator; P.H. Northey, Sealer of Weights and Measures; C.J. Wescott, P.V. Berkey, G.B. Pence, Roscoe Rahm and W.W. Boardman, Supervisors; Dr. C.A. Poage, County Physician; Dr. G. W. Desrosier, County Health Officer; Dr. Norman Neilson, County Veterinarian; Luke R. Boedefeld, County Horticultural Commissioner; Mrs. Edna White, Superintendent of the County Hospital; Miss Louise Jamme, County Librarian; and S.J. Carpenter, Deputy Game Warden.

The justices of the peace of the county are John B. Moore, Colusa ; C.K. Atran, Arbuckle ; J.W. Crutcher, Williams ; J.H. Lovelace, Maxwell; G.T. McGahan, Stonyford; Mrs. Edna Keeran, Princeton; and O.M. Durham, Grimes. The constables are W.W. Walker, Colusa; Oscar Hoernlein, Arbuckle; H.A. Christopher, Williams; W.J. Ortner, Maxwell; G.S. Mason, Stonyford; C.M. Archer, Princeton; and George Ainger, Grimes.

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Colusa

Colusa, the county seat, is the ouly incorporated city in the county. It is situated on the river about midway of the eastern border of the county, and has a population of 1,582, according to the census of 1910; and it has grown but little since then. The extensions, Goads and Coopers, one at either end of the town, bring the population up to about 2,000.

Colusa was established in 1850, as we have seen in a preceding chapter. It grew slowly but steadily for the first forty years of its existence ; but more recently it has not grown much, having added only about two hundred fifty to its population in the past twenty-seven years. The town was incorporated in 1876, and got electric lights in 1900; but there was no other marked change in its existence till 1909, when it woke up and made progress in strides that must have startled its old inhabitants. On August 31, 1909, the electors of the town voted bonds in the sum of $50,000 for a new water-works, and a like amount for a sewer system ; and then the town got caught in the wave of progress that swept over the state in 1910 and the years immediately following, and improvements came so rapidly that it was hard to keep up with them. The water-works and sewer system were finished in 1910 and began operation; the steam laundry, which had been fighting shy of the town because there was no sewer system, came in 1910, and a second steam laundry came at about the same time; the Colusa Business Men's Association was organized in 1910, and for a time was very active; a second picture show, the Gem Theater, was opened in 1910 ; and the Colusa County Bank remodeled its building that year. In 1911 the First National Bank building and the O'Rourke building were put up, and the town trustees ordered sidewalks down in all parts of town included in the "fire limits." In 1912 the Gamewell fire alarm system was installed, and J.M. Phillips began in June to sign up contracts for street paving. Market Street was paved up as far as Eighth that fall, the work beginning on October 23. The next year, 1913, the paving on Market Street was completed, Fifth Street and parts of Sixth and Jay were paved, a swat-the-fly campaign and general sanitary cleaning up was begun and vigorously carried on, and the old Cooke water-works, built in 1870, was bought by the town and put out of business. In 1914 electroliers were placed on Market and Fifth Streets, and preliminary steps in the paving of Tenth Street were taken. All this time sidewalks were being laid in different parts of town, and moral conditions were being greatly improved, so that by the time the five years from 1910 to 1915 were past,

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Colusa was a different town. In 1917 the people voted $65,000 bonds for a new grammar school, and then decided that that wasn't enough and voted $20,000 more. Principally under the direction of Dr. E.S. Holloway, one of the finest school buildings in the state has been erected. This year the fire department got a new auto chemical engine and placed itself in the ranks of the best-equipped fire departments in the state.

Colusa today has three good banks, the Colusa County, the First National and the First Savings; three general stores, J.J. O'Rourke, H.D. Braly & Company, and Mrs. J.S. Malsbary; a woman's store, the Scoggins-Sartain Company; three groceries, the Hankins Estate, Stowe & Padgitt, and H.R. Putman & Sons ; two lumber companies, the Colusa Lumber Company and the Grenfell Lumber Company; an art and china store, B.A. Pryor; a harness store, the Colusa Harness Company, owned by Mrs. J.O. Mason; a furniture store, the Jacobson Furniture Company; three hardware stores, Messick & Kirkpatrick, G.W. Tibbetts, and B.H. Mitchell ; a farm machinery agency, the Colusa Implement Company; a men's clothing and furnishing store. Brown & Company, of Marysville; two drug stores, Oscar Robinson and J.R. Cajacob; a millinery store. Miss Hattie Boggs; three ice-cream parlors and candy stores, George W. South, Miss Fannie Burrows, and J.R. Joseph ; a stationery and candy store, George A. Finch ; three cigar stores, G.J. Kammerer, Baum & Minasian, and Moore & Severson ; a bakery, Montgomery & Walker ; a plumbing establishment, the James Roche Estate; an electric store, Doren Russell; two butcher shops. Comfort & Hougland and Johnsen & Richter; a tailor, S. Edmands; fifteen saloons, E.P. Jones, J.H. Busch, L.A. Moore, B.H. Probst, Milde & Class, Goldsmith & Gurnsey, Fred Watson, Wing Sing & Company, Roche Bros., Tozai Company, J.L. Erisey, R.L. Welch, W.S. Brooks, John Osterle, and James O'Leary; two second-hand stores, A. Weiss and John Klein; seven garages, Merrifield & Preston, Westcamp & Sparks, Colusa County Garage, Overland Garage, Frank L. Crayton, the Service Garage, and Fred Martin ; six barber shops. Ward & South, George St. Louis, J.D. Lopez, Moore & Severson, Nick Chuvas, and Doc Cramer; six grain-buyers, John L. Jackson, A.B. Jackson, H.H. Hicok & Son, H.G. Monsen, E.P. McNeal, and Scott Bros.; one rice broker, J.W. Sperry; five real estate dealers, F.B. Pryor, John C. Mogk, J.B. DeJarnatt, B.D. Beckwith, and Campbell & Barlow; two groceterias, one kept by the Scoggins-Sartain Company and the other by the bakery; a tamale parlor, Mrs. A. Pinales; two pool-rooms, G.J. Kammerer and Moore & Severson; a creamery, the Colusa Butter Company; a

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soda works, Mrs. T.F. Phillips; two shoemakers, A.B. Cooper and V. Marovitch; three restaurants, Mrs. L.A. Moore, Kufolias Bros., and the Colusa Cafe and Grill ; two cleaning works, H.S. Saladin and J.R. Manville; two hotels, the Riverside and the National-Eureka ; four rooming houses, the Commercial, the Eagle, the Shasta, and the Cooper; a photographer, W.A. Gillett; a foundry and machine shop, T.E. Maroney; a flouring mill, the Colusa Milling and Grain Company; two undertakers, J.D. McNary & Son and Sullivan Bros. ; four contractors, W.C. Blean, Henry Von Dorsten, A.P. Staple, and L.S. Lewis ; two moving picture shows, the Gem by C.C. Kaufman and the Star by Hildebrand & Lucientes ; three warehouse companies, the Colusa Warehouse Company, the Farmers Storage Company, and the Sacramento River Warehouse Company; three blacksmiths, C.W. Young, Anthony & Son, and Martin Thim ; two wagon-makers, J.P. Muttersbach and J.R. Totman; a taxi service, W.A. Gillett; two painting firms, L.H. Fitch & Sons and White Bros. ; a bicycle repair shop, Clifford D. Brown; two gasoline service stations, J.C. Ohrt and Royal Kenny; a steam laundry, W.H. Graham; an express and delivery service, Ed. Butler; four draying firms, Totman & Cleveland, S.A. Ottenwalter, George Ross, and C.M. Jackson ; the Union Ice Company ; the Standard Oil Company and the Union Oil Company ; two newspapers, the Sun and the Herald ; three doctors. Dr. C.A. Poage, Dr. W.T. Rathbun, and Dr. G.W. Desrosier; an osteopath. Dr. F.H. McCormack; a veterinarian. Dr. Norman Neilson ; four dentists, Dr. E.S. Holloway, Dr. F.Z. Pirkey, Dr. P.J. Wilkins, and Dr. E.L. Hicok; an architect, Robert L. Holt; ten lawyers, Thomas Rutledge, U.W. Brown, Harmon Albery, W.J. King, A.A. King, Ben Ragain, I.G. Zumwalt, Seth Millington, Sr., Seth Millington, Jr., and Clifford Rutledge. There are also two lawyers who do not practice their profession, John T. Harrington and Phil B. Arnold. The town has schools, churches, and lodges, a Carnegie library, a telephone system and telegraph connection. It had two livery stables, but the encroachments of the auto caused both to quit business within the past year.

Williams:

Williams is the second town in size in the county, having about 1,000 people. It was laid out by W.H. Williams in 1876; and as the railroad reached it shortly thereafter, it was soon a thriving village. Its churches, lodges, schools and newspaper have already been mentioned in these pages. In addition, it has a substantial bank, electric lights, a water-works, a modern high school, more paved streets than any other town of its size in California,

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a branch station of the Standard Oil Company, two blacksmiths, and a fruit store.

One of the largest department stores in the county is located at Williams, that of the George C. Comstock Company, Incorporated. Entrican & George have a grocery; J.F. Fouch & Son, a drug store; E.J. Worsley, a harness store; J.E. Mitchell, a butcher shop; and T.G. Anson and Joe Lanouette, cigar stores. Ed. Gimblin is a plumber ; the A.F. Webster Company handle real estate; H.H. Rathbun and Mrs. R.Y. Lynch sell candy and soft drinks ; Al. Hausman has a bakery ; and A.B. Levy is a grainbuyer. There are three garages in town, Quigley's, the City Garage, and the Central Garage. Its flouring mill was mentioned in a former chapter. It has two doctors, Dr. A.W. Kimball and Dr. Ney M. Salter.

Arbuckle

Arbuckle, "the home of the almond," has been mentioned a number of times in these pages. It was laid out in 1875 by T.R. Arbuckle, who stimulated its growth by giving town lots to those who would build on them. It is now the metropolis of the southern part of the county, having a population of about 700. It is the town that put the "am" in almond, and it reaps a lot of cash from the transaction. It is the home of D.S. Nelson, the almond king; but he is seldom at home, being generally "over at Esparto," "out in the orchard," or "gone to Hershey." It has three blocks of paved streets and two blocks of paved sidewalks, and is a "fine town for a dentist, but can't get any," according to the report sent me.

Arbuckle has three general stores, two hardware stores, two drug stores, two plumbers and tinners, two restaurants, two real estate dealers, three garages, two grain-buyers, one lawyer, a hotel, a bank, a harness store, a furniture store, a butcher shop, a candy and soft-drink emporium, a bakery, a newspaper, an electric shop, a tailor shop, a feed and seed store, a jewelry store, a lumber yard, a branch station of the Union Oil Company, and a sanitarium. It is the only town in the county having a rural free delivery mail route, an advantage due to the closely settled community lying about the town. In other places the real estate men do all the lying about the town. Owing to the great success of the almond and raisin industries in its vicinity, Arbuckle will undoubtedly grow rapidly and substantially in the next few years.

Maxwell

Maxwell was started in 1878, about the time the railroad went through that territory. It was first called Occident; but the name

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was afterward changed to honor an early resident, George Maxwell. It has a population of 550. It has a fine new Odd Fellows' hall, a modern town hall, a bank, a hotel, fine school buildings, four blocks of paved streets, and nearly all the conveniences of modern life. Benjamin Smith and the Rochdale Company have general stores; Kaerth & Lausten, a hardware store; Arthur J. Fouch, a drug store ; Dave Schwenk, a harness store ; Lee Brown, a furniture store; Y.R. Yarbrough, a butcher shop; G.I. Stormer, a cigar store; James H. Ellis, a creamery; Mrs. Susie Hall, a millinery store; and J.A. Graham, a shoe shop. George L. Harden is a real estate dealer; Henry Kraft and A.J. Beckers are blacksmiths; J.A. Constable, a well-driller; and Lee Brown, a building contractor. There are two garages in the town, conducted by Eli Triplett and George B. Brown. The Tribune keeps the people informed on the news of the day.

Princeton

Princeton was a road house in 1851, and if that could be called the beginning of the town it is probably the second oldest town in the county. Its population is 250, but it is destined to take a boom as soon as the Colusa & Hamilton Railroad gets well established. It has river transportation and a railroad with a daily freight service, but no passenger trains ; a ferry across the river ; a great hope for a bridge, and a fixed determination to have one ; and four daily auto stage lines. It has a good bank, housed in a fine building of its own, branches of the Standard Oil Company and Union Oil Company, a public drinking fountain, a church, a good public school, a fine high school with gymnasium and manual training shop, and a tireless booster for the town in the person of Mrs. C.W. Cockerill.

Ed Barham and the Hocker-Cannon Company keep general stores ; E.L. Hemstreet has a grocery ; Johnsen & Richter, a butcher shop; D.S. Baker and W.A. Boyes, candy and soft drinks; Melvin Weaver, a bakery; P.W. Feeny, a garage; and

D.A. Newton, a hotel. The Colusa Lumber Company has a branch at Princeton. Mallon & Blevins and L.L. Grieve deal in real estate.

Grimes

Grimes is a strong competitor of Princeton for the honor of being the second oldest town in the county -- that is, if one house could be called the beginnings of a town. Both towns trace their origin back to 1851, but whether Helphenstine's house at Princeton or Grimes' house at Grimes was built first I do not know. Grimes, which was named for Cleaton Grimes and his brother,

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who built on the site of the town in 1851, has a population of 250. It has rail and river transportation; and as it is the center of a very rich territory, it ships a great deal of produce. It has a bank, telephone connection, two warehouse companies, Odd Fellows and Rebekah lodges, a church, and schools.

General stores are kept by Smith & Company and George D. Megonigal; a hardware store, by W.F. Howell; a drug store, by L.V. Nanscawen; a harness store, by Peter Krohn; a butcher shop, by H.L. Houchins & Son ; a cigar and candy store, by J.S. Woods; and garages, by M.C. Dillman and Clipp Bros. J.M. Dixon and A.A. Thayer, Jr., are grain-buyers ; and J.W. Ask is a plumber and tinner; and there are two blacksmith shops, three building contractors, the Florindale creamery, and the Grimes bakery. Grimes is at present the center of the sugar-beet industry in the county. The town leads all the other towns in the county, and probably in the United States, in the amount of money per capita that it put up for the Y.M.C.A. war fund, having subscribed $5,339 in one evening, and considerable since that meeting. Colusa raised $6,200 at its meeting for the same purpose ; Arbuckle-College City, $4,200 ; and Williams, $4,000.

College City

College City had its beginning in 1871, when Andrew Pierce died and left his land and money for the founding of Pierce Christian College, from which the town takes its name. The first college building was erected in 1874; and from that time on, for about twenty years, College City was a very lively place. By "lively" I do not mean what is usually meant when towns are spoken of as lively ; namely, factories, and a pay roll with a lot of it spent in carousing, bright lights and much noise at night, constant shifting of the population, and that sort of thing. College City had none of that. It had a life of its own. By the terms of his will, Mr. Pierce had forbidden for all time the sale of liquor on the premises ; and College City has never had a saloon. Consequently it has never had the "life" that has flowed abundantly in other communities ; but it was a community of high ideals, and a place to which its people were devotedly attached. When the college closed its doors, about 1894, the town suffered a severe blow; but it has continued to exist, even with the handicap that has killed so many towns : a railroad passing near by and bringing a competing town. Today the population of College City is about 150. It has a good high school, a church, a general store, a harness store, an ice-cream parlor, and a blacksmith shop. It is on the Colusa & Hamilton branch of the Southern Pacific Railroad, and may take on new life when that road gets fully into operation.

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Stonyford

Stonyford is the only important mountain town in the county. It was started by a man with the good old American name, John Smith, and was called Smithville -- an equally standard name. In the summer of 1890 the Stony Creek Improvement Company bought the town, moved it half a mile to higher ground, and renamed it Stonyford. The town at that time consisted chiefly of a good flouring mill and a commodious hotel, both of which were greatly improved by the company, which had visions of a great metropolis in the little mountain valley with its enchanting summer climate and its magnificent views. The village now has a population of about 90, and does a considerable business in summer with campers, hunters, fishermen and other pleasure-seekers. It is surrounded by beautiful green alfalfa fields watered from Big Stony Creek, and is an ideal spot in summer. It has a town hall, two churches, a Masonic hall, a hotel, and telephone communication. D.J. Westapher and A.R. Bickford & Company keep general stores, and the latter firm handles fresh meat. There are a restaurant, a candy and soft drink establishment, a creamery, a blacksmith shop, and a feed stable.

In Conclusion

To those who have had the patience to follow thus far the story herein set down., let me say that no attempt has been made to give this work any particular literary flavor. I have tried to confine myself to a plain statement of facts, especially those facts that would help the reader to understand the tendencies of the times, and appreciate the changes that have taken place in the past, and that are today taking place, in this county of ours. I realize that this is only a fragmentary work. A dozen volumes like this could not hold the history of Colusa County, if it were all written. But I have tried to touch the "high spots," the important points, to the end that those who may in the future wish to know how the foundations of their civilization were laid, and who were the builders of the superstructure, may find some help from the perusal of these pages.

[photo Reservoir of the Government Irrigation Project, Glenn Co. Cal.]

HISTORY OF GLENN COUNTY

By Mrs. Rebecca T. Lambert

INTRODUCTION

Topographic and General Industrial Features

Glenn County lies in the heart of the great Sacramento Valley, midway between San Francisco Bay on the south and Mt. Shasta on the north. From the river westward there is a gradual slope for a distance of twenty miles to the first low range of foothills. For an equal distance the ascent then becomes more rapid, over each succeeding range of hills, to the summit of the Coast Range mountains which form the western boundary of the county, terminating at Mt. Hull on the north and Snow Mountain on the south. The southern boundary follows the township line between townships seventeen and eighteen; and the northern, the one intersecting the river a short distance above its confluence with Stony Creek. Stony Creek has its source in the Coast Range mountains in Colusa County, and flows in a general northerly direction, increasing in volume as the drainage creeks, Briscoe, Elk and Grindstone, enter from the west. Near the north line of the county it breaks through the low range of foothills near the Miller Buttes, west of Orland, and flows in an easterly direction across the plains to its confluence with the Sacramento River. Geologists claim that what is now Stony Creek Valley was, during a recent era of world development, a lake having its outlet to the south into Clear Lake in Lake County, and then through Cache Creek to the Sacramento River. Stony Creek is the only stream of any importance in California that flows for any great distance in a direction opposite to the river which it finally joins. Willow, Walker and Hambright Creeks have their sources in the foothills separating Stony Creek Valley from the plains, and are only drainage creeks carrying a flow of water during the winter and spring months. Willow and Walker Creeks do not reach the river, but empty their flood waters into a slight depression a few miles west of the river, known as "the Trough."

Glenn County contains eight hundred fifty thousand acres of land, approximately four hundred thousand acres of which is level or valley land. Nearly all of this area is irrigable, either by

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gravity flow from the Orland Project canal and the Central Canal, or from pumping wells. Just west of the plains the low range of foothills is mainly farmed to grain, and contains many wide valleys of wonderful fertility. Continuing westward the hills become steeper and slightly wooded, and the valleys much narrower. This section of wooded hills contains about one hundred fifty thousand acres, and forms the divide between the Stony Creek Valley and the plains. Grazing is the chief industry here. On the bottom lands of the Stony Creek Valley alfalfa is raised extensively, and dairying is very profitable. Poultry, cattle, sheep and hogs are raised in large numbers. From the creek bottom the bench land or high plateau continues westward to the foot of the Coast Range mountains. Nestled close to the base of these mountains is a narrow strip of land known as the Thermal Belt, where severe frosts are unknown and both almonds and fruit do. well. The Coast Range mountains which form the western boundary are covered with pine timber and form a great recreation ground for the people of the county, as well as affording valuable summer pasturage for stock. Lumbering is carried on on a small scale, but the greater part of the district is included in the California National Forest and is under the control of the Federal government. This mountainous portion of the county contains close to two hundred thousand acres. Since the time of the early settlements, conditions in the hills have never undergone any radical change. It is in the varying industries of the plains -- from the advent of the hunter and trapper, creeping stealthily down the river, setting snares and pitfalls for the happy denizens of the forests on its banks ; through the eras of the early stockmen, whose countless herds roamed the plains at will, and the great grain farmers, with their thousands of acres of wheat and barley ; to the vanishing of these before the conjuror. Water, by whose wizard touch the plains were dotted with those garden spots, the alfalfa fields and orchards of the intensive farmer -- that the economic history of the county is writ.
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CHAPTER I

The Pathfinders

In the early times in California, all the traffic between San Francisco and Oregon was by boat; and the only people who attempted a trip on land were the hunters and trappers who followed the hills and streams, where game was more abundant.

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The first trapper about whom there is any authentic information was Jedediah S. Smith, who was a pathfinder in reality, if not in title, for he was the first man to make the journey to California from the United States overland. From the post of a fur company on Great Salt Lake, Smith was sent out in 1826 on an exploring trip for the mapping out of a future field of operations. He traveled southward to the Colorado, came into California by the Southern Pass, and crossed the Mojave Desert to San Gabriel. In May, with only two companions, he returned to Salt Lake, accomplishing in this trip the first crossing of the Sierras. It is not with the details of this trip that a history of this county is concerned, as his activities were confined to the southern part of the state. Soon after his return to Salt Lake, however, he started on his second journey to California, arriving with eight companions in October, 1827. Falling under the suspicion of the Mexican authorities, who looked upon his comings and goings with great disfavor, on issue of orders Smith was brought before them at San Jose. Here he Avas released on a bond signed by his countryman. Captain Cooper of Monterey, who became responsible with his person and property for the good behavior of one Jedediah S. Smith. Smith, with his party now increased to nineteen, left San Francisco in the winter of 1827-1828 and proceeded northward by a coast route. While fording the Umpqua River, they were attacked by hostile Indians, who killed fifteen of the party and stole all their belongings. Smith, Turner and two others escaped to Fort Vancouver, one of the Hudson Bay Company's posts, whence McLoughlin, the agent, despatched a party southward to avenge the murder of Smith's companions and recover their stolen goods. This party was under the command of a man named McLeod, and, guided by Turner, not only recovered Smith's stolen property from the Indians but also had a most successful hunting trip down the Sacramento Valley. Thus, although Smith himself never set foot in the Sacramento Valley, he was directly responsible for its exploration by the trappers of the Hudson Bay Company, who, until this time, had always turned their attention northward. McLeod, on his return to Fort Vancouver, was caught in a hard snowstorm in the Pitt River country. He lost most of his animals and was forced to leave his furs, which were ruined by the melting snows. Tradition has it that the McCloud River derives its appellation from a corruption of the name McLeod.

The next man sent out by the Hudson Bay Company was Ogden. He entered the Sacramento Valley about the time McLeod left it. For eight months he trapped the length and breadth of the valley, obtaining a great stock of furs, and finally returned northward by McLeod's trail.

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In 1832 Ewing Young and J.J. Warner made a trip up the valley to the head waters of the Sacramento River, returning in 1833. Few details of this trip are obtainable except those concerning the great pestilence, which almost decimated the Indian population of the valley. During the next decade permanent settlements began to push their way northward along the paths broken by the hunter and trapper. Sutter's colony at New Helvetia was established ; and in 1839 Sutter was appointed representative of the Mexican government on the Sacramento frontier, with the official Mexican title of Encargado de justicia y representante del gobierno en las fronteras del Rio del Sacramento, and was given full authority to enforce justice among the settlers and suppress insurrection by hostile Indians. By wise and careful exercise of this power, he made friends of most of the Indians and commanded the respect of the unfriendly tribes. His lieutenants were frequently compelled to make long journeys northward in the enforcement of his commands. It was on one such trip, when trying to recover some stolen horses, that John Bidwell, the most famous pioneer of Butte County, first saw the land on which he located the grant afterwards known as the Rancho Chico. The following description, quoted from Bidwell's journal, gives a vivid account of the impression produced upon him by that portion of the Sacramento Valley, in its pristine loveliness :
"The plains were dotted with scattering groves of spreading oaks; while the clover and wild grasses, three or four feet high, were most luxuriant. The fertility of the soil was beyond question. The water of Chico Creek was cold, clear and sparkling; the mountains, flower-covered and lovely. In my chase for stolen horses I had come across a country that was to me a revelation; and as I proceeded up the valley, through what was later Colusa County and beyond it, I was struck with wonder and delight at this almost interminable land of promise."

Far-reaching Influence of Thomas O. Larkin

Probably few readers of the local press, when they see in the daily paper items concerning the Larkin School, or Larkin Farm Center, or find mention in the title records of Larkin's Children's Grant, realize the application of the name or connect it with that of the first United States Consul in California. When thirty years of age, Thomas O. Larkin came out to California, in 1832, at the request of his half-brother, Captain Cooper, who was a merchant at Monterey. One of his fellow passengers on board the Newcastle, the vessel on which he made the trip, was Mrs. John C. Holmes, the first American woman to come to California. She was

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coming out to join her husband; but on her arrival, after a long and tedious voyage by way of Honolulu, she found herself a widow in a strange land. Captain Holmes had died soon after she started on the voyage. The next year Mrs. Holmes was married to Thomas O. Larkin, the ceremony being performed by Consul Jones of Honolulu on board the ship Volunteer, at Santa Barbara. Six children were born of this union, the oldest son, Thomas O. Larkin, Jr., being the first child of American parentage born in California. Larkin engaged in a general merchandise business in Monterey, adding as side lines lumbering, flour milling, and various other branches as time and occasion seemed to warrant, all of which prospered under his management. Lack of early opportunity had deprived him of educational advantages ; but his native ability, combined with tact and unimpeachable integrity, gradually raised him to the position of one of the most influential men in California at that period. He was unfailingly kind in helping emigrants and his compatriots, but held himself aloof from siding with any faction or set of filibusters. In 1843 he was appointed United States Consul at Monterey; and during 1845-46 he acted as confidential agent for the United States in endeavoring to forestall the efforts of those who wished to establish an English protectorate over California. In fulfilling this mission, Larkin was unselfishly devoted to the interests of his government, turning his private business over to a subordinate and giving his entire time to maintaining friendly relations with the native Californians, and to overcoming as much as possible the bitterness engendered by the premature activities of the Bear Flag leaders. All historians of the period agree that Larkin was far superior in statesmanship to most of the other actors in the drama of winning California for the United States; and the closest scrutiny of all his acts fails to reveal anything not in accord with the best ideals of American diplomacy. Bancroft says of Larkin that he was a man to whom nothing like just credit has been given for his services during 1845-1846.

Bidwell's Exploration

Larkin wished to obtain from the Mexican government a grant of ten or twelve square leagues for his children, and engaged John Bidwell to find a level tract for him suitable for that purpose. In the summer of 1844 Bidwell set out on an exploring trip up the west side of the Sacramento Valley. He took with him only one man, an Indian, who was to act as interpreter. A little way north of Colusa, wishing to know something of the soil

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conditions, they turned west from the river to explore the plain. That summer was a very hot one, following a dry winter, and in their travels they observed many deserted Indian villages where the springs had dried up. Not having found any drinking water during the day, Bidwell decided to strike into the hills to the west, feeling certain of finding water there sooner than by returning to the river. The next morning they came in sight of Stony Creek, or Capay, as the Indians called it. Large numbers of Indians who were camped along the creek fled at their approach, a white man being an unaccountable phenomenon to them. Gradually, curiosity overcoming their fear, the Indians returned in such numbers that Bidwell and his companion became alarmed; but the savages manifested no hostile intentions, merely attempting to talk to him in a dialect which neither he nor his guide understood. Bidwell's guide tried to explain to the Indians why they were there; but only one very, very old Indian could make out what the guide was trying to tell them.

Knowing that such a large stream must make its way to the river, Bidwell decided to follow its course. To his great surprise the number of Indians increased by many hundreds as he proceeded. Apparently the dry season had caused them to form temporary villages along the creek. By nightfall the number of Indians seemed so alarming that, believing discretion to be the better part of valor, Bidwell pitched his camp on top of the high hill just opposite the present town of Elk Creek, and made the Indians understand as best he could that they must not approach it after dark. Then, barricading the top with rocks, he and his guide divided the watches of the night between them. The next day was July 4, 1844. During the day, Bidwell passed the largest permanent Indian village be had yet seen. From his description of its location this must have been on the Brownell ranch, west of Orland. Here the Indians held a big dance attired in their gayest regalia, consisting chiefly of beads and feathers. Finally, on the sixth of the month, after making a complete circuit of the present county of Glenn, Bidwell mapped out the Larkin's Children's Grant, extending from Fairview schoolhouse on the west to a point due east on the Sacramento River, and thence south to the south line of the Boggs ranch, in Colusa County. In 1846 the grant was settled on by John S. Williams, who was employed by Larkin for that purpose; and the place was stocked with cattle and horses. Williams is said to have built the first house in Colusa County.

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CHAPTER II

The Indians

Their Number and Their Origin

Owing to their nomadic habits, it was impossible to obtain accurate information as to the number of Indians in Colusa County at the time of its first settlement by white men. General John Bidwell, who was probably more familiar with all the county than any other man at that time, estimated the number in 1844 as somewhere near ten thousand. This estimate was for the territory afterward embraced in the first proclamation of Colusa County, when the northern boundary extended to Red Bluff. Nature, so prodigal in her gifts of soil and climate to the valley, proved a too indulgent mother to her children, for she robbed them of all incentive to help themselves by supplying all their needs herself.

The Digger Indians of the interior valleys of California lack the picturesque qualities and noble bearing of the other red men of North America ; and our interest centers around them and their manners and customs chiefly because they were the immediate predecessors of the pioneers in the possession of this beautiful valley. They were a lethargic race of people, whose chief vice was laziness and -- paradoxical as it may sound -- most of whose virtues were the result of that vice. Some ethnologists claim that the Indians of North America are a branch of the yellow race, and are of Asiatic origin; that centuries ago there was a land connection across Behring Strait between Asia and North America, and that across this erstwhile isthmus, members of the yellow race made their way to a new continent, where, amid different surroundings, they gradually developed new racial characteristics. Some corroboration of this theory might be found in the physical appearance of the Diggers, whose broad faces and comparatively flat noses would seem to indicate an Asiatic origin.

Their Mode of Living

The Diggers were the least advanced of any of the North American Indians, their mode of living being extremely primitive. Some of their food was cooked, as their cakes or tortillas, which were made from acorn meal ; but by far the greater portion was eaten directly from Nature's table. Fish, small game, insects, acorns, and wild oats and various other seeds, formed their principal diet. The seeds of a small blue flowering plant which grew wild on the plains was considered an especial delicacy by them.

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The squaws performed the harvesting and threshing in one operation, by shaking the seed-laden heads over the edge of a basket.

When the salmon were running plentifully during the spring and fall, great numbers of the Indians camped along the river near Colusa. Some miles north of Colusa, at the location of a wide sand bar, after the spring floods were over, they constructed a fish weir across the river by driving in willow poles close together, and in this way were able to catch large numbers of fish, which would not return to salt water until after they had spawned. In preparing the willow poles for the weir, they rounded and sharpened them by burning. To these, cross sticks were lashed with thongs of wild grape vine. The structure, when completed, was not less than eight feet wide, and served also as a bridge across the river. This is the only instance where the Indians evinced any ingenuity, or put forth any effort to turn existing conditions to their advantage.

Their game was such as could be easily captured by the setting of snares and pitfalls, the indolent bucks preferring to lie stretched out at ease while their quarry walked into their traps, rather than to exert themselves in the more arduous and exciting pleasure of the chase.

Manners and Customs

The squaws generally wore short aprons made of tules or rushes tied around the waist; but the men and children went naked. In winter, the skin of a deer or antelope, thrown over the shoulders, afforded some degree of protection against the elements; and on very cold days this was supplemented by a liberal coating of mud over the body, which was washed off when the temperature changed. Shells and feathers, particularly the feathers of the woodpecker and the eagle, were very highly prized as ornaments by both sexes.

In winter the Indians lived in rude huts or shelters called wikiups. These were conical-shaped structures about ten feet in diameter, and were thatched with leaves, grass or rushes. A number of wikiups together on the bank of a stream formed what was called a rancheria.

There was no central or tribal government. Each rancheria had its own chief, its own dialect, and its own burying ground. Each rancheria had likewise one permanent building, called by the white men a "sweat-house." This was also conical in shape, the roof being formed of tree trunks ; and except for an outlet in the center, for smoke, it was plastered over with mud and dirt to make it air-tight. A low opening in the side gave egress and ingress. In this house all their ceremonial dances were

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held. The bucks formed a circle, leaping and dancing around the fire in the center; while back of them the squaws stood shifting their weight from one foot to the other, in time with the weird, monotonous chant. Between them and the outer walls the onlookers were crowded in, the more the merrier. When one of the bucks became so overheated that he could endure the dance no longer, he rushed from the building and plunged into the waters of the creek or river, as the case might be; for the sweat-house was always built on the banks of some stream large enough to afford a convenient plunge.

Opinions differ as to the significance of this custom, which was common to all Indians of the Pacific Coast. Various theories have been advanced, to the effect that it was a religious ceremony, a harvest festival, a species of recreation, or a sanitary measure. If it was intended for the latter, it failed most woefully of fulfilling its purpose, particularly during smallpox epidemics, of which there were at least three, in the years 1829, 1833 and 1856 respectively. Ewing Young, a trapper, who made a trip up and down this valley in 1833, said that he saw hundreds lying dead in the larger rancherias, due, no doubt, to the rapid spread of the contagion in the overheated air of the sweat-house.

Little is definitely known concerning the religious beliefs of the Indians, as they had no written characters or symbols with which to record them. The Mission Fathers were too zealous in supplying the Southern Indians with a new creed to inquire much into what they were replacing; and the pioneers were too intent on their own affairs to bother their heads about what moral or religious belief governed the conduct of the Indians, so long as they were good Indians, from their point of view -- that is, refrained from stealing their property, and from going on the warpath. A tradition of a flood in which only two creatures survived was common among all the Indians of California, the identity of these two varying according to locality. Some held it was a hawk and a mud turtle, others a coyote and an eagle, which, as the waters receded, created Indians to people the hills and the valleys. Whether they believed in a future state, or whether, in their view, rewards and punishments applied to this present existence, is not known. In support of the latter theory, may be cited their belief that grizzly bears were wicked men turned into beasts as a punishment for a tendency to eat human flesh.

Until the advent of the white man, the Indians were a fairly moral race of people. Chastity was greatly prized among them; and although marriage was easily contracted and dissolved by the mutual consent of both parties, they were faithful to its

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bonds while it lasted. Having little ambition to accumulate belongings, they were honest with each other. That they were not avaricious or calculating is shown by their manner of disposal of the effects of the dead, which were all buried with the corpse. There are people now living in the county who can remember playing as children on Stony Creek, north of Orland, and there discovering beads and relies from what was once an old Indian burying ground.

The valley Indians were never hostile to the whites. They were too impassive even to attempt actively to resist the encroachment of the settlers. Some of the hill and mountain Indians, however, showed more spirit in this regard ; and as a result there were two or three quite serious outbreaks.

Removal to the Noma Lacka Reservation

In 1854 the Government made a reservation of land near Paskenta, called the Noma Lacka Reservation, for the Indians who were scattered over the hills and mountains, and who had been the source of considerable annoyance to the settlers. In June, 1855, the task of collecting and removing the Indians to the reservation began. Captain Williams and Joseph James went to a rancheria on Salt Creek, west of Elk Creek, to try to persuade the Indians there to move on to the reservation. The Indians surrounded and attacked them with arrows, killing Williams' mule and dangerously wounding James in the breast. The two men fought for their lives and finally succeeded in escaping, leaving several of their assailants dead on the field of battle. Even after the Indians had been placed on the reservation, they continued to make raids on the settlers.

Later Depredations

In 1860, a band of Indians from the reservation came over into the Elk Creek country and killed stock belonging to William Watson on Grindstone Creek. This offense was allowed to pass without punishment, and the next spring they repeated their raids, increasing their field of depredations. They robbed the ranch of Anderson and Briscoe, and drove off the friendly Indians who were working for them.

In 1862, incited by a squaw named "Hatcreek Lize," one of the Pitt River tribe, about thirty Indians made another raid into the Stony Creek Valley, this time killing William Watson, a Grindstone settler, and an Indian boy who was herding sheep for Mr. Darling, besides numberless head of cattle. Fully aroused by these audacious crimes, the settlers determined on vengeance.

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Fifteen men, led by Jack Lett of Stonyford, started in pursuit of the savages. On the way they were reinforced by an equal number of men under the leadership of Rufus Burrows, of Newville. The pursuing party followed the Indians for a day and a half, finally overtaking them where they had pitched camp to rest, believing themselves safe from pursuit by that time. A battle ensued, which lasted an hour and a half before the Indians retreated, leaving fifteen of their number dead. The pursuers had suffered two casualties during the engagement, S.W. Shannon and S.R. Ford both receiving mortal wounds.

The Legend of "Bloody Rock"

There is an interesting legend of how "Bloody Rock" received its name, which no doubt originated in this pursuit of the Indians by the settlers ; and although there is nothing in history to authenticate it in any way, the story, on account of its appeal to the imagination, will probably continue to live, though the true facts of the case are forgotten. "Bloody Rock" is a precipice on the west bank of Eel River, near the western boundary of Glenn County. The slope of the mountain from the north is quite gradual, as of a low hill whose brow is comparatively level. Then, without warning, there is a sheer drop to the river bed three hundred feet below, as though the other half of the mountain had been sliced off with a great knife in prehistoric times. In early days, so the story runs, on account of some unusually daring crime, the settlers started out in pursuit of the Indians. Closing in on them from all sides, they drove some twenty or thirty Indians up this gradual ascent, until they were brought to bay at the brink of the cliff. Here they were given their choice by the settlers of being shot or going over the precipice. After a little parley among themselves, the chief, with a war-whoop, leaped over the edge, and was instantly followed by the rest of his party. As a result of this action, this spot has from that day to this borne the gruesome appellation of "Bloody Rock."

Attack at the Rancheria on the Millsaps Place

There was a little trouble later in 1862, with some local Indians on the rancheria on the Millsaps place on Stony Creek. The Indians had plundered Mr. Wilson's home during his absence; and when, on his return, he went to the rancheria to demand the return of his property, both squaws and bucks attacked him with stones and arrows. He was rescued by Mr. Millsaps, who heard the noise of the affray. Next morning, the settlers again arose in their wrath. Four of the Indians were

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killed during the fight that followed; and a day or so later, "Pete," who had wounded Mr. Wilson, was caught near the reservation and hanged by friendly Indians.

Such summary punishment had a very salutary effect upon the Indians, instilling in them a wholesome respect for the lives and property of the white men. The settlers suffered no more from raids; and save for isolated cases where some buck grew quarrelsome and courageous under the influence of liquor, they had very little further trouble.

Results of Their Contact with Civilization

The Indians' primitive mode of living had ill fitted them to resist the encroachments of a more virile race, and it was inevitable that the coming of the hardy pioneers should mark the beginning of their decline. At the close of the Mexican War, the United States government had not deemed it necessary to recognize the possessory rights of the peaceful California Indians to their hunting grounds, and took no more account of their tenancy than of the herds of wild game which pastured the land. It is not surprising, therefore, with the example set by the government before them, that many of the more aggressive pioneers regarded the Indian as having few rights which a white man was bound to respect, and that these same pioneers settled without a qualm of conscience on land which the Indians had occupied for centuries.

Clinging to their tribal relationships and primitive manner of living, the Indians gradually receded before the advance of the settlers, seeking shelter and freedom in the valleys and canyons in the hills. In the later fifties, when the stockmen began to settle in the hills, the Indians were a source of great annoyance to them; and the government then set apart a reservation for the Indians and persuaded many of them to move on to it. Those who remained in the county, when they worked at all, served as laborers for the early settlers; and where they were treated kindly, they often manifested a great deal of loyalty to their employers.

One of the laws passed by the first legislature of the state decreed that the Indians should clothe themselves, and that their labor should belong to any one who furnished them with clothing, until all arrears were paid. While this law accomplished its purpose in making the Indians conform to the standards of civilization by wearing what the law required, it frequently placed them in an economic condition little better than involuntary servitude. Born hedonists, the Indians spent the greater part of what they earned for beads and feathers, for personal

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adornment, or for "fire water" for inner refreshment; and this improvidence on their part rendered them easy subjects for exploitation by the unscrupulous.

From their contact with the whites, the Indians contracted the habit of intemperance. This, with its resultant vices, together with their inability to adapt themselves to changed economic conditions, spelled their doom. Of the many thousands who roamed the hills and plains upon the advent of the white men, there remain but a handful -- some fifty or sixty, in a small rancheria upon Grindstone Creek. Too lazy and improvident to thrive, and too peaceful to struggle, the Indians as a race have passed away from the county, without enriching the civilization which succeeded them by so much as the legacy of a single picturesque legend, song or story.
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CHAPTER III

The Missions. California Wins Her Independence

The Missions

The Spanish Californians, with the lack of ambition and enterprise born of a contented mind, never seemed to realize the vast possibilities of the great interior valley of Northern California; and it is doubtful if any Missions would ever have been established north of San Francisco Bay, had it not been for the activity of the Russians at Fort Ross, on the northern coast, which aroused the jealousy of Spain. The fear that the Russian colonists might further extend their occupation of the territory was largely responsible for the founding of the Mission at San Rafael, and of the one at Sonoma also. These Missions were regarded by Spain as having a strategic and military significance, as well as a religious purpose.

The Russians, however, were never very prosperous ; and in 1839 they gave up their colony, and sold all their personal property, consisting of live stock, ordnance, and a vessel of twenty-five tons, to General John A. Sutter, who had just been granted an immense tract of land at the juncture of the Sacramento and American Rivers.

Sutter's Hospitality

General Sutter was a kind and generous-hearted man; and his open-handed hospitality soon made his colony a Mecca for all immigrants coming across the plains from the United States. Each year they came in increasing numbers, and each year more

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and more of them settled in the Sacramento Valley, under Sutter's protection, until in 1846 the settlements extended from Sutter's Fort northward to Peter Lassen's farm, at the head of Deer Creek, in the northeastern part of what is now Tehama County.

The native Californians viewed with increasing suspicion and alarm the growing power of the settlers from the United States. During the early forties there were vague, uneasy rumors afloat that the Californians were planning an uprising to drive out the land-grasping Gringos, as the Americans were called. In 1846, Captain John C. Fremont, who was sent out by the United States Government to explore the most direct routes to the Coast, and to do topographical work in California, made a surveying trip up the Sacramento Valley with sixty men and two hundred horses. Near the boundary line between Oregon and California, he was overtaken by Lieut. Archibald Gillespie, the bearer of secret despatches from Washington. What instructions these despatches contained has never been made public; but upon their receipt Fremont immediately turned back southward into the valley, and established camp near the Marysville Buttes. This unexpected move on the part of Fremont excited wide-spread curiosity among the northern settlers, and convinced many of them that the rumors of an uprising against them were true. They flocked to Fremont's camp; but what they learned there appears to have been a bit conflicting and confusing, as very few had the same understanding of the situation. Some were told that the Californians were about to attack them ; others, that it was necessary for them to make the first move.

The Capture of Aire's Horses

In speaking of Fremont's part in instigating the Bear Flag Revolt, John Bidwell says :
"It so happened that Castro had sent Lieutenant Arce to the north side of San Francisco Bay to collect scattered government horses. Arce had secured about a hundred and fifty, and was taking them to the south side of the Bay, via Sutter's Fort, and to the San Joaquin Valley. . . . Fremont, hearing that the horses were passing, sent a party . . . and captured them. This, of course, was done before he had orders or any positive news that war was declared. . . . Thus, without giving the least notice to Sutter, the great friend of Americans, or to Americans in general, scattered and exposed as they were all over California, he precipitated the war."

After the capture of Arce's horses, Merritt and his band proceeded to Sonoma, where they surrounded the home of Gen-

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eral Vallejo and declared the inmates prisoners. Vallejo was taken completely by surprise, and so offered no resistance. But when his wife asked to whom they were to surrender, the attacking party were thrown into confusion. No one seemed to have definite orders from Fremont, and each hesitated about taking upon himself the responsibility of interfering with the liberty of such an important personage as General Vallejo. Many were for giving up the enterprise entirely; but William B. Ide took command of the situation, declaring "that they must either be conquerors or they were robbers."

The Bear Flag Revolt

Sonoma was captured, and General Vallejo was taken first to Fremont's camp and then to Sutter's Fort for detention. Ide, with twenty-four of the men, remained at Sonoma and organized the Republic of California. The men were divided into three companies, under the leadership of Henry L. Ford, Granville P. Swift, and Samuel J. Hensley; and the Bear Flag was designed and adopted as their emblem.

The importance of the part played by men of this vicinity in the Bear Flag Revolution will be readily seen when one remembers that three of the four officers of the Bear Flag Party were William B. Ide, Henry L. Ford, and Granville P. Swift, each of whom was elected an officer of Colusa County upon its formation in 1851.

After assuming leadership of the men at Sonoma, Ide drafted a proclamation of the Republic of California, which he had scattered broadcast. In this proclamation he stated that it was his object "to establish and perpetuate a just, liberal, and honorable government, which should secure to all civil and religious liberty ; insure security of life and property ; detect and punish crime and injustice ; encourage virtue, industry and literature ; foster agriculture and manufactures; and guarantee freedom to commerce."

The Battle of Olampali

There was only one clash between the Californians and the Bear Flag men, known as the Battle of Olampali. Two men of the Bear Flag Party had been sent as messengers to the Coast with letters from Fremont, and had been captured by the Californians. Ford attempted to rescue them, and charged a ranch house where he thought they were confined. On arriving at the corral, however, the Americans were surprised to see fifty or sixty armed men near the house. They had accidentally stumbled on to one of General Castro's divisions, under the command of Joaquin de la Torre. Ford ordered the Bears to dismount, take refuge behind what shelter they could find, and await the attack

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by de la Torre's men. The Californians charged; but at the first volley of the Bears, one of their men was killed and another was seriously wounded. The rest retreated, keeping up a haphazard firing at long range for some time, without damaging any of the Bear Flag men. De la Torre retreated southward; and Ford, content with capturing some of his horses, made no attempt to follow him.

After a brief duration of twenty-six days, the Republic of California ended with the substitution of the Stars and Stripes for the Bear Flag at Sonoma, July 9, 1846. Historians differ in their opinions as to the advantage to the United States of the Bear Flag Revolution. Some of them claim that the leaders had no knowledge of the proximity of war between the United States and Mexico, and that in view of this fact a revolution on their part was ill-timed, as it might have led to English intervention, and thus have ultimately lost California to the Union. What would have happened had events been different, is, however, largely a matter of conjecture. Since the war did follow so closely, the work of conquest by United States forces was greatly simplified by the fact that the American settlers already controlled all of Northern California. The majority of the men in the Bear Flag Revolution were not mere adventurers in search of excitement, but men of property interests at that time, who were sincere in their belief that such a course was necessary to their own safety and that of other Americans in California. Nearly all of them joined the California Battalion, which was organized by Fremont at Sonoma on July 5, 1846, and which, by arriving at a critical time to join the forces of Stockton in the south, really brought the conquest to a successful end.

Granville P. Swift, and Others of the Bear Flag Party

After the war, the men of the Battalion dispersed and many of them returned north. Bryant, Ford, Ide and Swift settled in the northern part of what was later Colusa County, where for the next few years Swift was one of the most picturesque figures in the early history of the county. A tall, handsome native of the blue grass region, he inherited a goodly measure of the fighting blood of old Kentucky; and he was a leader in every controversy of any importance between the Americans and the Californians subsequent to his arrival with the Kelsey party from Oregon in 1843. In 1845, Swift served under Sutter in his campaign for Micheltorena against Alvarado. In 1846, he was one of the leading spirits of the Bear Flag Revolt, which has just been epitomized ; and later in the same year he was Captain of Company C of the California Battalion under Fremont.

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At the close of hostilities in 1847, Granville P. Swift settled on Stony Creek, in Colusa County. During the nest two years he made frequent trips to the mines on the Feather River, where he amassed a fortune by working the Indians, whom he ruled with an iron hand. Absolutely fearless, a crack shot, and a bitter hater of Mexicans, Swift supplies the peaceful annals of our agricultural community with a dash of the romance and adventure of

"The days of old,
The days of gold.
The days of forty-nine."

The following is a reminiscence of a deceased pioneer who was an eye-witness to the incident described.

In the palmy days of Monroeville, in the early fifties, the principal building was an old wooden hotel with the usual barroom attachments. Whenever a mail stage was expected, the men of the community congregated here to await its arrival. On one such occasion Swift was standing watching a game of cards, when a shadow fell across the doorway of the barroom. Instinctively he turned and, catching sight of the newcomers as he did so, shot from the hip with the deadly skill for which he was noted. The man was a Mexican vaquero who had had trouble with Swift, and had made threats to kill him on sight. The Mexican, with unerring accuracy, had thrown a knife with a weighted and balanced point; and, but for the slight movement of Swift's body when he turned, it would have pierced his heart. As it was, the knife barely grazed his clothing and buried itself to half the length of its blade in the wall behind him. The men rolled the dead Mexican out of the doorway, and left the corpse waiting until the cool of the evening for burial; and the card game was resumed until the mail arrived.

After his mining operations. Swift next turned his attention to stock-raising, using the Indians for vaqueros. In 1849 he purchased the cattle and brand of J.S. Williams, who was leaving the Larkin Rancho ; and for the next five years his vast herds grazed the plains for miles. Once a year they were rodeoed at three different points: at the old adobe on Stony Creek, north of Orland; at the adobe on the Murdock ranch, west of Willows; and at the Stone Corral, west of Maxwell. Legends still exist in the county of money buried by Swift at these places. There were no banks in those days ; and Swift, in common with many other men, had a habit of burying money on his home rancho, where several deposits were found by accident after he had forgotten them. In 1854 he moved to Sonoma County, and later to Solano, where he was accidentally killed in a mine in 1875.

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The two other officers of the Bear Flag Revolt, William B. Ide and Henry L. Ford, had ranches in the northern part of the county, which was cut off and joined to Tehama County in 1855.
_______

CHAPTER IV

Organization of State and County

After the War with Mexico, the people of California hoped that Congress would provide them with, an organized government, and that military rule would be at an end; but owing to the slavery agitation at that time, and the fear of upsetting the balance of power in the Senate, Congress adjourned twice without taking cognizance of California's needs. In the meantime, the discovery of gold and the great inrush of miners in 1849 made some form of organized government imperative. After the second adjournment of Congress, General Bennett Riley, Military Governor of California, took matters into his own hands and called a convention to meet in Monterey on September 3, 1849, for the purpose of forming a state constitution.

Immediately after the adjournment of this convention, printed copies of the proposed constitution were spread broadcast over the state, and candidates for the offices created by it inaugurated an active campaign and made stump speeches in favor of its adoption and in support of their own candidacy. The election was held on November 13, 1849. The constitution was ratified almost unanimously, and Peter H. Burnett was chosen as Governor. In December the Governor proclaimed the constitution to be "ordained and established as the constitution of the State of California." The newly elected senators and assemblymen met in San Jose, the new capital, on December 15, 1849. Thus, the state government was organized and in active operation almost nine months before California was admitted to the Union as a state, on September 9, 1850.

Among the acts of this first legislature, which met before California's admission to the Union, was one outlining the boundaries of various counties. Colusa was one of these first counties formed, and its boundaries were defined by the legislature as follows :
"Beginning at a point on the summit of the Coast Range mountains due west from the Red Bluffs, and running thence due east to the said bluffs on the Sacramento River, thence down the middle of said river to the northwest corner of Sutter County, thence due west along the northern border of Yolo County to the summit of the Coast Range, thence in a northwesterly direction
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following the summit of said range to the point of beginning."
The district thus defined was attached to Butte County for judicial purposes.

