"This party had with them men. two at least, who might be styled 'Indian killers,' and on the way very frequently fired at Indians seen in the distance. The better portion tried to dissuade them from this uncalled-for conduct, with, however, only partial success. On arriving at the present site of Red Bluff, the company camped early in the day, intending to remain during the night, but broke up camp hastily owing to the following incident: One of the 'Indian killers,' seeing an Indian on the opposite side of the river, swam over, carrying a butcher-knife in his mouth. The Indian allowed him to approach till he came very close, but at last ran away. The man with the knife pursued him, threw a stone, and, crippling the Indian, completed24 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES
COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 25
his barbarous work by killing him with his knife. The party in camp, now fearing Indian retaliation, concluded to travel on. After a few miles an Indian was observed following them, no doubt out of curiosity and not because he had heard of the killing of a member of his tribe a few hours previously. One of the 'Indian killers,' seeing the opportunity for another murder, hid in the brush till the Indian came up, and shot him. The company continued to travel on the west side of the Sacramento River with more than ordinary haste, feeling very insecure lest the Indians, who were very numerous in the valley at that time, should exhibit hostility on account of what had occurred. One of the encampments, I remember, was near the river, below what is now called Stony Creek, then Capay River, in Colusa County. The Indians, however, came near in considerable numbers, and hence evidently had not heard of the shooting and kniving just mentioned. In the morning, as they were packing up to leave camp, one of the 'Indian killers' missed his bridle and swore the 'damned Indians' had stolen it -- a most unreasonable thing, since the Indians had no horses and never had. In his rage he fired at an Indian who stood by a tree about one hundred yards distant. The Indian fell back into the brush, while the rest of his frightened companions fled in great haste. The company was again rendered panicky by the blood-thirsty imprudence of the 'Indian killer,' hastened on their journey, and found the missing bridle in a few minutes under a pile of blankets.
"All that day the Indians on the east side of the river manifested great excitement as the company moved along down on the west side. For more than forty miles there was at that time no place where water could be found for the horses to drink, the banks being so steep or so grown up with jungle and grape-vine as to be unapproachable. The day following, however, the company encamped on the spot where Colusa now stands. The excitement among the Indians had now preceded them, and consequently numbers of them swarmed on the opposite side of the river. When the horses were led down to get water, in an almost famished condition, the Indians fired at them with their arrows, but no one was hit or hurt.
"The immigrants told their story at Sutter's place, and some here thought that the Indians where the shooting was done were hostile; but most of them, and the best-informed as I thought, did not blame the Indians, in view of previous occurrences. Sutter, however, concluded to punish them, and went, with about fifty men, and attacked the Indian camp at daylight. His forces were divided, a part of them going above and crossing on the
Indian bridge. They were ready to begin a simultaneous attack at daybreak. The Indians tied and mostly jumped into the river, where they were fired on, and great numbers of them killed, after which the Indians in that part of the valley were never known to exhibit any purpose of hostility. I do not believe there was sufficient reason to consider them hostile before. At any rate, I remember no offensive act on their part, having occasion to go among them almost a year afterward, twice at least, and once with only five men with me, when we camped all night near a village without any molestation. Two years later, in 1846, I went from Sacramento during the prevalence of a great flood, passing not up the river but over the plains, which were like a sea of waters, and arriving in a canoe near the place where the Indians were killed in 1843, to trade for Indian twine, with which to make seines for taking salmon. No white man was with me, only two Indians to paddle the canoe, and I found the natives perfectly friendly."
A treaty of peace and friendship made and concluded at Camp Coins, on the Sacramento River, California, between the United States Indian Agent, O.M. Wozencraft, of one part, and the chiefs, captains and head men of the following tribes or bands, viz. : Coins, Willays, Co-ha-na, Tat-nah, Cha, Doc-Duc, Cham-net-co, Toc-de.COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 47
Article 1. The several tribes or bands above mentioned do acknowledge the United States to be the sole and absolute sovereign of all the soil and territory ceded to them by a treaty of peace made between them and the republic of Mexico.
Article 2. The said tribes or bands acknowledge themselves, jointly and severally, under the exclusive jurisdiction, authority and protection of the United States, and hereby bind themselves hereafter to refrain from the commission of all acts of hostility and aggression towards the government or citizens thereof, and to live on terms of peace and friendship among themselves, and all other Indians which are now or may come under the protection of the United States.