Location of the County Seat at Monroeville

No sooner had this been done than a lively controversy over the location of the county seat began. In all the expanse of territory embraced by the proclamation there were about one hundred fifteen electors, and these were almost evenly divided between the adherents of Monroeville and those of Colusa -- each place at that time a thriving village of one house. In 1850 the first legislature of the state passed an act providing for the organization of a county by the district judge upon petition of the electors of the county. U.P. Monroe, after whom Monroeville was named, was quick to take advantage of this act. But instead of applying to the district judge, he presented a petition to Judge Moses Bean, superior judge of Butte County, praying for the organization of "Colusi" County. Although he really had no authority to do so, Judge Bean issued a proclamation calling for an election to be held at Monroeville on January 10, 1851, for the organization of the county and the election of the county officers.

Early Elections

Of the men selected for officers at this election, only J.S. Holland, superior judge, and U.P. Monroe, county clerk, qualified and gave the requisite bonds; so that it was necessary to hold another election almost immediately. This was done on February 25, 1851, at which time W.G. Chard was chosen for assessor, Joseph C. Huls for surveyor, and John F. Willis for sheriff. The court of sessions, whose duties corresponded to those of the board of supervisors, was organized with Newell Hall and William B. Ide as associate justices; and by it the county was divided into precincts, townships, road districts, etc., and the tax rate for the county was placed at twenty-five cents on the hundred dollars, of valuation, the highest rate allowed by law at that time.

On April 12, 1851, Judge Holland, who had been ill for some time. died. On May 3, another election was held to choose his successor, in which John T. Hughes received the majority of votes. Shortly afterwards, however, Hughes left the county; so that within eight months after the organization of the county a fourth election was held, on September 3, 1851. This was the first election of which there are any official records extant. The returns were as follows: For assemblyman: C.D. Semple, 23; H.L. Ford, 47; Newell Hall, 23; and's. Gwynn, 5. For county judge: William B. Ide, 40; L.H. Sanborn, 35. For county clerk:

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E.D. Wheatly, 74; James Yates, 11. For treasurer: G.P. Swift, 3; Ben Knight, 82. For sheriff: J.F. Willis, 84. For assessor: W.G. Chard, 21 ; W.H. Sheppard, 57.

The letters of William B. Ide, former leader of the Bear Flag Revolt, furnish the main source of information concerning the life and history of this period.

Transient Nature of the Population

The excitement of gold-mining on the Feather River was then at its height, and a considerable number of the men in the county were transient residents, going and coming back and forth from the mines as the excitement fluctuated. Ide appears to have had a very strong sense of civic responsibility, and endeavored to maintain a county government, in working order, by filling the various offices himself when other men deserted their posts or refused to qualify In reading of his conscientious attempts along this line, one is forcibly reminded of the predicament of the sole survivor of the Nancy Belle, when he says, in that bit of nonsense verse :
"O, I'm the crew and the captain bold.
And the mate of the Nancy brig.
And the bosun tight and the midship mite.
And the crew of the captain's gig'."
The following extract from one of Ide's letters to his brother may serve to heighten the picture of his manifold titles and duties :
"Monroeville, Colusi County, Cal., November 9, 1851.
"Dear Brother:

"I am seated in the office of County Clerk of Colusi County, where I am at present, by virtue of the elective franchise, having been made Judge of the County Court, civil and criminal, president of the Commissioners' Court, or the Court of Sessions of said county, and Judge of Probate; and, by appointment duly recorded, I am made the County Clerk, Clerk of the District Court (Ninth District), and of the Court of Sessions, Clerk of the Probate Court, County Recorder and County Auditor. These several offices, at present, limit my official duties; but I suppose I shall, just to accommodate our floating population, be compelled to serve as Treasurer, Deputy Sheriff, Deputy County Surveyor, and very probably as Coroner and Justice of the Peace, and very probably as Deputy Notary Public.

"This account may excite some surprise, but I will explain: nine tenths of our population are here today, and tomorrow are somewhere else. Our population is like birds of passage, except
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that their migrations are not exactly periodical. All the circumstances which combine to make it difficult to obtain responsible and permanent county officers combine to make these officers necessary. At present ten individuals pay more than three fourths of the taxes paid in the county, and comprise nearly all of its permanent residents. These men as a general thing reside on their ranchos, to attend to their private atfairs, and are the only residents of the county who are able to give the requisite bonds. At the polls the non-residents, when they unite, have the elections as they please; and the result is that transient, irresponsible persons are elected and bonds of a like character are filed. Last year the sovereign people elected as County Judge (who is the acceptor or rejector of all official bonds) a dissipated lawyer, who of course accepted such bonds as came to hand; and the administration of public affairs, financially, went on swimmingly for a few months -- all the offices were promptly filled, bonds filed, and gin, wine and brandy bottles and glasses occupied the places of stationery. The records of the courts became unintelligible to sober people. Not a court of any kind, except Justice of the Peace Courts, was held within the county (except the Court of Sessions, and that was uniformly conducted by the Senior Justice, while the presiding judge was otherwise employed).

"The property holders, as we are called here, refused to pay their taxes on the ground of the insufficiency of official bonds. . . . Judge _______ resigned, and the election resulted in the choice of one of the property owners, your brother. And a further result was that legal bonds are required, which transient persons cannot procure."
According to Green's History of Colusa County, J.C. Huls, one of Ide's fellow officers during his term as judge, is authority for the following anecdote, which illustrates the versatility of Ide in discharging the duties of several offices simultaneously.

When Ide was justice of the peace in Red Bluff, previous to his election to the superior judgeship of Colusa County, a man appeared before him charged with horse-stealing. After a short preliminary hearing, Ide bound the man over to appear before the Superior Court; but before the date set for the trial Ide had been elected superior judge of Colusa County. When the prisoner was arraigned, Ide informed the accused of his right to counsel, and as there was no attorney nearer than eighty miles, volunteered to act in that capacity himself. This combination of presiding judge and counsel pleased the prisoner immensely, and he agreed to the proposition, especially as there was no district attorney to prosecute him. But Ide, it seems, in order that the sovereign people of the County of Colusa might be represented, felt called

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upon to act in that capacity also. So the trial proceeded on that basis. As the attorney for the people Ide submitted his case, taking exceptions to the evidence in behalf of the defendant, and then, resuming his judgeship, decided the rulings. At the close of the trial the jury were out an hour, when they returned a verdict of guilty. Ide, as judge, then addressed the prisoner at the bar in part as follows: "After a fair and impartial trial by a jury of your peers, you have been found guilty of horse-stealing, for which the penalty is death. I sentence you to be hanged by the neck until dead, dead, dead; and may God have mercy on your soul." The prisoner was taken to Hamilton, Butte County, for safe-keeping, there to await the day of execution. On the appointed date, Ide sent the sheriff after the condemned man; but that worthy officer found only an empty cell. The Governor of the state had pardoned the man without even notifying the Colusa County officers.

Transportation in the Early Days

With the great influx of gold-seekers to the mines, transportation of supplies for them became more lucrative in many instances than mining, itself. The following extract from the autobiography of Rufus Burrows, one of the pioneer settlers in the county, may be of interest, as it gives his experience in this line of business as a boy while living in the vicinity of Sacramento City.
"While in this place, I made a trip with seven others for Tanner and Fowler, all having ox teams with the exception of Tanner, who was with us; and he had horses. Loaded with freight, it took seventeen days to make a fifty-mile trip. Tanner and Fowler got a dollar and a half per pound for hauling this freight. On this trip we were mired down a good part of the time, for the roads were awfully muddy. . . .

"My stepfather bought an ox team from an emigrant and gave it to me. The best day's work I ever did in my life was with this team. I hauled one load of flour to Mormon Island, on the river just above Folsom, then a mining town. When I reached Mormon Island the man paid me in gold dust. It was a little red toy barrel level full. I had three yoke of oxen on this trip. When I started home I kept thinking about Indians, as two white men had recently been killed by them. I was only a boy, and as darkness came on I was afraid to camp on the road, so kept on going until I got home, arriving there at midnight. . . .

"I afterwards took the gold dust I received for this trip with me to New York, and had it coined. They gave me one hundred forty four dollars for it."

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Early Grain-growers

The transportation of supplies over rough, muddy roads, or in many places over no roads at all, necessitated many head of stock ; and the price of hay and barley soon soared to such alluring figures that some of the early settlers in the county began to experiment in the raising of grain. In 1851 Isaac Sparks, R.B. Ord, George L. Pratt, Watkins, Bounds, Nelson & McClanahan, E.J. Walsh, Monroe & Williamson, Martin Reager, A.S.C. Cleek, William Swift, and Granville P. Swift had each sown considerable acreage to barley; and several of the above-mentioned men had also tried smaller patches of wheat, thus starting an industry which in the course of a few years supplanted all others and became the main source of wealth in the county.

Valuation and Population in 1852

In 1852 the assessed valuation of the county was $547,837. It may be interesting to note, in the light of present-day valuations, the inverse ratio at that time of real estate to personal property. The three largest grants, the Larkin's Children's, Jimeno, and Ide's rancho, comprising 82,670 acres of finest river land, were assessed at $1.25 per acre ; hay, at $15 per ton ; wild cattle, at $12 per head; wheat at $2 per bushel; and sheep, at $8 per head. The number of poll taxes paid in 1852 was four hundred seventy-six; but the next year there was a very marked decline in the population, and only one hundred forty-three receipts were listed.

First Legal Execution, and First County Jail

The first legal execution in Colusa County occurred in the spring of 1852. Nathaniel Bowman was convicted of murder in the first degree for killing Levi Seigler by beating him over the head with a bottle. There was no jail then, and during the trial Bowman was placed under guard at Monroeville. After his conviction he nearly made good his escape. In some manner he eluded the vigilance of his guard and, still shackled, hobbled to the home of Jesse Sheppard, where he begged piteously to have his irons filed off. Sheppard, however, took him back and turned him over to the authorities at Monroeville, where he was executed soon afterwards.

This episode clearly showed the necessity of having some safe place of detention for prisoners. With his characteristic resourcefulness in emergencies, William B. Ide met this situation also. He obtained some bar iron and bolts from San Francisco and fashioned a cage. This he placed in the shade of a great oak in front of the hotel in Monroeville, which did duty at that time

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as the county courthouse also. This simple expedient solved the problem until the seat of government was transferred to Colusa in 1854, whereupon Ide's cage was removed also, to continue duty as a cell in the county jail in Colusa.

While performing his official duties at Monroeville, William B. Ide contracted the smallpox, which terminated fatally on December 20, 1852. By his death the county was deprived of her most public-spirited citizen, whose influence in behalf of law and order could ill be spared in such a turbulent period.

Removal of the County Seat to Colusa

The adherents of the town of Colusa as the location of the county seat drew first blood in the contest in 1851, when Charles Semple had the County Proclamation amended by the legislature by the insertion of the words "and the seat of justice shall be the town of Colusa." Nothing daunted, however, the Monroevilleites proceeded with the work of staking out lots and planning the future of their town. Monroe presented to the county judge a petition signed by ninety-five people asking that an election be held to determine the location of the county seat. The election was held, and Superior Judge Hughes signed an official document declaring Monroe's ranch the county seat, as it had received a majority of the votes cast. The Colusa faction then brought the matter up again at the next general election in 1853, when the vote was overwhelmingly in favor of Colusa. Monroeville was by that time so far outnmnbered in population by Colusa that it ceased to struggle to maintain its hold. Its inhabitants settled in other localities, and the site of the town was afterwards merged into the farm purchased by Jubal Weston, Jr., in 1868.

The government of the county was now fully organized with proper officers, and the records previously kept at Monroeville were transferred to Colusa, where, during the summer of 1854, a three-thousand-dollar frame building was erected for a courthouse.
_______

CHAPTER V

Origin of Place Names. The Coming of the Stockmen

Origin of Place Names

Of all the men who were in the county, and were active in its organization and early government prior to 1853, none have left any descendants still living in the county except A.S.C. Cleek, Martin Reager, and Robert Hambright in the northern part

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of the county, and Elijah McDaniel and Mayberry Davis from the Afton district, on the east side of the river. Either the other settlers left the county, or their children have scattered to other parts of the state. The names of many places, valleys and streams, however., still attest their primacy.

Stony and Grindstone Creeks both derived their names from the first manufacturing industry in the county. According to General John Bidwell, Moon, Merritt, and Peter Lassen made grindstones on the banks of these creeks in 1845. The men freighted their product to the river by pack-horses, loaded the grindstones into a canoe, and peddled them at the different ranchos along the banks of the river, disposing of all their output before they reached Yerba Buena (San Francisco).

As the very earliest settlements were made along the river, most of the places which bear the names of the early pioneers are in that locality. Ord, or Ord Bend, was named from R.B. Ord, who first settled in that vicinity. Before the organization of the state government he was a Mexican alcalde, which corresponds to our justice of the peace. Ord left the county later, and finally located in Santa Barbara.

Walsh school district was so called because the site was formerly part of the Walsh Grant, owned by R.J. Walsh. In the early fifties, Walsh was a merchant in Shasta. He shipped his supplies from San Francisco to Colusa by boat, from which point they were freighted by pack train or ox team to Shasta along the old Red Bluff Road, which followed the river. For convenience in his teaming, he established a ranch on the route, where his stock might be relayed and so rested between trips. Shortly after 1851, he gave up the mercantile business and turned his attention to the ranch and the raising of stock. Surrounding land and claims were bought up, until his holdings comprised twenty thousand acres. He devoted his energies to improving the cattle of that period, importing some thoroughbred shorthorn Durhams from Kentucky for that purpose. Walsh died on April 30, 1866. He had no children, and after his wife's death the property reverted to his sister, Mrs. Chambers, and her children.

St. John takes its name from A.C. St. John, one of the early settlers in the county. He purchased a tract of land on Stony Creek, near its mouth. After the collapse of Monroeville's hopes of eminence by the removal of the county seat to Colusa, one corner of this tract was set apart for a town site, the post office was moved there from Monroeville, and the place was named St. John. The first marriage ceremony performed in Colusa County was that which united A.C. St. John and Miss Julia Griggsby at Princeton, in 1853. Two sons and two daugh-

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ters were the fruit of this union. After several years the family removed to San Jose, and the children are now living in San Francisco.

Swift's Point, on the Sacramento River near Hamilton City, hears the name of Granville P. Swift, already mentioned in a previous chapter. At this place the river was fordable at low water; and this crossing was much used in the early days in travel between Red Bluff and points on the east side of the lower river.

The Mcintosh, school district, which has recently been established, was named in honor of L.H. Mcintosh, a pioneer of 1852 and at one time owner of three thousand acres of land extending from the river to a point five miles west, including the site of the present school district.

Leaving the river district, and turning to the foothills, the second belt of settlement in the county, the following places which commemorate the names of pioneers are found. Hambright Creek, which joins Stony Creek on the Greenwood place near Orland, derives its name from Robert Hambright, a Mexican War veteran. At the close of the war he came to California and engaged in stock-raising, purchasing land along the creek which still bears his name. His daughter Ida married Albert Papst, and some of their children are still living in Orland. Briscoe Creek, which rises in the Coast Range mountains and flows into Stony Creek about half a mile south of the town of Elk Creek, commemorates the name of another pioneer. Watt Briscoe and Robert Anderson settled in Green Valley and engaged in stock-raising in the later fifties. Briscoe had no descendants. Clark's Valley, nestled among the hills south and east of the town of Fruto, was so named because it was first settled by James Clark. His family are all dead, with the exception of one granddaughter, who is married and is living in the southern part of the state. Rising in the foothills southwest of Orland, and flowing into Willow Creek at a point two miles east of the town of Willows, is Walker Creek, named after Jeff Walker, who in the early fifties ran thousands of sheep on the low foothills and plains northwest of Germantown. Walker had one daughter, Molly, whose present whereabouts are unknown.

On account of the paucity of the county records, little can be found as to the doings and places of abode of the numerous other pioneers of the northern part of Colusa County prior to 1854. In this broad open country there was land enough for every one. A man's claim was respected by every one whether he followed the preemption law or not; and if any one wanted the same piece of land more than the original settler, he bought

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up his claim and took possession with very little formality. Even those who had proved up, and had government land patents to their lands, were very careless about recording their titles with the proper county officials; so that as late as 1868 a large percentage of the landholders in the county were assessed by what was known as possessory titles.

The Coming of the Stockmen

By 1855 many men who had come to California during the gold excitement of 1849 and 1850 had been disappointed in the mines and turned their attention to agriculture and stock-raising, the mild climate and luxuriant wild grasses of the country supplying almost ideal conditions for the latter industry, which had always formed the main dependence of the Spanish Californians. Thousands of small wild cattle grazed on their vast ranches, but these were slaughtered mainly for their hides. In fact, before the discovery of gold, hides often formed the medium of exchange between the Californians and the outside world, as tobacco did between the early colonists of Virginia. Several forty-niners, who afterward settled in what is now Glenn County, returned to Missouri and Kentucky and drove back across the plains enough fine stock to form the nucleus of their later herds. Once in California with their stock, it was not so much the question of pasturage as the finding of living water that decided their location.

Nearly all the lands along the Sacramento River were claimed either under Spanish grant or by purchase, previous to the year 1858. The following were some of the residents and landowners along the river: Mayberry Davis, who settled near the' present location of Afton; Elijah McDaniel, who located at Painters Landing, on the river; Joseph McVay; Bounds and Picknell; H.C. Nelson ; Frank Steele, whose family still own land and reside on it at the river opposite Princeton; Levi Jefferson McDaniel, whose ranch is now known as Carson Colony No. 1, or Baker Colony, subdivided into small farm tracts by Mr. E.R. Baker and associates ; J.J. Winkler, a veteran of the Mexican War ; John Price, still owning the land and residing at his original location; Isaac Sparks, who located at Jacinto, later the home of Dr. Hugh Glenn; Watkins, who settled near Jacinto in 1851; George C. Pratt and R.B. Ord, who settled at the location on the river known as Ord Bend ; U.P. Monroe, who located at Monroeville, now the Weston Ranch; Richard Walsh, who lived on the Walsh Grant, in the vicinity of St. John; L.H. Mcintosh, who owned the Mcintosh Ranch ; and Joseph and Michael Billiou, who resided near the present site of Hamilton City. Martin A.

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Reager and S.C. Cleek operated a hotel near St. John, on the Red Bluff road, in 1850. Later they farmed near St. John, and then took up their respective farms on Stony Creek, in the vicinity of the present city of Orland. James Ewing Mitchell located on the river, north of the present site of Hamilton City, and engaged in sheep-raising. Jubal Weston clerked in a hotel or road house at Monroeville, formerly the county seat of Colusa County, in the year 1854.

The search for water, as well as feed for their stock, led the new settlers into the foothills along the creek valleys. Claims were laid out along the courses of streams, and the range controlled by the water was fenced in by brush fences. Most of the foothill settlers saved their home range for winter pasturage, turning their stock out in the spring to roam the plains in common with wild game, untended save for the annual rodeo in the fall. The crossing of the imported stock, principally of Durham blood, with the native cattle gradually improved the standard of all the herds in the county. Stock-raising was the only industry of any importance in the county prior to 1870. The early miners derisively spoke of Colusa as one of the "cow counties" of the state, which cognomen was justly earned, and was turned into one of praise by her vast herds of improved stock.

Thousands of head of sheep were raised annually, but fewer individuals were engaged in that branch of the stock industry. Some of the most prominent sheep-raisers were: James Ewing Mitchell, Jeff Walker, U.S. Nye, A.S. McWilliams, James Talbot, Patrick O'Brien, W.W. Marshall, Laban Scearce, William Murdock and Milton French. The feeling between the cattle men and sheep men, so bitter in many places in the West, never attained any degree of rancor in this vicinity.

Settlement of the Foothills

The first settlements in the foothills were made during the year 1855. A.D. Logan settled on the property which he afterwards sold to "Zink" Garnett, and which is now owned by the J.S. Garnett Company. Just west of the Garnett Ranch, James and Thomas Talbot took up the land which is still known as the Talbot Ranch. Oscar Stiles and James and S.D. Young settled north of the Garnett Ranch, and were bought out by J.R. Titfee in 1858. This ranch was afterwards divided between his two daughters, Anna R. Safford and Theodora Tiffee Purkitt; and the two places resulting from this division are now the property of S. Stormer and W. Stormer respectively. Robert Eggleston settled just west of the ranch owned by Tiffee, and sold his ranch a few years later to a man by the name of Small, whose daughter

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Mary married Levi Welch, by whose name the place was called until it came into possession of the Nichols family. Nearly all the Small family are buried in a private cemetery on the place. Abe Musick, Jerry Schooling and Charley Brooks settled on the land purchased by U.S. Nye in 1858 and held in the possession of his family until 1916, when it was sold to H.M. Garnett. Just north of the Nye Ranch, Patrick O'Brien settled, and acqured a holding of twelve thousand acres known as the O'Brien Ranch, which is now in the possession of the Turman-Mitchell Company. In 1855, Milton French settled on the ranch known as the French Ranch, and there engaged in sheep-raising. French gradually acquired more and more land, increased his flocks of sheep, and later farmed a large acreage to grain, attaining prominence as one of the largest ranch owners and most successful stockmen of the county. J.C. and S.P. Wilson settled on the ranch known as the Marshall Ranch in 1855. Later in the same year, W.W. Marshall purchased the interests of the Wilsons and engaged in sheep-raising and farming. He was widely known as a successful farmer and owner of blooded stock. One of his race horses, Stranger, won three out of five races in the Northern Circuit in 1893. Jeff Walker settled on the ranch known as the Butte Ranch, southwest of Orland, and was one of the largest early sheep-raisers in the county. In 1858, H.B. Julian settled on the ranch known as the Julian Ranch, on Stony Creek, northwest of the present town of Fruto. Here he increased his holdings until his ranch included over nine thousand acres, on which he raised thousands of head of stock and also farmed a large acreage to grain. In 1859, I.W. Brownell purchased an eighty-acre farm on Stony Creek from the owner, Mr. Sparks. From this small beginning Mr. Brownell, by thrift and good management, gradually acquired the splendid property known as the Brownell Ranch. Laban Scearce, a forty-niner, filed on government land on Stony Creek, six miles northwest of Orland, in 1856, and engaged in stock-raising. The property, consisting of forty-six hundred acres, is now owned by the Scearce Company. Noah Simpson settled in African Valley on Stony Creek in 1853, near the present site of Simpson Bridge, which spans Stony Creek on the Newville-Orland road. Mr. Simpson was one of the prominent stock-raisers of the county. Robert Hambright, who has been previously mentioned, settled on the creek bearing his name, about seven miles west of Orland, during the year 1853.

In the vicinity of the site of the present town of Newville, James Flood, J.B. and Joseph James, M. Kendrick, James Kilgore, Lysander V. Cushman, Rufus G. Burrows, John Masterson, B.N. Scribner, James A. Shelton and George W. Millsaps

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settled previous to 1858 and 1859. These men all acquired land and became permanent settlers of that community. Their holdings are today owned by their estates or families. In 1853, Joseph Millsaps settled near the present site of the village of Chrome. Beginning with a three-hundred-twenty-acre ranch, he prospered in the stock-raising industry and finally became the owner of over three thousand acres of land.

Before the year 1858, the following pioneers settled in Stony Creek Valley, between the location of Elk Creek and vicinity and Stonyford : L.L. Felkner, Robert Anderson, Watt Briscoe, Wilcox, Farrish, Bowman, J.S.B. West, Jack and Dave Lett, W.E. Green and sons, W.W. and Alfred. These pioneers engaged in stock-raising. Later, through the division of their estates, these ranches were separated into smaller farms, now as prosperous as the larger ones of the early settlement days on Stony Creek.

Many of the pioneers of this period from 1854 to 1858 have escaped mention in this connection, for only of those who settled permanently in the county and possessed themselves of land are records obtainable. Many worthy pioneers took up their residence in the county during this time; but other parts of the unsettled West called them thither.

The Drought of 1864

After three of four seasons of less than normal rainfall, the year 1864 opened with the ground as hard and dry as in August ; nor were there any spring rains to alleviate this condition. Stock suffered terribly. Whenever it was possible, the stockmen had taken their herds out of the county to other pasturage; but the drought was a state-wide condition, and relief was many miles away. Hundreds of head of cattle died on the way to pasturage in the mountains. By fall the conditions were much worse. The rains held off until the last of November, and thousands of head of cattle and sheep died of starvation. Many settlers found themselves on the verge of bankruptcy by the loss of so great a portion of their herds. The year 1864 was a severe setback to the stock-raising industry, and many realized for the first time that other and diversified industries would be greatly to their benefit and a further guarantee of success. It was the setback of 1864 that first interested the settlers in the possibilities of grain-growing in connection with their stock-grazing, and perhaps had much to do with the new era to follow in the late sixties and early seventies.

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CHAPTER VI

The Era of the Grain-grower

First Attempts at Grain-growing

The early settlers along Stony Creek and near the river, in the vicinity of St. John, first planted wheat and barley in the year 1851. The more venturesome pioneers who settled on the plains for the purpose of growing grain were forced to abandon their squatter claims by the excessively dry seasons of 1854-1855, 1855-1856, and 1856-1857. In addition to severe drought during these years, a scourge of grasshoppers visited the plains in 1855 and completely devastated them of all vegetable life.

The government offered the lands on the plains for settlement in 1856, and during the same year confirmed the Mexican Grant land titles to those having ownership and possession of lands under former grants. Beginning with 1856, the new settler was offered every inducement to settle on the fertile plains of Colusa County. The previous years of drought, however, served to dampen the ardor of the farmer settlers; and stock-raising was still considered the only industry worthy of their energies. Beginning with the year 1868 a new era dawned. The winter of 1868-1869 was one blessed with bountiful rainfall. Those hardy settlers who had again chanced a grain crop reaped a wonderful harvest of wheat and barley. Prices were high, and many settlers profited enough from their single crop to repay past losses and leave them sufficient funds to plant a much larger acreage the following year. In the year 1869 about ten thousand acres of virgin lands were broken, and sown to wheat and barley. The fame of Colusa County, and particularly that portion of it which is now Glenn County, as a county of wonderful crop harvests had spread over the entire valley.

Influx of Settlers

The year 1870 brought a great influx of settlers, seeking homes and fortunes. During that year many of Glenn County's solid citizens took up their homesteads, or purchased the rights of others, and engaged in grain-growing on a scale never contemplated by the early settlers. The larger number of the new settlers of this year came from Solano County, where they had had previous experience in grain-farming. The stories of Glenn County's bountiful crops attracted them to what they considered a district offering superior farming opportunities.

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Mention is here made of a few of the grain farmers who settled in Glenn County during the years 1868 to 1873. Dr. Hugh J. Glenn settled at Jacinto in 1868, and I.V. Devenpeck settled northwest of Willows in the same year. In 1869, Ad. Duncan settled northwest of Willows on the property now owned by W.D. Killebrew. H.A. Greenwood and Henry W. Steuben settled in the vicinity of Orland in 1870. P.B. Lacroix, W.T. Troxel and Daniel Zumwalt settled near Willows between 1871 and 1873. During the same period, G.D. Mecum, Chris. Jasper and J.A. Smith became residents of the Orland district.

Growth and Decline of the Industry

By the season of 1872 the grain-growing industry had grown to the almost unbelievable proportions of a million sacks of wheat and barley. A close estimate of that year showed that about a million bags of grain was grown in Colusa County, a great portion of which was produced in the territory now making up the valley portion of Glenn County.

During the year 1872 and 1873 a few farmers abandoned grain-growing for sheep-raising. Wool sold for fifty cents per pound in 1872 ; and this was the cause of their changing back to grazing.

The years 1873 and 1874 were prosperous ones for the grain farmers. Dr. H.J. Glenn harvested a crop from thirty thousand acres, which yielded an average of twenty-five bushels of wheat per acre. Large grain warehouses were constructed at Jacinto and Princeton. The grain industry had come to stay, and shelter for grain awaiting shipment was found necessary. During the next three years large crops were grown. More land was sown each year, adding greater wealth to the county, and enhancing the prosperity of its settlers and home-builders. The crop of 1878, however, suffered greatly from rust everywhere in the state ; and this resulted in no small loss to the farmer.

About this time another pest caused considerable loss to the farmer. The wild geese and ducks became so plentiful that one large grain-grower of that period, Levi Moulton, placed armed guards, afterwards known as "goose herders," around his fields of grain. During the first season his goose herders destroyed over seven thousand wild geese. The following year the farmers were compelled to resort to the poisoning of their fields, in order more quickly to destroy the wild geese and ducks that were attracted to the valley during the winter and early spring, and which would often in a single night devastate a field of forty acres of grain.

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The year 1880 stands out in the history of the county as the banner crop year of the grain-growing industry. A larger acreage was planted than theretofore, yields were far greater, prices were above the average, and grain-growing became the remunerative occupation of almost every one. Dr. Hugh Glenn produced from his vast acreage, known as the Glenn Grant, almost a million bags of wheat. Some other large growers of that year were : Mr. George Hoag, William Murdock, Pierre Barcelous, P.B. Lacroix, Charles Merrill, I.V. Devenpeck, Ad. Duncan, Laban Scearce, H.B. Julian, Patrick O'Brien, Joseph Billiou and C.S. Chambers.

The years 1881-1882 and 1882-1883 were average crop years. The winter of 1884-1885 promised an exceedingly dry season, and crops were supposed to have been lost through lack of rain; but during the month of January, 1885, a four-and-one-half-inch rain brought profit out of loss. Later rains followed, March being a month of floods, and the harvest season returned a crop of over eight million bushels of grain, an exceedingly large crop. The following year promised well for a bumper grain crop ; but on June 11, 1886, the most severe "norther" experienced in the county caused a million bushels' loss of grain. Many fields were flattened, and those which remained standing suffered greatly by being stripped.

The year 1887 was chiefly distinguished as the year of the advent of the combined harvester. Formerly all the grain had been harvested by headers and threshers. The combined harvester, which cut the grain and threshed and sacked it with the same operation, meant a considerable saving in the expense of harvesting. The harvester revolutionized grain-farming in the valley.

Previous to 1889, all grain-farming operations in the valley had been carried on by horse and mule power; but in the summer of that year George Mudd, who was farming near Germantown, purchased and operated the first steam tractor in the county. The Mudd tractor was used to operate a harvester, and from that day the horse and mule began their decline in the harvest field and in other farming operations in the county.

The constant farming of the lands of the plains for a period of twenty-five years resulted in the inevitable exhaustion of the soil's resources. The grain-grower was very improvident of the soil's fertility, taking everything from the land and giving nothing in return. During the early nineties, crop yields were light. Many extensive grain-growers failed; and others turned large portions of their acreage to pasture and engaged in stock-raising, farming only so much land as was necessary to produce feed for

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their stock. Under the summer-fallowing system, however, Glenn County still produced fair and average crop yields. Grain-growing still maintained its place among the productive industries of the county, though the extensive grain ranches of the seventies and eighties were abandoned. Farming was carried on by farmers operating small acreages. Grain-growing in the county gradually became closely identified with stock-raising ; and the farmer of today depends also upon his herds of cattle, sheep, hogs, horses, and mules for the guarantee of his livelihood.

Grain-growing on the Grant

The history of grain-growing in the county cannot be written without directly mentioning in some detail the extensive farming operations of Dr. Hugh J. Glenn, for whom Glenn County was named, and who was at one time the largest grain farmer of the United States, if not of the entire world.

Dr. Glenn came to California in 1849. After engaging in mining, freighting and the livery business at Sacramento, he returned to Missouri. In 1853, he again came to California and engaged in the cattle business, with S.E. Wilson and Major Briggs, of Yolo County, as partners. His first place of residence in what is now Glenn County was at the mouth of Stony Creek, on the Sacramento River. In 1856, he disposed of his California interests and again returned to Missouri. The call of California, however, could not be resisted; and during 1859 and the years following he made several trips from Missouri and New Orleans to California, with, droves of cattle, horses and mules. In 1865 he attempted farming in Yolo County, with Major Briggs as a partner.

In 1867, attracted to the place of his first residence in what is now Glenn County, because of the opportunities that district offered for grain-farming. Dr. Glenn purchased a ranch at the present site of Jacinto. This first ranch consisted of seven thousand acres and was purchased for one dollar sixty cents per acre. The following year, 1868, Jacinto became the residence of the Glenn family.

After 1868, Dr. Glenn added to his holdings until, in 1874, forty-one thousand acres was under plow, and a crop of wheat with an average yield of twenty-five bushels per acre was harvested from thirty thousand acres. From the year 1874 to the year of his death Dr. Glenn was known as the "Wheat King" of the world. His ranch comprised about fifty-five thousand acres, all tillable land, of which about forty-five thousand acres was farmed to wheat and barley.

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In order to give an idea of the extensive operations carried on by Dr. Glenn during these years, the following facts are presented. The pay roll for labor performed during the harvest season averaged about thirty thousand dollars per month. Over one hundred eight-mule teams were employed in putting in the crop; and when the plowing season commenced, the plow teams made one round only of their fields during their day's work. The teams were accompanied by a cook house for the men, and a feed and water wagon for the stock. This bare statement of the method of operation will perhaps give the reader the best idea of the extensive farming operations on the great ranch. In 1880, a crop of almost a million bags of grain was grown upon this ranch. Over twenty-seven thousand tons of wheat was exported to England by Dr. Glenn under his own charter, for which he received eight hundred thousand dollars. For convenience in farming, the ranch was divided into seven fields, the largest of which contained twelve thousand acres. The total fencing surrounding these fields amounted to more than one hundred fifty miles. At the height of the harvest season as many as six hundred men were employed on the ranch. At Jacinto a small town thrived. Jacinto had a hotel (still standing), saloon, blacksmith shop, machine shops, store (still standing), post office, and warehouse. During the early years of his operation of the big ranch, Dr. Glenn recognized the value of surface drains to care for the surplus flood waters of the winter. Drains constructed at that time by his orders are still in use, and serve their original purpose. Water for stock on the plains back from the river was secured by scooping out large barrow pits, down to the depth of surface water. These water holes can still be seen along the Willows and Jacinto roads.

In February, 1883, Dr. Glenn was shot by his secretary, Hurum Miller. For a time after his death the farm was operated by the administrators ; but poor crop years and low prices finally resulted in the subdivision of the great ranch, which was sectionized and offered to the public at very low prices. With the coming of irrigation and subdivision, a new era of settlement by the small farmer and the home-seeker commenced. The Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company purchased the remaining holdings of the estate in 1909, for the purpose of placing it under irrigation and selling it, in forty-acre units, to the small farmer for intensive cultivation. The fifty-five-thousand-acre wheat ranch of the eighties is now the residence of many small farmers, who irrigate their lands and intensively farm their small home plots.

The beautiful Glenn home site at Jacinto is owned and occupied by Mrs. Ella Glenn Leonard, the only daughter of Dr. Glenn.

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To the north, and adjoining the Jacinto place, Charles H. Glenn owns about seven hundred acres, where he has erected a spacious dwelling for his permanent home.

"Glennair," the home of Frank Buckner Glenn, is the site of the old "Home Ranch," one of the subdivision ranches made under the direction of Dr. Glenn for convenience in farming. The grounds are beautifully parked, having been laid out by the famous landscape gardener, McLaren, of Golden Gate Park. The farm of several hundred acres is modern in every respect.
_______

CHAPTER VII

County Division, and Organization of the New County

In 1850, when the State Legislature created Colusa County by establishing its boundaries, little thought was given to the amount of territory embraced. The location of Colusa, the county seat, in the extreme southern part of the county, distant about fifty miles from its northern boundary, was the cause of much inconvenience and expense to the citizens in the northern portion of the county. The immediate vicinity of the town of Colusa had been receiving the lion's share of the attention of the officers of the county, without due regard to the interests of the residents of the north. A just proportion of the revenues of the county, secured by taxes upon lands and personal property, had not been equitably expended in the interests of that portion of the county from which the revenue was derived. Colusa, because of its larger population and its control of the offices of the county since its organization, had formed a ring popularly termed the "Courthouse Ring." These grievances and errors of county management caused many of the thinking residents of the northern portion of the county to cast about for a possible solution of the difficulties they had experienced in their attempts to force proper respect for the interests of their district. Roads had been neglected, bridges were needed, and the tax rate was increasing each year without benefits in return for the added costs. Murmurings and mutterings had been heard for several years; and in 1880 the editor of the Orland Times, Frank Freeman, then a hardware merchant of that thriving city, openly espoused the cause of dividing the county and creating a new commonwealth in their own separate interests.

The first plan for county division, as proposed by the supporters of the idea, specified as the territory of the new county

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the northern part of Colusa County, beginning at the present southern boundary of Glenn County, and that part of Tehama County south of Thorns Creek, including the town of Scatterville -- that is, the present city of Corning -- with Orland as the geographical center of the new county and consequently the location of the county seat. Some of the bolder champions of a new county rallied to the support of Editor Freeman, but the older heads discouraged action at that time and counseled delay.

The movement for creating a new county was again agitated in 1882; and this was the real beginning of the struggle which culminated four years later in the introduction of a bill, in the Legislative Assembly of 1887, proposing the division of Colusa County and the creation of a new county to be called "Glenn," and to embrace that portion of the County of Colusa north of the township line between townships seventeen and eighteen. The supporters of county division were in large majority in 1887. Their action in introducing the bill was taken with as little publicity as possible. A petition asking the Legislature to create the new County of Glenn was circulated among the resident taxpayers of the proposed new county, and was signed by over eight hundred petitioners.

The Colusa County political ring could ill afford to stand the loss of the tax money of the northern district. The bill was bitterly opposed by them in the Legislature, and failed of passage in the State Senate by a vote of twenty-one to twenty upon reconsideration, after having passed the Assembly by a constitutional majority.

After the Legislature adjourned, the time was well employed by the people of the northern district in marshaling their strength for the next struggle, in the legislative session of 1888-1889. During that session the Divisionists and Anti-divisionists arrayed all the strength they could muster. Large delegations of citizens -- men, women and children -- visited the Legislature in session, lobbying for the passage of the bill creating the new County of Glenn. Money was used freely by professional lobbyists on both sides. Finally the Assembly and Senate, by the necessary constitutional majority, passed the act creating the new county. The signature of Governor Waterman was needed to the act to divide the old and create the new county. The Governor failed to sign the act. Thus, the Divisionists were defeated, and all the work and energy expended by them had been lost. By his failure to sign the act creating the new county, the Governor decreed that the proponents of division must come again before the Legislature for the relief they sought. This they did at its next session, in 1890-1891.

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In 1890-1891, the third bill was introduced in the Legislature, providing for the creation of Glenn County by a majority concurrent vote of the resident electors of the territory to be embraced within the boundaries of the new county. This bill, after a fight more bitter than those of the preceding sessions, passed both houses of the Legislature by a substantial majority and was immediately signed by Governor Markham.

In accordance with the provisions of the act, the Governor appointed five commissioners to determine all matters not provided for in the act creating the new county, and to call an election of the electors residing therein for the purpose of determining by majority vote whether the county created by an act of Legislature should be duly organized. The following were the commissioners appointed by the Governor: George H. Purkitt, chairman of the commission; J.N. Davis, of Afton; M.B. Scribner, of Orland ; J.R. Troxel and Milton French, of Willows.

On May 5, 1891, a bitterly contested election was held. On May 11, the commissioners met and canvassed the election, and determined for all time the question of the creation of the County of Glenn by declaring the act ratified by a majority vote of the electors of the new county, and the following officers elected: Judge of the Superior Court, Seth Millington; Sheriff, P.H. Clark; Clerk, Wm. H. Sale; Assessor, Lawrence R. Stewart; District Attorney, Ben. F. Geis; Coroner, Dr. A.H. Martin; Public Administrator, James O. Johnson ; County Surveyor, H.A. Hicks ; Tax Collector, E.C. Kirkpatrick; County Treasurer, James M. Millsaps ; Auditor, A.W. Sehorn ; Recorder, M.B. Sanders ; Superintendent of Schools, W.M. Finch; Supervisor of District No. 1, H.C. Hulett, Chairman ; Supervisor of District No. 2, J.F. Pieper; Supervisor of District No. 3, N.B. Vanderford; Supervisor of District No. 4, William M. Johnson ; Supervisor of District No. 5, Philander Stone.

The Anti-divisionists, or Colusa County faction, after the election of May 5, 1891, shot their last bolt in their fight against county division by bringing a suit in the Superior Court of Sacramento County, praying for an order of court against the division of the county upon the grounds of illegal voting, colonization of voters, stuffing of ballot boxes, and the making of fraudulent returns of election by election officers; and attacked the constitutionality of the act of Legislature creating the new county, and the legality of all proceedings held thereunder. This action was decided in favor of division; and on appeal made to the Supreme Court, the decision of the lower court was sustained. Suits were also instituted at Marysville, charging many individual electors

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with illegal voting, stuffing of the ballot boxes, and fraudulent actions of election officers. After considerable annoyance and trouble to the persons charged in these spite suits, all action was dropped and the question was closed permanently.

From the year 1882, when the Orland Times advocated for the first time the division of Colusa County, until the fifth day of May, 1891, the cause of division was ably supported by its originator, Frank Freeman. In 1887, Mr. Freeman moved his printing press to Willows, consolidated his paper with the Willows Journal, and founded the first daily paper of Colusa County, styled the "Willows Daily Journal." In the legislative battle of 1890-1891, Mr. Freeman was actively in charge of the interests of the Divisionists. For a period of eleven years he had consistently fought for the assertion of the rights of the people of the northern district of Colusa County.

The Honorable K.E. Kelley

Mention has been made of the first demands of the Divisionists of 1886. The general who planned the moves and strategy of the long fight for county division was a former editor and publisher of the Willows Journal, an ex-State Senator and an attorney of ability, the Honorable K.E. Kelley.

The Honorable K.E. Kelley represented the Counties of Yolo and Solano as State Senator in the twenty-fifth Legislative Assembly, during the regular and special sessions of 1882. In 1885 Mr. Kelley came to Willows and purchased the Willows Journal, which he edited and published, in connection with his cousin, W.H. Kelley, for two years. Afterward he entered the practice of law and became closely identified with the social and political life of the county. His energy, shrewdness, persistence, and knowledge of men and their motives, placed him in the front as a leader of the forlorn hopes of the county Divisionists. In all the later struggles for the division of Colusa County and the formation of Glenn County, Mr. Kelley was acknowledged by the opponents of that measure to be a most skilful, adroit and formidable adversary. To the Honorable K.E. Kelley, more than to any other man, can be attributed the final success of the movement for the formation of the county.

Later Mr. Kelley became interested in the development and settlement of the county. Kelley's Addition and Kelley's Extension to the town of Willows recall his interest in the up-building of that city. The Kelley Grade Road from Fruto to Anderson Valley, in which was located his former home, named by him "The Retreat," was constructed at his suggestion and request.

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CHAPTER VIII

The Years Immediately Following County Division

Factions Created by County Division

One of the most unfortunate results of the long struggle for county division was the internal strife and dissension created within the confines of the new county. The inhabitants of the extreme northern portion of the county, although the first to broach county division, were not in favor of it as enacted by the Divisionists centered around Willows. They were in favor of a plan whereby Orland would become the county seat; and one of the most prominent residents of that vicinity brought suit to test the validity of the act creating the new county. The suit dragged through the courts until 1894, when the Supreme Court handed down a decision in favor of Glenn County. Upon the receipt of this decision, I.V. Devenpeck, A.A. Nordyke, S.P. Sherfey, T.H. Newsom and A.W. Sehorn were released from a bond which they had signed guaranteeing the expense of this suit, and were also tendered a vote of thanks by the board of supervisors for such a substantial evidence of their confidence in and fealty to Glenn County in its hour of need.

The Panic of 1893

The period immediately following the formation of the county was one of national financial depression known as the Panic of 1893. Although crop conditions were about normal, Glenn County suffered acutely during this period of stringency, because the prices of her principal staples, wheat and wool, touched bottom at this time. The Willows Daily Journal of that year contains the following illuminating item : "U.S. Nye, a prominent sheep man of the county, is busily engaged in two occupations these days, superintending the shearing of his sheep and figuring out whether the clip will pay the cost of the shearing and the sacks." The low prices of staple commodities made it impossible for the farmers to pay interest on borrowed capital. Banks were forced to call the loans of many of the larger farmers, who were unable to raise the money; and foreclosures were common. More petitions in bankruptcy were filed in 1893 and 1891 than in any other two years of the county's history. Work on the irrigation project was stopped by litigation during this period also ; and the prosperity so hopefully prophesied by the proponents of the new county was several years late in arriving.

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The transaction of the county business in Willows, and the building of much-needed roads and bridges, alleviated conditions a little by keeping in circulation the money collected as taxes.

Construction of County Roads, Bridges and Buildings

The first year after the organization of the county, the taxpayers of the county began to realize what advantages a new county held for them in the way of improved roads and bridges. The policy of the first board of supervisors and its chairman, Mr. H.C. Hulett, was to build the best possible public roads and bridges consistent with good business management. This policy has been consistently followed by successive boards of supervisors, until today Glenn County' is known throughout the state for its good roads and its fine bridges. The county has erected a steel bridge across the Sacramento River at Butte City; and at Hamilton City an electrically operated span steel bridge costing three hundred thousand dollars was constructed in 1909, by. direct taxation, at the joint expense of Butte and Glenn Counties. Steel bridges have been erected at Elk Creek, Winslow, Grindstone Creek, on Kelley Road across Stony Creek, at Rockville across Stony Creek, at the Simpson Ranch across Stony Creek, and at St. John. Since the fall of 1912 the county has adopted the policy of replacing all wooden bridges and culverts with concrete structures or corrugated iron pipes, thus doing away with the heavy annual maintenance costs. Hundreds of miles of new roads have been constructed to accommodate the new settlement on recently subdivided lands in the Orland and Central Canal Irrigation Projects. In the year 1910 the people of the county voted bonds in the aggregate amount of four hundred thousand dollars for roads and bridges. This expenditure of bond money was necessary to raise the standard of Glenn County's roads and bridges to the ever increasing demands of the taxpayers and the traveling public.

The people had faith in the future of the community and expressed it even in the midst of hard times by voting bonds for the erection of county buildings. The first officials of the County of Glenn had temporary offices in Odd Fellows Hall and some of the buildings further north on Tehama Street; but in 1893 the grand jury recommended the erection of suitable quarters for the county officials. Accordingly, bonds to the amount of eighty thousand dollars were voted for that purpose, and carried at a ratio of six to one. The next matter of absorbing interest was the selection of a proper site. Every one with property to develop tried to secure the location of the county buildings on, or near, his interests. The present site was chosen from

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seventeen competitive bids, and was purchased from Dr. J.A. Randolph for five thousand dollars. A contract for seventy-nine thousand dollars for the construction of the courthouse and jail, in accordance with the plans and specifications of John H. Curtiss, was let to H.H. Burrell, of the California Bridge Company. Work was commenced immediately, and the corner stone was laid with great ceremony on February 17, 1894.

Laying of the Corner Stone of the Courthouse

The ceremonies began with a long parade from Tehama Street to the site of the courthouse on Sycamore. Dr. L.P. Tooley was grand marshal of the day. The parade formed on Tehama Street in the following order: Silvey's Cornet Band, followed by Company G, National Guard of California. The Monroe Lodge of Odd Fellows formed the next unit; and then came the Laurel Lodge of Masons, followed by citizens in carriages and on foot. The parade marched to the courthouse, where a temporary platform had been erected. Here H.C. Hulett, chairman of the board of supervisors, requested the Masonic Order to proceed with the laying of the corner stone according to their ritual. Deputy Grand Marshal J.B. Stevens, of Napa, proceeded with the ceremony. In the corner stone a copper box was deposited which contained the following articles : A silver dollar coined in 1882 (the year in which agitation for county division was started) ; a list of the officers of Laurel Lodge, F. & A.M., and also one of Monroe Lodge, I.O.O.F. ; a copy of the proceedings of the laying of the corner stone of the Masonic Temple, San Francisco; a copy each of the Willows Review, Orland News, Willows Daily Journal, Willows Weekly Journal, San Francisco Chronicle, and San Francisco Examiner, of the date of February 17, 1894; a bill head from Freeman's Hardware Store; an aluminum Midwinter Fair souvenir key, Mrs. J.H. Hoever; a silver pencil, J.H. Mitchell; a letter head of Hochheimer & Company, with the autographs of Moses and Amiel Hochheimer; and a souvenir World's Fair goblet, B.H. Mooney. Judge Millington was the orator of the day, and made a very impressive speech. The day's programme closed with a dance at the Armory, under the auspices of Company G; and a big banquet at the Crawford House, at which A.C. Burrell, the courthouse contractor, acted as toastmaster.

Organization and Service of Company G

During 1893, Company G of the California National Guards was organized in Willows with the following members : William H. Sale, Duncan P. McCallum, L.J. Stearn, George Q. Hoag,
[photo Courthouse and Jail, Willows, Glenn Co., Cal.]

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G.W. Kopf, George Niswonger, L.E. Wickes, Benjamin C. Ratliff, Arthur Wade, Eugene Duncan, Leland Johnson, Henry Keeran, Frank Williams, William Niswonger, William Killebrew, Herbert McCartney, Alston Ayer, Michael Kahn, Edgar O. Bailey, John H. Graves, J.O. Longmire, William Shearer, Maurice Shea, Thomas Ajax, T.S. Daugherty, D.C. Andrews, Cyrus McMath, Bert McMath, W.W. Woolf, Harry C. Compton, Louis M. Reager, Tracy Crawford, William V. Freeman, Frank Bondurant, M.H. Lathrop, M.J. Keys, Charles F. Clark, A.R. Eichler, F.L. Roberts, G.S. White, Max Gutfield, Ammon Daugherty, S.A. Gibson, Frank Zumwalt, Simon Mclntyre, C.F. Parker, Jesse W. Patton, Kirby Mclntyre, John J. West, Henry K. McMath, Robert Wilson, Edgar Hunter, William M. Finch, Alfonso J. Burgi, Marion W. Pratt, Warren Sutherland, Clarence R. Wickes, Charles E. Studebaker, Amiel Peters, Henry Walker, John F. Sersanous, Marion Pirkey, J.H. Ball, Charles McCanley, Gilbert Whiting. The officers chosen were: Captain, Dr. M. Pirkey; First Lieutenant, Prof. M.W. Pratt; Second Lieutenant. H.W. Walker.

In the act of the Legislature authorizing the raising of ten companies (of which Company G was one), monetary provision was only made for five ; and therefore the companies were forced to do with half the usual amount of funds. This condition was partially remedied by Company G by holding a three days' military fair as a benefit for the company; and they were very generously supported in their endeavor by the people of the community.

During the strike in 1894, Company 6 was called to Sacramento, and formed part of the Eighth Regiment stationed there on guard duty. The boys were away five weeks. On their return they were treated to a rousing demonstration, nearly all the population of the town being at the depot to welcome them and witness their march to the Armory, where they were dismissed by Captain Pirkey in a very appropriate speech, commending them for their courage and the excellent discipline maintained by them while at their post of duty. The Sacramento Bee of that date very highly praised the men of the Eighth Regiment, to which Company G belonged, for their valor and honorable conduct while in Sacramento.

Agricultural Association and the Races

Soon after the formation of the county, the Legislature made appropriations for district agricultural associations to be formed throughout the state for the purpose of fostering an interest in the breeding of fine stock. Such an association was immediately

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formed by the progressive men of Glenn County, and received support from the state to the extent of three thousand dollars. The first fair of the Glenn District Agricultural Association was held in Agricultural Park (now Pittsburg Addition to the town of Willows) in August, 1893. Much fine stock was exhibited and twelve hundred dollars was distributed in premiums. There were also good exhibits of agricultural and horticultural products in the pavilion, as well as displays by the leading merchants and business men of the county; but the chief interest of the fair centered in the races. Several other counties had formed associations also; and by holding the fairs at different dates a racing circuit was formed in Northern California comprising the towns of Chico, Marysville, Red Bluff, Woodland, Willows and others. The stores and nearly all the attractions of the fair closed in the afternoons, so that every one might see the races; and whenever the local favorite was pitted against a winner from some other county the interest was intense. Some of the most prominent owners and breeders of racing stock in and around Willows at that time were: W.W. Marshall, Col. F.G. Crawford, Dr. J.A. Randolph, J.R. Troxel, and Charles and Will Merrill. These fairs were annual events until 1897, when Governor Budd vetoed the appropriation and state support was withdrawn. That year the Pacific Coast Trotting Horse Breeders' Association stepped into the breach ; and upon each district association guaranteeing a purse of one thousand dollars, five days' racing was held in each town in the circuit. The old local pride and zest had departed, however, and so far as Glenn County was concerned, racing soon became a sport of the past. For many years Col. F.G. Crawford maintained his stables, in the hope of better times in the racing world; but upon his death the horses were all sold. In 1910 the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company bought Agricultural Park, tore down the old buildings, and subdivided the race track into town lots.

Famous Trials

The years following the Panic of 1893 were years of retrogression rather than of progress. Low prices and the shortage of money caused a decline of all values in the county, but particularly of land values. The assessment roll decreased from $12,135,640 in 1893 to $8,768,060 in 1897. Toward the latter part of the decade, signs of returning prosperity began to multiply; and the next few years thereafter witnessed the inception of many new enterprises. In the interim, however, the chief interest of the people centered in the management of the new county; and there were two very important trials in this connec-

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tion. The first was the outcome of an action on the part of Sheriff Clark, in which he exceeded his authority as sheriff by taking possession of some property of Mr. Horan without first qualifying as receiver. Mr. Horan immediately brought suit against Sheriff Clark, and obtained judgment. At the next meeting of the board of supervisors, there were seventeen applicants for the office of sheriff; and from this number the board appointed George Baker to the position. Clark protested that no vacancy existed, and tried to maintain his hold on the position. Finally, as a result of the action Thruston vs. Clark, charging the sheriff with the collection of illegal fees, Judge Millington of the Superior Court handed down a decision declaring the office of sheriff vacant ; and Baker finished out the term. He was a candidate for re-election, but was defeated by H.G. Stanton.

The second trial arising from a controversy over county management was the trial of H.C. Hulett, chairman of the board of supervisors, for alleged extravagance and mismanagement of the county funds in the matter of letting bridge contracts. The grand jury brought five indictments against Mr. Hulett on the evidence of Johnson and Wilson; but by the time the case came to trial Johnson had left the country and could not be located, and the evidence given by Robert Wilson was entirely circumstantial and failed to connect Hulett definitely with any of the alleged transactions. At the close of the trial the jury was out four hours, and stood nine to three in favor of acquittal, when the judge dismissed, them. This hasty action on his part necessitated a second trial, at great expense to the county. In the end Hulett was acquitted.

There was another case tried in the Superior Court during this period, which, although of a purely civil nature, was of even greater interest to the people of the county generally, on account of the array of legal talent on each side, the expert testimony given, and the prominence of the parties to the suit. This was the famous "Murdock Note Case." William Murdock was one of the early pioneers of the county, and had amassed a fortune. Murdock had never married; and upon his demise he bequeathed an estate valued at a quarter of a million dollars to his brothers and sisters and their children. Shortly after his death, there began to be rumors afloat of a hundred-thousand-dollar note against the estate. When at last the note was presented, the executors refused to allow it, and suit was instituted by the owners, to force payment. The note was for one hundred thousand dollars, bearing interest at one per cent, a month, and purported to have been given to Mary Helen Murdock (Mrs.

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Gawn Murdock), of Olympo, seventeen years before. At the time of its presentation the note and accrued interest amounted to $303,566.60, enough to wipe out the interest of the other heirs in the estate, if allowed. Suit was filed for the owners of the note by Campbell, Metzon & Reddy, of San Francisco, but was prosecuted in court by Frank Freeman and Grove L. Johnson. F.C. Lusk, of Chico, attorney for the estate, was assisted in the defense by Richard Bayne and Gen. W.H.L. Barnes, of San Francisco. Theodore Kytka, the famous handwriting expert, was called upon to testify to the authenticity of the signature, which the defense claimed to be a forgery. The trial continued for forty days; and the most intense interest was manifested by the people of the community, the court room being packed each day. The result was a hung jury, and the matter was finally compromised out of court. By the compromise the owners of the note received fifty thousand dollars, and the balance of the estate was divided among the heirs mentioned in the will.

New Enterprises

In 1897 an agitation for creameries swept over the valley, and many were established in neighboring counties. On April 12, 1897, a creamery association was formed in Glenn County, with A. Hochheimer, chairman; W.H. Sale, secretary; and C.E. Keeran, P.R. Garnett, A.D. Duncan, Henry Bielar and A. Carttenberg, directors. Stock was subscribed; and B.F. Sweet, the promoter of the enterprise, was given a contract to erect a building and install the necessary equipment. After tentatively selecting two or three different sites, the association finally located their building just east of the railroad track on Wood Street. An incident which happened in connection with the acceptance of this building from the contractor seemed a foreboding of the fate of the new enterprise. Each of the parties to be present at the final test evidently depended on someone else to supply the necessary milk; and when the time came to try out the machinery, there was no milk provided and the test had to be made with water. It soon became evident that this incident was typical of conditions in the county. They had the building and equipment, but no milk ; that is, in commercial quantities. It did not pay to milk cows on dry feed during the summer, and the enterprise flagged. The backers of the creamery were just ten years ahead of their time. They had the vision of the possibilities of the county in the way of development, but they were not successful in imparting that confidence and enthusiasm to the average farmer. Dr. F.X. Tremblay and his associates tried to revive interest in the creamery situation again in 1903; but it

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was not till after the completion of the river branch canal and the subdivision of large holdings into intensive farms, in 1907, that dairying became a firmly established industry in the county.

In 1903 great excitement spread over the county over the prospect of striking oil. Many who claimed to be experts in detecting oil-bearing strata examined the territory lying in the foothill belt and gave out the most encouraging reports. Several companies were formed, and selling shares of oil stock became one of the most lucrative occupations of the time. Stockholders had visions of "gushers," and imagined themselves rolling in opulence in consequence. Three companies actually started wells, but two became discouraged before going very deep. The Washington-California Oil Company, whose well was located on the Nye Ranch, actually struck several small veins of oil -- just enough to keep them hoping -- but after drilling over three thousand feet without striking anything more satisfying than brackish water with a slight oily scum on top, the well was finally abandoned.

The county as a municipal corporation has from its very beginning been ably managed in the interests of its taxpayers. For reference, there is appended here a list of the county officers and state legislative representatives of this district, from the date of the formation of the county to the year 1917.

List of County Officers

1892

State Senator, J.H. Seawell; Assemblyman, W.A. Vann; Superior Judge, Seth Millington; Sheriff, P.H. Clark; County Clerk, W.H. Sale; County Auditor and Recorder, John H. Graves; Treasurer, James M. Millsaps; Assessor, L.R. Stewart; District Attorney, George Dudley; County Surveyor, T.L. Knock; Coroner and Public Administrator, Dr. F.X. Tremblay; Superintendent of Schools, William M. Finch ; Supervisors : First District, H.C. Hulett; Second District, David Markham; Third District, N.B. Vanderford ; Fourth District, P.R. Garnett ; Fifth District, W. Frank Miller.

1894

Assemblyman, William Ash; Superior Judge, Frank Moody; Sheriff, H.C. Stanton; County Clerk, W.H. Sale; Recorder and Auditor, John Graves; Treasurer, J.F. Sersanous; Assessor, P.O. Eibe; District Attorney, George Dudley; Coroner and Public Administrator, J.O. Johnson; County Surveyor, T.L. Knock; Superintendent of Schools, William M. Finch; Supervisors: Second District, Vincent Cleek; Fourth District, H.A. Logan.

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1896

Assemblyman, A.E. Bridgeford; Supervisors, First District, James Boyd; Third District, Asa M. Jackson; Fifth District, W. Frank Miller.
1898

State Senator, John Boggs (died in office, 1899; succeeded by J.W. Goad); Assemblyman, J.P. Glynn; Superior Judge, Oval Pirkey; Sheriff, H.G. Stanton; County Clerk, W.H. Sale; Auditor and Recorder, John H. Graves ; District Attorney, R.A. Long ; Assessor, P.O. Eibe ; Treasurer, John F. Sersanous ; Superintendent of Schools, Frank S. Reager; Coroner and Public Administrator, John Franey; County Surveyor, J.F. Weston; Supervisors: Second District, V.C. Cleek; Fourth District, P.R. Garnett; Fifth District, J.W. Albery.

1900

Assemblyman, T.J. Sheridan; Supervisors: First District, George C. Prentiss; Third District, Asa M. Jackson; Fifth District, W.H. Hodgson.
1902

State Senator, J.B. Sanford; Assemblyman, Benjamin H. Howard; Sheriff and Tax Collector, J.A. Bailey; County Clerk, W.H. Sale; Auditor and Recorder, John H. Graves; District Attorney, R.L. Clifton; Assessor, W.H. Markham; Treasurer, L.J. Klemmer ; Superintendent of Schools, F.S. Reager ; Coroner and Public Administrator, L.R. Stewart ; County Surveyor, T.L. Knock; Supervisors: Second District, David Brown; Fourth District, J.R. Troxel.
1904

Assemblyman, Ernest Weyand; Superior Judge, William M. Finch; Supervisors: First District, George C. Prentiss; Fourth District, for the unexpired term of J.R. Troxel, deceased, Seth W. Stanton; Third District, Asa M. Jackson; Fifth District, J.W. Albery.
1906

State Senator, J.B. Sanford; Assemblyman, F.H. Smyth; Sheriff and Tax Collector, J.A. Bailey; County Clerk, William H. Sale; Auditor and Recorder, M. Golden; District Attorney, C.F. Purkitt; Assessor, W.H. Markham; Treasurer, L.J. Klemmer; Superintendent of Schools, S.M. Chaney; Coroner and Public Administrator, Jos. M. Reidy; County Surveyor, Thomas L. Knock; Supervisors: Second District, David Brown; Fourth District, Seth W. Stanton.

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1908


Assemblyman, J.B. Mendenhall ; Supervisors : First District, P.O. Eibe; Third District, Frank C. Hurlburt; Fifth District, H.D. Wylie.
1910

State Senator, J.B. Sanford; Assemblyman, J.B. Mendenhall ; Superior Judge, William M. Finch ; Sheriff and Tax Collector, J.A. Bailey; County Clerk, W.H. Sale; District Attorney, Claude F. Purkitt; Auditor and Recorder, M. Golden; Treasurer, J.W. Monroe; Assessor, W.H. Markham; Superintendent of Schools, S.M. Chaney; Coroner and Public Administrator, Jos. M. Reidy; County Surveyor, Luther C. Stiles; Supervisors: Second District, W.L. Thompson; Fourth District, S.W. Stanton.
1912

Assemblyman, Harry Polsley; Supervisors: First District, P.O. Eibe; Third District, J.S. Sale; Fifth District, H.D. Wylie.
1914

State Senator, Claude F. Purkitt; Assemblyman, Elmer Sisson; Sheriff, J.A. Bailey; County Clerk, W.H. Sale; District Attorney, Benjamin F. Geis; Auditor and Recorder, M. Golden; Treasurer, J.W. Monroe; Assessor, E.C. Harelson; Tax Collector, Mrs. Mae Blondin; Coroner and Public Administrator, D.C. Tucker; County Surveyor, Bayard Knock; Superintendent of Schools, S.M. Chaney; Supervisors: Second District, David Brown; Fourth District, Leon Speier.
1916

Assemblyman, Harry Polsley; Superior Judge, William M. Finch; Supervisors: First District, P.O. Eibe (deceased; succeeded by Charles Lambert, appointed by Governor Stephens) ; Third District, J.S. Sale; Fifth District, H.D. Wylie.
_______

CHAPTER IX

The Era of Irrigation

The need of irrigation of the lands of Glenn County was recognized by the progressive men of the years 1875 and 1876. In May, 1875, an irrigation meeting was held in Colusa, the county seat of Colusa County, which at that time embraced the area which is now Glenn County. Will S. Green, Honorable John

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Boggs, Colonel Hagar, J.B. DeJarnatt, L.F. Moulton and others discussed the possibilities of irrigation, and were agreed as to the many advantages offered in the use of water by that method. Immediately following that meeting, many private water rights were filed and located.

Early Irrigation

John Boggs, Greorge Packer, and others, constructed a ditch from the river, at a point near Princeton, from which they irrigated their lands at time of high water. On Stony Creek, near Smithville (now Stonyford), John L. Smith several years before constructed a ditch for operating his flour mill, and also for irrigating his fields of alfalfa. Later, a company styled the Stony Creek Improvement Company constructed a ditch higher up Big Stony Creek, and irrigated a much larger area of land for alfalfa. On the north side of Stony Creek the landowners of that locality constructed a ditch for the irrigation of their orchards and fields of alfalfa. During this same period a Chinaman constructed a ditch from Stony Creek, a short distance below the two ditches mentioned, and irrigated his garden and orchard.

Following the early construction of irrigation works near the town site of Stonyford, other ditches were taken out along the entire course of Stony Creek. In the vicinity of Elk Creek, numerous private irrigation systems were constructed. The Fruto Land and Improvement Company constructed a six-mile ditch on the east side of Stony Creek, three miles south of Elk Creek, for the irrigation of several hundred acres of vineyard, orchard and alfalfa.

Irrigation District Projects

The years 1887 and 1888 were years of irrigation development in Glenn County. The first irrigation district under the Wright Law in Glenn County was formed on September 10, 1887, and was known as the Orland Irrigation District. The area of the district formed was about fourteen thousand acres, lying in what was then Colusa and Tehama Counties, and north of Stony Creek. Opposition soon arose, forcing the abandonment of this plan; and on August 20, 1888, the Kraft Irrigation District was formed, cutting from the boundaries of the first district the lands of those opposed to the plan, and including two thousand acres belonging to the Krafts, which they wished to develop by means of irrigation.

In 1888 the Stony Creek Irrigation Company was incorporated, with C.B. Ashurst, of Red Bluff, G.W. Murdock, F.C.

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Graves, and T.J. Kirkpatrick as stockholders. A ditch taking water from Stony Creek about nine miles northwest of Orland, and running in a southeasterly direction for a distance of eight miles, was constructed for the irrigation of the lands adjacent to the canal.

On January 14, 1888, the Orland Southside Irrigation District was formed. This district, as formed, comprised an area of approximately twenty-six thousand acres and included the town of Orland. This district proceeded with its organization, voted one hundred thousand dollars' worth of bonds for construction purposes, and then failed to carry their plans to completion because of the opposition of certain landowners and the faulty provisions of the Wright Law.

Will S. Green, and the Central Irrigation District

Will S. Green, the chairman of the first irrigation meeting held in Colusa, in May, 1875, is known to this generation as the father of irrigation in Glenn and Colusa Counties. In the brain of that progressive man was first originated the plan of diverting the waters of the Sacramento River through a great canal, for the irrigation of the lands on the west side of the river in Glenn and Colusa Counties. From the time of the first irrigation meeting, until November 22, 1887, Mr. Green constantly bent his entire energies to the formation and completion of the plan of watering the lands now embraced in what is generally known as the Central Irrigation District. On November 22, 1887, the dreams and plans of Mr. Green were fulfilled. On that date the Central Irrigation District was formed by a vote of the electors of the proposed district, in accordance with the Wright Irrigation Act. The area of the district embraced one hundred fifty-six thousand five hundred acres of land lying on the rich, level plains of Glenn and Colusa Counties.

The formation of the irrigation district was an easy matter for Mr. Green and his enthusiastic associates. Bonds amounting to seven hundred fifty thousand dollars were voted on the second day of April, 1888, for the construction of the necessary canals and irrigation works, by a vote of more than five to one. The bonds were issued, dated July 1, 1888, bearing interest at six per cent., payable semiannually, and redeemable in installments at the end of the eleventh year and each succeeding year thereafter until final maturity. In October, 1889, contracts for canal construction were let amounting to two hundred ninety thousand dollars, and work was commenced immediately.

The canal, as originally planned, had its source from the Sacramento River at a point near the Tehama County line, at

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which place proper water appropriations were made in behalf of the district and for the benefit of those lands embraced within the district boundaries. The canal, as proposed, covered the lands from its source to about midway between Willows and Arbuckle, where its outlet or discharge was provided for by a connection with a foothill drainage creek.

The engineers' original estimates provided for a main canal of sixty-five feet bottom width for a distance of thirty miles, the balance of the distance to be reduced to twenty feet bottom width. Lateral canals and subcanals were also included in this original estimate.

Difficulties of a nature beyond the control of the first sponsors of the irrigation district arose, which proved to be the undoing of the district plans. After bonds were sold, prominent owners of lands within the district resisted the bond lien upon their lands. Suits were brought, and the entire irrigation plan was thrown into chaos. Then followed years marked chiefly with suits resisting the plans of the district, which resulted finally in adverse court decisions as to the validity of the district and its bond issue. Water was denied the canal in its uncompleted condition, and the labors of a truly progressive irrigationist were temporarily lost. To others fell the work of carrying on the cause of irrigation in this district. Bridging the years from 1887 to 1903, progress in irrigation was estopped by litigation in all the irrigation districts of the county.

Orland Irrigation Project

In 1893, John H. Graves, the auditor and recorder of Glenn county, entered into a lease arrangement with the stockholders of the Stony Creek Irrigation Company, the owners of the only operative irrigation system of the county, for their canal system serving water to the lands adjacent to their canal, from its intake on Stony Creek to the east boundary of the Murdock Ranch, west of Orland. Mr. Graves interested others in his plan to bring water into the town of Orland, and in the fall of 1893, through the efforts of the lessors of the Stony Creek Irrigation System, the canal was extended and water was conducted to the lands of Orland and immediate vicinity. The water supply thus furnished, however, was found to be inadequate to the successful irrigation of the lands of that area.

From 1893 to 1907 untiring efforts were put forward by interested landowners to better irrigation conditions. Through the direct efforts of the Sacramento Valley Development Association and its first president. Will S. Green -- aided by Frank Freeman and Charles L. Donohoe, of Willows, and William and J.B.

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Morrissey, H.A. Greenwood, J.M. Scribner, Frank S. Reager, David and Thomas Brown and others, of Orland -- the Secretary of the Interior, Mr. Garfield, and the Reclamation Service engineers, investigated the possibilities and benefits of adequate irrigation of the lands of Orland and vicinity, and accepted upon behalf of the United States Government the responsibility of solving the irrigation problem of the district.

In 1908, the Government reclamation engineers completed their plans for the irrigation of an area of fourteen thousand acres of land in the immediate vicinity of Orland. Work was completed on a dam impounding water in a reservoir on the head waters of Stony Creek, in Indian Valley, Colusa County, in time for the irrigation season of 1910. Since the advent of the Government in the irrigation affairs of Orland and vicinity, the development of the resources of that district has steadily progressed.

Late Canal Irrigation Development

The year 1901 saw the beginning of the rehabilitation of the scheme of Will S. Green for the irrigation of the lands of the Central Irrigation District, and in addition the rich sedimentary lands along the Sacramento River in Glenn and Colusa Counties.

During the year 1901, Byron De la Beckwith of Colusa conceived the idea of running water to the lands of the Central Irrigation District by private enterprise. On November 30, 1901, water appropriations were made by him on the Sacramento River at the present intake of the Central Canal. Immediately Mr. Beckwith interested capitalists, among whom were Messrs. Sheldon and Schuyler, in an enterprise having as its object the lease of the Central Canal then constructed, and its completion to the river intake for the watering of lands of the district. On September 20, 1902, the plans and efforts of Mr. Beckwith resulted in a lease being obtained by Sheldon, Schuyler and others upon the main canal of the Central Irrigation District from its de facto board of directors, or trustees, for a period of fifty years at merely a nominal annual rental. The Central Canal and Irrigation Company was organized for the purpose of carrying out the plans for the irrigation of lands of the Central Irrigation District, and also lands along the Sacramento River. Construction work was commenced almost immediately, and was carried on continuously for a period of several years, through several changes of management of the company.

During this time the company was unable to secure the cooperation of the landowners within the area to be watered by their canal system. Crops had been good for several years, and

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the landowners were not inclined to turn their attention to irrigation and intensive farming. This unexpected opposition on the part of the lands to be served with water forced the irrigation company to abandon the plan of selling water to the lands of this area and, in order to assure the success of their enterprise, to assume the added responsibility of purchasing large tracts of land and constructing the complete system of irrigation works necessary for their irrigation, as a preliminary step to subdividing them and offering for sale small home tracts under irrigation for intensive farming.

This added and unforeseen responsibility offered an opportunity to a man of large land-colonization experience. C.M. Wooster, of San Francisco, closely identified for years with the colonization of lands in California and other states, organized the Sacramento Valley Land Company for the purpose of purchasing lands, bringing them under canal irrigation, subdividing them into small home tracts, and colonizing them with farmers interested in intensive agriculture. Through the influence of Mr. Wooster and Frank E. Robinson of Los Angeles, and associates, the ownership of the Central Canal and Irrigation Company passed to the owners of the Sacramento Valley Land Company. At this time the irrigation system lost its identity as a canal company for the irrigation of those lands originally included in the plans of Messrs. Green, Beckwith and others, and became the governing feature of a land-colonization scheme. In 1905 and 1906 the ranches of the Honorable John Boggs in Colusa County, and of George F. Packer, and a portion of the Glenn Ranch, were purchased by the Sacramento Valley Land Company. Water was immediately brought to these lands, and the work of colonizing commenced.

The year 1905 was a milestone in irrigation development in this section of the county. Thirty years had passed since the time when Mr. Green called the first irrigation meeting in Colusa ; and eighteen years had passed since the time when the work of that tireless irrigationist resulted in the formation of the Central Irrigation District. Only the memory of that true friend and energetic champion of irrigation was left to the people of Glenn and Colusa Counties; but the final realization of his dreams, denied him during his lifetime, was now an accomplished fact. Others have carried on his work through many adversities, still inspired by the memory of his energy and optimism.

During the next succeeding years, the operation of the canal system was continued and extended under adverse conditions. In 1908, capitalists from Pittsburgh, Pa., and from Southern Idaho, purchased the control of the Central Canal and Irrigation

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Company, and the Sacramento Valley Land Company, merging both interests into the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company. This company purchased additional large areas of land, and made extensive improvements and extensions of the canal and its laterals, investing approximately nine millions of dollars in the scheme. They immediately subdivided their immense holdings into small tracts for purposes of colonization and intensive farming, and sold large areas to homeseekers from all states of the Union. During this period Glenn and Colusa Counties were the most progressive districts of the state in irrigation and colonization affairs.

Again adversity blocked the wheels of progress. Through the financial failure of Kuhn Brothers, of Pittsburgh, the principal owners of the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company and sponsors for the irrigation project, the years from 1913 to 1915 were years of retrogression. In the year 1916, however, a way out of the unfortunate failure of 1912 was believed to have been found. The present owners of the canal system, through court judgments and rulings of the Public Utilities Commission, have learned that the waters of the canal are appropriated only for the use of the public, and not for the furtherance of any particular private land-colonization enterprise organized and conducted for its own benefit and profit; and that the plans of Mr. Green, as originally made in the sovereign interests of the lands of the irrigation district, are not to be interfered with, and water is to be held available for the use of the entire district. It is proposed to reorganize into an irrigation district, under the laws of the state, that territory originally embraced in the old Central Irrigation District founded by Mr. Green, thus completing after twenty-nine years the plans and hopes of the original organizer of the district.

On December 9, 1916, an irrigation district was formed under the laws of the state for the irrigation of those lands south of Sidds Landing on the Sacramento River, extending south into Colusa County and west to the original boundaries of the old Central Irrigation District. The canal and lateral systems are already constructed in this district. All that remains to be accomplished by the district is the installation of proper pumping facilities from the source of water supply, the Sacramento River, near Sidds Landing and at Hart's Landing near Princeton, and the purchase of the canal-operating system from its present owners.

A second district is at this time in process of formation for the irrigation of those lands north of Sidds Landing on the Sacramento River, east of the boundaries of the old Central

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Irrigation District, and between the Main Central Canal and the Sacramento River.

Well and Pumping-Plant Irrigation Development

As the early pioneer stockman songht water for domestic purposes from rivers, creeks and springs, so the early pioneer in irrigation sought water from the same sources. The abundant underground water supply for irrigation purposes was overlooked by those seeking water for their lands until Henry B. St. Louis, a farmer west of Norman, investigated and found an abundant water supply on his farm. In the spring of 1908, Mr. St. Louis bored a well of large diameter and installed a five-inch centrifugal pump driven by a gas engine, receiving for his trouble an abundant supply of water for the irrigation of alfalfa. During years past, others had installed small pumping plants. Artesian water had been sought at great depths on the Rideout Ranch, later known as the Spalding Ranch, in the vicinity of Norman. To Mr. St. Louis and his industry, however, can correctly be credited the beginning of pump irrigation in Glenn County.

Profiting by the experience of Mr. St. Louis, L.H. Twede purchased land for the Twede Ranch and Land Company south-east of Willows, and developed an adequate water supply for general farm crops, and later for rice cultivation. The water supply on the Twede Ranch is without equal in the valley. The success of Mr. Twede inspired the owners of the Spalding Ranch to undertake the development of their large acreage from pumping wells. Messrs. Wickes and McCurdy installed the first large pumping wells on the Fony Glenn Farm southeast of Willows, which later proved to the subsequent owners of that farm that water for irrigation could be had in abundant quantities by the installation of pumping wells. In the vicinity of the Fony Glenn Farm, H.M. Garnett developed an adequate supply of water for a large acreage of alfalfa, as did also Mrs. Inez Garnett Freed, Lloyd T. Lacy, and the Singletary Brothers.

In the immediate vicinity of Willows, water for irrigation was first developed by William Leake, north of the county hospital, and Charles Clarke, one mile west of Willows, on the property now the residence of Charles Lambert. Later, the Marshall and Lacroix Farms were sold in small farm units, and water for irrigation was developed from wells. Other large water-development areas are the Germain Ranch, Mills and Brown Ranch Subdivision, and Kattenberg Tracts.

In the Germantown district, William M. Shaw, on his home section south of Germantown, has developed water for the irri-

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gation of about two hundred forty acres of alfalfa and sixty acres of orchard. An artesian well, supplemented by a pump, supplies water to a storage reservoir; and an underground concrete pipe system conveys water to the different fields without loss. Through the demonstration of the abundance of underground water supply by Mr. Shaw, the Central Forest Company developed water for the irrigation of their alfalfa and eucalyptus acreages.

Beginning with the first successful large pumping plant of Mr. St. Louis in 1908, water development for irrigation from wells has gone forward with astonishing rapidity. During a period of eight years large areas of land have been brought under irrigation that otherwise would have remained undeveloped because of the lack of surface supply. The limit boundaries of underground water-bearing strata are now well known. Water for irrigation can be had from wells over almost the entire area not covered by surface gravity supply. Only those lands in the immediate vicinity of the low foothills are without abundant underground water-bearing strata of economical pumping depth.

Water for irrigation in Glenn County, through the Government Irrigation Project at Orland, the Great Central Canal Project, and the many individual and corporate pumping plants of the district not supplied with gravity flow, has added more than ten millions of dollars in assessed valuation to the county's wealth. During the years 1915 and 1916 a new cereal crop of unlimited possibilities has proved a success in the county. Rice has created a new demand for large quantities of water; and the Central Canal, during the irrigation season of 1917, was filled to capacity for the first time in its checkered history. Large individual pumping plants have been installed for rice culture on the Charles H. Glenn Farm and the Mudd Ranch, now the property of Faxon and Montague. A second irrigation pumping plant is being installed on the Sacramento River at Sidds Landing by P.B. Cross, an Oakland capitalist, for the irrigation of ten thousand eight hundred acres of rice land for the season of 1918.

Water is King. Its use and benefits are now fully utilized and realized. The anti-irrigationist has given way to the progress of the times. Water under the control of man has proved a necessity. The present and future years will be known as the Irrigation Age of Glenn County.

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CHAPTER X

WILLOWS

Origin of the Name

Standing out in bold relief from the vast expanse of treeless plains, "the willows" were the only landmark in early days between the settlements along the river and those in the foothills. These trees bordered a group of springs oh Willow Creek, one mile east of the present town of Willows. Travelers between the foothills and Princeton guided their course by the willows, and gradually the name was applied to the locality surrounding the trees. The first store on the present site of the town was known as the store at "the willows." In 1876, when the town was formally laid out in lots, there was some talk of changing the name to Venado or Zumwalt, after the first pioneer of the town and the man who was instrumental in getting the railroad to pass through here at its present location; but the force of habit was too strong with the people of the surrounding territory, and the place continued to be called "the Willows." The Post Office Department tried to distinguish it from a town in Southern California by making the name "Willow"; but as everyone continued to address letters by the popular name, even the Post Office Department finally fell in line, and in 1916 the name was formally changed to "Willows," in recognition of the popular wish.

Early Settlers and Selection of the Town Site

Willows, as a town, dates from June 11, 1876, when William Johnson and Moses Hochheimer established a general merchandise store on the present site of the Glenn County Lumber Company's yards. The first family to establish themselves on the site of the present town of Willows was that of Daniel Zumwalt, Sr., who had built a home on his farm property prior to the beginning of the town. It is related that the first sale from the new store was a can of mustard, to Mrs. Zumwalt. Following close after the store, came a hotel, hardware store, drug store, blacksmith shop and saloon. J.O. Johnson built the first house on what is now Tehama Street. In the fall of 1877, the Southern Pacific Company laid out the town site of Willows ; and development was rapid from that time on.

The Southern Pacific Enters Willows

On September 26, 1878, the railroad was completed as far as Willows; and the event was celebrated with great rejoicing by

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the people of the town. The morning exercises were given over to speeches, music by the band, and the firing of anvils. Hon. John Boggs introduced Rev. T.H.B. Anderson, the orator of the day, who made a stirring address. After the speaking, the merry-making commenced. All sorts of contests, including a fat man's race, helped to keep the crowd in a good humor. This was followed by a harvest banquet in the pavilion; and the program closed with a masque ball in the evening.

Growth of the Town

The phenomenal growth of the town in the first two years of its existence may be seen from the following inventory of the business interests of the town at the time of the coming of the railroad. There were then three general merchandise stores, two hardware stores, three hotels, one grocery store, one drug store, one jewelry store, one millinery store, two blacksmith shops, one cigar store, one harness shop, three livery stables, one feed mill, five saloons, two barber shops, and one weekly newspaper. Already two physicians had begun practice in the town.

Early Conflagrations

Four times in her early history Willows was swept by disastrous fires -- only to rise each time, like a phoenix, from the ashes, through the indomitable will and persistent courage of her citizens. Probably the most destructive one of these fires was that which occurred on May 30, 1882. The following description of the fire, taken from Rogers' History of Colusa County, is interesting both in itself and as indicating the caliber of the men to whom Willows is indebted for her solid foundation.

"May 30, a fire broke out at Willows at two o'clock in the morning; and in a very short time the principal business portion of that thriving, progressive place was in ashes. It was the most calamitous event which had ever happened to any part of the county. The fire originated in the Central Hotel, occupied by Captain Williams ; and a strong north wind prevailing at the time, the fire swept all the line of buildings south, chiefly business houses, consisting of stores, saloons, hotels and restaurants. The fire was so rapid and so eager in its destructive work, that little could be saved. In the hotel where the fire originated, the occupants had barely time to escape with their lives. There being no water, nor any facilities for fighting the fire, the citizens were compelled to stand by and see their property destroyed by the devouring element. . . . The following are the names of those who were burned out: Weston's photograph gallery. Park &

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Duncan's law office, Sherfey & Nordyke's butcher shop, Allen & Callahan's saloon, Sehorn & Calder's store. Smith's barber shop, Duncan's bakery, saloon of Wm. Bentz, saloon of Samuel Culver, F.W. Stone's jewelry store, Hansen's drug store, J.A. Thompson's grocery, the Gutman building, Bates' saloon building, the Journal office, O.R. Coghlan's law office, Hochheimer & Company's general store, post office. Willows Hotel (F.G. Crawford, lessee), Palace Hotel, Brooks' saloon, Isaacs' general merchandise store, W.L. Robinson & Company's hardware, Ketchum's saloon, Mrs. Jones' house and millinery stock, I.A. Lawrence's undertaking rooms, Mrs. E.P. Price's hotel, Clark's tailor shop, Central Hotel, Kaminsky's jewelry store, Putnam's drug store, Mellor's blacksmith shop and residence, and J. Kahn's clothing stock. The total loss was estimated at over $200,000 -- a serious if not irreparable loss, one would be tempted to assert, for a young town which had only four years before been a portion of a large cattle range, were he not aware of the energy, pluck, perseverance and confidence in the future of their town, which the people of Willows had always so manifested as to invoke the admiration of every newspaper in the state. The loss was not, however, a calamity at which despair was permitted to dolefully officiate. It was a temporary affliction, involving discomforts and some financial inconvenience which could, with good judgment, be removed or overcome. Willows had been tried with fire. She had now passed her crucial period, her citizens claimed, with a feeling almost of satisfaction. To become a leading town in Northern California, this baptism of fire is a necessary process; for, argued they, there is scarcely a city that has grown to prominence or reached eminence in the West, but has gone through the same ordeal. This destructive fire seemed to them both a precedent and an augury of success; and so, before the ashes of their burned business houses had cooled, telegrams flashed over the wire for brick and lumber with which to rebuild. Mechanics were sent for, and building contractors were making estimates before the insurance adjusters had reached the scene of disaster. An instance in point exemplifies the energy and confidence of these people. When F.G. Crawford, the landlord of the Willows Hotel, was burned out completely at two o'clock in the morning, he had breakfast prepared for his guests in another building at seven o'clock the same morning, while he was a few hours afterwards engaged in selecting a spot on which to erect a new hotel. This was only one of the many instances of never-faltering pluck and unswerving devotion to their handsome, thrifty town. It is this spirit of enterprise, of mutual cooperation of purpose, which caused Willows to be rebuilt larger and more substantially than

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before, with business houses unsurpassed in the county, and with churches and schoolhouses and warehouses which some towns in the state having five times her population cannot vie with."

On October 11, 1886, Willows suffered an experience of striking similarity to the one just related. The fire originated in about the same location, this time in a small stable back of the Central Hotel. A strong north wind was blowing; and the entire block, except the bank building, was completely destroyed. Practically the same people were losers, to the extent of $140,000, with about sixty per cent, of this amount of insurance. Nothing daunted by this second misfortune, they again rebuilt the town, with the same pluck and energy which characterized their previous endeavor. Besides rebuilding the business portion of the town, over fifty new homes were erected in the town of Willows in the year 1886.

Organization for Protection against Fire

In 1887, the Willows Water and Light Company was incorporated, with Milton French, president ; B.H. Burton, vice-president; P.H. Green, secretary; and the Bank of Willows, treasurer. With the installation of the pumps and tanks of the new company, the fire menace was materially reduced. The town organized two hose companies, with sixty members and the following officers : Chief, Henry Bielar ; Foreman Hose Company No. 1, J.F. Sersanous ; Foreman Hose Company No. 2, J.D. Crane.

Although serious conflagrations still occurred, they were combated with so much zeal and energy on the part of the citizens that Willows was never again subjected to the scourge of fire to any considerable extent.

The Solar Eclipse of 1889

The year 1889 was ushered in with a great deal of prominence for Willows in the scientific world. A total eclipse of the sun occurred on the first day of January of that year ; and scientists had figured out that the obscurity of the sun's rays would be greatest at Willows. Professor Pickering, of Harvard College, Professor Roach, of Blue Hill University, and Professor Upton, of Brown University, with their assistants, had erected an observatory at Willows; and excursion trains were run from various parts of the state. The eclipse began a little after eleven a.m. ; and so dark did it grow that all the chickens went to roost. The time from the beginning of the eclipse until the moon left the disc of the sun was a little over two hours; and during this time the temperature dropped six and one half degrees.

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Musical Organizations

An organization that wielded a beneficent influence on the social life of the town during this early period was Silvey's Cornet Band. The people of the town contributed funds for the instruction of those who wished to join; and under the efficient leadership of M.J. Silvey the band became one of the best in Northern California. For many years the Saturday night open air band concerts during the summer months were one of the most cherished institutions of the town. John A. Apperson, editor and proprietor of the Willows Review, gathered about him a few kindred spirits and organized Apperson's Orchestra. For fifteen years, no local fair, celebration, dance or amateur theatrical took place in which one or both of these organizations did not take part.

Clubs

During these times of busy material progress, the lighter side of life was not neglected. Realizing that "all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy," the townspeople took the keenest interest in sports. The Willows Jockey Club was organized, with J.R. Troxel as president; and a track was laid out. This club was finally merged with the Willows Agricultural Association, of which mention has been made in a previous chapter. Many promising colts were tried out on this track ; and a great stimulus was given to the breeding of fine stock in the community, in consequence of the friendly rivalry engendered on this course.

On January 16, 1890, the Willows Athletic Club was organized by the younger men of the town, and the keenest interest in baseball was manifested by the citizens of the community. Rivalry with neighboring towns was intense; and although some of the scores seem ludicrous when compared with the more professional games of today, whatever the players lacked in the way of skill in the finer points of the game was more than compensated by the increased enthusiasm and partisanship of the fans when every player in the home team was a home boy.

The Period of Growth

From 1891 to 1894 Willows experienced quite a building boom, incident to becoming the county seat. Several brick buildings were erected, among them the I.O.O.F. Hall, the Newman Building, and the Crawford Hotel. The county courthouse was erected during this period, and also the present grammar school building. The hard times following the panic of 1893 put a stop to this activity, and the business portion of the town remained practically at a standstill until the coming of the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company in 1909.

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During the three years which followed the reorganization of the work of the irrigation project under the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company, the population of the town more than doubled. The hotels were unable to accommodate the newcomers. Buildings for rent sprang up everywhere. The Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company bought Agricultural Park, subdivided it into town lots, graded the streets, planted street trees, and commenced a lot-selling campaign in the Pittsburg Addition to the Town of Willows, as their subdivision was called. Here they built the Land Sales Office, Administration Building, Company Mess Hall, Company Garage, Company Rooming House and six bungalows on Sacramento Street. The Presbyterian and Episcopal Churches were both erected in this subdivision during this time, and about twenty modern homes ranging in price from twenty-five hundred to ten thousand dollars. In South Willows even greater additions were made to the town. A section of four blocks in width and three in depth was built up solidly with modern homes, set in the midst of lawns and flowers. In fact, the town expanded in every direction, and fine homes were erected on choice building sites throughout the town. New streets were graded, and the town passed an ordinance requiring every one to lay five-foot cement sidewalks in front of his property.

But the greatest improvement took place in the business section of the town, which was practically rebuilt during this time. Beginning at Tehama and Willow Streets, brick buildings were erected by P.B. Lacroix, M.J. Silvey and Frank Burgi. The dining room and lobby of the Palace Hotel were remodeled. Klemmer Brothers put a new front on their store and an addition at the back, which doubled their stock capacity. The brick store on the corner of Walnut and Tehama was replaced by the present handsome structure of the Bank of Willows. P.H. Green erected the fine store building on the corner of Butte and Walnut which is occupied by A.D. Pieper's general merchandise store. The Wetzold Building, the Masonic Temple, and the City Hall were all erected on this block during the same period. On Sycamore Street, building activity was even greater than elsewhere. The Purkitt Building, the Willows Opera House, the Glenn County Savings Bank Building, the Barceloux Building, the Orr Building, and the Reidy Building are all substantial brick structures which were erected between 1910 and 1912. The Crawford House was remodeled along modern lines, and an addition was made to it to house the First National Bank of Willows. Hochheimer & Company remodeled their store and added to it, so that it is now conceded to be one of the finest department stores north of Sacramento.

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The Passing of the Saloon

Where there is so much building and development going on, there is bound to be a large floating population, some of whom are more or less undesirable, or even desperate, characters; and Willows was no exception to the rule. After two or three bad shooting and stabbing affrays in the saloons, the more conservative element of the population decided that such a condition of affairs must be remedied. Regulation was tried, without producing the desired results ; and in 1913 a bitter Avet and dry agitation divided the town. All the odium attached to the acts of this transient population fell on the saloon as an institution; and many people who were not prohibitionists from principle voted to close up the town as a relief from existing conditions. The first measure tried was merely a blow at the licensed saloon. It was a special ordinance drawn up by the attorneys of the town, allowing liquor to be served in restaurants with a twenty-five cent order, and permitting the sale of bottled goods. This also was unsatisfactory in effect; and people claimed that it was unjust, and discriminatory against the poor man. Finally, after much agitation pro and con, the town was voted dry at the next election under the Wylie Local Option Law. Whether because of our nearness to Orland or on account of the ease with which people who will drink can obtain liquor lawfully, it is difficult to say; but at any rate, the evils of blind-pigging which the Wets prophesied would follow the abolition of the saloons have not materialized. Some few cases there have been; but these have been prosecuted so severely by the officers of the law, and have been meted out such summary punishment by the courts, that if any still exist they are so obscure that their influence is negligible.

After the election under the Wylie Local Option Law, the block on Tehama Street between Walnut and Sycamore underwent a complete transformation. Stores, restaurants, and two soft-drink parlors occupy the block where formerly almost every other door was a saloon.

The Churches

The spiritual, social, and intellectual needs of the community are amply provided for. Seven religious denominations are represented, and are attended by large congregations. They are the Methodist, Baptist, Catholic, Presbyterian, Christian and Episcopal Churches, and the Church of Christ, Scientist.

The Methodist Episcopal Church has the distinction of being the pioneer church of Willows, its congregation having been the

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first to erect an edifice in the town, in 1879. Willows was then a wide expanse of plain, with no trees and few houses to break the force of the wind ; and on March 8, 1880, the new church was lifted several inches off its foundation by a strong norther. This condition was soon righted, and the building served the needs of the congregation until its capacity was outgrown by the increased membership during the boom, when the present handsome edifice was erected. Back of the church, there is a neat and commodious parsonage.

The Baptist Church was organized in 1879, with fourteen constituent members; but for some years the growth of the congregation was impeded by the lack of a house of worship. The members first held services in a schoolhouse near I.V. Devenpeck's place; and later, through the courtesy of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the privilege of worshiping there was extended to them. In 1886 the present church building was erected. It has been remodeled and enlarged several times, to keep pace with the growing congregation. Next door to the church, there is a comfortable two-story parsonage.

The first Catholic services in the town were held in the courtroom of the first justice of the peace, Judge Caroloff. The present church, St. Monica's, is a substantial brick structure which has recently been enlarged to accommodate the growing congregation. The old parish house has just been replaced by a fine modern building, which speaks more eloquently than words for the number and liberality of the parishioners.

The Presbyterian Church, and the manse adjoining, were built in 1910 on lots donated for that purpose by the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company. The church is an artistic building of cream stucco, with a very attractive interior.

Although it numbers among its members some of the pioneer settlers of the town, the Christian Church was not established until 1886. The church is centrally located, and has a neat and commodious building.

The Episcopal Church is an attractive building located in the Pittsburg Addition to the Town of Willows. Services are held there every second and fourth Sunday in the month. The church and its furnishings are now free of debt, and the congregation hopes soon to provide a rectory and have a resident minister.

The Church of Christ, Scientist, is probably the youngest religious organization in the town ; but it has an active and growing membership. Services are held Wednesdays and Sundays in the church building on Walnut Street.

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Secret Organizations

The following secret organizations, each in a flourishing condition, with a large and active membership, have lodges in the town : The Masons, Laurel Lodge, No. 245, and the accompanying Marshall Chapter, No. 86, O.E.S. ; the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Monroe Lodge, No. 289, and the Daughters of Rebekah; the Woodmen of the World; the Native Daughters of the Golden West; and E. Campus Vitus, No. 5, popularly known as the "Clampers." This latter organization probably has a membership equal to the other lodges combined. While it is organized as a lodge, with initiation ceremonies, etc., for the good-fellowship which these create among the men, the "Clampers" are in reality a boost organization for all movements tending toward the civic and economic betterment of the town. The lodge maintains a brass band, which is making wonderful progress under the leadership of R.N. Fenton. Any movement which the Clampers back is sure to be put through with vim.

The Schools

Willows has always been proud of the high standard maintained by her schools, and has also been most liberal in their support. In 1878, when barely two years old, the town voted ten thousand dollars in bonds to provide adequate school facilities. In 1890, only twelve years later, bonds to the value of fifteen thousand dollars were voted without a dissenting ballot, and the present grammar school building was erected. This building is now taxed to its full capacity; and unless the town receives some severe setback, either the building will have to be replaced with a larger one or an additional school must be built within the next year or so. There are at present ten teachers in the grammar school, all doing excellent work: Principal, H.G. Rawlins; vice-principal, J.E. Birch; assistants. Miss Olive M. Farnham, Miss Grace Bell, Miss Mabel Hunter, Miss Gladys Campbell, Miss Gladys Parks, Miss Lulu West, Miss Donna Silvey, and Miss Sadie F. Reidy. The parents as a whole speak with pride of the progress made by the children.

In 1903 the first Glenn County High School building was erected at a cost of six thousand six hundred fifty dollars. Through the rapid increase in population of the town and surrounding country from 1910 on, the building became so inadequate to the sudden extra demands made upon it for space, that a large tent room was used in addition, while seventy-five thousand dollars in bonds was being voted and the present splendid structure was under process of construction. So much interest in

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the school is felt by the people of the community, that the large auditorium is completely filled and even standing room is at a premium whenever the students give a play or an entertainment. The Glenn County High School is an accredited institution, and a large number of its graduates go on to college each year.

The Library

In 1904, a movement to provide a free reading room was started by some of the public-spirited women of the community. Mrs. A.J. Burgi, Mrs. B.O. Cobb, and Miss Inez Garnett were appointed a committee to solicit and receive subscriptions for that purpose. They collected four hundred dollars. With this amount, and donations of books and magazines, a free reading room was established in the Newman Building on Walnut Street. On March

15, 1906, this reading room was taken over by the town. Thereafter it was known as the Willows Free Public Library, and was supported by taxation. Finally the Women's Improvement Club, during the presidency of Mrs. Charles L. Douohoe, secured a ten-thousand-dollar donation from the Carnegie Corporation ; and the corner stone of the Carnegie Library, on the corner of Plumas and Walnut, was laid with appropriate ceremonies on November 16, 1910.

Sheridan Park

Another civic improvement for which the Improvement Club must be given credit, and one which added greatly to the esthetic enjoyment of life in Willows, was the transformation wrought in "Fox Tail Park," as it was popularly called from the only verdure adorning it. The lot belongs to the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, who seemed very much averse to having anything done with it; but the Woman's Improvement Club, backed by the Business Men's Association of the Town of Willows, succeeded in having the lot parked. The park is maintained by the railroad company, and is called Sheridan Park in honor of one of the company officials.

The State Highway

The State Highway runs through one of the main business streets of the Town of Willows ; and for a distance of three blocks, through the business portion of the town, the entire width of the street is paved. The completion of this pavement in December, 1915, was celebrated with a huge municipal Christmas tree, put up in the middle of the crossing of Sycamore and Tehama Streets. Bands played on the corner, and crowds of people danced on the pavement. The weather was perfect, being clear and just cold enough to give zest and snap to the affair. The sidewalks were

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thronged with people, and everywhere the holiday spirit shone in the faces of the dancers who made merry, and of the spectators who exchanged the greetings of the season with friends on the sidewalks.

The Federal Building

In the summer of 1917, work was commenced on a seventy-five-thousand-dollar Federal Building located on the northwest corner of Shasta and Sycamore Streets. The building will be completed by the fall of 1918, at which time it will house the Post Office, the Glenn County farm advisor's office, and the office and headquarters of the supervisor of the California National Forest.

Stability and Growth

The latter part of the year 1913, together with the year 1914, was a period of misgiving in Willows, due to the financial upheaval in the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company. It was rumored that water would be turned out of the canal, and that the settlers would lose their equities in the land if the bondholders took over the company; and grave fears were felt for the effect of this on the business of the town. Many, frightened at the first breath of adversity, predicted that the bottom would fall out of prices, that the town was overbuilt, and that there would be a general slump. A number of settlers did leave, preferring to start in again to facing uncertainty; but those who braved defeat and stuck to their land are now more prosperous than at any other time since their advent to the community. Not only has water continued to run in the canal, but on account of furnishing water for rice, the new cereal crop, it has been run to the fullest capacity and additional pumps have been installed near the headgate to insure a greater supply.

The growth of Willows was very rapid, but it was not an inflated boom. This is proved conclusively by the fact that the town withstood the shock of the failure of the company to which she owed her rapid growth, and that now, within two years after that shock, there are no vacant houses in town, business is flourishing, and the hotels are often unable to supply accommodations for all who desire them. The prosperity of the town is rooted deep in that of the county. Everywhere development has been steadily going forward -- more rapidly in some localities than in others, it is true; but all over the county the march of progress has been steady. That the farmers are more prosperous than ever before is evidenced by the fact that Glenn County was the first county in the United States to subscribe its maximum quota of the second Liberty Loan of 1917, the greater portion of which was taken through the banks of the town of Willows.

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CHAPTER XI

Orland

Choice of the Name

Orland was settled about 1875, and was part of a farm owned by a man named Chamberlain. The following interesting incident of how Orland received its name is copied from the Orland Register, issue of January 10, 1917, commemorating the death of Jonathan Griffith, one of the pioneer founders of the town :

"Most interesting of all is the story of the naming of the town of Orland. Mr. Chamberlain and Mr. Griffith, assisted by Mr. Brown, got together to petition for a post office, each suggesting a name for the new town. Mr. Griffith suggested Leland, after Leland Stanford ; while one of the others -- Mr. Chamberlain, it is understood -- suggested Comstock. Mr. Brown stuck for Orland, the name of the town of his birth in England.

"The deadlock could not be broken, each sticking for his favorite. At last the names were written on slips of paper and placed in a hat. Destiny, in the shape of an interested youth, drew out the name of Orland; and Orland it has been, to this day."

Settlement and Early Development

In 1875, Joseph James and T.H. Dodson located in Orland, and the latter opened a hotel and store. Other settlers followed rapidly, and in 1879 agitation was started to extend the railroad to Orland.

Nearly all towns of rapid growth have suffered disastrous fires; and Orland was no exception to the rule. On October 30, 1880, the town was laid in ashes, twenty-three buildings being consumed, at a loss of forty thousand dollars.

In 1883, the first train was run through from Willows to Red Bluff ; and from that year development went on at a steady pace. Schools and church buildings were erected, and many comfortable homes were established.

The College at Orland

In order that the young men and women of the town might have higher educational advantages than those afforded by the public school. Prof. J.B. Patch interested several of the large landowners in the vicinity and the business men of the town in establishing a college at Orland. The plan was to sell stock to the value of a certain number of thousands of dollars.

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to secure the price of the building material ; the professor was to superintend the building and aid in its construction for his interest, and the expense of maintenance was to be met by charging the pupils tuition. A substantial two-story brick building was erected, and the school was liberally patronized by the people of the town.

Professor Patch was a very good instructor, Init he did not have the necessary tact for managing an institution of that sort. In fact he had a wonderful capacity for making enemies, and soon found himself in very straitened circumstances as a result. The following amusing incident in the professor's career is taken from Rogers' History of Colusa County:

"It appears that he [the professor] was indebted to Mr. Lake and refused to pay. Lake, on January l4, 1884, secured judgment after bringing suit. Armed with an execution. Lake and Constable Gifford proceeded to the college. But the professor was prepared for them. Up in the belfry of the college he had deposited a cart load of stones from the creek. When the constable would approach, down would come a shower of cobble-stones. If the officer of the law attempted to parley with him, the professor would ring the bell vigorously. Then the constable procured a warrant against him for resisting an officer. Returning with this document, the constable effected an entrance into the second story, but there was the professor again in the bell tower overhead, with the ladder pulled up. Then the besiegers endeavored to capture the determined professor by means of planks shoved into the scuttle hole, when down out of the airy fortress came the muzzle of a gun with the doughty professor behind it. A parley was held, the professor dictated his own terms of surrender, and these were, that he was to be allowed to carry his gun, was to be tried in Colusa and not in Orland, and that no one should come within so many yards of him. The besieged then came down from the tower, where he had been exposed for hours to one of the coldest northers that had ever visited the valley. He entered one of the school rooms, where he drew a dead line with a piece of chalk, the constable being placed on one side of it and the professor on the other, where both spent a cheerless night."

Professor Patch was succeeded by Prof. William Henslee, who conducted the school for four years in a highly successful manner. He was followed in turn by Prof. A.P. Stone. The college had never paid any dividends -- in fact there was generally a deficit -- so the enterprise at length was abandoned. The old building stood vacant for many years, but was finally razed to the ground.

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The Bank of Orland

On March 7, 1887, the Bank of Orland was incorporated with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars. A. Bierman was elected president; Laban Scearce, vice-president; and R.B. Murdock, cashier. The directors were H.W.C. Nelson, L. Scearce.. A. Bierman, A.D. Logan, and W.C. Murdock.

A Patriotic Event

On April 30, 1889, the one hundredth anniversary of the inauguration of George Washington as President of the United States was celebrated at Orland. Hon. Laban Scearce was president of the day, and Gen. N.P. Chipman delivered the oration. In the afternoon there was a general reunion of the pioneers of the vicinity, and the celebration closed with a grand ball in the evening.

Irrigation and Development

Orland was the pioneer community of the county as regards its interest in irrigation matters. It was the first section to organize a district under the Wright Irrigation Act, in 1887; and after struggling along for twenty years under faulty irrigation laws and adverse conditions, it has the greater honor of being the first and only section of the county to have solved its irrigation problems successfully. The period from 1887 to 1894 was one of growth and development for Orland. Great interest was felt in the possibilities of irrigation; and enough was done in the way of development, during this period, to prove conclusively that the soil and climate were suited to agricultural industries, particularly along horticultural lines, and that water, the only lack, could be supplied if only enough capital could be interested in the undertaking.

About 1894-1895, development was arrested. The supply of water was found to be inadequate to carry out the plans of the directors, the irrigation company became involved in litigation, and from that time until the project was backed by the United States government the growth of the town was very slow.

By the combined efforts of the prominent landowners and business men of Orland and vicinity. Secretary of the Interior Garfield was interested in the benefits which would accrue to the community by the application of water to the land. Under his orders engineers of the Government Reclamation Service were to investigate conditions. The plan met with considerable opposition, because this was the first instance where the government had ever advanced the initial cost of irrigation works for the benefit of privately owned lands. All other irrigation projects,

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up to this time, had been undertaken for the purpose of bringing water to arid government lands, for the benefit of the actual settlers. After a period of nerve-wracking suspense for the people most vitally interested, the government accepted the responsibility of bringing water to a district comprising fourteen thousand acres, including Orland and the immediate vicinity. The property which, now constitutes the reservoir site on the head waters of Stony Creek was secured; and work commenced on the dam for impounding water to fill the reservoir which was to be created. The dam is a massive concrete structure, over ninety feet high, and serves the country below it in the dual capacity of protector from drought and flood. The channel of Stony Creek is utilized by the government for carrying the irrigation water as far as the diversion dam a few miles west of Orland. Here the water is diverted into a canal, and is thence conducted to the lands of the project. In 1914 a canal was constructed, greatly adding to the drainage area by which the reservoir is fed; and with this additional supply of water secured, the territory affected by the project was increased to twenty thousand acres.

As soon as the government signified its intention of completing the irrigation project, Orland entered into an era of prosperity; and from year to year its growth and development have steadily increased. The population of the town has more than doubled. There are now over eighteen hundred people residing within its corporate limits. As no sketch of Orland can be written without combining it with the history of the irrigation project, it would probably be fairer to say that the population has quadrupled, for there are over thirty-five hundred people residing in the project for whom Orland is the center, commercially and educationally. During the last five years, many handsome business buildings have been added to the town. The largest of these is the Masonic Temple building, a fine three-story concrete structure.

The Schools

Perhaps no better indication of Orland's increase in population could be given than the growth of her schools. In 1910 the district erected a thirty-thousand-dollar grammar school building of the most approved type, providing, as the trustees then thought, sufficient space for future expansion. The school has now, within four years from that date, completely outgrown the space allotted, and is using in addition the old high school building, which is just across the street. The average daily attend-

[photo Grammar School Bldg., Glenn Co. Cal.] [Orland]

[photo Scene on Stony Creek near Willows [sic], Glenn Co., Cal.]

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ance for 1915-1916 was three hundred twenty-seven, the largest of any school in the county.

One of the finest things about the community life of Orland is the splendid cooperation that exists between the teachers and the parents. This is reflected in the school spirit of the children, who believe the Orland schools to be not only the biggest but the best in the county, and take pride in trying to keep them in the lead.

The Orland Joint Union High School

This spirit is manifested also by the pupils of the Orland Joint Union High School, which in point of attendance is the largest high school in the county. The course of instruction is eminently practical, and consistently and thoroughly followed out. One year the boys of the manual training class built a bungalow. The next year they employed their time in the erection of a large concrete gymnasium for the school. The demonstrations of the other departments of the school work were among the most interesting exhibits of the County Fair held in Orland in October, 1917.

The Orland Joint Union High School is an accredited institution. The building was erected at a cost of forty-five thousand dollars, and is modern in every respect.

The Churches

Orland has excellent church facilities, nearly all the principal religious denominations being represented. The Baptist, Methodist and Catholic Churches are the pioneer churches of Orland. In the case of each of these denominations, the church building was erected in the eighties, before the rapid growth of the town began. The Catholic congregation is still without a resident priest, the priest at Willows dividing his time between the church at Orland and his home congregation. The Presbyterian and Swedish Lutheran Churches have been erected more recently, since the division of the lands of the project brought in an influx of settlers belonging to these denominations. The Episcopalians maintain a mission, at which services are held once a month.

Fraternal and Civic Organizations

Some of the most prominent fraternal organizations of Orland are the Masons, Eastern Star, Odd Fellows, Rebekahs, Woodmen of the World, Women of Woodcraft, Fraternal Brotherhood, and Independent Order of Foresters.

Orland has also a very active Women's Improvement Club, of which Mrs. S. Albee is president, and Mrs. G.E. Rawlins, secre-

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tary. This organization has strongly backed the movement for a civic center, and has obtained from the Carnegie Corporation the promise of eight thousand dollars for a library building.

The Saloons

Orland is the only town in the county where the sale of liquor is still licensed. There have been two heated controversies and elections, in an endeavor to make the town dry. In these, public opinion was about equally divided. The first election, in 1913, resulted in a tie vote; and as the law says "a majority" vote is necessary, conditions remained the same. The matter was brought up again at the next election; but this time the "Wets" had made a distinct gain, and had a majority in their favor.

Orland however is a clean town morally. Regulation is most strictly enforced, not only by the officers, but also by the saloon-keepers themselves, who realize that it would take very little to turn the balance of public opinion against them. There has never been in Orland any such violations of the law, nor any such flagrant defiance of public opinion, as made the abolition of the saloons in Willows a necessity.


Industries

Business in Orland is flourishing. The country tributary to it on the west is the center of one of the most profitable industries of this period, the raising of cattle and sheep. On the small intensive farms of the project, dairying is carried on extensively. The pay rolls of the two creameries in Orland aggregate many thousands of dollars each month. Just outside the project in each direction are extensive areas of development from private water supply -- pumping wells, etc. These areas are being planted to fruits and nuts -- oranges, olives and almonds being the favorites. These young orchards have not yet come into bearing; but the next two or three years will see, through them, wonderful additions to the wealth of the community. Orland is now, and will continue to be, the center of the most thickly populated district in the county. One thing that augurs well for the future of the Orland district is, that all the industries conducive to its prosperity are such as are congenial to American settlers and laborers.

Appearance of the Town

The town of Orland itself presents a somewhat scattering appearance in some of its residential districts, but that is because it is essentially a collection of homes. Rarely do you see more than three houses to a block in Orland. Each home is set in a

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wide yard, with flowers and trees, and a small garden patch or poultry yard. During the last five years, many fine residences have been built in the town. There is no place of similar size in Northern California where so large a percentage of the population is housed in commodious homes equipped with all modern conveniences. Probably this condition is due to the recent rapid growth of the town.

A List of the Business Places

The following list of business places will show the number and variety of the business interests in the town of Orland at present :

Two banks: The Bank of Orland and the First National Bank. Five grocery stores: Orland Mercantile, Hightower's Cash Grocery, F. Lofgren, The New Grocery, and The Table Supply Grocery, W.F. Beaulieu, proprietor. Two jewelry stores: R.A. Beland and T.J. Green. Realty dealers : The California Farms Company, Ehorn's Realty Office, Geo. E. Nygaard, and Spence & Thompson. Confectionery stores: Wright's Confectionery; Kandy Korner, Jos. Sperlich, proprietor; and T.J. Green. Lumber yards: The Diamond Match and Hazelton Lumber Companies. Hardware stores: G.M. Hickman and Hicks & Chaney. Saloons: E.M. Ehorn, E.E. Green, and Gus Utz. Hotels: Hotel Orland and Hotel Royal. General merchandise stores: Farmers' Cash Store and The People's Store Company. Bakery: Home Bakery. Garages: Fifth Street Garage, Johnson Bros., Mecum's Garage, J. Michie & Son, and E.O. Minton. Dry goods: A. Gattmann. Drug stores: Harrington's Pharmacy, Orland Drug Store, and Vinsonhaler & Snow. Butcher shops: City Market, J. Johansen, and H. Sievers. Cyclery: C.A. King. Oil dealer: Minton Bros. Dairy : J. Morrill. Feed and produce stores : Orland Exchange, Orland Milling Company, C.H. Steere Company. Restaurants: Ung Lee and Orland Cafe. Livery stable: W.R. Tucker. Newspapers : The Orland Unit, and the Orland Register. Other places of business are : The Orland Alfalfa Meal Mill, the Orland Cheese Factory, the Orland Creamery, and the Orland Steam Laundry. John Mehl, the pioneer shoe dealer of Orland, is still proprietor of a shoe store on Fourth Street.

The Professions

The physicians of Orland are Dr. T.H. Brown, Dr. H.W. Hand, Dr. S. Iglick, and Dr. Martin, the last-named being absent at the front at the time of this writing. The attorneys are H.W. Blichfeldt and H.W. McGowan. The dentist is Dr. G.E. Rawlins.

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The Glenn County Livestock and Agricultural Association

In 1917 the Glenn County Livestock and Agricultural Association was formed, with John J. Flaherty, president; Chris Myhre, vice-president; E.A. Kirk, secretary; and H.M. Kingwell, treasurer. It was decided to hold the first annual fair in Orland on September 26-29, 1917. All through the summer the officers and directors of the association worked tirelessly to perfect their plans and arrangements. It seemed as though they had prepared for every possible contingency; but alas, "The best laid plans o' mice and men gang aft agley." On the Monday before the Wednesday on which the fair was to open, disaster overtook its promoters. The big tents had just been erected, and the booths were being installed, when a strong "norther" brought all their work to naught. At eleven o'clock on Monday, the big tents were flat and the canvas a mass of flying ribbons. By one o'clock the same day, the directors had had their meeting, had postponed the opening just one week, and had already started in to notify exhibitors and repeat their advertising campaign. Seven of the best sailmakers in San Francisco were imported to repair what could be saved of the tent. Ruined sections were completely replaced; and Wednesday morning, October the third, found everything in readiness. The fair was an unqualified success. Seventy-five hundred people passed through the gates the first day. The courage and optimism of the directors, and their quickness of decision, tireless energy and splendid cooperation, had snatched victory from defeat. This incident of the fair is given in such detail because it typifies the spirit prevailing among the people of Orland, their freedom from faction and petty jealousy, and the whole-hearted cooperation with which they stand shoulder to shoulder for anything tending toward the welfare and advancement of their community.

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BIOGRAPHICAL


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[photo P.O. Eibe]

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BIOGRAPHICAL
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PACIFIC ORD EIBE

From the time of settling in what is now Glenn County, in 1870, until his death, which occurred in February, 1917, Pacific Ord Fibe was one of the most influential business men and citizens of the county. Emphatically a man of work, he was never idle, but continued to be one of the most enterprising and active men of Willows. No enterprise was projected that failed to receive his substantial encouragement, and every plan for the promotion of the public welfare had the benefit of his keen judgment and wise cooperation. A man of broad and charitable views, he aided every movement for the advancement of education, morality or the well-being of the county. "No man was held in higher esteem by the people of this county, and they showed their love for him by thrusting honor after honor upon him." Thus spoke one of the leading county newspapers of Pacific Ord Eibe, at the time of his death; and the sentiment unquestionably reflects the opinion of thousands of his fellow citizens who, during his varied and useful career, either knew him or knew about him.

Born at Pacific Springs, Utah, on June 29, 1854, the future pioneer first saw the light when his parents, Matthew and Emily (Zumwalt) Eibe, were crossing the plains to California. They were members of a large train of emigrants drawn by ox teams, and when they reached Pacific Springs many of their oxen so sickened and died from poisoning that this delayed the parties at that point for a number of weeks. While there a baby son was born; and his parents, wishing to commemorate the event, gave him the name Pacific after the place of his birth.

When the Eibe family arrived in the Golden State, they settled for a time in Solano County, near Silveyville, where their son, Pacific Ord, attended the common schools. Afterwards he took a preparatory course in a business college at Berkeley, and then worked at home until in 1870, when, with his brother, J.C. Eibe, he took up his residence on what is today known as the Eibe ranch, two miles west of Willows, Glenn County, where he farmed to grain and raised stock successfully. In due time his fellow citizens found in Pacific Ord Eibe the qualities necessary in a public officer, and he entered upon his public career as a deputy under Lon Stewart, county assessor of Glenn County upon its organiza-

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tion. For eight years Mr. Eibe served in that capacity, and then became a candidate for the office of assessor and was elected by a handsome majority. At the end of his first term he was reelected to the office through the will of the people, serving to the end of his term with commendation from everybody.

Believing that it would be a good plan to let some one else have a chance at the office, Mr. Eibe refused to be a candidate for reelection and retired to business life for the following four years. In partnership with I.J. Proulx, he carried on a very successful and extensive real estate business. During this time, he was instrumental in having the great Glenn estate subdivided, and in having thirty thousand out of the fifty thousand acres sold. In 1905, the community thought no better representative of Glenn County could be selected for the Lewis and Clark Exposition at Portland, and Mr. Eibe therefore went north on his official mission, returning to his home after the duties of the position were ended.

In 1909 Mr. Eibe was induced to become a candidate for the office of county supervisor from the First District in Glenn County; and he was elected by an overwhelming majority. Four years later he was reelected ; and still again the people, appreciating his honest and painstaking administration, invited him, at the November election, 1916, to retain his portfolio. He worked for and favored every project that would build up Glenn County. He induced many to buy land and become settlers on the Glenn Tract, when the land was cheap. Since that time the land has increased five, and even six, times in value. He favored the building of good schoolhouses and the maintaining of a high standard of education. He named the Ord district ; gave to every church, no matter what its denomination ; was a man of broad intelligence, keenly alive to every opportunity offered in the county; and made and retained friends wherever he went. It was while he was an incumbent in office that he passed away, following a long period of illness. His death was commemorated by the unfurling at half-mast of many flags throughout the city and county. Thus passed a man who held a clean record all through his career, which he left as a heritage to his dependents.

The first marriage of Pacific Ord Eibe took place in 1880, in Solano County, when he was united with Miss Maud Emma Abbott, and two children were born to brighten the home circle: Ernest V. ; and Maud Emma, who died at the age of five months. Ernest V. is living on the home place and assisting in its management. Mrs. Eibe passed away on December 23, 1884 ; and on November 5, 1905, Mr. Eibe married Mrs. Belle (Quint) Barceloux, who survives him, together with three of his brothers and a sister : A.O. Eibe, of San Francisco; J.C. Eibe, of Sacramento; T.T.

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Eibe, of Dixon ; and Mrs. M.J. Parrish, of Napa. At the time of her marriage to Mr. Eibe, Mrs. Eibe was the widow of Ernest J. Barceloux, a son of Peter Barceloux, a pioneer of Glenn County. Three children were born of her first marriage: P. Elmer, Leo Vernon, and Ernest J., who are with their mother on the home ranch. Of a very sociable nature, Mr. Eibe was a member of Chico Lodge, No. 423, B.P.O. Elks, and of Monroe Lodge No. 289, I.O.O.F., at Willows, of which he was a charter member, and in which he passed through all the chairs. Shortly before his death, he embraced the Catholic faith of his own free will.

After her husband's death Mrs. Eibe took up the burden of running the home ranch, assisted by Mr. Eibe's son, Ernest V.; and here they raise fine Egyptian corn, barley, hogs and cattle. On the place there are some two thousand prune trees, five years old, besides cherries, apples, peaches and apricots. The place was developed by Mr. and Mrs. Eibe after they took up their residence there. Mrs. Eibe ever proved her worth as a true helpmate to her husband in all his business affairs. She made his home life happy, and in his home he was always to be found after his business was concluded, his happiest hours being spent in her society.
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JOHN NELSON

Those men who have been far-sighted enough to engage in the dairy industry in Colusa County are now reaping their returns, and realize that intensive farming on a few acres will bring a larger percentage of profit, in proportion to the expenses, than the cultivation of a large acreage. John Nelson of Maxwell is one of these men; for immediately upon his arrival in California, in 1904, he came to Maxwell, bought sixty acres of land, part of the Moak ranch, and began making improvements by putting in alfalfa, preparatory to starting a dairy. He further improved his place with a family orchard of almonds, pears, figs, peaches, prunes and oranges; and he has eight and one half acres in table and raisin grapes, from which he gathers from four to six tons annually. Mr. Nelson sunk a well and installed a pumping plant, run by electric motor, so that he has his own irrigation system for his seventeen acres of fine alfalfa, besides his orchard and vineyard, and also has an ample supply of water for domestic purposes. A dairy of fifteen cows yields a good income ; and he also raises Duroc-Jersey hogs for the market.

John Nelson was born in Bylleberga, Skane, Sweden, March 18, 1866, and attended the home schools until he was fifteen, when he came to America with the family, and settled in Minnesota.

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There the father bought an eighty-acre farm, which he improved, and on which he raised wheat, oats and flax. He rented considerable land adjoining, and in connection with his other farming operations also ran a dairy and raised cattle. When John Nelson was twenty-one he bought the farm from his father, and continued operating it along the same lines, raising the same products. He worked hard, farming on a large scale for a number of years, and making a success of his labors. When he had enough to make a start in California, wishing to avoid the rigorous winters of Minnesota, he disposed of his interests and came to this state. What he has accomplished here speaks for itself and is a splendid example for the homeseeker to follow.

Mr. Nelson married Christina Pearson, also born in Sweden ; and they have four children: Warner, Delphin, Emma, and Wesley. Wesley is a member of the Odd Fellows in Maxwell. Mrs. Nelson died on March 23, 1905, at the age of thirty-seven years. Mr. Nelson is quiet and reserved. He is a hard worker, a public-spirited citizen, and a hospitable neighbor, and has made many friends since settling in California.

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HON. JOHN BOGGS

The discovery of gold in California brought to the Coast many of the most capable young men of the East, and gave to our commonwealth its first impetus towards permanent prosperity. Of all those who came across the plains, perhaps none possessed greater energy or keener powers of discrimination than did John Boggs. From whatever standpoint his character may be considered -- as farmer, stock-raiser, landowner, state official, citizen, or friend -- it presents the elements of true manhood, so that those within the sphere of his influence counted it a rare privilege to be numbered among his friends.

Descended from a prominent Southern family, John Boggs was born at Potosi, Mo., July 2, 1829, a son of Robert W. and Abigail (Carr) Boggs, natives of Virginia and Kentucky respectively. At the completion of his common school education in Howard County, he was sent to the college at Fayette. When he was twenty, he joined a party of gold-seekers bound for the West. After innumerable hardships the party arrived at Weber Creek, from which point Mr. Boggs made his way to Sacramento, where he was engaged as a chainman in the first survey of that city. He bought some land on Cache Creek, and began trading for broken-down horses and mules used by emigrants in crossing

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the plains. Almost without exception they were anxious to exchange their stock for provisions and other necessities; and as a consequence he had, at the end of a year, some four hundred head grazing on his ranch. Though they cost him only a few dollars each, at the end of the year he sold them for two hundred dollars per head.

In 1854 Mr. Boggs came to Colusa County and bought six thousand acres of the Larkin grant, and later bought other tracts, which he held for a rise in values. In 1868 he embarked in the sheep business. This proved profitable, as there was a ready market for wool and mutton. A few miles from Princeton stood his country home, one of the finest homesteads in the state at the time. In recent years, the land has been divided into small tracts and sold.

The public career of Mr. Boggs began in 1859, when he became a member of the first county board of supervisors. In this capacity he served until 1866, and by his intelligent labors aided in giving system to the management of the affairs of the county. One important improvement made during his period of service was the erection of the courthouse. In 1866 be was elected to the state senate, and in 1870 he was reelected. In 1877 he was again returned to the upper house, as also in 1883, and once more in 1898. He was a member of that body at the time of his death. Senator Boggs was a stanch Democrat, and wielded a strong influence in the party deliberations. He served as a member of various conventions, county and state, and from 1871 until his death he was a member of the Democratic State Central Committee. He made a losing fight against county division. When the new maps came out, it was found that the county line was placed so that the barn on the Boggs estate was in Glenn County and the balance in Colusa County; and it was only after assiduous effort that the senator was able to have the line set beyond the end of his barn. At the Palace Hotel in San Francisco, on January 30, 1899, Senator John Boggs passed away. When the news of his passing flashed over the wires, there was a universal feeling of sorrow in the state; and the press of the state was unanimous in its verdict concerning the high quality of his statesmanship.

In 1870 John Boggs was united in marriage with Miss Lou Shackleford, of Georgia. Three children were born of this union : Frank, Frederick and Alice. Senator Boggs was for years connected with the State Agricultural Society as director and president. Until his death he was a member of the board of trustees of Stanford University; and at one time he was a regent of the University of California. From 1876 to 1880 he was a director

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of the Napa State Asylum. In 1885 he was appointed penology commissioner, and about the same time he held the office of state prison director. At one time he was on the board of commissioners of Yosemite Valley. He was one of the organizers of the Colusa County Bank, and served as a director till his death. He took a prominent part in the organization of the Bank of Willows, and was one of the directors ; and he was also a director in the Bank of Haywards.
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JOHN C. HAMILTON

A descendant of an old pioneer family of California, and a native of Orland, Glenn County, John C. Hamilton is carrying on the development work started by his father in this district in the early sixties. Born on the home ranch, near Orland, March 10, 1874, he is a son of John C. and Cordelia (Springtun) Hamilton. The father was a native of Missouri; and the mother was born in Texas. Their living children are John C. ; James L., of Red Bluff ; and Mrs. L.M. Walters, of Berkeley. The father crossed the plains to California by ox team, in 1859. Going to the mines, he worked there for two years, after which he came to Colusa County and worked on ranches for a time. His object, however, was to own a ranch of his own; and accordingly he homesteaded one hundred sixty acres of land five miles east of Orland, later adding to his holdings until he owned three thousand acres. He became one of the large grain-raisers of early days in the state, when California was the leading state in the Union in the production of grain. In 1884, he settled in Red Bluff, where his death occurred on December 5, 1907. He had retired from active pursuits in the latter years of his life. Soon after her husband's death, Mrs. Hamilton removed to Berkeley, where she now makes her home.

John C. Hamilton attended school in Orland, and afterwards moved with his parents to Red Bluff, where he finished his schooling and became assistant in the post office, for three years, under Postmaster H.W. Brown. In the fall of 1900 he returned to the home' ranch in Orland, and has since made this his home, taking an active part in the upbuilding of the district, which has made and is making such wonderful progress along agricultural lines.

Mr. Hamilton is bringing his property to a high state of development, being decidedly a man of progress, with breadth of mind to grasp new ideas and methods of cultivation. He farmed the greater part of three thousand acres, on the old home place and land near by. His home ranch comprises two hundred thirty

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acres which he cultivates to grain. in 1917, he set out eighty acres to almonds; and he purposes gradually to increase the acreage devoted to this branch of horticulture. He has put the land under a private irrigation plant, with cement pipes through the orchard, which lies east of the home ranch proper ; and in other respects also he is using strictly modern methods in his horticultural work. The holdings of the family in Glenn County now comprise some eleven hundred acres.

Being a native son of Orland, Mr. Hamilton has watched its growth with a keen interest. He has given his support and active cooperation to all undertakings for the advancement and development of his town and county; and personally he exerts that forceful influence found only in men who have become known for integrity and ability. He was one of the men who financed the Orland College; and he has always been a friend of education.

The marriage of Mr. Hamilton was celebrated in 1906, when he was united with Haddassah Cleek, also a native of the valley, born in Colusa County. Fraternally he is a Mason, a member of Orland Lodge, No. 265, F. & A.M.; Chico Chapter, No. 42, R.A. M.; and Chico Commandery, No. 12, K.T. With Mrs. Hamilton, he belongs to Citrus Chapter, No. 208, O.E.S., of Orland.
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JOHN ANNAND

A native of Nova Scotia, John Annand was born on June 6, 1844, a son of David and Margaret (Taylor) Annand, large farmers in that country. He spent the first twenty-two years of his life near Halifax, where he received his education and learned the trade of the blacksmith. He then came to the States and spent two years in the mining districts of Nevada, after which, in the late sixties, he came on to California and located at Butte City, now in Glenn County. Here he found employment at his trade with Elijah McDaniel, three miles south of that village, where, on June 5, 1871, he married Izilla McDaniel, a daughter of his employer.

Soon Mr. Annand was able to buy land ; and his first purchase comprised five hundred sixty acres five miles south of Butte City. Here he developed a good ranch, which he carried on until he was called by death in 1908. His widow still owns the old home place, and is living in the enjoyment of modern conveniences, surrounded by her family and friends.

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Mr. Annand was a devout Christian and a prominent member of the Methodist Church, South. As superintendent of the Sunday school he exercised an elevating influence upon the young, in whose welfare he took a deep interest. He was actively interested in education, and served on the board of trustees of his school district. He and his wife had four children: Mrs. George Kirkpatrick, of Colusa ; Elmer A., on the home place ; Emma, Mrs. Hugh M. Garnett, of Willows ; and Earl, superintendent of the Hugh M. Garnett ranch near Willows.
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WILL SEMPLE GREEN

(By the late John P. Irish)

The debt of California to her American pioneers grows in appreciation as they pass away. In the first group, composed of those immortal in grateful memory, a stalwart figure is Will S. Green. He was of pioneer lineage. His ancestors were on the Virginia frontier. His parents settled in Kentucky when the land had the virgin beauty that attracted Daniel Boone to its conquest. There he was born, December 26, 1832. Financial reverses befell his father while Will was a child. This deprived him of any education under teachers, except a brief attendance at an" Old Field School"; and while a boy he assumed the burden of self-support and the helping of others. It is said of him that such was his energy that, though a boy, he commanded the wages of a man. While he worked he studied. To him may be applied the wise characterization of the late President McKinley by John Hay: "He belonged to a generation of boys who knew no want their own labor could not satisfy, and who knew no superior and no inferior." Those were the qualities of a pioneer generation.

Working and seeking knowledge, he felt the frontier impulse and, following the call of his pioneer lineage, landed in California in 1849, before he was seventeen. His mental and manual self-training and his steady industry had prepared him to put hand and head into any honest work. He ran the first steam ferry over the straits of Carquinez, took the second mail contract let in the state, and carried all the mail for Napa and Sonoma Counties in his pocket. In July, 1850, he left his mail route and ferry and piloted the new steamer Colusa up the Sacramento River to the present town of Colusa. He landed in Colusa on July 6, 1850, and there he was buried just fifty-five years later. For five years more than a half century he was a citizen of that town, of which he first saw the site from the pilot house of the pioneer steamer. He left

[photo Yours truly, Wlll S. Green]

[photo Sallie Morgan Green]

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amongst his writings a description of that voyage up the Sacramento that is a classic. There came to him then a clear conception of the capacity of that valley to support a dense population through agriculture. He caught a vision of a future wrought by man upon those fertile plains that equaled the prophet's vision of the promised land, full of corn and wine and oil, and flowing with milk and honey. While yet camping on the bank of the river, he began preparing for his part in the history to be. Already selfcultured to a degree of which many a college graduate would be proud, he took up the study of civil engineering and fully equipped himself for that profession. Perhaps no man in our company of pioneer worthies had as little waste knowledge as he. Whatever he applied himself to he thoroughly learned, and whatever he learned was useful to the end of his long life. His service as captain of the Carquinez ferry boat, Lucy Long, gave him the pilot's knowledge of the surface indications of channel and shoal water that served him in steering the pioneer steamer Colusa in waters strange to him and all her crew. His reading of the best books in literature and science gave his style as a writer a grace, directness and individuality, and a homely philosophy, such as Ben Franklin had; and his knowledge of civil engineering made him the first, and to the end the greatest, professional authority in the state on the problems of irrigation and drainage.

A half century ago the physical characteristics of California were but little known. Some of them are still the despair of the climatologists. But, early in his experience in the Sacramento Valley, Mr. Green saw that to reach their highest potency there must be a drainage of the rich bottom lands, for protection against floods, and irrigation of the rich plains for protection against the normal drought of the dry season. He knew land, and he loved it. He was California's first apostle of agriculture, and land was the text of all his epistles. As an engineer, he surveyed the land. As a legislator, he drew the land code of the state. As surveyor general of the United States, he protected the public domain for the settlers who would till it. As treasurer of the state, be conserved and economized the taxes paid by the owners of the land. As the foremost editorial writer of the state, he considered the land as the first material object of human interest. He developed the first plans for irrigation and drainage of the Sacramento Valley; and though high-salaried engineers have wrought upon the same problem, his plans stand unimpeached.

The foregoing is a mere circumference of his work. The vastness of the great circle, and the infinite detail included, may be conceived when it is known that he came to be the final authority upon more things of vital concern to the state than any other man

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in California. In such a position he had to antagonize the opinions of others. He often had to champion the many against the few. He had to rebuke waste and ignorance, thriftlessness and intemperance. But so great was his spirit, and so full of pity and charity, that his very rebukes made friends of those who received them, and his antagonists were amongst his most ardent admirers. As his life drew to its close, and the horizon no longer receded as he approached it, his activities were greater than ever. In a high sense he incorporated his views of the necessities of the Sacramento Valley in organizing the Sacramento Valley Development Association, of which he held the presidency until his death. In that capacity was found his last public activity, in escorting the Congressional committees on irrigation through the state. At the close of the tour and the final meeting at the banquet at Red Bluff, he was introduced by Judge Ellson as "the Patriarch of Irrigation in the Sacramento Valley." He rose with the splendors of that valley of light before him, but upon him was the somber tone of the Valley of Shadows. Speaking briefly he said:
"It is our business to develop the Sacramento Valley, and in behalf of the Association I wish to say that we will do this. I have a valuable history of irrigation work since I have been in the great valley, and the value of that work is incalculable ; I recognize its full force when I hear these people speak of the vastness of the preparation and the money they are spending in preparing their plans for this work for the United States government. I undertook to do it all individually, and to demonstrate what could be done. Doing my own engineering and paying my own expenses, I located the present Central Canal and prophesied this work, and now I find that the United States will take years to go ahead, and feel how small have been my efforts. But, gentlemen, my only hope, as I am on the decline of life, is that some day I may stand on Pisgah and see a Promised Land for God's people in this valley. Then I will be ready to die."
The fact was, that, in every essential, in outline and in detail, in its hydrography, agriculture, proper division of landholdings, transportation and economics, he had worked out the whole problem to a solution ; and those who follow will use his work or rediscover what was to him an open book of principles. That was his last public utterance, and the contrasts of the occasion gave the full measure of his work. His footsteps had plodded over the whole field, and then came the government, paying tens of thousands only to follow him.

In his life he was singularly pure, as to speech, thought and practice. But it was all without ostentation. He never abated his view of principles to please friend or foe. Yet in discussion he

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seemed rather an eager listener than a teacher, and by rare art taught others by asking them to teach him. On his social side he was thoroughly lovable. As an editor he made his paper, The Colusa Sun, the leading rural organ of the state. A collection of his editorial writings, in essay form, would make a volume of permanent literature for the library. He was the last of the great group of pioneers who sought to build a state not on the vanishing mining industry, with its risk arid uncertainty, but upon the imperishable land and the unbroken promise of seed time and harvest ; and of that group he was the leader. He took his name and blood pure and untarnished as his only heritage, and with a heart as pure as his lips, transmitted them to his children.

Mr. Green was twice married. At his first marriage he was united with Miss Josephine Davis, by whom he had five children, who survive their parents. Some years after the death of their mother, he married Miss Sallie Morgan, of Mississippi, a faithful helpmate and affectionate companion, who also survives him.
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MRS. SALLIE B. GREEN

One of the representative women of the Sacramento Valley, Mrs. Sallie B. Green, owner and editor of The Colusa Sun, has been identified with Colusa for many years. She was born in Clinton, Hinds County, Miss., a daughter of Dr. Jacob Bedinger Morgan, owner of a plantation ten miles northwest of Jackson. Her mother was Minerva (Fitz) Morgan, a daughter of Gideon Fitz, at one time surveyor general of Mississippi, when it was a territory. Grandfather Fitz was born in Monticello, Va., and learned surveying under President Thomas Jefferson, then a surveyor, and later received his appointment from him. He died in Washington, Miss., and was buried at Jackson. Robert Williams, a great-grandfather on the maternal side, was governor of Mississippi Territory. All of her forebears figured prominently in the early history of Virginia and Mississippi. Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States, was a warm friend of the Fitz family.

Dr. Morgan was born in Virginia and, when a child of five, was taken to Kentucky by his parents. He was educated in the schools of Kentucky and at the Medical College of Lexington, Ky., from which he was graduated with the degree of M.D. He rode a horse all the way back to Clinton, Miss., from Lexington, and, settling there, became the leading physician of that section, the owner of a large plantation, and a man of considerable means and influence. Eight children were born to Dr. Morgan and his

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wife: Mary, who married Hunter H. Southworth, and lived and died in Mississippi; William Henry, a major, and later a colonel, of the 3rd Mississippi Infantry during the Civil War, who died in Mississippi in 1905; Fitz Robert, who was accidentally killed while hunting, at the age of thirteen; Thomas, who died at the age of three ; Sallie B., Mrs. Green ; Martha, who married W.G. Poindexter ; Lewis S., who was killed while in the 3rd Mississippi Cavalry, at Collinsville, Tenn. ; and George, who died in Mississippi.

Sallie B. Morgan was tutored by a governess, at home, and then attended a private school for girls, after which she went to a convent at Nazareth, Ky., and later was graduated from a young ladies' seminary at Nashville. Returning then to her home in Jackson, she there became a social favorite. She met Will S. Green, and in Salt Lake City, in 1891, was united in marriage with him, and since that time has resided in Colusa. Mr. Green died on July 2, 1905. Mrs. Green never had any children of her own; but she reared the two youngest of Mr. Green's children by his first marriage, Rae, Mrs. Dr. J.J. Maloney of San Francisco, and Donald R., now in the office of the state surveyor general at Sacramento, who were fifteen and thirteen years old respectively at the time of her marriage.

Mrs. Green is eligible to membership in the Daughters of the Revolution. She is a Daughter of the Confederacy, and organized and was president of the Confederate Monument Association, which after five years succeeded in raising the funds for building the monument that now stands in the old capitol yard at Jackson, Miss., to commemorate the Confederate dead; and her name is inscribed in the vestibule as president of the Association. She organized the Colusa Woman's Improvement Club, and was active in the organization of similar clubs in other cities in the valley, afterwards serving as president of the Federated Woman's Clubs of the Sacramento Valley.

Having traveled considerably over the United States, and even into Alaska, she had a desire to see some of the foreign countries; and on December 1, 1908, she started on a trip around the world, leaving San Francisco on the steamship Mongolia. Crossing the Pacific, she visited Hawaii, Japan, China, and the Philippines, and from there sailed on through the Suez Canal into Egypt, and on to Italy, at a time when Mt. Vesuvius was active, and saw that wonderful volcano in action. After visiting France and England, she came on to New York, reaching home in December, 1909, without having had an accident. She was more impressed than ever with the greatness, grandeur, and beauty of her native land, having seen nothing in her whole trip to equal her own beloved country. From various places en route she sent a

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series of letters giving a description of her travels, and of places visited, which appeared from time to time in The Colusa Sun, and which received favorable comment.

Mrs. Green is to be found at her desk every day, guiding the destinies of The Colusa Sun and wielding a strong influence for the public good. She is active and progressive, and is looked upon as one of the upbuilders of Colusa, where she is held in high esteem. She is a member of the Methodist Church in Colusa.
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ELIJAH McDANIEL

This Colusa County pioneer was born in Roane County, Tenn., July 4, 1820, a son of Daniel McDaniel, captain of a company in the United States army, who served under General Jackson during the war with the Creek Indians. After the war. Captain McDaniel married Mary Ann Buchanan and settled in East Tennessee, remaining there until 1834, when he moved with his family to Illinois.

Elijah McDaniel remained with his father on the farm until his marriage in January, 1842, when he was united with Sarah Ann Gore. The young people then went to Wayne County, 111., where they remained six years, operating a farm. During this time two sons and two daughters were born to them. In 1848 he moved into Schuyler County, the same state, where he rented land and farmed until 1852. He was then seized with the "California fever" and began making preparations for an early start the following spring. With five children, his wife, and such effects as would likely be needed for the long trip across the plains, he began the journey in an ox wagon, in 1853. Crossing the Mississippi River at Warsaw, they made their way across Iowa through storms of snow and sleet, and arrived at Council Bluffs in good spirits, on the last day of March. Hearing that there was no grass on the plains, they went into camp until it was grown sufficiently to furnish feed for their stock. As their journey continued, they fell in with California-bound travelers until their party numbered eighteen men. A captain was elected by the party, George Garratt, one of their number, being chosen for this important position. The weather continued bad as they passed up the Platte River, the stock began to give out, and dissatisfaction was expressed with the captain. At Pacific Springs, Mr. McDaniel and James Teal, with their outfits, left the main train and struck out alone. Things went better after that, and they finished the trip, although under very trying conditions. On the fourth of August they crossed the summit of the Sierras and entered the Golden State.

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In American Valley Mr. McDaniel stopped for twenty days and worked with his team, earning one hundred dollars. Here he fell in with Mayberry Davis, Alexander Cooley and a man named Painter, who told him of the Sacramento Valley and induced him to come here; and September 1, 1853, they arrived at Painter's landing. He went to work on a threshing machine ; but not being used to the climate, he contracted chills and fever and was unable to do any further work that fall. Just above the landing Mr. McDaniel built a log house, and there, on October 1, 1853, a daughter, Izilla, was born, the first white child born on the east side of the river. Mr. Painter went back on every proposition he had made, and Mr. McDaniel was forced to make other arrangements. He leased land from James McDougal, above what is now Butte City, put in one hundred acres of wheat, and got a good crop, but was obliged to sell his cattle, except a cow, in order to get money to harvest it. As the price of grain was only one and one half cents per pound and it was necessary to haul it to Marysville, thirty miles away, to have sold it would have left him in debt; so he hauled it to the Buttes and put it in a warehouse. The price of grain rose to three cents during the winter. He then sold it, receiving enough to pay his debts and some fifty dollars besides.

Having decided to take up a farm of his own, Mr. McDaniel selected a place just above Butte City, where he put in fifty acres of wheat. He got a good crop and received good prices, clearing one thousand dollars, which he invested in cattle. He continued to deal in cattle until 1862, when he disposed of part of his stock. In 1864 he sold off the balance; and thereafter he devoted his attention to grain-farming. In 1865 the crops were good throughout the state. Foreign demand sprang up for the wheat raised in California, and every farmer began to enlarge his boundaries, Mr. McDaniel along with the rest. He bought up many squatters' claims, until he held a large acreage.

While Mr. McDaniel was living on the east side of the river, the territory there was a part of Butte County. Mr. McDaniel had a petition circulated, requesting that this section be incorporated in Colusa County. The petition was granted, and the territory on the east side was made a part of Colusa County. He served as county assessor two years, and as justice of the peace for sis years. On September 8, 1889, Mrs. McDaniel passed away. On July 3, 1891, Mr. McDaniel was married to Martha J. Anderson. Both he and his wife were members of the Methodist Church, South. In 1874 he erected Marvin Chapel, in the cemetery, in which both himself and his first wife are buried. He died at his home on January 9, 1898, at the age of seventy-seven. He was the father of

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ten children, of whom seven grew up, as follows : Henrietta, who married A.S. Furnell ; Mary Ann, who became the wife of William Luman ; Izilla, Mrs. John Annand ; and Isaac L., P. L., Henry E., and L.J. McDaniel.
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JOHN E. TIFFEE

An early seeker after the precious metal, for which men have sought since the beginning of time, and one who remained in California after the first great excitement had subsided, and turned his attention to other pursuits, was the late John R. Tiffee. He was born in 1824, near Lexington, Ky. His early life was spent in Missouri, whither his people had migrated when that section was being developed. From that state he crossed the plains to California with ox teams in 1849; and on his arrival he went at once to the mines in Placer County, where he spent two years as a miner. His luck was very uncertain, however, and he decided to look up some land and occupy his time with stock-raising and farming. He went to Sonoma County and found a suitable location near Petaluma, and there engaged in ranching.

Seeing the need of a better grade of stock with which to build up a profitable herd in this country, he returned East by way of Panama and bought a band of thoroughbred roan shorthorn Durham cattle, and drove them back across the plains in 1858. He arrived in what is now Glenn County, then embraced within the boundaries of Colusa County, and settled on land west of what is now the town of Willows. Mr. Tiffee was the first man to bring into this county thoroughbred roan Durham stock. Having bought out the squatters in that part of the county, he entered upon extensive operations as a stock-raiser. In time he became a well-known breeder of the best blooded stock in the Sacramento Valley ; and ranchers and stockmen came many miles to inspect his herds and to purchase. From this small beginning the improvement of the stock in the valley was very marked. He added to his holdings until he was owner of twenty-five hundred acres of land, upon which he erected a handsome rural home, set out a family orchard, and raised considerable grain. He later opened a general merchandise store on his ranch, this being the only store within a radius of twenty-five miles. He was honored with the office of justice of the peace, and held the esteem of a widely settled community. He died in 1868, at the age of forty-four years.

By his marriage in Sacramento, in 1850, with Mrs. Rebecca Terrill (Poage) Rowe, a native of Kentucky, Mr. Tiffee had three

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children, to each of whom he gave the best educational advantages possible. They were: Annie Rebecca, the wife of H.F. Coffman, of Trinity County; Theodora T., of whom mention is made elsewhere in this work; and John R. Tiffee, Jr., who died at the age of twelve years.
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ANDREW WILLIAMS

The late Andrew Williams was born in England in 1828, and when six months old was brought with his family to the United States. At first they settled in Indiana, and there he was reared with his two brothers, James and John. In 1852, as one of the members of an ox-team train, young Williams set out to cross the plains to California ; and arriving here, he mined for a while in Rough and Ready Camp, Yuba County. The next year, however, he returned to Indiana to buy a herd of cattle. Having gathered his band, he drove them across the plains in 1854, selling them on his arrival in California. He then went to Colusa County and worked on the ranches near what is now Willows, being employed in particular on the Murdock and the John R. Tiffee farms. In 1865, he again returned to Indiana ; and while there, a couple of years later, he married Miss Margaret Given, of Ireland. With his wife, he turned his face anew to California, there to remain. At first he farmed the Logan ranch, which he bought and owned. Later, he sold this to John Johansen, and took up a homestead on Stony Creek, where he farmed for a number of years. In the end he sold this farm also, and to the same purchaser, John Johansen.

When he came to Willows, Mr. Williams built a brick block on Walnut Street, in which for many years he conducted a first-class livery stable. This, too, he sold out, to permit his removal to the Stony Creek district. Later, he took up his residence at Elk Creek, where he managed a hotel, of which he was also proprietor. His death occurred on September 22, 1911.

Among the children of Mr. Williams are Mrs. Susandrew Mayfield, of Richmond, Cal. ; Dennis G. Williams, of Willows ; Mrs. Mabel O'Brien, of Patton Apartments, Willows; William J. Williams, of Willows; and Harry M. Williams, of Elk Creek. Mrs. O'Brien, the third child in order of birth, is an active member and a Past Noble Grand of the Rebekahs. She has one daughter, Mrs. Phelieta Scyoc, of Winslow, who is the mother of a daughter and a son.

[photo H.A. Logan]

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HUGH A. LOGAN

A pioneer farmer and stockman of the Sacramento Valley, especially of Colusa and Glenn Counties, the late Hugh A. Logan held rank as one of the successful and prosperous ranchers of Northern California. He located on a ranch in the foothills in the vicinity of Norman, where he improved a fine place and lived in comfort during the latter years of his life. He made a specialty of raising sheep, and was one of the up-to-date men of the state in that industry. He had modern equipment, pens, bath, and shearing apparatus, as well as a circular bath for dipping the animals. He gave to this enterprise the same careful consideration that would be necessary for successful competition in the commercial world. He was one of the upbuilders of this section, and was identified with the early history of Glenn County.

Mr. Logan was born in Montgomery County, Mo., September 6, 1830, a son of Henry and Sallie (Quick) Logan. Henry Logan was a Kentuckian, a son of Hugh Logan, who emigrated from Ireland to the United States and settled in Kentucky, where he passed the remainder of his life as a farmer. He was a soldier in the War of 1812, thus demonstrating his loyalty to the country of his adoption. Henry Logan went to Missouri with Daniel Boone, locating in Montgomery County, where he was engaged in farming and as a tanner until 1870. He then started for California on the transcontinental train, his death occurring en route. Mrs. Sallie Quick Logan was likewise a native of the Blue Grass" State. She died in Missouri, leaving a family of seven children, of whom Hugh was the fifth in order of birth. He was able to get but a limited education in the schools of that period ; moreover, he worked on his father's farm from early boyhood. In March, 1854, when in his twenty-fourth year, he started for California, crossing the plains with ox teams. They left St. Joseph on April 1 and arrived at Deer Park six months later. They were successful in bringing a bunch of cattle from his native state through to the Coast. He later went to Sutter County and worked" with his brother Anderson in the dairy business six miles south of Yuba City. He remained in California until 1861, when he returned to Missouri ; and the following year he enlisted under General Price, serving under him six months.

In 1863 Hugh Logan married and came again to this state, making the trip this time by way of Panama. In Colusa County he bought about a thousand acres of land, which formed a part of the A.D. Logan ranch on Logan Creek ; for he was in partnership

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at that time with his brother, A.D. Logan. They followed general farming and the raising of cattle until 1868, when Hugh A. Logan took up the property that remained his home for so many years. He also entered land, owning at one time about sixteen thousand acres, part of which was in Mendocino County. There were eight thousand acres in the home place near Norman, three thousand in a mountain ranch, and two thousand near the home place.

Mr. Logan started in the. sheep business by the purchase of about five hundred head at seven dollars per head; and he increased his bands until he owned or handled a flock of about six thousand head. To add to his fortunes he raised large numbers of cattle and planted a large acreage to wheat and barley, having as high as four thousand acres planted to these cereals. He erected a comfortable home in 1880, and suitable outbuildings to protect his stock and implements. He witnessed many changes in the country, for when he first located in the valley there was no Glenn County and the post office was at Colusa. He lived to witness the rapid advancement along agricultural lines, and the dividing up of the large areas into small and productive farms.

About 1904 Hugh Logan incorporated all of his holdings as the H.A. Logan Land and Stock Co., with himself as president, and his immediate family and J.S. Logan as the other stockholders of the company.

Mr. Logan was twice married. His first wife was Jane Hudnell, a native of Missouri, who died in California. Their only child, Samuel, died in infancy. His second marriage united him with Miss Sallie Ann Logan, a cousin, and a native of Missouri, where the marriage was celebrated in 1866. She was a daughter of Alexander and Elizabeth (Quick) Logan, pioneers of that state. Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Logan had three children born to them : Anderson, Stephen, deceased, and Lee. The latter married Miss Victor La Grande, a native daughter of Glenn County, born into the family of Edward and Elizabeth (Portier) La Grande, natives of Montreal, Canada, who became pioneers of Colusa County. Mr. and Mrs. Lee Logan have three children: Lee Verden, Elsie Marie, and Hugh Edward.

Hugh Logan was a Mason, a member of Colusa Lodge. He was a member of Antelope Valley Grange, serving as Master five terms. He was a stanch advocate of the principles of Democracy, and served as a supervisor from his district in Glenn County one term. At the time of his death he was counted one of the best-known of the pioneers of Glenn County. He died in November, 1906, mourned by a large concourse of friends from far and near. After his death, the large farming and stock-raising operations of the company were continued under the following officers : Mrs.

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Hugh A. Logan, president; Lee Logan, vice-president; Mrs. Lee Logan, secretary, and J.S. Logan, treasurer. The same persons also made up the directorate. Mrs. Logan died on July 8, 1917, and was buried beside her husband in the family plot, in the cemetery at Colusa.
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CLEATON GRIMES

Born in Mason County, Ky., May 24, 1815, Cleaton Grimes was the oldest of five children in the family of Henry and Nancy (Bane) Grimes, and the last to pass over the great divide. He was descended from Irish ancestors, and was reared and educated in his native state, attending the subscription schools and Maysville Academy, where General Grant is said to have acquired the rudiments of his education. Young Grimes learned the trade of the tanner and currier, working at that calling in Aberdeen, Ohio, where his father had bought a tannery. He later worked at Georgetown for Jesse L. Grant, father of General Grant. At Concord, Ky., Mr. Grimes ran a tannery of his own, which he later traded for a store at Vanceburg, in the same state. While living there, he married Martha Stevenson, who died in Kentucky, as did three of their children.

In 1849 Mr. Grimes sold out his interests in Kentucky and set out for California. He traveled by boat to St. Joseph, Mo., where he was fortunate in the purchase of an outfit from a man from Ohio, who was traveling with an emigrant company, but had grown impatient and wished to return home. In this way Mr. Grimes was able to accompany the party to California. His outfit consisted of a mule team and a wagon, into which was loaded the necessary supplies. After an uneventful journey, the party arrived at their destination over the Fremont trail. Mr. Grimes went to Dry Creek, and there began mining in association with a mining company; but later they moved to Oregon Canon above Georgetown. In the spring of the following year they located on the north branch of American River; and he also was interested in the first claim taken up on the Middle Fork of that river. As it was late in the season, however, they did not remain to develop this claim. Mr. Grimes and Captain Daniels went to Sacramento, bought a barge, and engaged in transporting timber to Marysville. This boat was operated by three hands, and was pulled and poled to Marysville, proving a good investment. In 1851-1852 they loaded their boat with general merchandise and went as far up the Sacramento River as Stony Creek. Here Mr. Grimes secured a team

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and hauled the goods to Shasta, where they were sold, the boat dropping back to Sacramento. In March, 1852, he went to Grand Island, Colusa County, and engaged in cutting hay with a scythe. This was hauled to Colusa and sold for fifty dollars a ton. That same year he took up a thousand acres of what he supposed was government land, but which later proved to be a grant. After several years of litigation, he purchased the thousand acres. He stocked his ranch, established Grimes Ferry, and opened a wood yard at Grimes Landing. With these interests, Mr. Grimes rose to a position of importance in the county. He began with five head of sheep, and in time had some four thousand head, which he sold. At the same time he carried on grain farming, the rich lands along the river yielding bountiful harvests. In 1852 he established his home here, building a two-room house. Deeply interested in the place, where he had laid the foundation for a town, Mr. Grimes gave his best efforts towards inducing settlers to locate here. He was interested in the Grange movement, whose promoters established a store and warehouse on land he donated ; and he also started the first livery stable in the town. Up to the time when he was nearing his ninetieth milestone, he was active in the management of his interests. He sold off all of his property but a quarter section, which he retained as a home. In the early days of his settlement in the state, his table was supplied with fresh meat brought down by his rifle ; for elk, deer, bears and other wild animals then abounded.

In Sacramento, on September 28, 1869, Mr. Grimes was united in marriage with Mrs. Ann E. (Tait) Rollins, born near Richmond, Va., a daughter of Alexander Tait, who crossed the plains to California in 1865. During this trip his wife, Elizabeth Lockhart Tait, died. The first marriage of Ann E. Tait united her with Alfred Rollins, by whom she had four children. Mr. Grimes was a member of the first board of supervisors of Colusa County, and gave valuable aid in the deliberations of that body. Politically, he was a Democrat. He was enterprising and influential, and lived to a ripe old age, passing away on January 19, 1913.
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J.E. McDANIEL

The only son of Levi Jefferson McDaniel, J.E. McDaniel was born on his father's ranch, October 25, 1884. He attended the grammar school at Butte City, and finished his education at the high school at Willows. After the death of his father, he took charge of the home ranch and continued in its management until

[photo Milton French]

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1909, when the place was sold to the Carson colony, and was divided into small tracts. Mr. McDaniel thereupon became associated with H.B. Turman and J.C. Mitchell, in the cattle business ; and together they bought the Patrick O'Brien place of nine thousand acres, west of Willows. They incorporated the Turman-Mitchell Land & Title Co., which owns the land and cattle. Mr. McDaniel was made secretary and manager of the company, with a third interest in its holdings. This is the largest cattle company in Glenn County, and one of the largest in Northern California. It handles over five thousand cattle each year. The corporation also owns a cattle ranch at Lakeview, Lake County, Ore., which disposes of six thousand cattle annually. The ranch comprises seventeen thousand acres of deeded land in an open range country, devoted to the raising of cattle.

At Willows, in 1908, J.E. McDaniel married Miss Edith M. Hannah, a native daughter of Glenn County, whose father, James Hannah, one of the earliest settlers of the county, once kept a popular hotel at Willows. Two children, Gregg and Lemona, have blessed their union. Mr. McDaniel was made a Mason in Laurel Lodge, No. 245, F. & A. M., at Willows, and with his wife is a member of the Eastern Star. He is also a member of the Independent Order of Foresters; and nowhere are he and his charming wife more welcome than in the councils and at the festivities of these organizations.
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MILTON FRENCH

It is always a pleasure to the historian to commemorate the life of a self-made man like Milton French. In this man's veins flowed the blood of a race of pioneers, and with it he inherited the adventurous spirit and sound principles that go to make up the successful life in a new country. He was born in Callaway County, Mo., January 23, 1833, the youngest child in a family of four sons and two daughters born in the home of John French, a native of Tennessee. John French lived through the pioneer days of Tennessee and trained his family in the simple, straightforward ways of those times, when conditions were such that sham and pretense found no following. His wife was a Miss Clark, born in Kentucky, the daughter of another pioneer family, for the Clarks dated back to the days of Daniel Boone and were among the early history-makers.

When Milton French was a year old, his mother died. Afterwards his father married again ; and of that union three children were born, of whom Hugh French, of Hollister, Cal., is the only

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survivor. Eight years after the death of his first wife, John French passed away; and then came the breaking up of the family. Here is a lesson for the boys of today who hang on to "dad" and never think they have had a square deal unless he has put them through college and set them up in business. Milton French, a boy twelve years old, homeless, without father or mother, but already feeling the desire for honorable success which later won for him a place among the wealthy and honored men of the state, hired out to a man for thirty dollars a year and his board. Two dollars and a half a month, young men, to do the hardest kind of work and plenty of it. Probably three months of schooling in the winter was all the boy got; but, to be sure, he was getting an education every day he lived, for Milton French was one of those who got their diploma from the "College of Hard Knocks."

In 1850, at the age of seventeen, he was crossing the plains, bound for the mines of California. With him were two brothers, Marion Bryman and John. They mined at Forbestown, and later went to the mines on Trinity River, meeting with a moderate degree of success. Beef sold as high as a dollar per pound in the mines. Only the long-horned, rangy Spanish cattle were to be had; and most of these were driven from the ranges south of Monterey County to the market at the mines in Northern California. Young French saw a big opportunity in the luxuriant pastures of the foothills, if they were stocked with the right kind of animals ; so in 1856 he returned to Missouri by way of Panama, and the following year, 1857, found him driving a band of cattle across the plains to the Sacramento Valley in California. In January, 1858, after a short stay on the Sacramento River, while his cattle recuperated from their long drive, he took up a government claim of one hundred sixty acres in the foothills of Colusa County, as then organized, but now included within the boundaries of Glenn County. All about was open range; and he gradually increased his holdings until he was the owner of ten thousand acres of land in various parts of the county. He farmed thousands of acres to wheat in the level valleys, and on the uplands pastured his herds of cattle, together with droves of fine horses and mules, which he raised, and of which he made a specialty. He became one of the leading grain and stock men in the Sacramento Valley, and wealth flowed into the hands of the man who, as a lad of twelve, had worked for his board and thirty dollars a year. He erected a fine home in Willows, and took a leading part in many enterprises, in which he invested large sums of money. He was the owner of a large warehouse in Germantown, and was vice-president of the Bank of Willows, president of the Willows Water Works, and a director in and president of the Willows Warehouse Association.

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Mr. French took an active part in the formation of Glenn County when it was decided to divide Colusa County, and when the northern half, containing the great Glenn ranch, became Glenn County. The writer remembers driving across the Glenn ranch, in 1885, and riding for hours beside the great piles of wheat, sacked and awaiting shipment.

Mr. French never forgot his own hard times when he struggled for a start, and he gladly assisted more than one young man--yes, and some old ones too--on the road to success, helping them to help themselves. He liked to make money, not for its intrinsic value, but for what it would enable him to do for those he loved, and for the furtherance of every worthy object. He was especially interested in all projects for the upbuilding of the county and state. He was just in his dealings, and rejoiced in the prosperity of others; and when, on November 10, 1916, at his ranch near Willows, Milton French passed to his "home in the Beyond," a man "full of years and of good report," the whole county mourned a good man gone. He was a man who never took an unfair advantage of any person, and never stooped to do anything that might be construed as dishonest; and while he aided many unfortunates, he rarely let his benefactions become known even to his family. No man has had more true friends than had Milton French, to mourn his loss.

His wife, who survives him, is carrying on the good work in which he was so interested. In maidenhood Mrs. French was Miss Elizabeth F. Williams, a native of Missouri and a daughter of Nathaniel P. and Sarah Jane (Rice) "Williams. Her parents were Kentuckians, who came to California in 1855, by way of the Isthmus of Panama, with their two daughters, now Mrs. Milton French and Mrs. James Boyd, Sr., then aged two and a half years and six months respectively. Upon their arrival in this state they stopped for a time in Solano County, near Dixon. Later they moved to Yolo County, and thence back to Solano County, where Mr. Williams died at his home near Dixon, in 1898. His widow survived him and made her home with her daughter, Mrs. French, until 1910, when she also answered the final call. There were four more children born in this family after they settled in California; and of the six the following, are living: Mrs. Milton French, Mrs. James Boyd, Sr., Mrs. Barbara McCune Lillard, and Nathanial P. Williams.

Mrs. French was reared and educated in California. On May 14, 1871, she became the wife of Milton French; and since that date she has been a resident of Glenn County. Three children were born to brighten the already happy home of Mr. and Mrs. French. Curry Milton, the only son, is a landowner in his own

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right, and is manager of the great ranches and interests left by his father. He married Miss Lulu Louise Jacoby. Rita is the wife of Judge Frank Moody, of Willows. Natalie is the widow of Robert E.L. Eagle, and makes her home with her mother. Mrs. French is an active member of the Baptist Church, which Mr. French also attended, and to which he was a liberal contributor, as be was likewise to all other denominations, as well as to every worthy object that was brought to his attention.
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WILLIAM HENRY WILLIAMS

Few men were more widely known or more highly honored than this California pioneer of 1850, who was the founder of the town in Colusa County that bears his name. W.H. Williams came to this section in 1853, and, possessing a keen foresight, made extensive investments in land when it was held at only a nominal price. He also began in the sheep business, which in time grew to large proportions, and which was admirably adapted to bring prosperity to its followers during the early period of California history. Laying the foundation of his fortune by industry and intelligent application, he enjoyed an increasing success and accumulated sufficient means to enable him to retire, and to give him a recognized standing among the successful and wealthy men of the Sacramento Valley.

Especial interest attaches to the life history of one so successful and so prominent in the annals of his county. Genealogy shows that the progenitor of the family in America was Robert Williams of Wales, who established his home on a plantation in Maryland. A son and namesake of the original immigrant, born and reared in Maryland, learned the trade of the shoemaker, and in 1828, together with his family, and with his household goods packed in a wagon, crossed the Alleghany mountains into Ohio and settled in Pickaway County. Ten and one half years later he took his family to Illinois and settled in Vermont, Fulton County, where he died in 1853. He was married twice, and chose for his second wife Margaret McCallister. She was born in Maryland, and died in Ohio on February 2, 1848. Of their four sons and five daughters, W.H. Williams was the seventh in order of birth, and the only one to settle in California ; and he was the last of the family.

William H. Williams was born in Cumberland, Md., April 7, 1828. He was taken to Ohio when a babe in arms, and when eleven accompanied the family to Illinois, where he attended the

[photo W.H. Williams]

[photo May (?) E. Williams]

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village school at Vermont. The schoolhouse was built of logs, with benches of slabs and floor of puncheon; and the pens were made of quills. However, notwithstanding these handicaps and the irregular attendance necessitated on account of his being needed to help till the farm, Mr. "Williams acquired a good education. With a hopeful spirit, he endeavored, by self-culture, to make the most of his environments; and he became in time a well-informed man. He learned the shoemaker's trade with a brother during the winter months, and cared for the stock and raised corn in summer. When the news came of the discovery of gold in California, he dissolved his partnership with his brother and started out alone to make his way amid untried conditions. He left the old Illinois home on March 18, 1850, and with three companions started West in a wagon drawn by four yoke of oxen. They crossed the Mississippi River at Quincy, and the Missouri at St. Joseph; followed the overland trail by way of Forts Kearney and Laramie; and proceeding up the Sweetwater and down the Humboldt River, went thence by the Carson route into California, arriving at Placerville on August 1, after being on the road just ninety-six days. During their trip they made it a rule to rest Sundays. When their oxen gave out they left them and, having cooked enough provisions to carry them over the mountains, started to walk with their blankets and supplies, getting across in six days.

Mr. Williams spent four months in mining, and only made seventy dollars; so he abandoned the work and went to Sacramento. Here he was engaged as a cook in a hotel at seventy-five dollars a month, and later became a clerk in a shoe store at one hundred dollars a month. His next move took him into Solano County, where, near Suisun, he was employed for a time in mowing hay with a scythe. He then hired out as a teamster, and later bought a team and engaged in freighting on his own account, clearing two hundred eight dollars per month. In the fall of 1853 he sold the team, and, going to Sacramento, opened a boarding house, which he conducted for six months, until the town was burned and drowned out. He next took up land in Spring Valley, and raised stock and farmed for one year, after which he began farming on the plains near the present site of the town of Williams. When the land came into the market, in 1858, he bought a small place at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, and to this he added from time to time until his possessions assumed large proportions. He bought fine blooded sheep from the East and made a specialty of raising bucks, being a pioneer in that industry.

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When the railroad was prospected for the valley, Mr. Williams gave the right of way through his land and an interest in two hundred acres, which induced the company to establish a station at Central. When the town was laid out, it was named Williams in his honor; and ever since it has been an important shipping-point. In 1874 Mr. Williams built a substantial brick building; in 1876 he erected the Williams Hotel; and in 1880 he put up a warehouse one hundred twenty-one by two hundred feet in dimensions, so constructed that teams can drive through the building and unload, as well as from the west side. In the latter part of the seventies, with others, at a cost of fifty-six thousand dollars, he built the steamer Enterprise, and a barge, to run from Colusa to San Francisco. He owned two livery stables in the town, and nine thousand acres of land near by, and was interested in the steam flouring mill until it was destroyed by fire. The Williams Foundry also received his attention and support ; and with others he built the Odd Fellows Hall. He was one of the charter members of the Odd Fellows Lodge.

During the administration of President Lincoln, Mr. Williams was appointed postmaster of the old office at Central; and the office continued to be in his house until the railroad was built. After the organization of the Republican party, he was a stanch supporter of its men and measures, and frequently was a delegate to state and county conventions. Though not a member of any church, all the churches received his financial support.

Of the first marriage of Mr. Williams three children were born, as follows: Mrs. Harriett May Moody; Lulu, wife of S.H. Callen; and Ella, Mrs. H.W. Manor--all of this locality. His second marriage united him with Mary E. McEvoy, a native of Dublin, Ireland, and daughter of Thomas and Anna (Horace) McEvoy. She came to California in 1877, and in 1880 was married to Mr. Williams. Her deepest bereavement until her devoted husband passed away on May 15, 1909, was the death of four of her children: Iris Cecelia and Inez Vashti (twins), Carmelita Lucile, and William H., Jr. Two are still living: Belle, Mrs. Stanley Moore, of Oakland; and Maurguerita, Mrs. R.L. Welch, of Colusa.

Personally, Mr. Williams was a large, stalwart, handsome gentleman of genial, companionable disposition, with a jovial temperament that enabled him to see the bright side even of life's shadows, and that won him the friendship of acquaintances. When he died, the whole county mourned. In the annals of Colusa County, his name is worthy of perpetuation, for the emulation of the future generations who shall live and labor here.

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JEFFERSON DAVIS CRANE

How a town, of sturdy, thriviug burghers honored itself in electing as mayor its pioneer blacksmith, is shown in the story of Willows and its choice of Jefferson Davis Crane as presiding officer and chief executive. Jefferson D. Crane was born in Sonoma County, September 7, 1861. His father, who crossed the plains to California in 1849 in one of the conventional ox-team trains, was James E. Crane, a native of Kentucky; while his mother, whose maiden name was Lucy M. Beaver, was a native of Ohio and came to California in 1851. On his arrival in this state, James E. Crane went to the mines for a time. Later he farmed near Santa Rosa, and afterwards near Salinas, in Monterey County. In 1870 he came to Los Angeles County, in what is now known as Orange County. There he died, aged seventy-six years.

Brought to Los Angeles County in his boyhood, Jefferson D. Crane attended the public schools there, and then went to Bakersfield, where he learned the trade of the blacksmith. He blew the bellows and swung the hammers like the ablest of those at the forge ; and by 1880 he was ready to set up his shop in Bakersfield, where he continued as a smith for four years. He then moved to San Luis Obispo County, and for a year worked as a blacksmith there. In 1885 he arrived at Willows. Here be became associated with the Willows Foundry, with which he continued for some time. In 1895, he opened up a blacksmith's shop of his own, and this he conducted for three years. At the end of that time he took into partnership C.S. Schmidt, whereupon the firm became known as Crane & Schmidt. Ever since, Mr. Crane has had a hand in the manufacture of nearly all the iron and steel work done in Willows.

In 1887, Jefferson Davis Crane was married to Miss Kate Somers, a native of Placer County, and the daughter of Charles R. Somers, a pioneer who came to California from Vermont, by way of the Isthmus, in 1854. Mr. Somers farmed on two ranches in Placer County, and in 1871 removed to Willows, where he bought a hundred sixty acres of land, on a part of which the southerly end of Willows now stands. While he farmed, he also conducted a draying business. For thirty-five years he hauled freight for Hochheimer & Co., in Willows. He died in 1908. His wife's maiden name was Mary E. Cameron. She was a native of Illinois, who crossed the plains in 1854 with an uncle. She saw Willows grow from a wilderness to a prosperous community, with a population of twenty-four hundred ; and she can remember when

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the antelope and wild cattle roamed over the plains. Mrs. Crane died in June, 1916, mourned by a large circle of friends, with whom she was a social favorite. She is survived by a daughter. Pearl C, Mrs. Terry McCaffrey, of McCloud, Cal., who is the mother of one daughter, Tyrel.

Mr. Crane's public-spiritedness is finely displayed in his record of twenty-one years as clerk of the Willows school board, from which office he resigned in 1917; and in his service as town trustee, to which he was elected in 1910. For four years he filled the latter office; and from 1912 to 1914 he was chairman of the town board, and thus performed the duties of acting mayor. During this period the City Hall was built, sewers were laid, and the fire department was improved by the accession of a modern motor fire engine, the first combination pump and chemical engine on the coast. Mr. Crane is a member of the Odd Fellows, a Woodman of the World, an Elk, and a charter member of the Rebekahs.
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JAMES BOYD

A man who has risen from a subordinate position to that of an influential landowner, and who is actively identified with the agricultural interests of the county, is James Boyd, a native of County Down, born near Belfast, Ireland, February 28, 1849. His father was also named James, and was born at the same place. Here, also, Hugh Boyd, the grandfather, was a well-to-do farmer, a descendant of Scotch ancestors who fled from Scotland to the North of Ireland at the time of the persecution of the Covenanters. James Boyd, Sr., was also a farmer by occupation. He married Eliza Patton, of Scotch descent, a daughter of John Patton. She died at the age of forty-nine, in 1857, leaving eleven children, of whom James, Jr., was the fourth youngest. The father reared his family and lived to the age of eighty-four.

James Boyd, of this review, was educated in the common schools of his native county and early learned the methods of farming as it was carried on there. He had heard good reports from California, and had made up his mind that he would prospect the country for himself; and accordingly he crossed the ocean to New York when he was nineteen, in 1868. He came on to California by way of Panama, arriving in San Francisco on board the steamship Sacramento in May of that year. He traveled on to Yolo County, and then to Colusa, where he worked in a livery stable for a month. He then came on to what is now Glenn County, and found employment on the Patrick O'Brien ranch for

[photo James Boyd]

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four years. Having made a little money, Mr. Boyd was willing to take a chance, and with a friend bought a flock of sheep in 1873, and drove them to Nevada, where he was engaged in the sheep business for one year, when he sold out and returned to Willows. He leased the Murdock ranch of nearly five thousand acres, and for nine years raised grain. Next he rented eight thousand acres of the Glide ranch, and continued the grain business for another similar period, becoming in time one of the largest grain raisers in this part of the Sacramento Valley.

Having made considerable money, and also saved some, Mr. Boyd began to look about for land. He found and purchased a quarter section, to which he added four hundred eighty acres, and then twelve hundred acres ; and still later he bought an entire section. He now owns some twenty-eight hundred acres three miles west from Willows. He erected a fine home and the usual barns and outbuildings, and now has one of the best ranches in Glenn County. On this place he has lived since 1899. Besides the home ranch he owns twelve hundred acres on the Sacramento River, near Butte City, the latter being rented, while the home ranch is devoted to grain-raising and is operated by Mr. Boyd and his two sons, who raise some fourteen hundred acres of grain on the place each year, using the latest models of machinery and implements.

In 1889, Mr. Boyd married Miss Clara M. Williams, of Dixon, Cal., a daughter of Nathanial P. and Sarah Jane (Rice) Williams. She was but three months old when her parents came to California by way of Panama. She is a niece of the late Hon. Henry E. McCune, prominent in public life in the state and for many years a resident of Solano County. Two children have been born of this marriage: James Boyd, Jr., who married Genevieve Nash and is the father of one son, James Boyd, third; and Carleton Williams Boyd, who married Miss Bruce Morgan, of Red Bluff, and is the father of a son, Carleton Wilcox. Both sons have had a college education, and are well equipped for life's responsibilities.

Mr. Boyd is prominent in financial affairs as a director of the Bank of Willows, and as a stockholder in the First National Bank of Willows, the Bank of Colusa, the Bank of Princeton, and the Willows Warehouse Association. He served as supervisor of his district one term, being elected on the Democratic ticket. In fraternal circles he is a Mason, a member of Laurel Lodge No. 245, F. & A.M. ; the Colusa Chapter and Commandery; and Islam Temple, A.A.O.N.M.S., of San Francisco.

Mr. Boyd is a man of commanding appearance, six feet, six and one quarter inches in height, a giant in stature; and in the early days there were few men that surpassed him in strength and activity. With all his vitality, energy and ambition, it is no won-

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der that he was able to win success and accomplish the results that have characterized his career. He landed in this state with only about one hundred dollars ; but it did not take him long to see the opportunities offered by this fertile country. Capitalizing his natural inheritance of thrift and foresight from his Scotch ancestry, he began investing in lands when they were cheap ; and being benefited by the rise in values, he has been enabled to live in comfort in his latter years. Both he and his wife have endeared themselves to their friends, who are legion. They are public-spirited, and are willing at all times to assist those less fortunate than themselves.
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HARRISON DARROUGH DeGAA

Born and educated in the Old World, Harrison D. DeGaa came to America, as a young man, well equipped to take advantage of the opportunities which the New World afforded, to forge rapidly ahead in business, and to render valuable service in the building up and developing of the communities in which he has lived. Harrison DeGaa was born in Paris, France, May 6, 1843. His parents were Joseph J. and Katherin (Wimmer) DeGaa, the former of French birth, and the latter a member of a prominent German family of the city of Karlsruhe. They were married in 1838, and in the following year came to America, settling in Ohio. In 1848, the year of the German Rebellion, they returned to Germany on a visit, and Mr. DeGaa took part in the Rebellion. He became an officer, holding a commission as Colonel, and in company with Carl Schurz, General Siegel and others, had to flee the country. Later he was arrested by the German government and tried for treason ; but in the meantime he had become an American citizen, and through the intervention of the home government gained his freedom.

Harrison D. DeGaa began his education in the schools of France, attending there until the age of twelve, when he was sent to Baden-Baden, Germany. At the age of sixteen he entered the University of Heidelberg, from which he graduated in 1864. He at once left for America, where his parents had been residing during his attendance at school.

After spending two years in the East and South, Mr. DeGaa came to California, making the journey by way of the Isthmus. He at first engaged in mining, but soon left that occupation and took up the printer's trade, some knowledge of which he had obtained at school. He has since followed this business in its various branches, until at the present time he is the editor and

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proprietor of the Glenn Transcript, published at Willows, Cal., and established in 1902.

At North San Juan, Nevada County, Mr. DeGaa was united in marriage, on November 24. 1889, with Miss Anna G. Smith, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Golden Smith. Their four children are Joseph Darrough, Victor Golden, Hallet, and a married daughter, Mrs. W.J. Canfield.

Ever since coming to California Mr. DeGaa has been prominently identified with its growth and promotion. For the past quarter of a century he has held office as president or secretary of chambers of commerce and kindred associations. He was the second president of the Glenn Club, and later became its fourth president. He is today its only honorary member. He is the president of the E. Clampus Vitus--an organization of boosters, with a membership of over four hundred. He has always been active in the Republican party, and has been influential in its councils. In religion he is an Episcopalian.
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MRS. MARY NEWMAN

A resident of California since 1870, and a woman of more than ordinary business ability, Mrs. Mary Newman has contributed in no small degree to the upbuilding of the town of Willows. Mrs. Newman was born at Hull, Wright County, in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Her father, John Cook, was born in London, England, and came to Canada when a young man, where he married Georgianna Rule, who was born in Prince Edward Island. They became successful farmers at Hull, about seven miles from Ottawa, and resided there until their death. Of their eight children, five are living, Mrs. Newman being the eldest and the only one in California. Her childhood was spent on the home farm and in the pursuit of her studies in the subscription or private schools. About fifty years ago she was married at Aylmer, Canada, to John McCallum, who was born at Guleburn, Ontario, the son of Duncan and Ellen (Sloane) McCallum, natives of Scotland and the North of Ireland respectively. His parents migrated to Canada and were farmers at Guleburn. John McCallum followed farming, but later sold his outfit and engaged in the hotel business at North Wakefield.

About 1870, Mr. and Mrs. McCallum came to California. After their arrival in this state, Mr. McCallum followed mining at Smartsville, Yuba County, until his death a few years later, which resulted from an attack of brain fever. Mrs. McCallum,

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left with a family of children, proved equal to the emergency, and immediately set about to make a living for the family, and rear and educate her children. She engaged in the hotel business at Smartsville, in which she met with success. While thus engaged, she was again married, to John Mee, a native of the North of Ireland, who followed mining at Smartsville. In 1882, the family moved to Willows, then but a small burg. Here she leased a large residence and ran it as a boarding house for five years. It was about one year after locating here that Mr. Mee passed away. At the end of five years, Mrs. Mee purchased a residence on Shasta Street; but after residing there from August until the following June, she again decided to engage in the hotel business and leased a hotel building on Tehama Street, which she named the Palace Hotel. Here she conducted a successful business, giving such good service that the hotel became very popular.

In February, 1894, Mrs. Mee was united in marriage with Charles Newman. Mr. Newman was born in Germany, and came to California when sixteen years of age. He learned the merchant's business, and became owner of a store at Rocklin, Cal. Later he sold out and came to Willows, where he was one of the pioneer merchants, and where he served as postmaster for several years. Mr. Newman built the Palace Hotel, the Newinan Building, and other buildings in Willows. After selling out his store here, he lived retired till his death, which occurred in December, 1913. Fraternally, Mr. Newman was a Mason. Previously to Mr. Newman's death, the" old Palace Hotel had been sold to Mrs. Newman's son, John O. McCallum, who enlarged the hotel, of which he is still proprietor.

By her first marriage, to Mr. McCallum, Mrs. Newman had eight children: William J., deceased; Ellen, Mrs. Henning, of Willows; John Arthur, deceased in infancy; Georgianua, deceased; Christene, Mrs. W.D. Davis, of San Francisco; Duncan C, court stenographer at Oroville; John O., proprietor of the Palace Hotel ; and George, who resides with his mother. By her marriage to Mr. Mee, she had one child, Frances, the wife of F. W. Sydell, D.D.S., of Chico. Mrs. Newman devotes her time to looking after her varied interests. She owns the Newman block, and other valuable business and residence property in Willows, as well as her residence at 158 Twenty-seventh Street, in San Francisco. In 1915 she built the Tenney and Schmidt Garage, on the corner of Tehama and Wood Streets, the finest and largest garage in Willows. Mrs. Newman was reared in the Presbyterian Church, and still adheres to that faith. In national politics, she is a Republican.

[photo G.W. Snowden]

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GEORGE WASHINGTON SNOWDEN

One of the most extensive grain farmers in Glenn County, a man of such established and recognized business ability, honesty and integrity that his advice was widely sought and generally followed, and whose spoken word was considered as good as his bond, was George W. Snowden, a native of Scott County, 111., where he was born near Naples, February 17, 1856. His father was John P. Snowden, a Virginian, who emigrated to the Middle West in early days, and became a successful farmer in Illinois. In 1867, he moved still further west into Missouri, and there engaged in farming amid the fertile acres in Henry County. Still later he returned to Illinois and located in Macoupin County ; and there, in the fall of 1902, he died. George's mother had been Miss Sarah A. Mills, a native of Scott County ; and she became the mother of eleven children, seven of whom were girls.

The second oldest of the four sons, George received a good education at the district schools in his native county, and early began to farm with his father in Henry County, Mo. In 1877, he came to California and located near Durham, Butte County, where he went to work on a farm. His vigorous constitution and his aptness in taking hold of the work, easily secured for him other and more remunerative employment near Gridley. In 1879, he worked for a time on the Glenn ranch, and then went to Eureka, Nev., where he followed mining. When he returned to California, he was appointed foreman of one of the Glenn ranches.

With modest but steadily accumulating means acquired during the seven years in which he held this position, he began farming in 1889, and for eight years rented the Logan ranch of four thousand acres, which he planted to wheat and barley. In 1897, he bought the Killebrew ranch of nine hundred sixty acres, located six and a half miles southwest of Willows, to which he later added three hundred twenty acres adjoining; and there continued farming, also renting a full section near by.

With a brother, James W., he now began to extend these operations, renting five thousand acres of the Boggs ranch near Princeton, and later assumed added responsibility by renting eight thousand acres of the Glenn ranch northeast of Willows. Thus Snowden Bros., for the time being, became the largest grain-growers in the valley, and were among the most successful. In their farming operations they used about fifteen to eighteen eight-mule teams for putting in the crops, and it took three combined harvesters to gather and thresh the grain. Five or six big teams

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were kept busy for months hauling the grain to the landing on the Sacramento Biver and to Logandale on the Southern Pacitic for shipment. Much of the success of George W. Snowden was due, no doubt, to his tireless energy and perseverance. No task seemed too large for him to surmount it. The success of his operations may be ascribed, also, to his use of modern and up-to-date methods, through which he applied every talent that he possessed to the task of each day and the solution of each new problem. Included in his home ranch he owned two sections of land which he improved with a good residence and other buildings, setting out orchards, and avenues of eucalyptus trees, which last were also set around the ranch buildings. He was a lover of nature, and found especial pleasure in beautifying his place ; and he stood for permanent improvement.

On September 19, 1889, in Sacramento, Mr. Snowden was married to Miss Elizabeth M. Woolf, a native of Clinton, Henry County, Mo., and a daughter of James and Margaret E. (Patrick) Woolf, natives respectively of Kentucky and Missouri. The father served in the Confederate army during the Civil War, afterwards engaging in farming until his death at the age of fifty years. At a later date the widow, with her children, removed to Glenn County, where the daughter, Elizabeth, lived until her marriage to Mr. Snowden. Two sons, Raymond and Herbert, were born to Mr. and Mrs. Snowden. They were educated in the high school in Willows and the Oakland Polytechnic. Raymond married Freda Lohse, and Herbert was united in marriage with Norma Lohse. They became partners in large farming operations on the home place, and on thirty-six hundred acres of the old Logan ranch. Both are members of the Masonic fraternity, belonging to Laurel Lodge, No. 245, F. & A. M., in Willows. The third child, Lorene Margaret, who also attended the Glenn County High School, finished her education in the San Jose Normal and the University of California, making a specialty of music, after which she taught music and art in the Willows school, resigning to become the wife of Carl M. Lohse, of San Francisco.

At Willows, on May 28, 1907, Mr. Snowden passed away, lamented by a very large circle of friends. He was a member of Laurel Lodge, No. 245, F. & A. M., of Willows; Colusa Chapter, No. 60, R.A.M. ; Colusa Commandery, No. 24, K.T. ; the Eastern Star Chapter ; and Chico Lodge, No. 423, B.P.O. Elks. He was a lifelong Republican, a prominent leader in his district, and will be missed from the councils of the party. After his death the partnership with his brother James W. was dissolved. The members of his immediate family own the estate and have since continued the farming operations he had begun. Mrs. Snowden

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makes her home in Willows, enjoying the companionship of her children and many friends, and places the fullest confidence in the ability of her sons to manage the large affairs left by her husband. She is prominent in club life in Willows, and in the Eastern Star, and in social circles is one of the highly respected and honored leaders.
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THE MANZANITA AND CHERRY MINES

Twenty-six miles west of Williams, on Sulphur Creek, are located the old Manzanita and Cherry Mines. Practically the entire gold output for Colusa County has come from these two mines. The Manzanita was located early in 1865 and has been worked intermittently since that time, both for gold and for quick-silver. This mine, according to the Geological Survey, has the rare distinction of being the only quicksilver mine in the world with a sufficient quantity of gold to work the ore for that metal.

These two mines, which were formerly one immense body of slate and sand shale, have been separated by the cutting action of Sulphur Creek. These slate beds, with their strata standing almost perpendicular, rise several hundred feet above Sulphur Creek. Both the gold and the quicksilver occur in the seams of the shale. The mineralization is no doubt due to the hot springs of this section, and is evidently very recent. In fact this process of depositing mineral is now going on, and can be watched from week to week. Prospect tunnels driven into this slate bed soon have their walls coated over with mineral salts.

Both the Cherry and the Manzanita were worked for gold in the early days, and produced something over $104,000 of which there is a record, and probably considerably more of which there is no record. The ore from the Cherry was first milled in an old Mexican arrastra which was driven by water power from the waters of Sulphur Creek. According to local records, Mr. Cherry, from whom the mine took its name, recovered in this crude way something over thirty thousand dollars. Amalgamating the gold with quicksilver was the only process for recovering the gold at that time; and owing to an excess of free sulphur in the ore, making the water strongly acid, both the gold and the quicksilver were coated over. This prevented amalgamation, so that only a small percentage of the gold was recovered. From time to time various other processes were tried ; but these met with no better success than Cherry's.

The Manzanita was later opened up and operated for a number of years by Mr. J.R. Northey. He did considerable prospecting and developing of the ore bodies, and also conducted some

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very thorough and expensive tests for the recovery of the gold by various processes, but was never rewarded with any great measure of success in the recovery of. gold. He was successful with his quicksilver mining, however, and produced something over two thousand flasks, or approximately 150,000 pounds, of the pure metal.

In the fall of 1916, Chas. L. Austin, a young mining engineer, undertook to solve the metalurgical problems of these mines. After careful sampling and laboratory work, he set up a small mill on the Cherry mine for testing purposes. After several months of careful study, he worked out a combination process of cyanide and amalgamation which was highly successful in the recovery of the gold. In the spring of the year following he organized a stock company among the ranchers and stockmen of Glenn County. About the first of June active operations on a large scale were begun with the construction of a one-hundred-fifty-ton mill. Owing to excessive cost of cyanide, due to the war, it was decided to try some new amalgamating machinery and avoid cyanide until costs became normal again. This plant was completed, but had run only ten hours when it was completely destroyed by fire. Unfortunately it did not run long enough to try out the process. The plant was promptly rebuilt, however, and was given a thorough test. While the various mineral salts, which had formerly given so much trouble, were disposed of, it was found that the gold was so finely divided that it was carried off in suspension in the water and lost ; so the plan was given up, and work was suspended until the price of cyanide should make its use practicable.

Among those interested were Z.E. Simpson, John Scribner, Col. A. Hochheimer, H.B. Turman, L.F. Turman, Ben Turman, T.W. Harlan, and A.L. McLamore, all of Glenn County.
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MATTHIAS OSSENBRIIGGEN

A successful rancher, and a man of affairs of the Sacramento Valley, Matthias Ossenbriiggen was born near Hamburg, Germany, on July 8, 1864. He is a son of Matthias and Annie (Rove) Ossenbriiggen, who were prosperous farmers in his native country. Young Matthias was reared to farming in his native place, where he helped with the work on the home farm; and there also he received his education. He had an older brother, Peter, who had migrated to California in 1870 and was engaged in ranching on Grand Island, Colusa County. The letters he wrote back to the home land mentioned the opportunities that

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here awaited young men of brawn and energy, and Matthias was inspired to come to the Pacific Coast to cast in his lot with the wonderful West so vividly described by his brother. In May, 1882, he arrived in California ; and on the 28th of that month he was at Grand Island. Necessity demanded that he at once get to work, and he therefore found employment for a time on ranches in that section. Afterwards he was employed in Sutter County for nine months, and then came back to Grand Island, where for five years he was in the employ of W.F. Howell. After this he assisted his brother Peter, working on his ranch for another year.

Mr. Ossenbriiggen had now resided in the state about seven years ; and in the meantime he had saved enough of his earnings to enable him to go into business for himself. Accordingly, in 1889, with Adolph Fendt, he leased from Fred Monson his ranch of four hundred eighty acres, for five years, and bought a ranching outfit, paying down twenty-two hundred fifty dollars, and his partner fifteen hundred dollars, on the purchase price of sixty-five hundred dollars. They gave their notes for the balance. The partners put in their crop, and then went to work for others with their teams. Mr. Ossenbriiggen remembers making eight hundred dollars ; so that in spite of a flood that caused a total failure of their crop, their work paid their expenses and the interest on deferred payments. They stuck to their original plan, and were finally successful, in the third year adding to their leasehold another tract of four hundred eighty acres, which they farmed for three years. At the end of six years, they dissolved their partnership, dividing their equipment, stock and profits.

In the fall of 1895, Mr. Ossenbriiggen went to Glenn County, and south of Butte City bought four hundred forty acres of land, going in debt for much of it. With the same tenacity of purpose displayed in his earlier operations, he kept at work with his teams when he was not working for himself on his own place. He had a lot of timber on his place, and this he hired cut, and sold it. All in all, he made a success of his work, and in four years paid for his land and got out of debt. In 1905 he bought another ranch of three hundred forty acres, north of Butte City, and this he rented while he operated his own place. In 1908, wishing to obtain better school advantages for his children, he rented both of his places and moved to Chico, where he purchased a comfortable residence on Sixth and Laburnum Streets, Chico Vecino, where he has since made his home.

Mr. Ossenbriiggen was married at Grand Island to Miss Amanda Fendt, who was born in Holstein. Four children have

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blessed this union; George, who is farming the home place; Annie J., who graduated from the Chico State Normal and taught school until her marriage to L.F. Cecil, with whom she now lives in Sutter County ; Dora M., who became Mrs. Crenshaw, and lives in Colusa; and Harry H., who lives at home. In 1892 Mr. Ossenbriiggen became a citizen of the United States; and ever since he has been a stanch adherent of the policies of the Republican party. He has served as a delegate to county conventions, has done jury duty, and in every way has shown his appreciation of the treatment accorded him in this country. He is a firm believer in the principle of constitutional rights for every citizen. Mr. Ossenbriiggen was made a Mason in Emanuel Lodge, No. 318, F. & A. M., at Biggs. He was reared in the Lutheran Church, and with his wife attends the church in Chico. By hard work, good management, and perseverance he has accumulated enough to enable him to live retired from hard work and enjoy life with his wife at their home in Chico, where they have made many friends. When they moved from their old home in Glenn County, they left many friends, who felt their moving as a personal loss, but whom they still visit from time to time.
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WILLIAM HARVEY OTTERSON

An enterprising, efficient and prosperous rancher, William Harvey Otterson is also a public-spirited citizen who looks beyond the confines of his own interests and is ready to do anything possible for the public good and the advancement of the state. Mr. Otterson is a native of Santa Clara County, born at Mayfield, November 22, 1867, a son of James and Alice (Short) Otterson. James Otterson was born in Canada, but came originally from a pioneer family of New York State, who crossed the Isthmus of Panama on their way to California in 1852. Grandfather James Otterson crossed the plains in 1849, from Canada, where he was engaged in the lumber business ; and after his arrival in California, he settled in Santa Clara County and conducted a hotel at Mayfield. He died in this state at the age of eighty-two years. The mother of W.H. Otterson, Alice Short, came with her father's family to California in 1852, settling in Santa Clara County, where she was married to Mr. Otterson. During the Civil War, Capt. William Short, with James Otterson, father of our subject, organized a company at Mayfield. They were not sent to the front, however, but saw service in California until the close of the war. Captain Short was a Mexican War veteran. When he found that

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the company were not going to the front, he resigned and went East, where he secured a commission in the regular army. He served valiantly until the close of the war, and then went to Idaho, where he passed his last days at the home of Mr. Otterson. James Otterson, Jr., was a blacksmith by trade. He is living in Riverside, retired from all activities, and is enjoying his declining days.

William Harvey Otterson was but four years old when his parents moved to Oregon and settled in the vicinity of Eugene. From there they went to the Palouse country in Idaho. Mr. Otterson's education was received in the public schools of Oregon and Idaho. He led more or less of a roving life, living in various places in Idaho for twenty years. Near what is now the site of Gooding, in that state, he owned a ranch of one hundred sixty acres, which he planted to alfalfa. He rode the range in that country, and from there went to Arizona, where he engaged in freighting, and was exposed more or less to the dangers of frontier life in the early days. When he arrived in Kingman, with a wife and six children, he had but thirty-five dollars to his name; but he soon found employment. He began freighting from the Needles to the German-American camp, and in connection with this enterprise ran a stage line to Gold Roads. The Salt Lake Railroad was then just beginning the extension of its lines through that section of Nevada ; and with a partner, J.P. Parker, now of Los Angeles, Mr. Otterson was engaged for about two and one half years in construction work for the railroad company, with a gang of from fifty to one hundred men and seventy-five to one hundred twenty head of stock. He next began freighting from Las Vegas to Bullfrog, and then from Nipton to Searchlight, for about a year, after which he located in Cima and freighted to the Standard mines, hauling copper ore from there and other camps. We next find him at Tacopa, on the edge of Death Valley, teaming to the railroad with silver and lead ore. When the work opened up on the construction of the Roosevelt Dam in Arizona, he went to Colton and shipped his outfit to Mesa, and began work on that most important piece of construction, becoming a teamster for the government. One difficult contract undertaken by Mr. Otterson, and which he successfully carried out, was the hauling of two boilers, of fifty-two thousand pounds each, from Casa Grande to the Jack Rabbit Mines. This he did with thirty-six head of stock, and wagons built especially for the work. This was one of the largest contracts of its kind executed. The next contract he undertook was hauling for concrete construction on the El Paso and Southeastern Railroad. In all of his large undertakings, Mr. Otterson seldom had an accident. He was careful to avoid unnecessary exposure to

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danger for his men and stock, and carried out his contracts to the best of his ability, gaining the commendation of those by whom he was employed.

After his many years of experience in freighting and other hard work in the mining country, Mr. Otterson decided he would settle clown to a quiet life and enjoy the society of his family. He saw in the Sunset Magazine an advertisement of the opening up of the lands in Glenn County, and in 1911 came to look the ground over. When he found a satisfactory location, be made a purchase of eighty acres; and in 1912 he brought his family to their new place of abode. He planted every tree and shrub seen on the place, built fences and outbuildings, and erected a comfortable home. He built a silo of a hundred twenty tons capacity, one of the best in this section of the county. A considerable acreage is now seeded to alfalfa. The ranch maintains a fine dairy of about forty cows, three quarters Holstein, with a registered Holstein bull at the head of the herd. Mr. Otterson raised some fine Berkshire hogs, and had some rare turkeys on his place. In August, 1917, he disposed of this property and moved to Mark West Springs, Sonoma County.

In 1888, William Harvey Otterson was united in marriage with Miss Edith L. Vader, a native of Illinois, of Holland descent. She is a talented lady, and for some years was a school-teacher in the state of her birth. Of this union seven children have been born: Wilbert, residing in the Bayliss district, who is married and has two children; George, in Arizona; Olive; Drucilla, who married Ralph Montz, of Fresno, and has one child; and Jack, Leland, and Edith Lenore. Mr. Otterson is a Progressive Republican, and takes an active interest in public affairs. He is a member of Damon Lodge, No. 19, K. of P., in Mesa, Ariz., and belongs to the social organization of that order, the D.O.K.K.
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PETER R. GARNETT

The abiding influence and optimism of Peter R. Garnett, and his wonderful power of perception, stimulated by visions of the value and possibilities of Sacramento Valley lands in the future, have never been more apparent than at the present day. The keenness of mental vision which enabled him to foresee the possibilities of production, and the wise provisions for the welfare and moral uplift of the community which he advocated during his career in Colusa and Glenn Counties, are seen the better in the light of present-day development. His advocacy of improvements in irrigation, his loyal support of temperance and Christianity,

[photo P.R. Garnett]

[photo Ruth A. Garrett]

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and his honest, straightforward business methods, have born their natural fruit; and results have shown this man's breadth of outlook, and vindicated his prophecy of expansion, placing him in the forefront of the shipbuilders of his generation in the community where he lived so long and became so well and favorably known.

The late Peter R. Garnett belonged to an old and prominent Southern family, being descended from Virginian forebears. He was born in Ralls County, Mo., February 14, 1841, and died in Glenn County, Cal., March 21, 1911. During the seventy years of his life, he accomplished much good, and meanwhile accumulated a competency which was left to his descendants, along with the legacy of an untarnished name. His father, James Richard Garnett, was born in Virginia, as was also the grandfather. James R. Garnett was a farmer and miller by occupation. He removed to Meade County, Ky., where he founded a town called Garnettsville in his honor ; and there he built a flour mill, which he ran in connection with his farm. In 1820 he settled in Pike County, Mo. Here he engaged in farming, and also had a flour mill at Hannibal, until his death. His wife, Elizabeth (Parker) Garnett, was also a native of Virginia. Her demise occurred in Missouri in 1875, at the age of seventy-three. Of the ten children born to this pioneer couple, J. St. Clair and Mrs. Katie Garnett Davis were the only ones, besides Peter R., that migrated to California.

Reared on the home farm until the age of seventeen, Peter R. Garnett assisted diligently with the farm, work, meanwhile attending the subscription schools, and then left home to seek better educational advantages, in time matriculating at McGee College, College Mound, Mo. Here he continued his studies until the breaking out of the Civil War, when, at the age of twenty, he left college and enlisted for service in the Second Missouri Regiment, under General Price's command. He performed his duty faithfully, and was several times wounded in battle. At Grenada, Miss., he was promoted and commissioned lieutenant, in recognition of meritorious services. After this his brigade was captured at Mobile Bay, at which time Lieutenant Garnett and his command were sent to Jackson, Miss., where they were paroled.

After the war, Mr. Garnett taught school near Vicksburg, meantime studying law, as he intended to follow the legal profession. He was duly admitted to the bar ; but the confinement necessary to the practice of his profession proved injurious to his health, and he therefore decided to give up the law and seek out-of-door work. His brother, J. St. Clair Garnett, had come to California in 1853, and was located on a farm near Dixon, Solano County; so he determined to come to the Golden West. Making

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the journey via Panama, he joined his brother at Dixon, on June 15, 1868. His operations in ranching continued in that vicinity until 1873, when he settled on a farm three miles southeast of Willows. Here he enlarged his operations, and was very successful in raising wheat, barley, and stock. Having confidence in the producing quality of the soil, he purchased land from time to time, until he became the possessor of thousands of acres, and was one of the largest owners of land in the Sacramento Valley. Foreseeing the great future in store for the rich lands of Glenn County through the building of canals to tap the Sacramento River, Mr. Garnett exerted his powerful influence in behalf of the cause of irrigation, and never tired of emphasizing the increase in land values, and the vast extension of the state's resources, that must follow upon the wise conservation, and the liberal development and distribution, of the waters from the Sacramento River and its tributaries. He was a director in the Central Irrigation Company; and in recognition of his services and sincerity in the cause of irrigation. Governor Pardee appointed him a member of the International Irrigation Congress that met in Portland, Ore., in 1905.

Mr. Garnett was always a Democrat ; and while not a radical, he was always progressive in his political views. Before county division, he was elected and served three years as a member of the board of supervisors of Colusa County, and proved a worthy representative of his district. After county division, he was elected a member of the board of supervisors of Glenn County, in 1894, and was reelected in 1898 ; and he took an active and conscientious part in so guiding the destinies of the new county that it is found today in the front rank, in financial standing, among the counties of the state. The cause of education found in him a stanch friend and supporter. He served for many years as a school trustee, and was the prime mover in the organization and erection of the Willows High School, serving as a member and president of the board. Always favoring religious movements, Mr. Garnett contributed to all denominations in his locality, and aided in erecting their charch buildings. For years he was a member and the superintendent of the Sunday school of the Baptist Church. Fraternally, he was a Mason, being a member of Laurel Lodge No. 245, F. & A. M., at Willows.

At Dixon, on October 21, 1873, Peter R. Garnett was united in marriage with Ruth A. McCune, a daughter of the Honorable Henry E. McCune, ex-state senator and prominent landowner and financier of Dixon. Mrs. Garnett is a native daughter of Dixon; she is represented more fully in a separate sketch on another page

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of this work. Mr. and Mrs. Peter Garnett had three children. Inez, a graduate of California College, at Oakland, is the wife of C.E. Freed; they are extensive farmers, and are also in charge of the home ranch at Willows. Reba, who died in Oakland at the home of Mrs. Garnett, December 19, 1916, was the wife of Robert Black. She left one son, Garnett Black, who makes his home with Mrs. Garnett in Oakland. Hugh M. Garnett, the only son, is a prominent stockman at Willows, of whom further mention is made elsewhere in this work.

Every movement for reform found in Peter R. Garnett a stanch assistant and supporter, and especially the temperance cause, in which he took an active interest, working conscientiously to bring about the "Dry Campaign" in the county. He was a fluent writer, and contributed liberally to the press, particularly the Willows Journal and the Colusa Sun. An advanced thinker and student of history, he was well posted in the annals of our country. Prior to his death he was compiling a book on the "Causes of the Civil "War." This work, however, was never finished.
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MRS. RUTH A. McCUNE GARNETT

To the pioneer women of California, no less than to the pioneer men, are due the honor and respect of the generations that have followed ; for without their loving sympathy, and support, without their faithful devotion and toil, there had been no civilization carved in the wilderness and no homes built in lonely places where wild beasts prowled by day and night. They have borne their full share in the making of a great commonwealth; and their names are held in loving remembrance in the hearts of the children of the Golden West, and will continue so to be through all generations to come.

A prominent place among the women who have left their impress on the development of Glenn County must be accorded to Mrs. Ruth A. McCune Garnett, wife of the late Peter R. Garnett, one of the foremost men of the Sacramento Valley, and one whose services to the county were of exceptional importance. In all the activities of his active career, Mr. Garnett was ably assisted by his able wife. Although her name did not appear on the public roster, she aided her husband, as only a faithful wife can, in the performance of his public duties.

Before her marriage, Mrs. Garnett was Miss Ruth A. McCune, a daughter of Hon. Henry E. McCune. Mr. McCune was born in Pike County, Mo., June 10, 1825, and received a good edu-

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cation in his native state. He was a veteran of the Mexican War, having served eighteen months with the mounted volunteers ; and at the close of his service he was honorably discharged. Gifted by nature with a spirit of adventure, he had a desire to see the Pacific Coast; so in 1854, with R.K. Biggs, he drove one hundred head of cattle across the plains to Solano County, Cal. On his arrival, he seemed to visualize the great future of the Sacramento Valley. He preempted one hundred sixty acres of land, and thus began his career as a pioneer of the Far West a step which resulted in his becoming one of the largest farmers and stockmen of his day in Solano County. As he prospered, he invested further in lands, until he owned extensive areas in the Sacramento Valley. He was very successful in raising grain and stock, from which pursuit the greater part of his large fortune was made.

Henry E. McCune became prominent in politics. His political career began in 1873, when he became a candidate for senator from Solano and Yolo Counties. Although a Democrat, he was elected on the People's ticket. He served two terms, taking an active part in the various deliberations of the legislative body of his state. He was greatly interested in the cause of education. For twenty years he was president of the board of education, and for thirty years he served as a trustee of California College ; and for a time he was president of Dixon College. An active member of the Baptist Church, he was instrumental in the building of the church of that denomination at Silveyville. Fraternally, he was a Mason.

Senator McCune was married to Miss Barbara S. Rice, a native of Kentucky, who proved an amiable and lovable helpmate. Of this union eight children were born, of whom six grew to maturity, as follows: Mollie, Mrs. James Hill, who died in Dixon; Ruth A., of whom we write; Rebecca, Mrs. Henry Silver, who resides in Oakland; Joseph H., deceased; Jessie St. Clair, Mrs. Rice of Oakland ; and Sarah, deceased, who was the wife of the late Dr. Gardner, chief surgeon of the Southern Pacific Railroad in San Francisco.

Ruth A. McCune Garnett is a native daughter, born at Dixon, where she received her early education amid the refining influences of a cultured home. Her parents were people of education and refinement ; and the environment surrounding her early years is today reflected in her charming personality. Her education was completed at Mrs. Perry's Seminary, in Sacramento, where she was a classmate of Dr. Theodora T. Purkitt of Willows, as well as of others who have become prominent socially and as women of affairs, among them Mrs. Gus Hart of San Francisco and Mrs. Ella Flournoy Hershey of Woodland. After her education was

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completed, Miss McCune was married to Peter B. Garnett, the ceremony taking place at her father's home on October 21, 1873. Mr. Garnett was a prominent farmer and stockman, and one of the builders of Colusa and Glenn Counties. His biography is presented on another page of this volume. Mrs. Garnett presided over her household with grace and tact, and was ever watchful of her husband's interests, meanwhile showering upon him her words of encouragement and affection, and bringing to bear, in many unobtrusive ways, an inspiring home influence that had much to do with his success and popularity. Since Mr. Garnett's death, Mrs. Garnett has been looking after the large interests left her by her husband, as well as her heritage from her father. Senator McCune. In this task she is assisted by her loving and devoted daughter, Mrs. Inez Garnett Freed, a splendid woman, of charming personality, and by her son, Hugh M. Garnett, a prominent business man and stockman. Through their assistance the mother is relieved from all unnecessary care and worry. The home place is a very valuable ranch, located two miles southeast of Willows. This property is devoted to the raising of grain and stock. Mrs. Garnett built a beautiful and comfortable residence at 5515 McMillan Street, in one of the most attractive residential sections of Oakland ; and here she resides with her grandson, Garnett Black.

Having traveled considerably in different states besides those of the Pacific Coast section, Mrs. Garnett had always cherished a desire to visit Europe. In the spring of 1911 she realized her ambition, when, accompanied by her daughter, Mrs. Inez Garnett Freed, and her grandson, Garnett Black, she made a tour of Germany, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, France, and the British Isles, visiting the places of interest in the various countries. They returned to Boston on the Laconia, after which they visited the more important cities of the East, among them New York, Washington (and Mt. Vernon), Philadelphia, and Buffalo (with a trip to Niagara Falls). They made a tour of the Southern states also, via New Orleans and through Texas, to their home in the land of sunshine and flowers.

Mrs. Garnett is a woman of culture and refinement, gifted with an amiable disposition and a winsome personality, and endowed with much native business ability. Her late husband gave her no small degree of credit for laying the foundation of their fortune. She is a very charitable woman, always ready to aid those who have been less fortunate than herself ; but all her deeds of kindness, and all her acts of benevolence, are accomplished in a quiet and unostentatious manner.

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JAMES PATRICK O'BRIEN

Near Fruto, in Glenn County, as that section was named after its separation from Colusa County, is the large ranch that was the home of one of the pioneers of the county, known by all his intimate friends as Patrick O'Brien. He was born in Ireland, and when a small child was brought to the United States by his parents, who settled near St. Louis, Mo. He attended the district schools of St. Louis County, and grew to young manhood on the farm operated by his father. When the "news of the discovery of gold in California was sent broadcast throughout the world, this sturdy young man and a friend, J.W. Robertson, decided to try their fortunes in the mines. In 1850 they joined an emigrant train, which reached this state five months later. The slow-going ox teams ended their long journey in Nevada City, where Patrick O'Brien and his friend began their mining experiences. They were successful there, and later went to Downieville, with their good fortune still following them. In 1852 they returned to Missouri by way of Panama, and bought six thousand dollars' worth of cattle, which they drove back over the plains. On arriving in California with their two hundred eighty head of stock, they settled on Bird Creek, in Yolo County.

In Yolo County, James Patrick O'Brien was united in marriage with Miss Sarah Jane Musick, a native of Franklin County, Mo. She was a daughter of William L. and Elizabeth (Pritchett) Musick, native Missourians, who came to California across the plains in 1853, settling near Woodland. In 1865 they removed to what is now Glenn County and established their home near that of their daughter, Mrs. 'Brien ; but twenty years later they moved to Shasta County, where, at Millerville, Mr. Musick's death occurred in 1888. His good wife also died there. Mr. and Mrs. O'Brien had nine children, one of whom died very young. The others were: Mary, Mrs. Frederick Miller, and Frances, Mrs. G.C. Prentice, both now deceased; Margaret, the wife of Dr. Burnell, of San Francisco; Susan, Mrs. McLaughlin, deceased; Thomas Edward, who married Mabel Williams in 1894, and died in 1900; Philip; Gertrude, Mrs. M.H. Diggs, of Orland; and James P., of San Francisco.

In 1857 Mr. O'Brien took up a government claim of one hundred sixty acres, located fourteen miles west of what is now the town site of Willows. Here he improved a home place; and as success rewarded his efforts, he kept adding to his property until he owned some ten thousand acres of fine grazing and farm-

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ing land. He made all the improvemeuts on the place. He erected a good house, built barns, and fenced his land; and in time he had one of the best places in that part of the county. There he made his home during the remainder of his life. He died on May 2, 1893, at the age of sixty-eight years. His passing was a loss to the community, where he had endeared himself to all his neighbors and friends. He was well known throughout Glenn County, and held the respect of his fellow citizens wherever he was known. In national politics, he aligned himself with the Democratic party. He was buried according to the rites of the Roman Catholic Church, of which he was a devout member.

After the death of her husband, Mrs. O'Brien was assisted in the management of the ranch by her son, Thomas Edward O'Brien. He was a likely young man, born in Colusa County and educated at the Brothers' School in San Mateo. His school days over, he returned to the farm and worked with his father until he passed away. He then assumed charge of the ranch, and operated it until he, too, was called to join the great majority, leaving a widow and one daughter, Phelieta Scyoc, to mourn his death. After he died, Mrs. O'Brien made her home on the ranch until 1913, when she moved to Willows, where she is now living. The place is still devoted to the stock business and to the raising of wheat and barley. Mrs. 'Brien is a member and Past Grand of the Rebekahs.
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DANIEL F. MONROE

A well-known citizen of Glenn County, who has made his influence felt in the upbuilding of his locality, is Daniel F. Monroe. He was born on Spencer Creek, Lane County, Ore., near the town of Eugene, on May 27, 1854. His father was James Monroe, born in Fort Hempstead, now in Howard County, Mo., October 8, 1814, who came by way of Panama, in 1849, to mine for gold in California. James Monroe prospected about Hangtown, now Placerville, for a time, but did not meet with the success he had anticipated. While in Hangtown he was a member of the E. Clampus Vitus organization, which cleaned up that mining camp of undesirables. After his mining experience, he returned over the same route he had come to this state, with the intention of bringing his family West to make their home. The next year, 1852, he crossed the plains with his family in an ox-team train numbering some one hundred wagons, of which he was selected as captain, to guide them in safety on their long journey. After passing the danger line for Indians, the train divided, some coming

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on to California and the others going to Oregon. Mr. Monroe was among the latter. On arriving in that state, he settled in Lane County; and while living there he became well acquainted with John Whittaker, who was elected the first governor of Oregon. Mr. Monroe became influential in politics, as a prominent Democrat. He served one term as county commissioner of Lane County and one term as assemblyman, and was twice elected to serve in the state senate.

On May 13, 1865, the Monroe family left Oregon for California, the father bringing a band of one hundred fifty horses, which he drove down to Yolo County. These he sold, and purchased land, on which he lived one year. The following year he returned to Oregon, bought a band of cattle, and drove them into California, grazing them on the open range in what was then a part of Colusa County, but is now in Glenn County, on Stony Creek; and for four years he was engaged in raising cattle with success. In 1872 he bought government land in Clark's Valley, and engaged in the sheep business until 1875, when he sold his band and went to Lompoc, in Santa Barbara County, where he made his home until 1884. He then moved back to Colusa County, but soon thereafter met with an accidental death. A team ran over him, causing an injury, from the effects of which he died, October 17, 1884--another pioneer builder gone over the "Great Divide." James Monroe was married to Cynthia Brashear, who was born in Kentucky, near Roachport, March 21, 1816, of French descent, and who bore all the trials of a pioneer's wife as bravely as any who ever crossed the plains. Her death occurred at Newville, Glenn County, March 10, 1892. She gave birth to nine children, eight of them boys. James, George, Charles, and Lemuel died of diphtheria in Oregon; while Isaac, Martha, William, John, and Daniel F. lived in California. All are now numbered with the "silent majority" with the exception of Daniel F. Monroe.

Daniel F. Monroe was taught by his mother until he was eleven years old; and he first attended school in Yolo County. He was reared on a farm, and worked as a farm hand when a young man. On October 23, 1876, he was united in marriage with Mary Vanlandingham, whose father crossed the plains to California in 1860 from Missouri, and ranched for many years near Elk Creek, Glenn County. In June, 1877, the young couple moved to Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, where for seven years Mr. Monroe worked at the carpenter's trade and farmed. While there, he took an active interest in the public school question, and helped to build the schoolhouse in the Stuart district, serving as a trustee for four years. Coming back to what is now Glenn County, he bought land two miles west of Newville ; and there the

[photo J.W. Snowden]

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family made their home until Mrs. Monroe's death, ou June 2, 1901. Here he also took an active part in building up the West Side School, in the Newville district, hauling lumber and working on the building, and served as a trustee for a number of rears. While living at Newville he was constable for several terms, and served as road overseer, helping to build the roads in the district.

Of the marriage of Daniel F. and Mary Monroe, five children were born: John W., county treasurer of Glenn County; James S., of Orland ; Charles E., of Oakland ; Melissa Olive, who married Enoch Knight, and died on June 9, 1906, aged twenty-two years; and Mrs. G.E. Schwan, of Aptos, Santa Cruz County.

After the death of his wife, Mr. Monroe went to Elk Creek and for three years did teaming and farmed. In 1904 he moved to Orland, and continued to do teaming until 1908, when he came to Willows and joined his son, John W., in contracting and building, erecting many houses in Willows and vicinity; and he has lived in that city ever since. Mr. Monroe is of sturdy Scotch stock. His grandfather, William Munro, as he spelled it, was a Virginian who went into Missouri, and was associated with Daniel Boone in the early days. Mr. Monroe is a member of the Willows Lodge, No. 5, E. Clampus Vitus.
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JAMES WILLIAM SNOWDEN

As a prominent factor in the upbuilding of Glenn County, James W. Snowden occupied an important place among its representative citizens. Descended from an old Eastern family, he was born March 1, 1854, in Scott County, Ill, a son of John P. and Sarah A. (Mills) Snowden, the former a Virginian and the latter born in Scott County, 111. John P. Snowden moved to Scott County at an early period and became a very successful farmer. In 1867 he migrated to Missouri and continued to farm for a time, eventually going back to Illinois, where, in Macoupin County, he lived until his death in 1902, aged seventy-seven years. Mrs. Sarah Snowden lived at the old home until her death in 1915. Eleven children, seven girls and four boys, were born to this worthy couple.

James William Snowden was a student in the public schools in Illinois. He was the eldest in the family, and assisted his father on the home farm, which experience he found valuable in after years. When he was thirteen, the family moved to Missouri. When he was twenty-one, he struck out for himself, and farmed near Sedalia, in Pettis County. He came to California in

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1877; and after a year spent on Campbell and Spurgeon's ranch, near St. John, he entered the employ of Dr. Hugh Glenn. Soon his ability was recognized, and Dr. Glenn made him foreman of the home ranch, where he remained in that capacity for twenty-three years.

In partnership with his brother, George W. Snowden, he leased eight thousand acres of the Glenn, ranch, which included the home ranch, and farmed that property until it was divided into smaller tracts. During this time the brothers leased the Boggs ranch of five thousand acres, near Princeton, and raised grain. They operated on a large scale, using eighteen eight-mule teams to put in their crops, and harvesting with three combined harvesters. At times they had as high as thirteen thousand acres under lease, one half being sown to grain each year. They were among the largest grain farmers in the valley. At the time of his brother's death, in 1907, the property was divided and the partnership was dissolved. In 1900 he bought six hundred forty acres eight miles southwest of Willows, and began making improvements on it. He also leased the Garnett ranch for some years, and also a part of the Logan property, the latter in partnership with his two nephews, and raised large quantities of grain and some good stock. Mr. Snowden believed in farming with the latest and most modern machinery; and in 1911 he purchased a sixty-horse-power caterpillar tractor, which did good service in facilitating his extensive operations. He became interested in horticulture under the firm name of Snowden, Graves & Wickes, which firm owned an apple orchard of ninety acres in Watsonville, fifty acres already in bearing condition, of the Newtown Pippin and Bellefleur varieties. He was active up to the time of his death, which occurred on March 18, 1916. He was buried with Masonic honors.

Mr. Snowden was a prominent Mason, a member of Laurel Lodge No. 245, F. & A. M., at Willows. He belonged to the Chico Chapter and Commandery, and to Islam Temple, A.A.O.N.M. S., in San Francisco, and also to Marshall Chapter No. 86, O.E.S. He was also a member of Chico Lodge No. 423, B.P.O. Elks. In politics he was a stanch Republiean, and was a member of the County Central Committee for several years. At the time of the county-division fight he was strongly in favor of the creation of the new county.

Mr. Snowden was twice married. His first wife, whom he married in Bates County, Mo., was Lovenia Jane Woolf ; and they had a son, Herbert Asa. Mrs. Snowden and her son died in April, 1891. His second marriage united him with a native daughter of California, Mrs. Adelia Charlotte (Gray) Brown, born near Lincoln, Placer County. They were married in San Francisco on Sep-

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tember 5, 1904. Mrs. Snowden is a daughter of Benjamin F. and Martha E. (Heryford) Gray, both born in Missouri, who crossed the plains in pioneer days with ox teams and wagons, with their respective parents. They met and were married in California, and were farmers in Colusa County, but spent their last years in Chico. They had eight children, seven of whom are living. Mrs. Snowden was graduated from the Chico State Normal in 1895, and followed educational work until her marriage with Mr. Snowden. Since the death of Mr. Snowden, his widow has carried on the ranching interests and looked after the large business affairs left by her husband. She is accounted a good business manager.

Mr. Snowden was one of the largest stockholders in the Masonic Temple Association at Willows, and was largely instrumental in erecting the building. With him, Mrs. Snowden was interested in building the Willows Creamery, and in the Glenn County Garage; and she retains the interest he owned in the Elmore Pharmacy at Red Bluff. Mrs. Snowden is a member of Marshall Chapter No. 86, O.E.S., being Past Matron and Past District Deputy. Mr. Snowden was one of the most lovable of men, liberal and kind-hearted, helping the ambitious and needy alike--a fast friend, a loyal American citizen, and a gentleman. At his passing, Glenn County and the state of California lost one of their foremost citizens and upbuilders.
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THOMAS L. KNOCK

A retired public official to whom the people of Glenn County owe much a debt, they willingly acknowledge is Thomas L. Knock, for many years county surveyor, and in 1891 an active advocate of county formation. He was born in New York City, February 10, 1844, and was educated at the University of the City of New York, where he took courses in navigation and geology. For six years he was a member of the United States Merchant Marine. He rose to second mate of a sailing ship, and visited nearly all of the most interesting parts of the world. For a time, too, he mined in Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

In 1869, Mr. Knock came to California, sailing on a ship from Australia. He settled for a while in Colusa, and then went to the mines in Nevada. Returning to California, he took up government land, which he improved, and also bought some acreage north of Orland. Eight hundred acres of his tract he farmed to wheat. In 1891, however, he sold out and again took up engineering and surveying. The following year he became surveyor of

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Glenn County ; and for twenty years be held that responsible office. He surveyed all the roads in the county, laid out the county's boundaries, built bridges, and acted as engineer for the construction of the Central Canal. In 1900 he took charge of the Spaulding ranch, a vast area of eleven thousand acres, and somewhat later began the development of the same.

In recent years, Mr. Knock has devoted himself to real estate and business interests at Willows, assuming charge of three different estates in the county. In this enterprise he has established an enviable reputation, handling with marked success the interests entrusted to him.

Thomas L. Knock was united in marriage with Agnes M. Pullman, a native of New Zealand, of English parentage. He is the father of three sons and three daughters : Ada, in the Sandwich Islands ; Elma, well-known in insurance circles in Willows, having the largest insurance business there; Thomas; Bayard, the present county surveyor, a sketch of whose life will be found elsewhere in this work; Malcolm, in the Sandwich Islands, assistant manager of the Spaulding ranch; and Effie, of Willows. Mr. Knock is an active Mason, and a director of the Masonic Temple Association at Willows.
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MOSES HOCHHEIMER

A man of great executive ability, Moses Hochheimer was a moving spirit in the upbuilding of the well-known firm of Hochheimer & Company, with its successful branch stores at Bakersfield, Orland and Germantown. He was born in Pittsburgh, Pa., and when still very young came with his family to California, making the trip by way of Panama. In early manhood he and his older brother, Amiel (whose sketch appears in this book), laid the foundation for their future success in the mercantile business' by working in stores in old Silveyville, Solano County, and at Dixon.

In June, 1876, Mr. Hochheimer came to Willows and established the first store, before the town was even surveyed. It occupied a small building located on the present site of the Glenn County Lumber Company. William Johnson was his partner, and the name of the enterprising firm was Johnson & Hochheimer. When, at the end of three years, his partner sold out his interest to him, his brother Amiel moved to Willows and became a partner in the business, from which has developed the present large corporation.

Mr. Hochheimer married Miss Hattie Crawford, a daughter of Colonel Crawford; and one daughter, Mrs. Lester Sheeline, of

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Willows, blessed their union. Mr. Hochheimer was a director of the Bank of Willows. He was a brilliant man, and a scholar of fine education, as well as a live business man ; and when his death occurred, in 1911, his loss was deeply felt in social, educational and business circles.
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HON. AMIEL HOCHHEIMER

An enterprising merchant of prominence and a man of varied interests and large affairs, Amiel Hochheimer has frequently placed his valuable experience at the service of the community in which he lives. He is a native of Pittsburgh, Pa. ; but when a small boy he came to California, by way of Panama, with his parents' family. His father, Simon Hochheimer, went to the Southern mines in Calaveras County, and there had indifferent luck. The lad was educated in schools at Stockton, and later went, with his younger brother, Moses, to Solano County, where they got their first experience in the mercantile business, working in stores in old Silveyville and Dixon.

In 1879 Mr. Hochheimer settled in Willows, where he has resided ever since. His. brother Moses had preceded him in 1876, and had already established the mercantile business which later was to develop into the well-known firm of Hochheimer & Company. He became a partner, and is still the president of the company. The store stands on the corner of Tehama and Sycamore Streets, where it has been since 1878. It is a large, modern, up-to-date department store, doing the largest business of any concern in Glenn County, and possibly in the Sacramento Valley. Like many other similar establishments, it is the outgrowth of a progressive evolution, for it has been enlarged and remodeled a number of times. The present building was erected in 1891, and was remodeled and modernized in 1911. As a natural sequence of the well-known Hochheimer enterprise, branch stores have been opened and are now maintained at Bakersfield, Orland and Germantown. The Bakersfield store is one of the largest and best-quipped modern department stores in Central California, and is under the able management of two of the sons, Ira and Monroe.

Mr. Hochheimer is one of the most prominent men in the Sacramento Valley. He is a director of the Bank of Willows, and was one of the organizers of the Sacramento Valley Bank & Trust Company, of Sacramento. He is also a director in the California Agricultural Credit Association of San Francisco. For twelve years he was a member of the board of managers of the Mendocino State Hospital of Ukiah, and for four years president of the

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board. Politically, too, Mr. Hochheimer has been prominent. He has been a delegate to three national Republican conventions (St. Louis, 1896; Chicago, 1908; and Chicago, 1916), and for thirty years has been a leading member of the Republican State Central Committee. His years of experience in business and public life have made him well qualified to hold the positions for which he has been selected. He has accepted them, not because of profit to himself, but because he could thus better serve the people of the great state in which he is so interested. He is a very magnetic and fluent speaker, and holds the attention and interest of his audiences. In addition, he is so thoroughly conversant with every portion of the state and of its needs that his words have weight and carry conviction.

In the real estate world Mr. Hochheimer has been identified with a number of important deals, which include a subdivision in East Willows and the Hochheimer subdivision three miles north of Willows, both of which properties have all been sold off. He is one of the owners of the Lemon Home Colony Tract, located north of Orland, under the government irrigation system. This valuable property of one thousand acres has recently been subdivided, and is being sold off in forty-acre farms. Mr. Hochheimer has also an equity in a number of ranch properties in the county.

Amiel Hochheimer was united in marriage to Miss Bertha Blum, a native of San Francisco. They have four children : Ira, manager of the Bakersfield store; Monroe, assistant manager of the Bakersfield store; Jack, of Willows; and Mrs. Elsie Brownstein, of Los Angeles.
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IRA HOCHHEIMER

Guided by the example and experience of two such prominent and successful men in the department store business as his father, Amiel Hochheimer, and his uncle, Moses Hochheimer (whose sketches appear in this book), it is not surprising that Ira Hochheimer, while still a young man, should become the successful manager of the branch store of Hochheimer & Company, located at Bakersfield. Mr. Hochheimer was born in San Francisco, August 6, 1876, and removed with his parents to Glenn County, where he grew to manhood. After the usual course at the public schools, he attended the University of California, from which he graduated with honors in the spring of 1898. Immediately on finishing his college course he returned to Willows, and became manager of the Hochheimer store here; and on the death of M.H. Wangenheim, the manager of the Bakersfield establishment, he was trans-

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ferred to that city and became Mr. Wangenheim's successor. How well he has fulfilled all expectations since, at the age of twenty-six, he entered on the heavy responsibilities of his new post, may be seen from the successful development and almost phenomenal growth of the Bakersfield store.

The same superior qualities which have characterized Mr. Hochheimer's mercantile activities, have manifested themselves also in other fields. For some time he was on the staff of Colonel Seymour, of the National Guard of California, and also on the staff of Governor Gillett, with the rank of colonel. Popular socially, he has belonged to the Bakersfield Club, the Army and Navy Club of San Francisco, and the Argonaut Club of San Francisco. He is a thirty-third degree Mason and a Shriner.
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WILLIAM W. MARSHALL

In the roll of honor of those pioneers of California whose lives, and work, and sacrifices are reflected in the present prosperity of the state, the name of William W. Marshall, now deceased, will have an enviable place. Born in Macon County, Mo., September 26, 1837, he crossed the plains in 1852 in company with J.C. Wilson, driving a herd of cattle all the way to California. Once arrived here, and somewhat settled, he mined for a while in Calaveras and Amador Counties, and then, in 1857, went to Colusa County, where he took up government land fifteen miles northwest of Willows. He engaged in cattle-raising and sheep-raising, and meanwhile kept adding to his holdings, until at one time he owned three thousand acres of land. At one time he farmed about two thousand acres to wheat and barley. His stock operations also included the raising of mules and high-class trotting horses; and among the latter, his horse Stranger won many races at the local fairs, and on the trotting courses of San Francisco. Such was the quality, too, of his sheep and cattle that they won for him numerous medals. The old home ranch, consisting of twenty-two hundred acres, is still in the possession of the family.

In 1862, Mr. Marshall married Miss Elmira Halley, a native of Illinois, who crossed the plains in 1854 with her parents, from Iowa, then their home, when she was only ten years old. Her father was G.W. Halley, who settled in Colusa County, where he bought government land, and for many years successfully engaged in the raising of cattle and hogs. G.W. Halley married Miss Jane Sherman, a native of Illinois. Besides Mrs. Marshall, they

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had two other children: Oscar Halley, of Red Bluff; and Mrs. M.E. Alvarado, of Mountain View, Cal. Mrs. Marshall still relates many interesting experiences of pioneer days. They came into Colusa County with their ox teams ; and for some time thereafter they used the oxen for travel about the country. She remembers very well the antelopes and the wild Spanish cattle roaming everywhere about the plains at Colusa. Four children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Marshall. The eldest, Mrs. Nellie Bressler, now deceased, was the mother of three children: Mrs. J.E. Carter, of Sebastopol ; Mrs. E.G. Callender, of Petaluma ; and Lyle Bressler, now twenty-five years of age, who lives on the old home ranch of his grandfather, of which he has charge, and on which he is meeting with success. The other children of Mr. and Mrs. Marshall are : Mrs. Leonora Neate, of Willows ; James Edward, deceased, the father of one son, Leon W. Marshall, who is studying dentistry in San Francisco ; and Roy Marshall, of Willows.

William W. Marshall died in 1911, and was buried with due Masonic rites. In his death the community lost an exemplary citizen and an enterprising builder of the state. He was one of the largest grain farmers in the county. His greatness, however, did not consist merely in his spirit of enterprise. It was rather his high sense of personal honor, and the elevated principles which actuated him, and which he applied in every transaction and would have the commonwealth adopt as its own, that made him conspicuous as a leader among his fellow men. Mrs. Marshall, who survives her husband, is still an active and energetic business woman. She is a charter member of Marshall Chapter, O.E.S., of Willows, of which she is Past Matron. In her religious life she is a consistent member of the Christian Church.
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HARBISON & KITCHIN

The ranch of thirty-nine hundred acres known as the Harbison & Kitchin Ranch, located in Colusa County, is an illustration of what can be accomplished by hard work, good management, and intelligent application. Until 1916 the partners raised wheat, barley and stock on this property and other tracts that they leased. They kept forth head of brood mares, and raised horses and mules, together with about fifty head of cattle each year. To carry on this large ranching project properly, it was necessary to make use of the most modern methods. They employed modern machinery and implements, including a forty-five horse-power Holt caterpillar tractor and a Holt combined harvester. Three

[photo George Hentry Purkitt]

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sets of buildings have been erected on different parts of the property; and everything has been put in shape to facilitate the work of the partners and their helpers.

In 1916 two hundred acres of the land was prepared for irrigation and planted to rice under lease. It yielded a good crop, and the partners determined to plant a large acreage to rice in 1917. They entered into an agreement with Mallon & Blevins to line, check up, irrigate and plant to rice three thousand acres of their land. This was a gigantic undertaking. When the work is completed, Mallon & Blevins are to get a deed to about nine hundred acres of the tract, and a two-year lease on the balance of the land that is put in rice. Under the terms of the agreement the owners of the property are to receive three dollars per acre for all land planted to rice in 1917, and six dollars in 1918. They have great faith in the project, and are aiding in every way to make it a success.

After the decision to plant their land to rice had been made, the partners purchased nine hundred sixty acres in the hills of the county and moved their stock to new pastures. If the rice project proves anywhere near as profitable as present prospects indicate, the increased valuation of the large ranch will place Messrs. Harbison & Kitchin on an independent basis, and amply reward them for the many years of labor they have spent in developing the land from its original condition. Separate mention of both members of this firm will be found elsewhere in this work.
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GEORGE HENRY PURKITT

The story of the life of George Henry Purkitt is one of interest; and, were he alive to narrate it, the scenes that he witnessed during his active career in California, the hardships that he endured, and the obstacles that he surmounted would make a large volume. His biography dates from January 18, 1838, when he was born at Griggsville, Pike County, 111., and closes with his death at Willows, Cal., on September 14, 1915.

Mr. Purkitt came of good old Colonial stock on both sides of his family. His paternal great-grandfather was Col. Henry Purkitt, of Boston, Mass., who was a member of the Boston Tea Party, and who later served with distinction throughout the Revolutionary War. He is buried in the Boylston Street Cemetery on the edge of Boston Common. The maternal-grandfather was Frederick Prevost, a son of Sir George and Lady Theodosia Prevost. Sir George was an officer in the English navy. Upon his

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death, Mrs. Prevost remained a resident of America, and later became the first wife of Aaron Burr.

George H. Purkitt's father, George Tuckerman Purkitt, came west from Boston to Illinois in 1831. In that state he attended Jacksonville College with Richard Yates, who later became the famous war governor of Illinois. On November 24, 1836, George T. Purkitt married Miss Henrietta Prevost, at the old Prevost homestead, about fifteen miles southwest of Jacksonville, the county seat of Morgan County. They spent their lives in that vicinity, and are buried in Mt. Sterling Cemetery.

Like his father, George Henry Purkitt attended Jacksonville College, selecting civil engineering as a profession; and also, like him, he responded to the call, "Westward ho!" He started for California with an ox-team train, and arrived in Sacramento on July 6, 1862. From the capital city he went to San Francisco to visit an uncle, John H. Purkitt, who was then in the employ of the government in the custom house. After a short visit he went to Sierra County and followed hydraulic mining for a year, and then went to Yuba County and there continued mining on the Rabbit Creek road for six months. Not succeeding in finding the "elusive yellow metal," he went to Brown's Valley, in that county, and was employed in a general merchandise store for a time. On May 5, 1865, he located in Marysville, where he kept books in the wholesale grocery house of G.A. Polk & Co., until 1868. He then went to Colusa, where, in 1869, he served as deputy sheriff under I.N. Cain. From 1872 to 1874 he filled the office of county surveyor.

In Sacramento, April 27, 1873, George H. Purkitt was united in marriage with Miss Theodora Tiffee, a daughter of John Richard and Rebecca (Terrill) Tiffee. After his term of office as county surveyor was completed, in 1874, Mr. and Mrs. Purkitt removed from Colusa to the northwest part of Colusa County, that part now included in the boundaries of Glenn County, and took charge of the Tiffee estate, a ranch located nine miles west of Willows. There they lived and farmed until 1889, when they moved to the town of Willows.

Mr. Purkitt was always a stanch Democrat, and took an active part in political affairs. Together with B.N. Scribner of Orland, Nelson Davis of Butte City, Milton French and Joe Troxel, both of Willows, he was appointed by Governor Markham a commissioner for the formation of Glenn County. This commission met in executive session on May 11, 1891, complimenting Mr. Purkitt with the chairmanship. As a result of their labors, Glenn County came into being with its present boundaries, and with Willows as its county seat.

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Mr. Purkitt was the father of six children, five of whom survive him. There are three grandchildren. Herbert Titfee Purkitt, the oldest son, died on August 24, 1901. Those living are : Claude Fouts Purkitt, of Willows; Theodore Tiffee Purkitt, of Woodland, who is the father of one daughter, Theodora; Edna Louisa, the wife of J.E. Knight, of Willows, and the mother of two children, John Richard Tiffee and George Purkitt; Georgie Harriett, the wife of Homer S. Henley, of San Francisco, Cal. ; and Rebecca Terrill, the wife of Charles F. Lambert, of Willows. Mr. Purkitt was a man of unquestioned integrity, and loyal to his friends to a marked degree. His body rests beside that of his beloved son, in the family burial plot in the city cemetery, at Sacramento.
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CHARLES HUGH SOMERS

The name Somers recalls the reader of history to the period of the early days before there was such a town as Willows, and before there was a railroad running through the valley; and to the time when cattle roamed at will over the broad expanse of the plains and through the foothills into the mountainous country. The Somers family is one of the oldest in this section. Charles Somers, the father of Charles Hugh Somers, owned a part of the land upon which Willows was laid out. His name was a familiar one to the early settlers, for he was one of the Argonauts of forty-nine. A native of Rutland, Vt., he busied himself in that state until the discovery of gold in California lured him away from peaceful pursuits to chance a trip around the Horn to San Francisco on a sailing vessel. On his arrival here he sought the mining districts in Placer County, and tried his fortunes there ; but not finding the bonanza he had expected, he took up freighting from Sacramento, and also engaged in farming.

In 1872 he removed to what was then Colusa County. Later, when the division was made, his holdings were in Glenn County; and he had land right where the bustling city of Willows now stands. He improved his quarter section of land, built suitable buildings for his family, and raised grain and stock with a fair return for his labor. He sold out about the time the railroad was building through this section ; and the farm was later cut up into town lots and built up with residences. Mr. Somers started the first draying business, which he followed until his death. He married Mary Cameron, a native of Jackson County, 111., who came across the plains in 1854 with her uncle, Joe Zumwalt, in an ox-team train of immigrants. Joe Zumwalt was a pioneer landowner

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in what is now the Willows section of Glenn County. The family is still represented by a son, James Zumwalt. Mary Cameron Somers is now residing on North Lassen Street, in Willows. She is an interesting woman, who can relate many thrilling incidents of pioneer days in the Sacramento Valley. Of the ten children born to this pioneer woman, two are deceased : Katherine, Mrs. J. D. Crane, and Arthur. The eight living are: Mrs. Brigman, Charles, Jennie, Belle, Lottie, Abbie, William, and Dollie. All reside in Willows except Mrs. Brigman, who lives in Sacramento, and Lottie, of San Francisco.

Charles Hugh Somers was born in Placer County, near Auburn, on November 13, 1862. He was reared and educated in Willows after he was ten years old. As a lad he helped his father on the home ranch, where he remained until he was twenty-one, after which he went to work for wages on neighboring ranches in the valley. He saved money enough to start in the express business, which he followed for a time. Later he ran a wood yard, until 1895, when he entered the employ of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company. Four years later, he was made foreman of the section on the Fruto branch, a position he filled with satisfaction for ten years. He was then transferred to the Willows section, on the main line, where his entire time is taken up with his duties. Mr. Somers was a member of the old parlor of the Native Sons of the Golden West, until it was disbanded. He has always taken great interest in all matters that pertain to the early days in the history of the state.
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FOUNTAIN COLUMBUS GRAVES

The late Fountain C. Graves, of the Stony Creek section of Glenn County, was one of the most prominent and well-known men of the Sacramento Valley, in which he had lived since 1861. In March of that year, he came to what was then Colusa County, and bought one hundred acres of land, to which he added from time to time, as he prospered, until he owned a thousand acres. Here he raised good crops of grain, having on an average from five to six hundred acres. Besides this, he raised cattle, sheep and hogs, together with such other stock as he needed to carry on his ranch work properly. With the advent of modern machinery, he always kept abreast of the times and was up-to-date. He was born in Pulaski County, Ky., July 6, 1828, a son of Hiram T. and Parmelia (Nunnelley) Graves, both natives of that same state. Robert Graves, the grandfather, was born in North Carolina. He crossed the Blue Ridge Mountains with Daniel Boone,

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his wife ridiug a mule, with her child strapped to her back, and settled in Kentucky. Robert Graves was closely related to many prominent families of historical renown. He was a nephew of John and William Hancock, and a cousin of Gov. Clayborn F. Jackson, of Missouri. He died in Pulaski County. In 1832 Hiram T. Graves left Kentucky and settled in Macon County, Mo., where he farmed for seven years, returning then to Pulaski County, Ky. Four years later he went back to Macon County, where he was busily engaged in raising tobacco until his death. Here, also, his wife passed away.

The oldest of eight children, Fountain C. Graves was but four years old when his parents settled in Missouri. He returned with his parents to Kentucky in 1839. As his services were needed on the farm, to help support the large family, he found little opportunity to go to school. When he was old enough to strike out for himself, he learned the trade of the stone mason, which he turned to good account in later years. He remained in Kentucky until 1854, following his trade, and then moved to Missouri, whither his parents had preceded him. There he continued at his trade, and also raised grain and stock.

On April 29, 1861, Mr. Graves started from Macon, in company with a band of emigrants, comprising fourteen wagons drawn by oxen, bound for California. En route the oxen were exchanged for mules. The party reached Red Bluff on September 25, that same year. Soon after, Mr. Graves came down to Colusa County, locating in what is now Glenn County, and the following year purchased the place that thereafter remained his home until he died. He suffered a severe loss when his house burned down in 1903; but he afterwards erected a modern residence, where he and the family lived in comfort. He was always interested in progress, and was one of the organizers of Stony Creek Irrigation Ditch. He served as one of the commissioners of the county. He it was who circulated the petitions for the road from Newville to the river, for the first voting precinct between Newville and St. John, for the first school district north of Nye district, and for the location of the first post office between Newville and St. John, of which he was appointed postmaster. He located the Chamberlain brothers on a quarter section where Orland now is, declaring that it would be the town site. In politics, Mr. Graves was a Republican. Fraternally, he was a Mason of the Knights Templar degree. Mr. Graves was married in Missouri to Lavina Jane Ashurst, who was born in Pulaski County, Ky. ; and eight children were born to them: Fernando Cortez, now deceased, who married Sadie Hughes; Col. Fremont Ashurst, who married Nellie Estes; William Robert; Harry Francis, who married Jessie Gav; Eliza-

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beth, Mrs. W.H. Bates; Amy Helen, who became the wife of W. P. Gay; Annie Bidwell, who married William A. Glenn; and Margaret Carrie, the wife of Edwin Neilsen. Mr. Graves died at his home on January 30, 1915 ; and his widow passed away on July 24, 1916. Their lives were well rounded out with good deeds and with years of usefulness. They lived to celebrate their sixty-first wedding anniversary. With their passing the state lost two more of its pioneers, and two who always did their share to build for all time.
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CHARLES L. DONOHOE

An authority on rice culture, and a man of large experience in affairs involving broad surveys and energetic initiative, Charles L. Donohoe has done much to advance the interests of California agriculturists, especially in matters pertaining to irrigation. He was born in Sutter County, Cal., October 24, 1868. His father, John Donohoe, was born in Dublin, Ireland, and was a sailor before the mast for many years, finally arriving in San Francisco, in 1851. Going at once to the mines, he followed the fortunes of a miner for about eighteen months near the site of the present town of Oroville, Butte County. Later, he settled on a farm which he had purchased seven miles north of Yuba City, and there followed farming and stock-raising until his death, which occurred on June 12, 1902, at the age of seventy-six years. He was united in marriage with Susan Lunney, who was also a native of Ireland, born in County Tyrone, and who, after a useful life, passed away on June 15, 1900, when in her sixty-fourth year.

Charles L. Donohoe was reared on the farm in Sutter County, and attended the public schools to secure an education. After he had finished school, he began teaching, and for four years was thus employed in the schools of San Joaquin, Calaveras and Sutter Counties. He then took a course in the Stockton Business College, after which he studied law. He was admitted to the bar on November 11, 1889, and that same month opened an office in Marysville, where he began his practice. In 1890 he was a candidate for the office of district attorney of Yuba County, against E.A. Forbes, but was defeated at the election. Since then he has not mingled in politics.

Upon the organization of Glenn County, Mr. Donohoe was attracted to the new section, and in November, 1891, took up his residence at Willows. Ever since that date he has been actively identified with the upbuilding and development of the county of his adoption. In 1891, he was one of the organizers of the Stony

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Creek Irrigating Company, the pioneer concern of its kind in Glenn County; he served as its secretary and manager, and carried on the project with his associates until 1907, when they sold out to the United States Government in furtherance of the Orland project. In 1895, Mr. Donohoe organized the Orland Real Estate Association, which purchased five hundred acres of land in the northeastern part of Glenn County and subdivided the same into fifteen-acre and twenty-acre farms. These were advertised extensively throughout the East, and eastern men have profited by answering the call and settling here. The organization and success of this enterprise in irrigation and land development in the Orland district was what brought about the government project in this section in 1907.

Mr. Donohoe was instrumental, likewise, in the organization of the Central Canal and Irrigation Company, which took over the original ditch, of fifty miles in length, taking water from the Sacramento River, and started the development of the lands now under the Sacramento River Canal; and he was also one of the organizers of the Sacramento Valley Land Company, which purchased three thousand acres of the Glenn ranch, six thousand acres of the Packer ranch, and all of the John Boggs ranch. This land was subdivided into smaller tracts, and was sold for from forty to fifty dollars per acre, with water rights. Mr. Donohoe is still interested in the subdivision of large tracts of land in the Sacramento Valley, which include property in the Orland section under the government irrigation project, and other holdings in the valley. In 1917 he completed a large deal involving some nine thousand acres of land.

Mr. Donohoe handled all the litigation for the landowners in connection with the Water Irrigating System, and succeeded in getting the water necessary to supply their demands. He won a fight in the courts that was carried on for a number of years, thus securing a victory in the people's interest. He is considered one of the best-posted men on water rights, irrigation laws, and matters pertaining to real estate in the Sacramento Valley. It was his reputation for expert knowledge along the lines indicated, that led to his appointment by Governor Hiram Johnson as a member of the Water Problems Conference Commission for the purpose of revising the water laws of the state, which commission went out of existence at the session of the state legislature in 1916-1917.

As one of the organizers and directors of the Pacific Rice Growers' Association, Mr. Donohoe has taken an active interest in rice cultivation in the valley. His company was the first to utilize the alkali lands, known as "goose lands," for growing rice, having put in eighty acres in 1914. The success of that venture

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brought about the present development ; and in 1917 about twenty thousand acres was seeded to rice, which will yield a revenue of some two million five hundred thousand dollars principally from land that was formerly of no value except as pasture for sheep and cattle. This company is a live organization. In 1916 it had some eleven hundred acres in rice ; and in 1917 this had been increased to over two thousand acres.

From the time of his arrival in Glenn County in 1891 until 1909, there were no important cases in litigation before the courts that Mr. Douohoe was not associated with on one side or the other. Since 1909, however, on account of ill health, he has turned his attention entirely to the real estate interests of the county and surrounding country. From the beginning of the Johnson administration he has been a stanch supporter of Progressive policies, and has done much to further the movements of the party in the northern part of the state. He is not a seeker after office, but always gives his influence to promote good government, moral uplift, and county development along every line. He is a selfmade man in every sense of the word. With his brother, Thomas J. Donohoe of Alaska, Mr. Donohoe owns the old home ranch in Sutter County.

In 1896, on August 13, occurred the marriage of Charles L. Donohoe and Miss Jessie Keith, a native of Missouri. They have one daughter, Frances Louise Donohoe, a student in the San Jose Normal School.
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AUGUST HENNING

A pioneer of what is now Glenn County, August Henning plowed the land and planted grain on the very spot which is now the town site of Willows. He was born in Germany, in 1850, of poor but deserving parents, who gave him such advantages for obtaining an education as they were able to afford. He could see no promising future for himself in his native land, and being ambitious to forge ahead, he counseled with his parents and decided that the United States held the opportunities he was seeking. In 1870 he arrived in Grand Island, Nebr., a stranger in a strange land, and unable to speak English; but he was willing to work, and accepted the first opportunity offered, spending two years in that city. His objective point, however, was California; and as soon as he had saved money enough to pay his fare and expenses, he started, in 1872, for the land of his desire. Arriving in what was then Colusa County, he worked for two years for wages on the Zumwalt ranch. His experience there gave him confidence;

[photo J.S. Logan]

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and in 1874 he leased two hundred forty acres in what is now the eastern part of the town of AM Hows, where the county hospital now stands, and with his brother Henry for a partner, began raiding wheat. Success crowned his efforts, and in due time he bought four hundred acres north of Germantown, besides which he leased three hundred twenty acres of the Montgomery ranch. Here he continued in the raising of grain, which had to be hauled to Princeton and thence shipped by boat to the markets. In 1879, still having his brother as a partner, he rented two thousand acres of the J.R. Talbot ranch, west of Willows. Meeting with good success, the brothers continued their farming operations together until 1882, when they dissolved partnership. That same year, August Henning opened a liquor store in Willows, which he ran for some time. In 1901 he bought three hundred acres on the Sacramento River, in Glenn County.

August Henning has been twice married. His first wife died in 1882, leaving two children, Walter Henning and Mrs. Laura Duncan. At his second marriage, which occurred in 1887, Miss Ellen McCallum became his wife. Two daughters blessed their union. Gussie is now the wife of Dr. L.E. Tuttle ; and Nellie married William Dean. Mr. Henning served from 1901 to 1905 as a member of the board of trustees of the city of Willows. He has always been a progressive, public-spirited citizen, giving of his time and means to advance the interests of his county. During the many years of his residence in Willows he has made a host of friends, who speak only in the highest terms of his upright, moral character, and high ideals of citizenship. Fraternally, he is a member of the Knights of Pvthias and of the Odd Fellows, at Willows.
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JOHN STEPHEN LOGAN

In California, more than in any other state in the Union, the vigorous prosperity of the state is directly traceable to those pioneers who came out of the East to help build up the West, leaving behind them all the comforts of an effete civilization to confront a life of untiring effort, full of hardships and rough edges, but with promise of rich rewards to spur them on with renewed energy when they found their spirits flagging. Among those who chose that portion of the state which is now Glenn County as the scene of their activities, John Stephen Logan is worthy of mention as having been identified with the development of this section. Born in Warren County, Mo., October 28, 1843, be comes of an old Scotch-Irish family who settled in Kentucky, and later in Mis-

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souri, being contemporaries of Daniel Boone. It was in Missouri that Mr. Logan was reared and educated, a son of Alexander and Elizabeth (Quick) Logan, natives of Lexington, Ky.

Feeling the call of the West, as his fathers had before him, Mr. Logan came to California, in 1866, via Panama, and located in what is now Glenn County, where he engaged in farming and stock-raising with the late Hugh A. Logan, with whom he became associated and financially interested in the operating of large ranches and stock interests, an association in which they continued in amicable and harmonious cooperation. They incorporated their holdings as the Hugh A. Logan Land & Cattle Company, and he has been director and treasurer of the company ever since, devoting to the business his time and the practical knowledge which his years of experience have given him.

Aside from the stock-raising business, Mr. Logan is much interested in horticulture. He has set out an orchard of a large variety of trees, having found that locality particularly suitable for both deciduous and citrus fruits, as well as almonds and walnuts. A man of keen intelligence and a close observer, well read and well informed on current topics, he is an interesting conversationalist. Like most pioneer Californians, he is very generous, dispensing the old-time hospitality; and fortunate is the visitor who has the pleasure of being entertained by him. Liberal and kind-hearted, he is ever ready to help those who have been less fortunate than himself. A great lover of children, he never tires of doing for them ; and they, in turn, show their gratitude for his kindness. Emphatically a man of energy, Mr. Logan has never been idle, but has continued to be one of the most enterprising and active men in Glenn County, giving substantial encouragement to every plan for the promotion of the public welfare.
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WILLIAM J. PETERSEN

William J. Petersen is the owner of eighty-four acres of fine land, situated three and one-half miles northwest from Orland. Mr. Petersen was born in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, April 8, 1886. He was a pupil in the grammar schools of his home place until he was fifteen, when he decided to come to the United States. California was his objective point, and he arrived in Sonoma County in 1901. For some time he was employed on a ranch near Sebastopol, learning the ways of the country and acquiring the ability to speak English, thus equipping himself to conduct his own business at some future time. The young man saved his money; and when he had enough to make a start for himself, he

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rented some land and bought the implements and machinery necessary to operate it with success. He raised fruit, grapes and chickens, and also conducted a dairy. To do this successfully meant hard work ; but he was young and vigorous, and ambitious to build a sure foundation for his future success.

On January 6, 1914, Mr. Petersen arrived in Orland with money to invest in land if he could find what he wanted. The place where he is now located seemed to fill the bill, and he therefore bought it and took possession. Since then he has given his time to improving the property and making it what it is today. He has a fine dairy of thirty cows, high-grade Jerseys, with a registered Jersey bull at their head. Fifty-five acres of the land is seeded to alfalfa, which averages six tons to the acre, yielding five crops annually. Mr. Petersen is a stockholder and a director in the Orland Cheese and Butter Co., a firm which very materially furthers the interests of the dairymen in the Orland district.

William J. Petersen was united in marriage with Miss Keike Matsen, one of his countrywomen, who has proven her worth in every way as a faithful helpmate and counselor. They have two bright children, Ilma and Lillian, to add comfort and cheer to their home. Both Mr. and Mrs. Petersen have a wide circle of friends in their new home locality, who predict much prosperity for them, and admire their thrift and public spirit.
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CATHY M. SEHORN

A man who was always working for the interests of his fellow citizens, and who held the esteem and good-will of his community, was the late Cathy M. Sehorn, of Willows. He was born in Wytheville, Va., in 1851, a son of Marion and Rebecca Jane (Wallace) Sehorn, both of whom represented prominent families of the South. The Sehorns are of German ancestry. Grandfather Sehorn was a major in the Revolutionary War; and the maternal grandfather was Colonel Adam Wallace, who also distinguished himself in the Revolution. A brother of Cathy M. Sehorn is Andrew Wallace Sehorn, or "Wall" Sehorn, as he is best known by his friends in Glenn County.

The education of Mr. Sehorn was obtained in the subscription schools of Virginia ; and he shared the fortunes of the family until he came to California. After his arrival in this state, he was engaged in farming and stock-raising in Tehama County for several years. In 1888 he sold out and moved down into Colusa County, and in the Elk Creek district resumed his farming operations. In

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1893 Mr. Sehorn moved to the vicinity of Willows, and three years later purchased a quarter section of land near town, paying two thousand two hundred dollars for the tract. It was a barley field; and with the exception of some eucalyptus trees, there were no improvements upon the place. Mr. Sehorn wove the wire fencing for cross-fencing the property; and aided by his wife, he made every improvement now seen on the ranch. He laid out a neat farm and set out trees--lemons, oranges, figs, and English walnuts. He was among the first to graft English walnuts ; and he did that service for many of his friends and neighbors, for years. He sank a well and developed an excellent water system on his land, being one of the first men to put in a pumping plant in this section. He put in about twenty acres of alfalfa, and did a general farming and stock-raising business with a fair degree of success. He erected the present family residence, with other suitable outbuildings necessary to the conduct of the ranch.

In the midst of his own prosperity, Mr. Sehorn gave some thought to the comfort and well-being of his neighbors. He built the first swimming-pool in the county, a cemented tank thirty-five by sixty-four feet in size. This is used as a public swimming-pool, and is largely patronized by the citizens of Willows during the summer. A public-spirited man, with decidedly Democratic preferences, Mr. Sehorn sought to accomplish all the good he could during his life ; and when he died, in January, 1916, he was mourned by every one. He was a man who loved his home and family, and his happiest hours were those spent in their society.

In 1888, while living in the Elk Creek district, Mr. Sehorn was united in marriage with Miss Nellie Keith, a native of California, and a daughter of Richard Keith, who came to California by way of the Isthmus of Panama, and on his arrival here went to the mines for a time, afterwards settling on a farm near Madison, Yolo County. In 1871 he came to what was old Colusa County, bought some railroad land, and began developing a ranch; but finding that he could not get title to the land, he then moved into Tehama County, where he became a large grain-raiser. He finally gave up farming, and made one or two trips back to Nebraska, after which he came to Elk Creek and there made his home. His last days were spent with his daughter, at whose home he died in 1913, at the age of eighty-one years. Mrs. Sehorn's mother was Ellen Hubbard Cook, a woman widely known among the pioneers of Glenn and Colusa Counties for the many charitable and kindly services rendered to her neighbors in time of trouble and sickness. She was teaching school at the time of her marriage to Mr. Keith ; and afterwards she acted as a correspondent to the local papers. She passed away in 1888. Four children were born to Mr. and

[photo W.P. Harrington]

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Mrs. Seborn. Leslie is married and has one daughter; Marion is Mrs. H.J. De Tray, and is the mother of one daughter ; Vivian is the wife of Theodore Kreiberg; and Cathy M., Jr., is employed by Klemmer Bros., in the hardware store at Willows.

It was about five years prior to the time of Mr. Seborn's death that Mr. and Mrs. Sehorn began the dairy business, furnishing milk to customers in Willows. Mrs. Sehorn has forty Holstein and Jersey cows, of high grade and well cared for, which are milked with automatic milking-machines. This dairy was the first in this section to use clarifying processes, and also the first to submit to the tuberculin test. With the assistance of her son-in-law, Mr. Kreiberg, Mrs. Sehorn is making a marked success of this part of her ranching enterprise.
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HON. WILLIAM PIERCE HARRINGTON

A California pioneer of 1849, the late W.P. Harrington was the leading citizen of Colusa during the thirty-three years of his residence there. He was the pioneer banker, merchant, and railroad builder, and was universally loved for his public spirit and generosity of heart. He was born in Damariscotta, Maine, on April 17, 1826, and received his education in Lincoln Academy at New Castle, after which he hired out as a clerk in a store in Rockland. On March 4, 1849, when nearly twenty-three, Mr. Harrington started for California by way of Panama, with a party of thirteen others. On reaching the Isthmus, they found that there were fully four thousand persons waiting to get transportation to San Francisco. His party separated, but he organized another which was successful in getting through; and he arrived in San Francisco on August 1, of that year. He at once set out for the mines at Big Bar, on the Consumnes River, and spent three months at placer mining. He was soon convinced that his forte lay in some other direction; so he went to Placerville, where he was given management of a general merchandise store for a time. In the fall of 1850 he opened a store for himself; but the excessive drought that year caused a scarcity of water, and mining could not be carried on except at heavy expense. So he quit business and went to Marysville; and there he engaged in the mercantile business under the name of Crockett and Co., the firm later becoming Harrington and Hazelton.

In 1859 a larger field opened up in the mining regions of Nevada; and with J.C. Fall, J.A. Paxton, Judge Mott and James

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Wilson, he chartered a stage and visited Carson City, Virginia City, Gold Hill and other mining camps. All were impressed with the magnitude of the mineral resources of these places; and a partnership was formed by Mr. Harrington, under the name of J. C. Fall & Co., and a general merchandise business was carried on at Carson City, with considerable success. The firm later became Kincaid & Harrington, and then Kincaid, Harrington & Co. During this time Mr. Harrington was a member of the first legislature of Nevada Territory, which met in 1861.

After he retired from business in Nevada, Mr. Harrington came to San Francisco and became a stock broker. His attention was soon called to Colusa County, where the public lands were being taken up by capitalists; and in 1869, in behalf of Decker & Jewett, he came to Colusa to view, grade and purchase lands. He remained six weeks, and was so much impressed with the natural resources of the county that he disposed of his business in San Francisco and the next spring came to Colusa to make it his permanent home. He first engaged in the real estate business with W.F. Goad, and during that summer sold about one hundred thousand acres of land. On September 15, 1870, with others, he organized the Colusa County Bank. Without solicitation, he was tendered the position of cashier ; and from that time until his death he was one of the bank's principal factors, having been a director, and its president at the time of his death. He also held the same position in the Bank of Willows and in the Colusa and Lake Railroad, and was a director of the Colusa Gas Co., the Colusa Milling Co., the Colusa Packing Co., and the Colusa Agricultural Association. He was a member of the Pacific Union Club and of the Society of California Pioneers, being vice-president of the latter at the time of his death, on November 30, 1903. No more fitting tribute can be paid to his memory than the opinions of his associates and friends, who unite in saying that he was a conservative banker, one of the first men of Colusa County, and one of the upbuilders of the Sacramento Valley.

On May 1, 1861, W.P. Harrington was united in marriage with Sallie H. Tennent, a daughter of John Tennent of Marysville, and a native of Lancaster, Ohio. They had five children, one of whom died in infancy. The others are: Tennent, born July 11, 1864; William Merrill, teller of the Colusa County Bank, born November 18, 1866 ; Mary Augusta, born April 7, 1869, the wife of A.P. Niblack, captain in the United States Navy; and Louise T., born February 15, 1876, the wife of W.D. Leahy, lieutenant-commander in the United States Navy.

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FRANCIS X. TREMBLAY, M.D.

Among those who contributed no little to the welfare of Willows by helping to make and to keep people well and happy, Dr. Francis X. Tremblay will always enjoy an honored place. A native of Quebec, Canada, where he was born on June 12, 1856, the son of one of Quebec's well-known laymen, John B. Tremblay, Francis X. Tremblay was reared and educated in his home town, where he concluded his studies in the State Normal, preparatory to specializing at the Victoria Medical College, in Montreal, from which he was graduated in 1885.

After receiving his diploma from that famous Canadian institution. Dr. Tremblay came direct to California, and at Willows began the practice of medicine. A close student, and energetic and ambitious by nature, he has spared neither time nor effort to make himself a recognized authority on medical subjects among his professional brethren. He is a valued member of the Glenn County Medical Society. His constantly increasing practice has taken him into practically every section of Glenn County, as well as to parts of Colusa and Tehama Counties. He has made a name for himself as one of the most active and progressive members of the medical profession in his section of the state. As a public officer he has served a term in the office of county coroner and public administrator; two terms as one of the town trustees, being president of the board one term; and also a term as health officer of Willows.

Soon after the arrival of Dr. Tremblay in Willows, he bought a piece of land in the southern part of the town and erected for himself a fine brick and stone residence, around which he planted a varied orchard of orange, lemon, olive and walnut trees. To these he has given the most painstaking attention, testing each in respect to its growth in this climate and soil. He was among the very first to experiment with fruits of this character in this section. Adjoining his home, also, he acquired an acre of ground planted with eucalyptus trees ; and not far away on the hills he has set out four hundred olive trees, this being the first attempt at olive culture in Glenn County.

In addition to his professional activities, Dr. Tremblay has participated to some extent in real estate development. He has erected five houses in Willows, all of which he has sold. He was one of the owners and developers of a chrome mine between Newville and Elk Creek, Glenn County, which was later sold. He is now interested in a manganese mine located near Stonyford, and also in very promising gold-mining claims in Plumas County.

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In 1911, Dr. Tremblay retired to private life ou account of ill health, caused by long rides in all kinds of weather to minister to the sick, for he never gave a thought to self when so called. Instead of spending his time in his home and with his books, he wanted to get next to nature, and in consequence gave his time to prospecting the hills of this section with the result mentioned above. When he recovers his health it is his intention to once more take up his profession, but along different and broader lines. Two daughters were born into the home of Dr. Tremblay. One is Mrs. Theolesca Hedden, who resides in Napa, Cal. She has three children, Theodore, Marie Wuellesca, and Francis. The other daughter, Xavia Tremblay, is a resident of San Francisco. Dr. Tremblay is a member of Chico Lodge, B.P.O. Elks. He is accorded a high place in the citizenship of his adopted city.
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WILLIAM F. HARLAN, M.D., D.O.

A man of wide knowledge in all branches of medical science, and a graduate of several colleges in his pursuit of a thorough preparation for his chosen profession, Dr. William F. Harlan, the well-known physician and surgeon of Arbuckle, Colusa County, is winning for himself a prominent place among the medical men of the county. A native of Wetzel County, W. Va., where he was born on November 12, 1875, Dr. Harlan was raised on a farm and received his preliminary education in the local schools, after which he clerked in a store at Littleton, the same state, until 1901.

It was at this stage in his career that he decided to prepare himself for the medical profession and began the study of Osteopathy. Going to Kirksville, Mo., he took a course in the American School of Osteopathy, graduating in 1904 with the degree of D.O. Following his graduation he located in Grand Forks, N. D., and practiced there until 1911. While practicing in North Dakota, he went, in 1906, to Battle Creek, Mich., and took a course under Dr. Kellogg in Hydrotherapy ; and in 1908, he pursued a postgraduate course at the American School of Osteopathy, his Alma Mater. In 1911 he came to Arbuckle, Colusa County, to retire from active practice. Here Dr. Harlan purchased a twenty-acre ranch south of town and engaged in horticulture. He set out almonds on the acreage, built a home, and settled down to enjoy the peaceful life of a rancher. But the lure of further study proved too great, and in 1915 he went to Los Angeles and took a course at the Pacific Medical College, graduating that same year with the degree of M.D. He also took a postgraduate course at the Osteopathic College of Physicians and Surgeons, in that city.

[photo Theodora T. Purkitt, M.D.]

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Completing his studies in Los Angeles, Dr. Harlan returned to Arbuckle ; and in June, 1916, he opened his present offices in the Ash Hotel. These are fully equipped, including an operating room fitted up with all the modern conveniences for operating. Dr. Harlan is specializing in ear, nose and throat troubles. He is meeting with a success made possible by his recognized professional skill, and by his intimate knowledge of the most recent discoveries in medical science, supplemented by years of searching study along both general and special lines. His practice is not confined to Colusa County, but extends into the different counties of the Sacramento Valley.

While in North Dakota, Dr. Harlan was president of the State Osteopathic Society for two years, and the next two years was a member of the executive committee of that body. Fraternally, he is an Elk, a member of Marysville Lodge, No. 783; and an Odd Fellow, a member of the Grand Forks (N. D.) Lodge, No. 4, I.O.O.F., and of the Encampment at Arbuckle.

Dr. "William F. Harlan was united in marriage with Leona Yale, a native of North Dakota. They are the parents of three children: Virgil, Gertrude, and Melvin V.
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MRS. THEODORA TIFFEE PURKITT, M.D.

The native ability, tact and consequent enterprise and ambition of the Argonaut are reflected in the professional advance and financial success made by Dr. T.T. Purkitt, a member of one of the most prominent families of the state, and the daughter of John R. Tiffee, of whom mention is made on another page of this volume. Theodora Tiffee was born in Petaluma, Sonoma County, but was reared in Glenn County, where she attended the public schools. Later she took a course at the Sacramento Seminary. On April 28, 1873, she was united in marriage with George H. Purkitt, a civil engineer. He was a native of Illinois, and had come to California as a young man, where he followed his profession and served for several terms as surveyor of Colusa County.

Mrs. Purkitt had been reared on her father's ranch, and was very much interested in the various branches of agriculture and stock-raising. After her marriage she devoted some of her time and attention to pioneer experiments in the raising of fruits, as early as 1877, setting out an orchard of a variety of fruits, which she cared for so well that the fruit from her trees was considered the finest grown in the valley. Her experiments with deciduous fruits in those early days were an aid to many in their subsequent choice for planting in their orchards.

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After living on a ranch for several years, Mrs. Purkitt decided to take up the study of medicine ; and having sold the ranch she removed to Willows. Soon afterward, she entered the Cooper Medical College, San Francisco, and in 1894 she was graduated with the degree of M. D., receiving the highest honors. She began her practice in Willows ; and here she has since resided, an honored member of the State Medical Association, and a contributor to the State Medical Journal. Dr. Purkitt has the distinction of being one of the first woman physicians in the Sacramento Valley. While devoted to her profession, she has not lost her love of the country life in which she was reared, but has kept her interest in the raising of live stock, and in agriculture and horticulture, on land she has purchased in the county. She has developed fine fields of alfalfa and rice ; has set out fig trees, and eucalyptus trees ; and raises high-grade Holstein and Jersey cattle, and Berkshire hogs that are prize-winners. She loves nature, and takes delight in seeing trees, vines and flowers grow and flourish, to beautify the homes throughout city and country. Her home at 444 West Sycamore Street is one of the most comfortable in the city, the yard being replete with all kinds of trees and flowers. She is liberal and enterprising, always willing to aid those less fortunate than herself ; and many are the men and women who have received benefactions at her hands, as well as encouragement to make another attempt to overcome the obstacles that seem to confront them in their road to success.

Dr. Purkitt is the mother of six children. Her eldest son, Herbert T., is now deceased ; Claude F., a prominent attorney of Willows, is State Senator from the Fourth District in California ; Theodore T., who married Miss Minnie Hume, of Redding, is proprietor of a pharmacy and lives in Woodland ; Edna Louisa is the wife of J.E. Knight, of Willows; Georgie Harriett became the wife of Homer Henley of San Francisco ; and Rebecca T. married Charles Lambert, Jr., of Willows. Dr. Purkitt saw that her children all received a good education; the daughters all graduated from Mt. St. Gertrude's Academy at Rio Vista, and were popular and successful teachers in the schools of Glenn County before their marriage. All this has been the result of her personal efforts; and she is proud of her children's standing in the county where their lives have been spent. There has been no project advanced in the county for bettering the condition of the people, or for the development of the county, with a view to making of it a better place in which to live, that has not had the hearty cooperation of Dr. Purkitt ; and she has often taken the lead in such movements. There is no one in her community that is more universally loved and respected than is she.

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GEORGE A. WARE

The Ware family is of New England stock, and became established in California at an early period in the history of the state. George W. Ware, who was born in Penfield, N. Y., in 1832, came to California by way of Panama in 1852, and settled in Colusa. He established a general merchandise store with his brother-in-law, under the firm name of Case & Ware, of which he became sole owner some years later. As his business grew, the demand for more room necessitated his erecting a new building ; and he put up the second brick building in the county, opposite the old Colusa House. For more than thirty-one years he conducted business in the town. During that time people came from all parts of the county to trade with him ; for he was noted for his reliability and honesty, and made warm friends among his customers. In 1868 he began to buy land and devote it to grain and stock-raising, adding to his first purchase until he had over four thousand acres. His estate was the result of his own industry, for he had no assistance in any way. Some years after locating in Colusa George W. Ware married Mary A. Corwin, who was born in Quincy, 111., and came across the plains to California in 1853, with her parents and other members of their family. Her father, Elisha Corwin, settled in Marysville and followed the carpenter's trade for several years, later removing to Colusa, where he died. Of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Ware six children were born, of whom three are living: Mrs. Alice Bedell, of Redwood City; George A., of this review; and Mrs. Mary R. Drake, of New York City. Mr. Ware died in 1884, while on a visit to San Francisco, at the age of fifty-three years. After his death, his widow remained in Colusa until 1891, when she went to San Francisco to make her home. She passed away on June 6, 1917, at the age of eighty-two. Her remains were laid beside those of her husband, at Colusa.
The only living son of his parents, George A. Ware was born in Colusa, November 27, 1868. He attended the public schools of the town; and when he was old enough, he went to work on the home ranch. Later, with a partner, J.C. Bedell, he began operations on the Ware estate, southeast of Williams. In 1892 he bought out his partner ; and ever since then he has been operating alone. He has seven hundred acres in grain, and five hundred acres seeded to alfalfa. He raises from seven to nine tons of alfalfa to the acre without irrigation, making four or five cuttings annually. He holds the record in the state for unirrigated alfalfa. His grain land yields from fifteen to twenty-five sacks to the acre.

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on an average. Mr. "Ware is breeding up a fine herd of thoroughbred Holsteins, principally dairy cows. He makes a specialty of raising mules ; and many valuable animals have been sold from his ranch. He also raises some hogs. He is known all over Northern California as a leading farmer and stockman. Mr. Ware has a real estate office in Williams, where he is active in subdivision work. He is selling off the Gauthier tract of six hundred forty acres near Williams. He is identified, also, with the oil interests of the state, as president of the Williams Oil Co.

Mr. Ware was married in Oakland, in 1891, to Miss Alexine G. Fairbairn, who was born in Chico. Her father was Rev. Alexander Fairbairn, a native of Scotland. He was a graduate of Princeton University, and a Presbyterian divine. Her mother was Helen M. Edwards, of New York, who died in Colusa, in 1884. The father died in Williams. Mrs. Ware was a lady of culture and refinement. While raised in the Presbyterian Church, she was a member of the Methodist Church with Mr. Ware and their family. She died in Woodland, April 17, 1916, leaving three children: Helen M., the wife of W.R. Meyer, of Redwood City; Alexiue Gertrude; and George Fairbairn, who is with his father on the ranch. Mr. Ware is public-spirited, actively supporting all measures for the good of his county, and is firmly convinced that there is a great future in store for this section of the state when its possibilities have been fully made known. Politically, he is a stanch supporter of Republican men and measures. Fraternally, he is a member and Past Master of Tuscan Lodge, No. 261, F. & A. M., of Williams.
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WILLIAM FRANK MILLER

When it conies to talking of the pioneer days of '49, then William Frank Miller, the popular merchant of Butte City, Glenn County, will have a story to tell, and one that is always worth hearing. He was born in Anderson County, Ky., April 13, 1848, the son of Marshall and Amanda (Walker) Miller, both natives of the sunny South, who came to California in 1849, crossing the plains with an ox-team train of emigrants. Soon after their arrival the father began to operate a ferry between Fremont and Vernon, and it was here that his good wife died. She is buried at the latter place. After his wife's death the father then went to Nevada County and became one of the pioneer merchants of that county, being located at Nevada City, or in the vicinity of that place, at a settlement known as Coyoteville. He died there in 1859.

[photo W. Frank Miller]

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It was while living in Nevada City that W. Frank and his brother, Merritt H. Miller, had a narrow escape from death. The incident is worthy of record, for Providence certainly interceded in behalf of the future merchant of Glenn County. The home of the Miller family, for his father had married again, was one of the pioneer structures of that day in the mining camps. Near by stood a large dead pine tree that threatened to fall and crush the building. One night the parents heard a creaking of the tree during a strong wind; and before the crash came that would have crushed the two boys asleep in their bed, they dragged them away from danger just as the tree fell across the bed where the boys had been sleeping but a moment before.

W. Frank was in his twelfth year when his father died. He was thus left to shift for himself at an age when most boys are considered helpless and entirely dependent. His schooling was very limited. His education has been acquired largely by elbowing the rough edges of the world, and his diploma came from the "College of Hard Knocks." He is a pioneer, and the. son of a pioneer; and he had the usual experiences of the pioneer's offspring. Ever since he was twelve he has made his own way in the world, so that whatever he has accomplished is due entirely to his own indefatigable exertions in self-reliantly following a definite course.

He worked in the mines in Nevada County, and then went to Virginia City, in Nevada, where he mined for a time, mingling with men of every description. Afterwards he worked at various kinds of employment to make a living. He returned to California, and for a time was employed on ranches in Colusa County. In 1863, he settled in what is now a part of Glenn County, and there farmed on his own responsibility until the public lands came into the market, when he preempted a tract near the present site of Butte City. Later, with his brother, Merritt H., for a partner, he carried on a grain ranch southeast of that place and made a stake, so that he was enabled to open a store. This was in 1873, when, with a partner, he opened one of the first stores in the little settlement. Starting on a very small scale and in a very small building, the firm of Miller and Eyan began to do a flourishing business. Ever since the opening of the establishment, Mr. Miller has been connected with the business, although several partners have been associated with him at various times. The name of W. Frank Miller & Co. has long stood for reliability, and the business has grown to large proportions with the settling up of the country round about. Branch stores have been opened at Princeton and at Glenn, and a large and varied general stock of merchandise is alwavs to be found in their stores.

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The pioneer spirit of this worthy man was again demonstrated when he went to the Klondike at the time of the gold excitement in Alaska; but he did not find it attractive enough to stay longer than two years, at the end of which time he returned to his California home. Ever since, he has been a familiar figure in Colusa and Glenn Counties.

As might be expected of a man who has met with success in his various undertakings, Mr. Miller has been prominent in public life. He is a loyal Democrat, and has served as a member of the County Central Committee for many years, and as a delegate to both state and county conventions. He was a member of the board of supervisors of Glenn County after the division was made, filling the office two terms with satisfaction to all his friends, for he served the whole people with impartiality. For twenty years he was postmaster of Butte City, and for a like period was agent for Wells-Fargo Express Co. He was one of the organizers of the Butte City school district, and has been a member of the board of trustees ever since its organization. No more public-spirited man can be found in Glenn County than W. Frank Miller.

On September 29, 1869, William Frank Miller was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth Rantz, a native of Illinois, who crossed the plains to California with her parents in 1850, behind the slow-moving oxen. Of this marriage nine children were born, six of whom are still living. The oldest daughter is Mrs. Effie Frances Wylie, of Corning, and she has three children. Mrs. Lena Barham is the second daughter, and she has two sons and a daughter. Mrs. Gloria May Bondurant has one daughter and two sons, twins. Alice D. is the fourth daughter, and married Charles Hanson ; and Mrs. Achsah Moler, of Sacramento, is next to the youngest. Miss William Franklin Miller, Jr., or "Frankie," as she is known to her friends, is the youngest member of the Miller household, and her father's namesake. The other children died in infancy and early childhood. Mrs. Miller passed away on September 11, 1914, one day less than sixty-four years of age, mourned by her family and a very large circle of friends. The family are members of the Christian Church of Butte City. Mr. Miller is a Knight Templar Mason, and belongs to the Independent Order of Foresters, being a charter member of Butte City Lodge, in which he was the first Past Chief Ranger. He is known far and wide throughout the Sacramento Valley as a man whose word is as good as his bond, a tribute paid to comparatively few men.

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JOHN MEHL

The pioneer shoe dealer of Orland is John Mehl, who has been a resident of California since 1873, when he arrived in Marysville, a youth of seventeen. He was born in Baden, Germany, and up to the age of sixteen attended the schools of that country, gaining a good knowledge of the common branches of education. During his last year in his native land, it was arranged that he should go to America to join Charles Mehl, an uncle, located in California and engaged in the bakery business at Marysville. Accordingly, he boarded a vessel for New York, and on his arrival came direct to Marysville, where he worked about a year for his uncle. He was very much dissatisfied with his environments, however, and did not like the bakery business; so he left there and went to Colusa. There he served a three-year apprenticeship with Benjamin Bropst, learning the trade of shoemaker. After he had mastered the trade, he worked for one year in Yuba City and three months in Red Bluff. He then came to Williams, Colusa County', and worked one year for Samuel Wild. Some time later he bought out Mr. Wild's business, forming a partnership with Otto Lunz, and carried on a shoe shop with growing success. They opened a branch store in Orland, in August, 1882, when the railroad was built to that town; and since then Mr. Mehl has been in the shoe business in Orland. His partner died in 1883, and their interests were then divided.

There is not a man doing business in Orland today whose connection with the commercial interests of the place dates back to the time of Mr. Mehl's arrival. In point of service, therefore, he is the oldest merchant in the town. The first year he had a small shop on Fifth Street. He then moved to his present location on Fourth Street, where he had a modern front put on his original store. He carries a full line of both dress shoes and serviceable shoes, in all sizes, for men, women and children, and also does a general repair business. Besides his place of business, he owns a comfortable home in Orland ; and he has taken an active interest in every movement that has been put forward to build up the town. There were only five stores in the town when he started his establishment ; and all the development of this section has been witnessed by this pioneer merchant.

Mr. Mehl has been twice married. His first wife was Esther E. Birch, born in Illinois, by whom he had three children : Bernhard L., a graduate of the University of California and now a

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civil engineer in San Francisco; Flora, the wife of W.H. Newhouse; and Ross B., who assists his father in the store. His second marriage united him with Emily Brooks, also born in Illinois, and a lady of culture and refinement. Mrs. Mehl is a prominent member of the Rebekahs. She has passed all the chairs of the order, and attended the Grand Lodge in San Diego. Mr. Mehl is a member of Stony Creek Lodge, No. 218, I.O.O.F., of Orland. He has served as treasurer of the lodge for twenty years ; and he attended the Grand Lodge in San Francisco. He is a charter member of the Encampment and also of the Rebekahs. As a man and citizen, Mr. Mehl has a high standing in Orland, where he is looked to for cooperation with every public movement for the betterment of the community. He is a member of the Lutheran Church.
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BANK OF WILLOWS

No one knows better than the merchant or farmer living in or near a live, growing town, what an important and absolutely essential part a bank plays, and must play, in the growth of the community--a fact likely to be quickly appreciated by any one who will remain for a while at Willows, and note the flow of commercial and financial life through the daily transactions of the Bank of Willows. In 1876, W.C. Murdock and B. Marshall established a private bank under the firm name of W.C. Murdock & Co. ; and on September 2, 1880, it was converted by Mr. Murdock and N.D. Rideout into the incorporated Bank of Willows, with a capital of two hundred thousand dollars. The president was Mr. Rideout; the vice-president, A.A. Jackson; and the cashier, Mr. Murdock; and in September, 1881, P.H. Green became assistant cashier.

In April, 1889, the controlling interest was sold to stockholders of Colusa County Bank, the new officers of which were William P. Harrington, president; Milton French, vice-president; B.H. Burton, cashier; and P.H. Green, assistant cashier. On January 1, 1904, Mr. Burton became president; Milton French, vice-president; and Mr. Green, cashier; while C.R. Wickes succeeded Mr. Green as assistant cashier. The personnel of the bank has since continued the same, except that, on the death of Milton French, Frank Moody succeeded him as vice-president, in January, 1917.

The bank now has a commercial department with a paid-up capital of three hundred thousand dollars and a surplus of two hundred thousand dollars, and a newly established savings department with a paid-up capital of fifty thousand dollars. The assets of the bank have now reached a total of one million, three hundred

[photo P.H. Green]

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twenty-six thousand, nine hundred sixty-four dollars. Thus, the stability of the bank and the conservative policy of its officers have gained the entire confidence of the people, to such an extent that it has by far the largest deposits of any bank in the county. The bank's old home was in their old building on the southwest corner of Walnut and Tehama Streets until in 1911, when they moved across the street into the present substantial modern fire-proof building erected of granite and Utah white stone, one of the most beautiful buildings that adorn the town.
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PARLEY H. GREEN

In the life of this successful banker of Willows are illustrated the results of perseverance and energy. He is a citizen of whom any community might well feel proud, and the people of Glenn County accord him a place in the foremost ranks of the representative business men. Identified with the history of Glenn County from its beginning, he has witnessed its gradual growth, the development of its commercial interests, and the increase of population by the removal hither of men of enterprise, intelligence and high standing. No better name could be selected to suggest the commercial soundness and the financial stability of Willows than its far-seeing and enterprising banker. Parley H. Green. He was born at Fort Wayne, Ind., March 25, 1855, a son of Corydon and Sarah (Huss) Green, both natives of Ohio and descended from old New England stock. He is also a lineal descendant of Gen. Joseph Warren, killed at the Battle of Bunker Hill. Corydon Green was a grain buyer and a well-kuown business man of Fort Wayne.

It has meant a good deal to many Americans to have been born in the Hoosier State, and Parley H. Green made the most of his boyhood there. He was educated in the grammar and high schools of his native city, after which he chose as his profession the work of an accountant. In 1877 he came to California, and for a time was in the employ of the Sweepstake Plow Co., at San Leandro. Two years later he removed to Colusa County, and here entered the employ of his uncle, Warren Green, who was engaged in the sheep business. Three years later he accepted a position as an accountant in the Benicia Agricultural Works in Benicia, continuing there until 1881, when he resigned to enter the Bank of Willows as assistant cashier.

When B. H. Burton was elected president of the bank in 1904, Mr. Green was made cashier, a position he now holds. He is one of the best-known bankers in Northern California, and his record

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of more than thirty-six years in this one bank is something to be proud of. He is now the oldest director of the bank, in point of service, having been elected a director on January 15, 1885, and having served continuously ever since. He is one of the directors of the First National Bank of Willows, and of the Bank of Princeton, which was organized by Colusa and Willows capitalists; and he has been a director and secretary of the Willows Warehouse Association since 1883. Besides these varied interests, Mr. Green has been active in the affairs of the county and of Northern California in general.

The agricultural interests of Mr. Green are large, including a stock ranch of over eleven thousand acres in the foothills and mountains west of Willows. His ranches support over eleven hundred head of full-blooded and graded Durham cattle, which are grazed on the mountain ranges in the summer, and in the fall are brought down to the foothill and valley ranches. Those ready for beef are marketed each spring.

Mr. Green chose for his partner in life Miss Mary Augusta Knight, a native of Michigan. They were married in Sonoma County in 1898. Mrs. Green is an active participant in social, religious and civic affairs in Willows; and like her husband she has proven a positive factor in the welfare and progress of the community.
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JESSE CURL STOVALL

Two notable pioneer families are represented in the life story of Mr. and Mrs. Jesse Curl Stovall. Mr. Stovall was born in Rutherford County, Tenn., on January 19, 1822, a son of William Preston Stovall, a farmer of that state, who removed to Missouri and settled in Carroll County, where he prospered as an agriculturist until his death. William Stovall's wife was Mary Drake, before her marriage. She also passed away in Missouri. The oldest in a family of two sons and two daughters, Jesse Stovall grew up to manhood on his father's farm in Missouri, meanwhile receiving such instruction as was possible in private schools supported by his father and other neighbors. Until 1850, he was engaged in farming and in running a flour mill at Carrollton, Mo. That year, Mr. Stovall set out as a member of an ox-team train, to cross the plains to the Pacific Coast. He underwent the usual hardships, braving the dangers incidental to that adventurous undertaking, and arrived safely in Placer County. There he mined for a year, and then threw aside the pickaxe and shovel because failing health warned him of the necessity of a change. At Sacra-

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mento he took up freighting and teaming ; but soon after, he went to Cache Creek, Yolo County, where, with Jefferson Wilcoxson, be began to raise sheep, cattle and horses. Experience showed, however, that their range was insufficient; and so they drove their stock into Colusa County, where they bought government land, and added as fast as possible to what herds they possessed. In 1858 they purchased one hundred sixty acres, long the old home place of the Stovalls, situated some seven miles west of Williams ; and this formed the beginning of the great area--a range of some forty thousand acres--which the partners acquired and continued to hold, their partnership lasting throughout their life. In 1890, the enterprising ranchmen incorporated their interests under the firm name of the Stovall-Wilcoxson Co., of which Mr. Stovall became president ; and for years the sheep-raising operations of this company were among the most extensive on the Coast. They sometimes owned as many as ten thousand head. Economic and other conditions, however, operated to make the enterprise less profitable than it had been; and the Stovall-Wilcoxson Co. then sold most of their flocks, or exchanged them for cattle and hogs, and went in for the raising of grain. The company also erected a flour mill and put up warehouses at Williams, where they carried on a live grain business.

Decidedly a prominent factor in the promotion and upbuilding of almost every worthy interest here, the late Mr. Stovall was the organizer of the Bank of Williams, and served as its president until his death, on November 19, 1902. His active participation in the fraternal life of the Odd Fellows contributed to his popularity in social circles; while his energetic support of Democratic doctrines and policies brought him before the public and enabled him to extend his range of influence.

In the old town of Sonoma, the scene of the raising of the "Bear Flag," Jesse Stovall was married on March 3, 1859, to Miss Mary E. Moore, a native of Monroe County, Mo., and a daughter of Robert Moore, who was born in Kentucky. The family was originally of Virginia, where the grandfather, Travis Moore, was a farmer until his migration to the Blue Grass State, and then to Missouri, where he was engaged as a farmer till his death. Robert Moore also followed the life of a farmer, remaining in Missouri until 1853, when he rigged up a comfortable prairie schooner for his family, which then consisted of his wife and seven children, and crossed the wide plains to California. Leaving home on April 19, the train traveled along the Carson route to Eldorado County, and on September 19 reached Gold Hill historic ground, for in that locality was the spot where gold was first discovered at Colonel Sutter's mill. Although there was but a small party in

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the train, loaded on to seven wagons, the emigrants had come through safely after exactly five months of trying experiences on the road. At Gold Hill, Mr. Moore stopped for a year to try his luck at mining. He then located further down in the Sacramento Valley, on the Norris grant, but later removed to Sonoma, where he bought and improved a fine farm, engaging in both general farming and horticulture. Later still, he removed to Hollister, San Benito County; and there his death occurred at the age of seventy-four years. He had been a consistent member of the Presbyterian Church, and was no less a faithful Odd Fellow.

Mrs. Moore was equally well connected. Before her marriage she was known as Lucilla Sproul, a daughter of William Sproul, who moved from Kentucky, where she was born, to Missouri, and there farmed until his death. His wife was Sarah Davis, a cousin of Jefferson Davis, Ex-President of the Confederacy. They, too, were valued members of the Presbyterian Church. Mrs. Moore died at Santa Ana, the mother of nine children, of whom four sons and three daughters are still living. Among these is Mrs. Stovall, who spent her thirteenth birthday on the plains, en route for her new home in California, and who, during her first year in California, at Gold Hill, frequently visited the place where gold was first discovered by John Marshall, at Sutter's Fort. She was educated principally in the public schools at Sacramento and Sonoma, and had the satisfaction of being married in her father's home.

When Mrs. Stovall settled on the ranch west of Williams with her husband, in 1859, conditions were indeed primitive. Wild cattle roamed the plains, for there were no fences. Colusa was the nearest trading point. The old home place was a bare field, very different from the acreage now covered with large shade trees. For the first twelve years they lived in a small house. Later a modern residence, of one and one-half stories, was erected; and, little by little, orange and lemon trees, as well as other fruit trees and bushes, were set out. Today, the largest orange, lemon and fig trees in the county are to be found on the ranch. Mrs. Stovall has thus been a witness to all the changes that have taken place. Since the death of her husband in 1902, she has made her home in Williams. She is a member of the Wednesday Club and the Red Cross Society of Williams, and a communicant of the Presbyterian Church. She is a woman of sterling character and winsome personality, who imparts to others some of the cheerfulness and inspiration which have brightened her own life.

Among the children born to Mr. and Mrs. Stovall are Cordelia, who became the wife of Reuben Clarke, and died near Williams ; Mary, who died at the age of thirteen years ; William Preston, who died at the age of twenty-nine years ; Jesse, who accident-

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ally shot himself while hunting, at ten years of age; James M., cashier at the Bank of Williams ; H. Curl, manager of the Stovall-Wilcoxson Co. ; Charles E., who was accidentally killed by being thrown from his horse; and Mabel, the wife of E.A. Brim, a rancher near Williams. Among the pioneers of California, Mr. and Mrs. Jesse Curl Stovall well deserve a place.
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MRS. SARAH W. CARY WILLIAMS

A native of Bucyrus, Ohio, Mrs. Sarah Cary Williams was born on January 27, 1832, a daughter of Aaron and Phoebe (Thompson) Cary. She was reared in the states of Ohio and Indiana, her parents settling in the latter state, at Greenfield, La Grange County, in her early childhood. She was the youngest of a large family of children, and in 1858 came with her sister, Jane W., to California, by way of the Isthmus of Panama. Upon their arrival they at once located in Colusa, where, on March 13, 1860, Sarah was united in marriage with W.H. Williams. He was a native of Maryland, and was the founder of the town of Williams, Colusa County, Cal. Thus, Mrs. Williams became the first lady of the town, where she resided until the time of her demise. She was one of the pioneers who shared the dangers and hardships which accompany the founding of a new commonwealth ; and she gave to the task the influence of her upright life, conscientious fulfillment of duty and uncomplaining courage.

When Mrs. Williams and her husband first settled in Williams, they were surrounded by broad prairie lands. Their house was the only one in the vicinity. This was destroyed by fire a little later, and was rebuilt of brick hauled from Marysville, a distance of thirty-six miles. The new house served as a hotel until another brick building was erected. Mrs. Williams could recall a five-mile stretch of water which, during the early days before the levees were built, lay between Williams and Colusa, a town ten miles distant, and over which passage had to be made in a boat during the time of high water. In July, 1876, the railroad was put through, and the town of Williams was laid out and founded.

Although lacking in physical strength, Mrs. Sarah Williams was gifted with an indomitable will; and, like her ancestors, she was noted for her steadfastness of purpose. Her main ambition in life seemed to be to bring pleasure and comfort to those about her, regardless of self ; and many are the lasting memories of her unselfish kindness still held sacred in the hearts of those with whom she came in contact. She was a great sufferer through life,

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though she complained but little. On the morning of February 6, 1908, she passed away at her home, after only a few days' illness. Her last words voiced her concern for the comfort of the watchers about her bedside, and her death was painless and peaceful. Her friends loved her for her estimable qualities of womanhood; and her children cherish the memory of her unselfish motherhood.

Mrs. Williams was a descendant of a wonderful family. She traced her ancestry back to the time of Edward the First; to Adam Cary, who was Lord of Castle Cary in Somerset, England. In America she traced her ancestry to John Cary, a native of Somersetshire, England, who joined the Plymouth Colony in 1634. His name was among the original proprietors of Duxbury and Bridgewater. The Cary Memorials trace the descendants of John Cary to the ninth' generation. Sarah W. was born of the sixth generation. She was a cousin of the poetesses, Alice and Phoebe Cary, also members of the sixth generation in this country.

Of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Williams four children were born : Harriet May, who became the wife of J.R. Moody ; Laura, who died at the age of four years ; Lulu, the wife of S.H. Callen ; and Ella, Mrs. Harry W. Manor. Mrs. Williams was liberal in her support of all worthy causes and benevolent undertakings, and gave generously to the churches of her community.

From the pen of Phoebe Cary, under the head of "Entering Heaven," we copy the following lines:
Softly part away the tresses
From her forehead of white clay.
And across her snow-white bosom
Let her pale hands lightly lay:
Never idle in her lifetime
Were they folded thus away.

She hath lived a life of labor.
She hath done with toil and care ;
She hath lived a life of sorrow,
She hath nothing more to bear ;
And the lips that never murmured.
Nevermore shall move in prayer.
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JAMES WILSON CRUTCHER

The history of many a notable American family is a story of successive migrations. This is illustrated by the family of James Wilson Crutcher, whose ancestors came from Virginia, where the family was established in colonial days; removed to the frontiers

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of Kentucky ; and afterwards entered upon a timber claim in Missouri. Here both the grandfather and his sons toiled at the heavy task of clearing the land and preparing the soil for cultivation. The grandfather lived to an advanced age, and in his later years was surrounded by comforts, and even luxuries, where once there was only a wilderness. Among his children was a son named Samuel, who was born in Kentucky, and became an extensive farmer in Montgomery County, Mo. Samuel Crutcher married Miss Eliza Ann Holliday, a native of Kentucky, and a member of the Virginia Hollidays, who came from England. Stephen Holliday married Miss Annie Hickman, the daughter of James and Hannah (Lewis) Hickman, who were also pioneer Virginians. In Stephen's family was a son, Elliot, who was born in Culpeper County, Va., in 1786, and when two years old was taken by his parents to Clark County, Ky. In 1810, he joined the Christian Church; and he continued in that communion until his death. In 1812, he volunteered in Captain John Martin's company at Winchester, Ky., and actively served against the Indians until the River Raisin defeat, January 18-22, 1813, when, after having maintained the bravest kind of fight for two days, he was taken prisoner by the savages, who subjected him to most cruel treatment and to intense suffering by cold. After returning home, in April, 1813, he took up farm pursuits ; and the following year he married Miss Rachel Johnson. She was born in Maryland in 1791, of German descent, and died in 1874, having survived her husband five years. Among their eleven children, the eldest, born in 1815, was Eliza Ann, who was married to Samuel Crutcher. Samuel Crutcher and his wife both died in Missouri, the former at the ripe age of seventy-three years. In their family there were three sons and a daughter. The sons came West. E.W. Crutcher settled in Idaho;. O'Bannon Crutcher died in Nevada ; and James W. Crutcher is the subject of our sketch.

James Wilson Crutcher was the youngest of the family. He was born in Montgomery County, Mo., on April 17, 1842, and passed his boyhood days uneventfully on the home farm, attending school in a log cabin. On April 15, 1863, or two days before attaining his majority, he joined a large party of emigrants with mules and horses and set out for the long trip across the plains to the Pacific Coast. He traveled by way of Omaha, along the north side of the Platte River, across the Rockies, through South Pass and on to Salt Lake, along the Reese River to Austin, and then to Muddy Springs. He stopped for a time at Carson City, Nev., before coming on to California. Soon after reaching Sacramento, he met Major Jeff Wilcoxsou, and took charge for him of his private toll road in Placer County, a position he held for more than four

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years, collecting the tolls, and keeping the road in repair. In the spring of 1868 he went to Sacramento, where he took up work in Mr. Wilcoxson's office. About that time he entered and attended the Pacific Business College, in San Francisco, after which he returned to Sacramento and continued his office work for a couple of years. He then went to Jacksonville, Ore., in 1870, as bookkeeper for Major J.T. Glenn ; and when he came back to California, in 1874, he was employed in the ranch store of Dr. H.J. Glenn, at Jacinto, Colusa County.

While at Jacinto, in June, 1875, Mr. Crutcher was married, on the Glenn ranch, to Miss Annie E. Houchins. She was born in Monroe County, Mo., and about 1873 accompanied her father, Samuel Houchins, and other members of his family, to California, where they settled upon a farm at Jacinto. Nine children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Crutcher : Clarence W., of Woodland ; Leona, the wife of L.L. Wilson, of Madeira County : Sam. E., postmaster at Maxwell ; Nellie, the wife of the Rev. Emrich, pastor of the Williams Christian Church; and James C, Crawford, Harry H., Glenn, and Anna Belle, the wife of Otto Miller, of Williams.

In 1876, in partnership with Alec Manor, Mr. Crutcher opened the second store at Williams, and there engaged in general mercantile pursuits, continuing the same until 1878, when he was elected justice of the peace. The store remained in his possession until he was chosen by the people, in 1898, on the Democratic ticket, as county clerk and recorder. He won the election by a majority of eight hundred, and in January of 1899 took the oath of office. In 1902 he was again elected, without opposition, to serve until January, 1907. During that time he made his home at Colusa. For the past six years he has been justice of the peace at Williams, where he is now serving his second term. In early days Mr. Crutcher was a school trustee, and he is still interested in the cause of education. He is an active member of the Chamber of Commerce of Williams. Fraternally, he is a charter member of Tuscan Lodge, No. 261, of the Masons at Williams, of which he was secretary for many years.
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LEVI JEFFERSON McDANIEL

One who played a part in the right control of public affairs in Glenn County, where his memory is still held in reverence, was Levi Jefferson McDaniel, born in that part of Colusa County which is now Glenn County, August 8, 1858. He attended the public schools, and later took a course at the Pacific Methodist College

[photo R.G. Burrows]

[photo Charlotte T. Burrows]

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at Santa Rosa, after which he settled ou the old home ranch of thirteen hundred acres near Butte City, and engaged in raising grain, and stock. His father was Elijah McDaniel, a native of Roane County, Tenn., where he was born on July 4, 1820. At the age of fourteen Elijah McDaniel went with his father to Illinois, where, in January, 1842, he married Sarah Ann Gore. He settled in Wayne County, and later removed to Schuyler County. In 1853, with his wife and four children, he crossed the plains to California in an ox-team train, and in the fall of that year settled in the Sacramento Valley, where he built a log house at Painter's Landing; and here, on October 4, was born a daughter, the first white child born in the valley on the east side of the Sacramento River, who later became Mrs. Annand. Mrs. McDaniel died on September 8, 1889.

In 1881, Levi McDaniel married Hattie Griggs, an estimable woman, born in Santa Rosa, who proved her value as a true helpmate. By her he had four children: J.E. McDaniel; Mrs. Ethel Lane and Mrs. Elva Melville, both living at Oakland ; and Franklin, who died in infancy. Politically, Mr. McDaniel was a Democrat ; and he was active in the latter years of his life in the councils of the party. Fraternally, he was a Mason and a Forester, being Past Chief Ranger of the Butte City Lodge. He was an active and consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and was a steward of the church at the time of his death, on January 15, 1905. At his passing the state, and particularly Glenn County, lost a progressive citizen, and a man who commanded the respect of all who knew him. After his death, Mrs. McDaniel took over the management of the ranch, with the aid of her son, and conducted it successfully until the property was sold.
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RUFUS G. BURROWS

One of the earliest settlers in the Newville section of Glenn County, who became a large landowner there, controlling thousands of acres, and whose influence, always for the better things in life, is still perceptible in that favored region of our state, is the late Rufus G. Burrows, who was born at La Porte, Ind., April 8, 1834. His father was Arthur Burrows, a native of Pennsylvania, who became an early settler in Indiana, removed to Illinois, later went to Missouri, and still later located on the present town site of Sidney, in Fremont County, Iowa. In 1845, he crossed the plains to Oregon, and settled for a while in what is now Hillsboro, Washington County. Then he removed to the Umpqua Valley,

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where his death occurred. His wife, who was formerly Nancy Rice, a native of Ohio, married again, becoming the wife of Rufus Hitchcock.

In 1848, Rufus Burrows, with his stepfather and his mother, started across the plains for California. William Wambaugh was the captain of the train, which consisted of fifty wagons, two hundred emigrants, two hundred fifty head of oxen, two hundred fifty head of stock cattle, and fifty head of saddle horses. They arrived in Sacramento in August, of the same year, and reached Sutter's Fort on September 10, 1848. There they leased the old Sutter residence, and utilized it for a hotel until the following spring, when they removed to Carson Creek, en route to the southern mines. On account of the death of a daughter, they returned to Sutter's Fort, after which they went to Green Springs, Eldorado County, and there engaged in the hotel business. While in that vicinity, both Mr. and Mrs. Hitchcock passed away.

Rufus Burrows was the fifth in a family of six children, and was educated in the schools of the Middle West, coming to California, as has been stated, in 1848. Later, he was sent back East to Albany, N. Y., to attend school there; but the death of his stepfather led to his being called back to California. After the death of his mother he went to Oregon, where he remained until 1857, when he settled at Newville. There he resided up to the time of his death, which occurred on September 13, 1913. At that time, he had some three thousand acres well stocked with cattle, sheep and hogs, and devoted to the farming of grain. In the later years of his life his two youngest sons became partners with him on his ranch.

In Multnomah County, Ore., on May 24, 1854, Rufus Burrows was married to Charlotte T. Hull, a native of Pike County, 111., who was born in 1841, and who is now living in Willows, the old home ranch at Newville being rented. Her father, Cyrus B. Hull, a native of New York, was a carpenter and millwright by trade, who crossed the plains to Oregon with her and her mother in 1852, and who met with a sad accident on the journey. He was shot by his own gun, and although every relief possible was offered him he never fully recovered from the wound. For a number of years he resided in Oregon, and in 1863 settled at Newville near his daughter, where he engaged in sheep-raising. Notwithstanding the accident referred to, he lived to be seventy-six years old. He was survived by the following children : Mrs. R.G. Burrows, of Willows ; Mrs. Electa Murphy, deceased ; Mrs. Mary Hooper, of Humboldt County; Telemachus Hull, also of Humboldt County; John J. Hull, farming in the Newville section; Daniel Hull, of Tehama County; Charles Hull, deceased; Mrs. Aurora Marilla Millsaps,

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of Corniug; Mrs. Ellen Metcalf, of Los Angeles; Cyrus B. Hull; and Mrs. Emma Scribner, of Washington. The maiden name of Mrs. Burrows' mother, who died many years ago, was Nancy Shinn.

Several children blessed the family life of Mr. and Mrs. Burrows. Orlando A., a merchant at Sites, is married and has a son and a daughter. Isaac F. and Sylvester are both deceased. Mary C. married William Millsaps of Glenn County, and has two sons. Elo E. is the wife of John W. Millsaps of Stonyford, and is the mother of two daughters and a son. Annie is the wife of William Markham; she has two daughters and a son, and resides in Willows. Ira Ancil, of Newville, has two daughters and one son; and Aura C, also of Newville, has three sons. Mrs. Burrows has fourteen great-grandchildren. Mr. Burrows was a Mason, and was Master of Newville Lodge, No. 205, F. & A.M., for thirteen successive years, after which he missed one year, and was then elected again and served until his resignation a few years before his death.

Mr. Burrrows had a personality that made him a very interesting companion, especially when he was induced to talk of the historic past and his own relation to it. Having himself experienced much, he was able to portray graphically those scenes which were typical of the early settler's life, describing vividly the famous Sutter's Fort, the lawlessness of the times, and the constant changes which impressed themselves upon his youthful mind. As a pioneer, he began in an undeveloped wilderness, and with the passing years added much, through his self-sacrificing efforts, to the upbuilding and growth of the county.

On May 24, 1905, Mr. and Mrs. Burrows celebrated, with their children, their golden wedding, and were the recipients of congratulations and best wishes from a large circle of friends who knew them more or less intimately. In April, 1916, Mrs. Burrows moved to Willows, where she lives surrounded by every comfort. She is the oldest woman settler of Glenn County now living.
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AMIEL KAISER

One of the largest stock-raisers and grain farmers of Glenn County, Amiel Kaiser was born at Ploen, in Holstein, Germany, May 12, 1879. His parents, Frederick and Katherina (Pries) Kaiser, both were natives of Holstein, Germany. Of their family, Emma was the first to come to California, where she married John Pieper. They now reside in Oregon. The other children are:

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Henry, who died in Glenn County; William, a farmer near St. John; Sophia, Mrs. Gattsch, of Oakland; Andrew, a farmer near Germantown ; and Amiel, of this review. Several of the children having migrated to Glenn County, Frederick Kaiser, with his wife and two youngest sons, Andrew and Amiel, voyaged to the United States, locating at Willows, Glenn County, where they engaged in farming. The father died in 1896, and six months later the mother passed away.

Amiel Kaiser received some schooling in Germany, and finished his education in Willows and Germantown, Cal. His father's death left him on his own resources at the early age of sixteen years, when he started to earn his own way, going to school in winter and doing farm work during the summer months. He worked eighteen months for Herman Quint on his ranch east of Germantown. His next employment was on the Kelly ranch, where he remained four years. At the end of that time he began working for his brother, Andrew Kaiser, later becoming foreman for him, in charge of his large ranch interests.

After working for his brother nine years, Mr. Kaiser started in to farm for himself. He rented the Western ranch, at St. John, Glenn County, and engaged in grain farming, having seven hundred acres under cultivation ; and one year he put in twelve hundred acres. He next rented the Peter Garnett ranch for three years, and farmed eleven hundred acres, two hundred acres of which was pasture land. In all this extensive farming Mr. Kaiser proved successful. He is now renting three sections, nineteen hundred twenty acres, of the James Talbot ranch, eighteen miles southwest of Willows. He has about twelve hundred acres under plow, putting in about one half of it to grain each year, besides which he raises cattle, hogs and mules. He specializes in the Berkshire breed of hogs, keeping a registered boar, and raises from two to three hundred hogs yearly. He carries one hundred head of cattle of his own, and also a larger herd on shares. His brand is the well-known Quarter-circle K.

Mr. Kaiser is in every sense of the word a self-made man, owing his success entirely to his own efforts. He is a man of untiring industry, and is at the same time gifted with far-sightedness and business ability. As a citizen, he is progressive and public-spirited, always willing to do his share to further the good of the many. His well-deserved prosperity is an example of what can be accomplished by a young man of sixteen when thrown on his own resources, if his efforts are accompanied by industry and natural business ability, two qualities which make of obstacles but another step in the ladder.

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Mr. Kaiser's marriage took place in Germantown, September 25, 1907, when he was united with Miss Martha Hill, a native daughter. She was born in Germantown, Cal., a daughter of Max Hill, a native of Holstein, Germany, and one of the early settlers of Germantown, Glenn County. He was married here on September 22, 1877, to Miss Wilhelmina Pries, also a native of Germany. They were farmers at Germantown, where they owned and operated four hundred acres two and one half miles northeast of the village. In 1915 Mr. Hill retired; and the home farm is now being operated by his son, Henry. Mr. Hill was twice married ; and of the two children by his first marriage Henry is the only one now living. Of his second marriage there was only one child, Martha, now Mrs. Kaiser. Mr. and Mrs. Kaiser have had four children born to them: Florence, Ernest, Bernhardt, and Hugh. The family are members of the German Lutheran Church, and have the respect and esteem of a wide circle of friends in their communitv.
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HIRAM A. GREENWOOD

Since an early date the Greenwood family has been identified with the development of the agricultural and stock interests of the Sacramento Valley. Especial mention is due to Hiram A. Greenwood for the part he took in laying the foundation for the present-day prosperity of the section about Orland, now within the confines of Glenn County, but when he located here, in Colusa County. A native of New York State, he was born on February 7, 1835, of a family long identified with the Atlantic States. He received his education in the common schools of his native state, remaining a resident there until 1864, when, desiring to explore the Western country, he set out with horse teams to cross the plains, desert and mountains, on the way to California. Mr. Greenwood was chosen captain of the wagon train; and this duty made it necessary for his wife to drive nearly all the way to California. Many hardships were endured on the journey. Indians were encountered, and several fights ensued. Some of the men of the party were killed, and many horses were stolen. The eldest child of Mr. and Mrs. Greenwood was taken ill and died, and was buried on the plains.

On arriving in this state Mr. Greenwood took his family to Red Bluff, where he located them, and then began freighting between that city and Susanville. Rates were high; and during the three years he was so engaged he was able to save enough to start in farming. He then leased the Rawson ranch, near Red

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Bluff, and began his operations as a grain-grower. In 1870 be moved to the vicinity of St. Jobn, on the Sacramento River, and later to what became known as the Greenwood ranch, three miles south of Orland. With the passing of the years be became very well-to-do, adding to his landed interests very materially until, at the time of his death, he left one of the most valuable properties in Glenn County. About 1885 he had moved to Stony Creek; and there he passed away, on April 27, 1888. Public-spirited in all things, Mr. Greenwood promoted all projects for the public good. He was a liberal supporter of schools, churches, and charitable organizations, and aided in the establishment of public markets. In politics he was a strong Republican, and a stanch advocate of good governinent. A man of strong personality and kindly nature, he made and kept friends; and when he died, he was mourned throughout the entire county.

On March 29, 1859, Mr. Greenwood was united in marriage with Harriett M. Harvey, in her native state of Illinois. Mrs. Harvey survived her husband until January 25, 1905, at which time she died on the ranch near Orland. They had four children, three daughters and a son. The oldest child died while crossing the plains; and a married daughter died on December 22, 1888. Eva E. Behrens, of Redwood City, and Willis A., survive. Mr. Greenwood was a member of the Baptist Church, and held membership with the Odd Fellows Lodge at Chico. His success was of his own making ; and he was recognized as an important factor in the development of the best interests of the Sacramento Valley.
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WILLIS DREW

A highly respected resident of Glenn County, now living retired in his comfortable home at Orland, Willis Drew is well deserving of all the honor shown him. He was born on a farm in Perry County, Ind., August 30, 1845, a son of Jonathan and Elizabeth (Sampley) Drew. The father was born in Vermont and was descended from an old New England family, while his wife was a native of Georgia. Jonathan Drew located in Perry County and there engaged in farming and raising tobacco. Later be moved across the river into Kentucky, where be continued in the same occupation. In 1848 he became a settler, in Jones County, Iowa, on the then western frontier, where he improved a good farm and raised grain and stock until 1862, in which year we find him crossing the plains to California. On his arrival here he located in Sutter County, and was there engaged in

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raising grain and stock until his family had scattered and he and his wife were once more alone. He then made his home with his son Willis, until his death in 1902, at the age of ninety-two. His wife also died at this son's home.

Third in order of birth in a family of ten children, Willis Drew attended the common schools in Iowa, and at the age of seventeen came with his parents to this state. He worked in the mines for a time, and then went into the timber of the Sierras, where, with a brother, he began taking contracts for getting out logs. He was engaged in this enterprise for five summers. Returning to Sutter County, he farmed there until 1872, finding that a surer way to prosperity. Meanwhile, he began looking about for some good land ; and this he found in Colusa County, in the vicinity of Elk Creek, now in Glenn County, where he purchased a half section and began its improvement, raising grain and stock with profit. In 1880 he homesteaded one hundred sixty acres, seven miles north of Elk Creek. In addition to farming, he did a general teaming business ; and for one season he owned an interest in the Oriental Sawmill. In 1889 he bought the property that became known as the home place, which he improved by erecting suitable buildings, and which has ever since been devoted to grain and to stock-raising. He retired from active work in 1913.

In Sutter County, Willis Drew was united in marriage with Martha Elizabeth Vanderford, who was born in Michigan, a daughter of Napoleon B. and Martha (Silver) Vanderford. Mrs. Vanderford was born in Toronto, Canada. Napoleon Vanderford was born in Steuben County, N. Y., August 22, 1827, and was taken by his parents to Ann Arbor, Mich., in early childhood. He received his education in the common schools ; and in 1851 began operations as a lumberman and contractor. In 1858 he came to California by way of Panama. Going to Sutter County, he took up a quarter section of land, to which he added from time to time until he owned four hundred eighty acres. In 1876 he sold out and moved to the Elk Creek section of Colusa County. There he bought two thousand acres of land and was engaged in raising sheep and cattle until 1903, when, upon the death of his wife, he leased the ranch, and later sold it, and made his home with his children. He was a stanch Republican, and was active in the movement to organize Glenn County, serving on the board of supervisors for twelve years. Mr. Vanderford was always a consistent member of the Christian Church.

Of the marriage of Willis Drew and his wife, seven children were born: Laura Elizabeth, who married E.F. Zumwalt; Sarah Ellen ; William Walker, a rancher in Modoc County ; Napoleon B.,

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a teacher in the Sacramento High School; James Edison, of the Elk Creek district; Leland Stanford, principal of the Orland grammar school ; and Truman Willis. Mr. Drew is a Republican, and a member. of the Christian Church.
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EDWARD HEATHCOTE

A resident of Colusa County, living nine miles north of Colusa, Edward Heathcote, now in the ninety-first year of his life, is in point of years the oldest living white settler in the county. He was born at Furness, England, sixteen miles from Manchester, on March 14, 1827, a son of Joseph and Hannah (Bailey) Heathcote. When he was sixteen years of age, in 1843, he came to Waukesha, Wis. ; and seven years later, in 1850, he crossed the plains with ox teams to California. For about five years he mined for gold at Nevada City, Cal. Not meeting with the success he had expected, he then turned his attention to agricultural pursuits. He came to Colusa County in 1856, bought some land, and began farming. He was successful in this venture, and kept adding to his land until he became owner of seven hundred twenty acres, which he controlled until 1912. He then sold out, and is now living retired with Mrs. Mary G. Jones.

In the Heathcote family there were twelve children, seven of whom grew up. George died in Wisconsin ; Hannah was married in Winconsin to James Jones and came to Colusa County, where she died, the mother of five children ; Edward is the subject of this review; Joseph died in Wisconsin; Mrs. Mary Woodard died in Iowa ; Mrs. Elizabeth Wright died at Red Bluff, Cal. ; and Samuel died in Orland, in 1916. Mr. Heathcote has taken an active interest in public affairs. He has served on grand juries, and has been a member of the board of trustees of Butte Creek school district. In politics he has usually aligned himself with the Republicans. He is a strong advocate of temperance. Now in the evening of a long and busy life, Mr. Heathcote is still well preserved. He has retained his faculties, and is an interesting conversationalist, discoursing on events of the early days in the state in an entertaining manner. He has lived a conservative and consistent life, and has made a host of friends since be became a pioneer settler of Colusa County.

[photo Edward Heathcote]

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DAVID BROWN

A life spent in successful private enterprise and faithful public service, with nothing to mar its efficiency or cloud its record, is an achievement worthy of mention in the biography of California pioneers. David Brown has been a resident of California since 1869. During the long period of his residence in the state, he has watched its development and helped in its advancement, with a keen perception of its resources and future possibilities. Born in Ontario, Canada, on June 24, 1850, he came to California when a youth of nineteen. Being entirely dependent upon his own efforts, and eager to do any work that would teach him the methods used in his new surroundings, he worked for some years as a farm hand on ranches in Yolo, Merced and Colusa Counties. It is from just such beginnings that many of our prominent pioneers have sprung, who have made a name and place for themselves in the annals of the state.

After working for wages for several years, Mr. Brown settled in Orland, Glenn County, in 1877. In 1876, he and his brother had first come to this section ; and at once seeing the possibilities it afforded for irrigation, they thought it the place to put a stake and build up with the country. Here Mr. Brown built a livery stable, which he conducted for twenty-five years and eleven months, continuously. For eight years his brother, Thomas Brown, was his partner ; but after that time Mr. Brown was sole owner of the business. He has met with deserved success in his various undertakings, meanwhile finding time for the public positions he has held, and taking an active part in all projects for the advancement of his section of the state. He is now serving his fourth term as supervisor of Glenn County, making fourteen consecutive years in office, during which he served for one term as chairman of the board. He has proved himself a most able county official; and his record for unswerving loyalty to the county's best interests has gained for him the firm friendship and support of his community. He has always been a great advocate of good roads ; and the roads in his district are kept in the best of condition. He has a thorough knowledge of conditions throughout this entire section. Progress is his watchword; and he gladly does his share in support of all movements for the good of his county. He is a member of the Glenn County Farm Bureau and a director in the Orland Creamery; he served as a director in the Orland Unit Water Users' Association ; and in early days he was a director in the Lemon Home Ditch Company.

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The marriage of David Brown united him with Alzora Harelson ; and they are the parents of seven children : Mabel, wife of W.B. O'Hair; Arnold, connected with hospital work in Berkeley, Cal. ; Lena, wife of J.W. Rucker; Zozie, wife of W.E. Carroll; and Opal, Ima, and David, Jr. The home ranch, two and one half miles northwest of Orland, consists of three hundred eighty acres, and is one of the most productive in the county. Mr. Brown has seeded eighty acres of it to alfalfa, and the balance is devoted to grain and pasture land. He maintains a dairy of forty blooded Jersey cows, and has one hundred twenty-five head of cattle besides. With all the varied interests that have occupied his attention since he made his residence here, Mr. Brown has found time to be an important factor in the development of his district; and he is today one of the best-known and best-liked men in the county. Fraternally, he is a Mason, a member of Orland Lodge, No." 285, F. & A.M.
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LOUIS M. REAGER

A pioneer educator, and for more than ten years a member of the county board of education of Glenn County, Louis M. Reager has made his influence felt for good in his native county. The son of Martin A. Reager, a forty-niner, whose sketch is given elsewhere in this history, he was born in Colusa County, December 21, 1861 ; and practically his entire life has been passed within the old county boundary lines. His schooling was obtained in the common schools and in Pierce Christian College, at College City, from which he was graduated in 1885. He at once secured a school and began teaching; and during the years that have intervened since then he has been following his chosen career. Today he is recognized as one of the leading educators of Colusa and Glenn Counties.

Mr. Reager has taught in Orland, where for seven years he was principal of the high school, and for two years, of the grammar school ; and in the Hamilton and Bayliss districts. In 1916-1917 he was principal of the Bayliss school. So satisfactory have been his services that he was chosen a member of the Glenn County board of education. For more than ten years he has served in that position, part of the time as president of the board. By his service on the board he has aided materially in bringing the public school system to its present high state of efficiency.

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Mr. Reager has wisely invested in city and country property. He owns a fine dairy ranch of eighty-two acres east of Orland, a part of the property once owned by his father, which was purchased in 1860. He also owns thirteen acres west of town, and has his fine home place of three and one half acres in the city. He is a Mason, belonging to Orland Lodge, No. 265, F. & A.M., of which he is a Past Master.

On November 9, 1887, occurred the marriage of Louis M. Reager with Miss Anna Durham. Mr. and Mrs. Reager have two children, Orrin D. and Xavie. Xavie is a teacher in the Orland grammar school.
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DOUGLAS CRAMER

A "booster" for Arbuckle and Colusa County, as well as one of the leading business men and the president of the Chamber of Commerce of Arbuckle and College City, Mr. Cramer is making a name for himself in the Sacramento Valley. He was born near Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio, on January 20, 1861. His father, King Cramer, was born aboard a vessel three days before it reached New York City while his parents were migrating from Germany to Cincinnati, Ohio, where he was reared and educated. In 1852 he crossed the plains to California ; and there he followed mining until 1855, when he returned to Cincinnati via Panama, and there married Elizabeth Hildreth, a native of that city. They followed farming there until the father's death. The mother afterwards came to California, and resides in Arbuckle, aged eighty-six years. She had two children, Charles and Douglas, both residing in Arbuckle.

Douglas Cramer was educated in the common schools, and was reared on the Ohio farm until he was eighteen years old. In 1879 he came to California to begin life on his own responsibility. He was willing to work at any honest labor. to gain experience of Western men and methods; and for three years he worked as a rancher in Yolo County. In 1883 he engaged in the butcher business at Yolo; and from there he went to Fresno, where he continued in the same business in the shop of W.J. Williams. After a time spent in Fresno, he returned to Yolo County, and for six years ran a shop of his own in Dunnigan. In 1903 he came to Arbuckle and entered the employ of Houchins & Mitchell. Four years later he purchased the interest of Mr. Mitchell; and since then the firm has carried on business under the firm name of Houchins & Cramer. They conduct an up-to-date meat market, modern in all its appointments, owning and operat-

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ing their own slaughter house, and draw patronage from a wide section of country surrounding Arbuckle. Prompt service and courteous treatment of all is the motto of this enterprising firm.

Mr. Cramer was united in marriage with Miss Elizabeth C. Bolander, who, with her husband, enjoys the esteem of a wide circle of friends. Fraternally, Mr. Cramer was made a Mason in Yolo Lodge, No. 81, in the year 1882, but is now a member of Meridian Lodge, No. 182, F. & A.M., at Arbuckle, of which he is a Past Master. He is also a member of the Modern Woodmen of America. To the later-day development of Arbuckle, there is no man who has lent his support more willingly, or with a freer hand, than has Mr. Cramer.
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LEONARD THOMPSON

A pioneer who will be long and gratefully remembered for his uprightness of character and his rare personal qualities, and for the influence of his example in the community in which he lived, was Leonard Thompson, now deceased, who was born in Ohio, in 1831. He was a son of Samuel Thompson, a Methodist minister, who died at the home of his son, in Iowa. When Leonard Thompson was only fifteen, he moved from the Buckeye State to Henry County, Iowa; and there he was raised on a farm. In a few years, with characteristic enterprise, he was tilling the soil for himself; nor did he take his hand from the plow until he had made his position secure among Iowa farmers.

In the fall of 1875, he came West, to California ; and arriving in Orland, he bought a hundred forty acres of raw land, six miles to the southeast of the town. At that time there were very few settlers in the neighborhood. It was a difficult task to improve the place and make of it a habitable home and a paying investment. However, he leveled the land, fenced it in, built a house and barns, and planted trees ; and in the end the Thompson ranch and ranch house were an attractive sight to all who saw the place. The fig trees on the ranch are now among the largest to be found anywhere in California. For many years, Mr. Thompson ran the ranch, farming to grain; and when he gave up active life, his sons carried on the work he had begun. Of late the place has been managed by Frank W. Thompson, who lives two miles south of Orland. The land is still being devoted to grain-raising.

Leonard Thompson was twice married. One son by the first marriage, Thomas A. Thompson, is the father of one daughter, Lucille. The second marriage occurred in 1856, when Mr. Thomp-

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son was united with Miss Hannah Newby, a native of Henry County, Ind., born in 1841, who moved to Henry County, Iowa, in 1852. W. Lawrence Thompson, a son horn of this union, is married and has three sons, Verner, Lester and Ralph. For forty-two years Mrs. Leonard Thompson has lived on the old home ranch; and she recalls with interest the pioneer days in Colusa County, when all the trading was done in Chico, Butte County, some twenty miles from the ranch, and at Jacinto. At that time Orland was not on the map. Leonard Thompson was a man of fine education. He was fond of books and had a well-stored mind, having been for years a wide reader. In keeping with his natural aptitudes, he early turned his attention to the field of education. In every way possible he supported California schools; and for years he served as a trustee in the Plaza district. When he died, in 1908, California lost one of her most conscientious and efficient citizens.
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HOSEA B. TUBMAN

One of the leading cattle men of Colusa and Glenn Counties, who has succeeded despite the many obstacles thrown in his way, is Hosea B. Turman, who was born in Clark County, Ohio, January 24, 1846, the son of Isaac and Frances (Lowe) Turman, both natives of Ohio. With the usual ox team and a drove of cattle, his father crossed the plains in 1854, taking six months for the journey, and shooting wild game, including the buffalo, for food. The family settled near Petaluma, and engaged in stock-raising ; and in 1866 the father retired from active business life.

Hosea Turman's first independent ranching operations began in 1866, when, with Tom Harlan, he leased three hundred acres of land of the old Colonel Hagar ranch, four miles south of Colusa, paying a hundred fifty dollars a year rental for the entire lot. They had many exciting adventures with cattle thieves and horse thieves in Colusa County in those days ; and notwithstanding their unremitting vigilence, Mr. Turman lost many of his cattle and his best horses. When he was able to do so, he drove a band of cattle to Grass Valley, in Nevada County, continuing there in cattle-raising; and he bought a large lot of land, in 1868, in Bear Valley, from which he anticipated much profit. In 1870-1871, however, he was farming near Williams, and the drought of that season swept away nearly all that he owned. In the spring of 1872, Mr Turman settled in Ash Valley, Modoc County; but after a short time he went to Reno, Nev., for horse trading. The next

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year he bought a lot of horses and mules at a dollar a head at Santa Barbara, and took them to Ash Valley ; but again, through the unprecedented snows that year, he lost all his stock.

In this brief recital of the early operations of this pioneer stockman, is outlined a series of setbacks such as might easily have discouraged the average man; but he was bound to succeed, and so he kept at it, and his present prosperity was obtained largely by hard work and unremitting perseverence [sic]-. In October, 1874, he set up on a dairy ranch near Colusa, and for the long period of thirty years he was active in dairying. During the latter days of his residence there, he started in to buy and sell cattle; and since then his efforts as a stockman have been attended with marked success.

In 1900, Mr. Turman came to Willows ; and eight years later he formed the Turman-Mitchell Land & Cattle Co., of which he is the president. This company controls ten thousand acres of grazing land on the hills west of Willows, where their cattle range and are fattened. This company also owns nearly a half interest in the Lake County Land & Cattle Co., of Oregon, which possesses six thousand cattle. In addition he is the president of the H.B. Turman Co., which has another fifteen hundred head ranging and grazing, and a ranch of four hundred eighty acres three miles northwest of Willows. One hundred eighty acres of this ranch is in alfalfa, and the rest is in grain. The company also rents grazing land west of Willows. As a cue to Mr. Turman's capacity for enterprise, mention may be made of a big deal engineered by him when he bought one thousand forty steers in Arizona, on which he cleared forty thousand dollars six months later.

Mr. Turman has been married three times. On the first occasion he was wedded to Miss Mary Semple, a native of Benicia, Cal, the daughter of Dr. Robert Semple. With Will S. Green, Dr. Semple founded the Alta California, at Benicia, the first newspaper printed in this state. He was president of the committee which framed the constitution of the state in assembly in Monterey. Mrs. Turman was one of the first white girls to be born in California. Three children of that union are living, who assist their father with his various stock and ranch operations : Joseph Benton, Lewis Frank, and Robert Semple. The oldest child of the family, Oscar B., is deceased. The second marriage united Mr. Turman with Mrs. Susan H. Nye, also a native of California, and a daughter of Dr. Lull, founder of the town of Princeton, Colusa County. His third wife was Meta Stephens, a daughter of Dr. L.P. Tooly, of Willows. Mr. Turman is a charter member of Colusa Lodge, I.O.O.F., of which he is a Past Grand; and he is also a member of the "Clampers," of Willows.

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Incidents related by this pioneer of the early days in this section of California are very interesting. He recalls seeing as many as five thousand cattle grazing or lying about on the ground near old "Willow Slough," where, in the fall of the year, was found the only water nearer than the river. All were sleek and in good condition. Another incident happened in 1867, at one of the rodeos held one and one half miles east of what is now the site of Willows. When rounding up the cattle, the vaqueros drove in a herd of twenty-four antelope with the stock. When the band passed Mr. Turman he threw a rope and caught one animal, which they had for dinner that night. Many other thrilling incidents of the pioneer life in this section, now fast passing from the memory of the present population, are recounted in the interesting conversation of this pioneer citizen.
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SAMUEL JAMES LOWE

As a contracting carpenter and a man of affairs, the late Samuel J. Lowe was both literally and figuratively one of the builders of Willows. He was born in Maryland in 1833. When twenty-one years of age he moved to Missouri, and at Paris, in Monroe County, followed his trade as a carpenter. When the Civil War broke out, he espoused the cause of the Confederacy and enlisted for service; and throughout the terrible conflict he fought under the Confederate banner.

In 1885 Mr. Lowe settled in Willows and hung out his sign as a contracting carpenter and builder. His first work here was done on the old Baptist Church. Many of the buildings he erected are still standing as monuments to the honesty of his workmanship.

Samuel J. Lowe was united in marriage with Miss Willie Maupin, a native of Virginia; and of their union the following children were born: Mrs. M. Hannah, of San Francisco; Henry H., of Hamilton City; Samuel, now deceased; Leatha A, and Mrs. Sadie Ajax, of Willows; Lemona, of San Francisco; and Clifton O., a traveling hardware salesman in San Francisco. Mrs. Lowe died in 1894, and Mr. Lowe passed away in 1904. Mr. Lowe was a consistent member of the Methodist Church. His passing was felt as a distinct loss to the community in which he lived.

Miss Leatha A. Lowe is the proprietor of the leading millinery establishment in Willows. Her store was established in 1907, and is recognized as the local headquarters for artistic millinery. Miss Lowe specializes in the latest designs and styles. She has built up a large trade, her patrons coming from all over Glenn

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County. With her sister, Lemona, she is also interested in a millinery establishment in the exclusive Geary Street district in San Francisco.
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NICHOLAS WILSON HANSON

The records of California show the birth of many men who have attained to a prominent place in the history of the various counties, besides those of national repute. Of the men who have taken hold with a zeal and a determination to perpetuate the deeds of the forerunners of our civilization, Nicholas Wilson Hanson is a worthy representative. He was born in Lake County, September 8, 1868, a son of William P. Hanson, a Kentuckian by birth, but who was reared in Coles County, Ill. William P. Hanson came as a forty-niner to this state by way of Panama, accompanied by his father, George M. Hanson. They located in Marysville; and later William P. went to the mines on Feather River for a time, after which he returned to Marysville and with his father built the first bridge across the Feather River between Yuba City and Marysville, costing some $30,000. It was also one of the first bridges built in this part of the state. They ran it as a toll bridge for a year, when the flood waters washed it away. Grandfather Hanson erected the first brick house in Yuba City, a two-story structure, the material for which was shipped around the Horn. This building is still standing, and is occupied as a residence.

The Indians from Lake County, Cal., went to the rancherias along the Sacramento River to hunt and fish, sometimes visiting Marysville. Their bartering attracted the attention of William Hanson, and he found some Indians to act as guides, going with them to Upper Lake, in that county. They traveled by way of Sulphur Creek, through Grizzly Canyon ; and when going through the latter Mr. Hanson killed a large grizzly bear, giving the name to the canyon, by which it has ever since been known. He was one of the first white men to make the trip through by Sulphur Creek. After he had explored the country in Lake County, he returned to Marysville for his family. Mrs. Hanson traveled all the distance on horseback, as no roads were in evidence at that date ; while her two small children were carried on the saddles of her husband and his father.

The grandfather, George M. Hanson, was born in Tazewell County, Va., March 13, 1799. He was married in Lebanon, Va., in 1819, to Miss Polly Ellington. They had seven sons and three daughters, all of whom crossed the plains except two daughters, Sidney Elizabeth and Jerusha, who married in Illinois and died

[photo Wm. P. Hanson]

[photo Betheria A. Hanson, N.W. Hanson]

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there. One daughter, Elizabeth, came to California. The sons were William P., Nathan E., George M., James F., Daniel, Rufus, and David M., who resides at Vallejo, the only one now living. In 1821 the grandfather moved to Kentucky and engaged in mercantile business. He later emigrated to Clark County, Ill., and for twenty-five years was in public life in that state, twelve years in the house and senate. In 1847 he visited Texas with the idea of locating there, but returned home dissatisfied and outfitted for Oregon Territory. Before he was ready to start, news of the discovery of gold in California came and he again changed his plans. He left Coles County in April, 1849, with three ox teams and a family carriage drawn by horses. They rendezvoused at Independence, Mo., where they joined a train of thirty-five wagons and teams and one hundred persons, among whom were only three women and a dozen children. John G. Allender was chosen captain to guide the train to California. They arrived at Yuba City in November, 1849. They were destitute, having lost everything they had in the mountain fastnesses and the snows of the Sierras. Mr. Hanson opened a hotel, and soon built up his fortunes in the hotel business and by building a ferry, and later the toll bridge mentioned. After it was destroyed he and John C. Fall built another. He became prominent in politics and was a delegate to the convention that nominated John C. Fremont. He was a warm friend of Lincoln, and from him received a commission as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for the Northern District of California. He was a Mason for over fifty years. He died in Lake County, August 1, 1879, after a long and useful life as a pioneer frontiersman and a builder of our great commonwealth.

The father, William P. Hanson, took up farming and stock-raising as a surer way to prosperity than mining. He began in Lake County, and later took up government land in Sutter County; and in 1879 he located in what is now Glenn County, near the settlement of Willows. Besides his own claim he leased land near by ; and here he raised grain and stock until his death in 1889, when he was accidentally killed by being run over by a train. At his death the community lost one of its most efficient upbuilders. He was a member of the Methodist Church. In politics he was a Republican. He married Lydia Wilson, a native of Maryland, who located in Illinois at an early date, where she and Mr. Hanson were married upon his return from California by way of Panama, in 1853; and together they came across the plains with ox teams. Eight children were born to this pioneer couple, of whom the oldest and youngest are deceased. Those living are: Mrs. T.H. Newsom, of Glenn; Mrs. Ella Stout, of Sacramento; Mrs. Clara Miller, of Hammonton, Yuba County; George M., near Glenn;

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Nicholas W., of this review ; and Mrs. Lydia Huffmaster, of Leesville. All were born, reared and educated in California. Mrs. Lydia Hanson passed away at the home of her son, Nicholas W., on November 21, 1910.

Nicholas W. Hanson was the sixth child in order of birth in his parents' family. His schooling was obtained in the public schools of Sutter and Glenn Counties. Meanwhile he worked on his father's farm until the death, of the latter; and ever since he has been following his chosen vocation in Glenn County. In 1902 he came to the section where he now lives, purchased a ranch of three hundred thirty acres of the Glenn estate and began making improvements by clearing the land and planting to grain and produce, also raising hogs and cattle. His ranch, as seen today, shows what labor he has expended in getting it under cultivation during the past fifteen years. In the beginning it was covered with heavy timber and underbrush. He raises good corn on the bottom land ; and produce of every description is grown in abundance on his property, which is kept in a high state of cultivation through his close personal supervision of the ranch work.

In 1897, on December 8, was celebrated the marriage of Nicholas W. Hanson and Miss Bertha A. Hull. She was born in Kansas, and came to California with her parents in 1889. Both Mr. and Mrs. Hanson are recognized as leaders in their social circle. They are charitable and hospitable, and have a host of friends, who admire them for their many fine qualities of mind and heart. In 1916 Mr. Hanson built one of the most substantial and modern houses in the county, the contract being executed by J.W. Halterman of Willows, who prepared the plans from ideas given by Mr. and Mrs. Hanson. In this home the many friends of this worthy couple are entertained in a fitting manner. Mr. Hanson counts five generations of the family in this state, beginning with his grandfather, George M. Hanson, and coming down to the Stout family in Sacramento, who have children married and with families. Like his father, he has made a name and place for himself in the county. He is serving as one of the levee trustees of Levee District No. 1. In politics he is a Republican. Fraternally, he is a member of the Odd Fellows at Willows.
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JOSEPH ZUMWALT

When Joseph Zumwalt crossed the "Great Divide" in 1892, at the age of ninety-two years, another of the prominent upbuilders of the state passed to his reward, after leaving the imprint of his enterprising personality upon the various communities where

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he had lived and labored. The Zumwalt family is of German descent on the paternal side, one Jacob Zumwalt having immigrated from that country with two brothers, George and Adam. The former settled in Pennsylvania, and the brothers settled in Virginia. Jacob married Nancy Ann Spurgeon, who was of English ancestry. They had a son, also named Jacob, who built the first hewn log house north of the Missouri River, northwest of Fallon station.

Joseph Zumwalt was born in Ohio in 1800, and lived there amidst pioneer conditions on the then frontier until 1829, when he went to Indiana, meeting there with about the same conditions as in the place of his birth. In 1833 he moved to Will County, Ill., and settled on a farm. He cleared the place from the timber, and engaged in farming among the Indians, who then inhabited a considerable part of that section of the country. In Ohio he had married Mary Ogle, likewise a native of that state. With her and their nine children, he left their home in the late forties, and made the long and dangerous trip across the plains to California, behind the slow-moving ox teams. They arrived at their destination on October 23, 1849, without mishap. Mr. Zumwalt at once located his wife and children in Sacramento, and with three of his sons went to the mines along the Yuba River, where he met with good success for two years. In 1850 he had located his family at what was known as Zumwalt Flat, so that they could be near where he was mining.

So successful was he that in 1852 he decided he would go back to Illinois, making the journey via Nicaragua. The following year he returned to this state with some stock, which he sold in the mines, and once more resumed mining himself. Two years later he moved to Solano County, and in the vicinity of Silveyville began raising stock and grain. Seeing the advantage of having good stock, instead of the long, rangy Spanish cattle, Mr. Zumwalt once more made a trip back to Illinois and spent one year in gathering a band of cattle and sheep, which he drove back to California, to his ranch in Solano County. He continued the stock business there until 1872, when he came to Colusa County, to that part now included in the boundaries of Glenn County. Part of his land is now the site of Willows. He erected the first frame house in the place. After living here for ten years, he sold out and moved to, Anderson, Shasta County, where he passed his last days. His wife died in 1886, at the age of eighty-two years. Their children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren are numerous in Colusa and Glenn Counties, and are among the most highly respected citizens of the valley. Many of them are occupying positions of honor and trust throughout the state.

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SAMUEL ISAAC STORMER

The late Samuel Isaac Stormer, of Colusa and Glenn Counties, was one of the well-known pioneer citizens of the Sacramento Valley, having been a resident of the section later embraced in Glenn County from 1867 until his death, and much good was accomplished by his indomitable energy and enterprise in laying the foundation for our present prosperity.

Mr. Stormer was born in Morgan County, Ill., January 25, 1831, and was educated and reared to the life of a farmer in that state. On March 3, 1853, in Schuyler County, Ill., he was married to Miss Luvica Jane Cartmell, who was born on September 6, 1834, in Rush County, that state. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Stormer took up their residence in Adams County until the spring of 1864, when they outfitted with provisions, and with their three children crossed the plains with mule teams, settling in Austin, Nev. In 1867 they finished their journey to the Coast, and took up their abode in Colusa County, where Mr. Stormer engaged in grain-raising, continuing that occupation for many years, and in time acquiring thirteen hundred acres of land. He was a prominent factor in the Grange movement in Colusa County, and was counted a successful farmer.

After many years as a rancher in Colusa County, Mr. Stormer moved to the Purkitt ranch of eleven hundred acres which he had purchased in Glenn County, near Willows, and there farmed for a time, finally retiring to a comfortable home in the little city, where his last days were spent in the enjoyment of a well-earned rest. He and his helpmate lived to celebrate their golden wedding anniversary, which was held at the home of their daughter, Mrs. Potts, on March 3, 1903. The children born to this couple, and who grew to maturity, are : Martha Jane Potts, John Benton, Mrs. Sarah Elizabeth Greene, Charlotte Ann (who died aged twenty-one), Samuel Palmer, James Winslow, and Haydon Cassius. The grandchildren are: Mrs. Cora F. Wickes, Mrs. Maud M. Lightner (now deceased), and Miss M. Monreo Potts; G.I. Stormer ; James, Norene, and Barbara Stormer ; Mrs. Mattie Belle Ames and Floyd A. Greene; and Sylvan I. and Wynona Stormer. The great-grandchildren are: Thelma J. and Elizabeth Wickes, Howell and Mavis Lightner, and Lester, Elizabeth, Floyd L., and Samuel T. Ames.

Mr. Stormer was never so happy as when surrounded by those he loved ; and his home life was always cheered by the voices and presence of his children, grandchildren, and great-grandchil-

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dren. At the time of his death, on March 15, 1909, he was deeply mourned ; for he was a man whose whole life had been devoted to the welfare of his fellow citizens and the upbuilding of his community. Mrs. Stormer lives in Colusa, still enjoying life at the age of four score and three years.
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JAMES RICHARD GARNETT

How fortunate it is to be well prepared when the time comes to assume the responsibility for the management of important interests, is shown in the case of James Richard Garnett, now in charge of the Glenn County ranch property left by his father, who in his time was a man of affairs. James Richard Garnett was born near Dixon, Solano County, July 17, 1861. He is the son of James St. Clair Garnett, who first saw the light near Hannibal, Pike County, Mo., the town immortally associated with Mark Twain. In 1853, when the great streams of humanity were flowing toward the Pacific, James St. Clair Garnett crossed the plains to California, driving a band of cattle, and after a laborious and dangerous journey located near Dixon, where he took up land and engaged in farming and stock-raising. At the time of his death, in 1908, his landholdings amounted to about thirty thousand acres, which included a fine ranch of fifteen thousand acres, some twelve miles southwest of Willows. In young manhood he was married to Miss Elizabeth Marksbury, a native of Kentucky ; and when he died, he left six children : William H. and J.N. Garnett, who have charge of the old home ranch in Solano County; Mrs. H.P. Tate, who resides at Vacaville; James Richard, the subject of this sketch; Mrs. W.F. Chaney, of San Francisco; and Mrs. W.W. Foster, who lives at Vallejo.

James Richard Garnett pursued his studies in private schools, and particularly in a private school in Dixon and at the Oak Mound School, in Napa. He then attended the California Baptist College at Vacaville, Heald's Business College at San Francisco, and the University of the Pacific at San Jose. For two years he was on the old home ranch with his father. In 1882, he came to Willows and took charge of his father's fifteen thousand acres here. In early days wheat and barley were grown, eleven thousand acres being operated at one time by means of thirteen eight-mule teams of the ranch and ten eight-mule teams that were hired, which, used to assist in carrying the grain to the warehouse in Willows. What these operations meant may be gathered from the fact that one year the yield amounted to sixty thousand sacks of

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grain. In recent years grain farming has been given up for sheep-raising and cattle-raising; and now Mr. Garnett is the largest sheep-raiser in Glenn County. He disposes, on an average, of ten thousand sheep a year ; and at one time, counting both sheep and lambs, there were twenty-four thousand head on his ranch. At the present time, however, the average is ten thousand sheep. He has, also, five hundred head of cattle ; and with these he is equally successful. On his ranch, also, may be found an almond orchard of ten acres, now eighteen years old, which, under the scientific care of its owner, has never failed to produce a good crop.. Ten acres are also devoted to raising grapes.

When Mr. Garnett married, he chose for his bride Miss Minnie F. Messenger, a native of Rhode Island, by whom he has had six children: James F., who married Bell Branham, by whom he has two children ; Gladys B., the wife of Joseph Reidy, and the mother of one child ; Rena B. ; John M. ; Raymer St. Clair, who married Pera Simpson, by whom he has three children ; and Margaret M. Garnett. Mr. Garnett and his family attend and support the Baptist Church. In politics Mr. Garnett is in sympathy with Democratic principles and policies. As a citizen he is highly esteemed ; and he has always taken an active part in the building up and development of the county.
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HERMAN QUINT

A pioneer of the later period in California, who brought with him to the Coast a record for positive accomplishment in other parts of the country, and a ripe and valuable experience such as has often contributed to the solution of problems here, is Herman Quint, who was born in Cooper County, Mo., December 15, 1844, in which state he was reared on a farm. In the fall of 1864, he came to Illinois and located near Belleville, where he worked in a coal mine. After that he farmed rented land; and still later he was employed in the construction of a railroad bridge across the Missouri River -- a work extending through three years. Then he went back to farming, which he continued until the beginning of the eighties.

In August, 1880, Mr. Quint arrived at Willows and took up Ms first work on a California farm, working on a threshing machine for his brother, Fred Quint. One year later, he rented land on the Pratt grant, in Butte County, which he farmed to grain for four years.

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When Mr. Quint settled at Jacinto, he bought eight hundred eighty acres of the Glenn estate, eight miles northeast of Willows. He developed and improved the property, and in 1912 sold eight hundred acres to the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Co., of Willows, retaining eighty acres for his home, where he now lives. Thirty acres of this he planted to alfalfa, and in addition he laid out a family orchard. He has a dairy with a herd of fourteen Holstein cows, and also raises Berkshire hogs, keeping a thoroughbred boar.

In 1864 Mr. Quint married, choosing for his bride Miss Catherine Cash, a native of Missouri, by whom he has had four children : Catherine, Mrs. J.R. Vaughan ; Belle, Mrs. P.O. Eibe ; William, living in Zion City, Ill. ; and Henry, living in Princeton. Mr. and Mrs. Quint have fifteen grandchildren. Mr. Quint is an Odd Fellow, a member of the Willows Lodge.
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MAYBERRY DAVIS

Mayberry Davis has been a pioneer of California since 1855. That year he came to the state by way of Panama, from his home in Clark County, Ill., where he was born on November 18, 1839. Since his arrival here, at sixteen years of age, he has been closely identified with the development of the Sacramento Valley, and especially of Butte, Colusa, and Glenn Counties. In the early days, until the legislature established the boundary lines for each county, there were no distinguishing features between Butte and Colusa Counties, as far as the east side of the river section was concerned, and the poll tax collector would get over the line into Colusa and gather in the tax from her citizens. Mr. Davis worked for wages on ranches in the first two counties named. In 1859 he felt encouraged to strike out for himself, and rented land near Butte City, devoting his time to the raising of grain, in which he met with success. In 1861, Mr. Davis took up a government claim near Butte City, proved up on it, and for some time farmed the land. On February 26, 1866, he bought the present home ranch of one hundred sixty acres, then raw and uncultivated ground. He greatly improved the place, erecting buildings, fencing the land, and bringing it under cultivation; and here he carried on his ranching activities until a few years ago, when he retired to private life to enjoy the remaining years of his life in comfort and plenty.

In March, 1861, Mayberry Davis was married to Mary Jane Lycan, also a native of Illinois, and a playmate of his boyhood

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days. Of this union one daughter was born, Carrie Alice, who died at the age of twenty-five years. As a wheat and barley grower, and cattle and hog raiser, Mr. Davis had no superior in the county. A man of sterling qualities, he is beloved by all, and is generous to a fault. Although not a politician, he has been sought after to run for office ; but he has preferred to follow the even tenor of his way. Once he was prevailed upon to act as deputy assessor, which he did with satisfaction to all concerned. Mr. Davis helped to build all the churches, school buildings, and roads in his precinct. While he did not favor county division at the time it was being agitated, he very soon came to the conclusion that it was the very best thing for the counties. With Mrs. Davis, he attends the Methodist Episcopal Church, South; and they enjoy the confidence and esteem of all who know them.
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GEORGE E. ST. LOUIS

Interesting and instructive is the history of such a pioneer family as that of George E. St. Louis. He was born in Yolo County, March 4, 1862, a son of Colbert St. Louis, an account of whose life appears in another part of this work. When George St. Louis was only thirteen years old, he came to Colusa County, where he worked on the ranch of his brother, A. St. Louis, near Norman. There he remained until he was twenty-one, after which he farmed for two years on rented land near Colusa Junction. He next leased land near Norman, and this he farmed to grain. After that, he rented land near Willows, which he operated for three years. He then returned to Norman, where he farmed a few years, and then rented the Frank Thomas place. For ten years he was here engaged in raising grain, getting excellent results. In 1900, with his brother, he leased five thousand acres on the grant, which they farmed to grain. He also bought his present place of thirty acres on the river in the Glenn district, cleared the land of brush and trees, fenced in the acreage, and built for himself a home and barns. He set out an orchard containing a thousand trees in all, including four hundred French prune trees, two hundred peach trees, and orange and lemon trees. This place has proved to be some of the richest land in the Sacramento Valley. Such is the quality of his land that, with the use of water, he raises two crops of some products each. year. He had a crop of ball barley on two acres, which aggregated forty-one sacks in all, which he sold for three cents a pound. On a portion of the ranch he raises milo maize and corn, and ten acres has produced

[photo J.F. Newland]

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as much as fifty-one and a half sacks to the acre. His peaches are the finest raised in the county, and he took prizes for the best exhibits in that class at the recent San Francisco Exposition. He also has fine late watermelons.

On January 1, 1884, George E. St. Louis and Sarah L. Branham were united in marriage. They are the parents of three children: Raymond, Grace Margaret, and Bennett Burton. Mr. St. Louis was school trustee of Jacinto district one term, while living on the Thomas place. Both he and his wife belong to the Baptist Church of Glenn.
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JOEL FRANCIS NEWLAND

A very successful agriculturist of the pioneer sort, whose family has paid a price in privation and sacrifice which should always entitle them to the respect and good-will of their fellow-Americans, is Joel Francis Newland, who was born in Crawford County, Ill., September 9, 18.38. On the paternal side, he is of Dutch descent, in a line extending back to 1630 and associated with the founding of the Carolinas. Grandfather Major Joel Newland was killed in the War of 1812. On the maternal side he is of Scotch-Irish descent. His maternal ancestors were among the first settlers of Massachusetts, where members of the family served in the Indian wars, as well as in the Revolution, and the War of 1812.

James Newland, Joel's father, was born in Bracken County, Ky., and his mother, Mary Ann Morrow, was also born in that state. In 1850, James Newland moved to St. Joseph, Mo., and three years later he crossed the great plains with his family and an ox team to California, arriving in Colusa County on October 7 of that year. Painful privation and thrilling adventures were the lot of these sturdy American pioneers before they reached the promised land. While crossing the desert their supply of water was exhausted, and the family were left in wagons while the stock, which accompanied the train, was driven to the Truckee River for water. In the mountains the little party paid fifty cents per pound for flour, and after arriving in Colusa County they bought flour for twenty dollars and fifty cents per hundredweight at the old mill operated by Mr. Wilson on Grand Island. Digger Indians and grizzly bears were encountered, and elk and antelope abounded along the Sacramento River.

When somewhat settled, James Newland bought a swarm of Italian bees for a hundred ten dollars per stand, and two American swarms for sixty dollars each; and with this outfit Joel F. Newland and his brother, Alfred M., made their start in the bee

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business, being among the first apiarists in Colusa County. The home place of the Newland family was four miles north of Colusa ; and there the two brothers, working harmoniously together, farmed as partners for many years. They raised fruit, and had an almond orchard, the first commercial orchard in the county, and engaged in grain- and stock-raising and in bee culture. The father had died on the farm, and the mother returned East on a visit and died in Missouri.

With the exception of three years, Joel Newland farmed for twenty-six years in succession with his brother. During the three years' interval he served as a soldier in the Civil War. In 1863, with patriotic enthusiasm, he enlisted in Company H, First California Cavalry, at Sacramento. In time he saw rough Indian service in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, with the Apache and Navajo Indians. The soldiers had many skirmishes with the Redskins along the Rio Grande River, during which they lost a few men and killed many Indians. After thus serving for three years with valor and distinction in defense of his country, he was honorably discharged and mustered out of service in Santa Fe, N.M., in 1866, and then returned to his home via New York City and Panama to San Francisco. After his return he resumed farming with his brother.

In 1868 Mr. Newland bought sixty-four acres of land seven miles southwest of Willows at five dollars per acre ; and thereafter he kept adding to the place from time to time. In 1879, he moved on to the place, which he had improved with house and farm buildings; and there for many years he has been a successful grainraiser. He now owns two and one half sections in his tract, and a half section near Germantown, which he farmed to grain and stock. In recent years the land has been farmed by renters, Mr. Newland having retired after a long life of active and successful enterprise.

Mr. Newland has a host of friends throughout Glenn County and the Sacramento Valley. Although he was solicited to become a candidate for county office, he has always refused to allow his name to be presented for nomination, preferring to give his undivided time to his business. As a citizen, he has lived a useful life; and by all who know him he is much esteemed for his many kind and charitable deeds towards those who have been less fortunate than himself, for he has always lived by the Golden Rule.

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JOHN ANDREW SMITH

The forebears of the Smith family were noted for their patriotism; and when the call came for defenders of their country, they were among the first to answer the call. For over two hundred years the Smiths have figured as soldiers. William Smith, the great-grandfather of the late John Andrew Smith, of Glenn County, came from England prior to the Revolutionary War, in which he served as a soldier in the Colonial army. After the war he went to Tennessee, and there he died. He had a son named John A., born in that state, whence he removed to Orange County, Ind., and farmed until his death. He participated in the War of 1812, being mustered out of the service at Mussel Shoals. He married, and reared a family in Indiana. One of his sons, James M., removed to Illinois in 1864, where, in Clay County, he engaged in farming until his death. He married Lucinda Norman, a native of Pennsylvania, and they became the parents of the following children: Louisa E., Henry A., John Andrew (of this review), James, Marguerite, David, Martha, Mary E., Laura B., and Sarah.

A native of Indiana, John Andrew Smith first saw the light of day in Orange County, December 8, 1844. He had just finished his schooling in the common branches when, in July, 1862, when nearly eighteen, fired with patriotism for his country, he enlisted in Company A, Sixty-sixth Indiana Regiment, Second Division of the Sixteenth Army Corps, and began service under General McPherson. After General McPherson's death, the company was transferred to the Fifteenth Army Corps ; and later they participated in a number of battles, among them being Taylorsville and Richmond, Ky. ; Corinth and luka. Miss.; Lookout Mountain and Chattanooga, Tenn. ; Altoona Pass ; Buzzard's Roost ; Kingston and Rome, Ga. ; and Kenesaw Mountain. On July 19, they took part in the engagement at Peach Tree Creek; and the next day they were in Atlanta. From there they marched with Sherman to the sea, Mr. Smith acting as sharpshooter on the front and advance line. He came safely through the dangers of army life, and was honorably discharged at Indianapolis, Ind., July 2, 1865. He returned to the home of his parents in Illinois, whither they had removed during his absence, and here again took up the life of a civilian. He learned and followed the carpenter's trade, and at the same time engaged in farming until 1872. He then came to California and took up a soldier's grant of one hundred sixty acres, where he continued in agricultural pursuits. As he succeeded he added to his holdings, increasing his acreage to five hun-

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dred eighty acres, located three miles south of Orland. Here he was engaged in raising grain until the time of his death.

In Louisville, Ill., John Andrew Smith married Matilda Wood, the ceremony being performed on May 20, 1866. She was born in Wabash County, Ind., November 15, 1846, and was reared in Illinois. Her father, William Spencer' Wood, a native of New York State, was brought to Indiana by his parents at an early day; and there he grew to manhood and farmed. He met an accidental death in 1852. Of the marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Smith the following children were born: Lucy, the wife of Frank W. Thompson; Ola; Eva, who married Lawrence Thompson and is the mother of three children, Vernor, Ralph, and Lester; Roy, living in Oregon; John and Oren, both deceased; William, living at home; Andrea, the wife of George Simpson, of Dixon, Cal., and the mother of four children, William, Otho, Donald, and Eleanor ; Ivy, Mrs. Alex Kraft, of Maxwell, who has one son, Lewllen ; and Byron, who married Miss Leona Freeman, by whom he has two children, Mildred and Byron, Jr. Mr. and Mrs. Smith were connected with the Baptist Church of Orland. In his political convictions Mr. Smith was a consistent Democrat. Always ready at all times to do his full share towards the upbuilding of his community and the state, he was often called upon to aid movements for that purpose, and never was found wanting. He helped organize Emigrant school district, and served as trustee for years. At the time of his death, in 1907, he was mourned by a wide circle of very close friends and neighbors, and by a devoted family.
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CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS FELTS

During his long residence in California, since 1852, Christopher C. Felts has had an excellent opportunity to witness the growth of the state. Since 1871 he has lived on his ranch in Colusa County, of which he has become one of the well-known and influential citizens. A native of Georgia, he was born on January 16, 1837. When a child he was taken to Mississippi, where he lived until 1852, when he was fifteen years of age. That year was a momentous year to him, for he then left his home for the long overland journey to California, behind the slow-going oxen. After being on the road for six months, he arrived at his destination. Misfortune came to the lad while he was en route to California, and with it, added responsibility. His parents both died, leaving a small family, of which he was the oldest. These orphan children were brought on through to the coast by other people; but on ar-

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riving here, they found that they couldn't keep them, and so sent word to Christopher C, who was then at Colusa. He had to go to Sacramento and get the children, and bring them back to Colusa, where he found homes for them. He took it upon himself to look after their welfare, until they were old enough to do for themselves. These children were : J. Monroe Felts, then thirteen years old, who later became one of the prominent men of San Luis Obispo ; Alivia, then eleven, who in time became Mrs. Evans, and is now deceased; Marcus D., nine years of age, who grew up in Colusa, and died there ; William W., a child of six at the time, who is now an editor, well-known throughout California. Upon his arrival here, a youth of but fifteen years, therefore, Christopher Felts had to shoulder burdens that would have discouraged many men of mature years and long experience. He turned his attention to farm work, finding employment in Yolo County for four years, after which he went to Grand Island, Colusa County. He continued to work for wages until he had saved enough money to branch out for himself, and become his own master, and then rented land on Grand Island, where he farmed until 1871. That year he came to his present place of six hundred acres, the greater part of which he has brought under cultivation himself. He erected every building on the place, set out all the trees, vines and shrubbery with his own hands, put up fences, dug wells, and in fact did everything he could to make life on the ranch as comfortable as possible. Part of this property he still owns, and ever since coming to the place he has made it his home. Besides his own land he leased from others, carrying on farming and stock-raising with very good success, although, like others, he had his troubles, through droughts and through low prices for produce. He planted a good-sized vineyard ; but it did not pay, and he took up most of the vines in 1905. He has sold off his land from time to time, but still retains one hundred, sixty acres, upon which his home stands.
In 1910 Mr. Felts began in the dairy business. He bought some thoroughbred Jerseys, and from a small beginning has built up a dairy of forty cows, with a fine registered Jersey bull at their head. This animal has a world's record for cattle of the milk strain, and is considered one of the best in the state. Mr. Felts put up modern dairy barns and seeded one hundred acres to alfalfa ; and he is finding this line of industry to be very profitable and sure. He also has a four-acre almond orchard, which is very promising and yields a good revenue. Two sides of his ranch are planted with shade trees, some two miles' of them. Mr. Felts keeps abreast of the times and uses every modern and up-to-date appliance and method for getting the best results out of the soil.

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Throughout this section, where once the grain fields waved in the winds and sheep roamed over the broad expanse of plain, the land is now dotted with vineyards, and with orchards of almonds, prunes, and apricots; and alfalfa covers broad fields, supporting large numbers of dairy cattle, that bring in good revenues to their owners. Mr. Felts is numbered among those progressive men who have wrought this wonderful change.

In 1878 Mr. Felts was married to Emma Hodgen, born in Georgia; and they have had seven children: Georgia, the wife of William Corbin and the mother of three children ; Alice, who married N.P. Pearson, and has three children; Virgil; Asa; Louisa, who became the wife of E.C. Pearson, and has two children; Edith, who married Homer Felts, a cousin ; and Amy, the youngest. Mr. Felts is a Mason, belonging to Maxwell Lodge No. 298, F. & A.M., and was a charter member of Maxwell Lodge No. 361, I.O.O.F. Ever since becoming. a voter, Mr. Felts has supported Democratic candidates. His fellow citizens have elected him to various offices of trust and responsibility. For eighteen years he was supervisor of the fourth district of Colusa County, and part of the time chairman of the board. For two years he filled the office of county treasurer with perfect satisfaction to the people. From time to time he has served as a delegate to county and state conventions, his advice always being sought in the interest of the party. After having served his fellow citizens for twenty years, he was presented with a token of their appreciation in the shape of a gold-headed cane, neatly engraved, which he treasures highly. He has been an advocate of good roads, and also a builder of some, which will remain as a monument to his industry. It is the hope of his many intimate friends that he be spared many more years to enjoy the fruits of his labors.
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DENNIS HUGH MASTERSON

An interesting place in the history of California agriculture is held by the family of Dennis Hugh Masterson, who was born in Jackson, Amador County, Cal., on October 5, 1854, the son of James Masterson, a native of Ireland, born in 1827. James Masterson came to the United States about 1850, moving west to Missouri, where he married Eliza James, a native of that state. In 1853, he crossed the plains and came to Jackson, where he continued to live from 1853 until 1858, working as a civil engineer, for which he had been trained in the Old World. In 1858 he located on his home place, which he had taken up as government land, on the Newville

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and Orland road in Tehama County. Here he went in for stock-raising and general farming. He also followed up surveying in various counties, and was at one time county surveyor of Colusa County. He was also surveyor while in Amador County. When he died, in 1897, two years hefore the death of his wife, he owned four hundred ninety acres in the home ranch, which is still possessed by his children. James and Eliza (James) Masterson were the parents of the following children: Dennis H., James, Edward K., J.G., Mary (who died, aged eleven), Mrs. Louise Hulen, and Mrs. Julia Jewell.

Dennis Hugh Masterson attended the local Newville school until he was fourteen years of age, and continued to live with his father up to the time of the latter's death. At fourteen, however, in 1868, he went into business for himself, taking up stock-raising in a small way, one and a half miles south of the home place, and aiding also on the latter, where he made his home. As he prospered, he bought adjoining land from time to time. His ranch now includes about three thousand five hundred fifty acres of land in one body, in Colusa, Tehama and Glenn Counties, and is largely devoted to the raising of sheep and to general farming. The ranch is sixteen miles west of Orland, and is well watered by the north fork of Stony Creek, Burrow's Creek, and numerous springs, which give ample water for the stock.

On October 14, 1883, Dennis Hugh Masterson was married, according to the rites of the Catholic Church, to Miss Ardell Price, a native of Woodland, Yolo County, and the daughter of John A. Price, who was born in Green County, Ky., and married Miss Frances M. Kelly, a native of Cooper County, Mo. Mr. Price crossed the plains with his father in 1849, returned in 1850, and again crossed the plains in 1854, with his fami