Article 3. To promote the settlement and improvement of said tribes or bands, it is hereby stipulated and agreed that the following district of country in the State of California shall be and is hereby set apart forever, for the use and occupancy of the aforesaid tribes or bands, to-wit : Commencing on the east bank of the Sacramento River, at a point where the northern line of Sutter's claim is said to strike said river, running out in said line in an easterly direction three miles ; thence in a southeasterly direction fifteen miles to a point within three miles of the Sacramento River; from said point in a line due west to the Sacramento River; and from said-point up said river to the point of beginning. It is furthermore understood and agreed upon by both parties that the tribes or bands of Indians living upon the adjacent Coast Range, on the Sacramento River, from the mouth of Stone Creek to the junction of Feather and Sacramento Rivers, and on Feather River to the mouth of Yuba River, shall be included in the said reservation; and should said bands not come in, then the provisions, etc., as set apart in this treaty, to be reduced in a
48 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES
ratio commensurate with the numbers signing the treaty. Provided, That there is reserved to the United States government the right of way over any portion of said territory, and the right to establish and maintain any military post, public building, schoolhouse, houses for agents, teachers, and such others as they may deem necessary, for their use in the protection of the Indians. The said tribes or bands, and each of them, hereby engage that they will never claim any other land within the boundaries of the United States, nor ever disturb the people of the United States in the free use and enjoyment thereof.
Article 4. To aid the said tribes or bands in their subsistence while removing to and making allotments upon the said reservation, the United States, in addition to the few presents made to them at this council, will furnish them, free of charge, with two hundred and fifty (250) head of beef-cattle, to average in weight five hundred (500) pounds, seventy-five (75) sacks flour, one hundred (100) pounds each, within the term of two years from the date of this treaty.
Article 5. As early as convenient after the ratification of this treaty by the President and Senate, in consideration of the premises and with a sincere desire to encourage said tribes in acquiring the arts and habits of civilized life, the United States will also furnish them with the following articles, (to be divided among them by the agent according to their respective numbers and wants,) during each of the two years succeeding the said ratification, viz. : one pair strong pantaloons and one red flannel shirt for each man and boy; one linsey gown for each woman and girl; one thousand yards calico, and two hundred and fifty yards brown sheeting; ten pounds Scotch thread and five hundred needles, three dozen thimbles and one dozen pairs of scissors; one two and a half point Mackinaw blanket for each man and woman over fifteen years of age; five hundred pounds iron and fifty pounds steel; and in like manner, in the first year, for the permanent use of said tribes, and as their joint property, viz.: forty brood mares and three stallions, one hundred and fifty milch cows and eight bulls, two yoke of work cattle with yokes and chains, five work mules or horses, eleven ploughs assorted sizes, forty-five garden or corn hoes, thirteen spades, and two grindstones. Of the stock enumerated above, and the product thereof, no part or portion shall be killed, exchanged, sold or otherwise parted with, without the consent and direction of the agent.
Article 6. The United States will also supply and settle among said tribes, at or near their towns or settlements, one practical farmer, who shall superintend all agricultural operations, with two assistants, men of practical knowledge and indus-
trious habits; one carpenter, one wheelwright, one blacksmith, one principal school teacher and as many assistant teachers as the President may deem proper to instruct said tribes, in reading, writing, etc., and in the domestic arts upon the manual labor system; all the above named workmen and teachers to be maintained and paid by the United States for the period of five years, and as long thereafter as the President shall deem advisable. The United States will also erect suitable schoolhouses, shops and dwellings for the accommodation of the schools, teachers and mechanics above mentioned, and for the protection of the public property.
In testimony whereof, the parties have hereunto signed their names and affixed their seals, this ninth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one.
United States Indian Agent.
For and in behalf of the Coins:
Sci-Oac, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Willays:
Ho-Oak, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Co-ha-na :
Louis, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Tat-nah:
Hoo-Ka-Ta, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Cha :
La-Look, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Doc-Duc:
Mi-Ka-La, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Cham-net-co:
Wi-Te-Bus, his X mark.
For and in behalf of the Toc-de :
Co-Ne, his X mark.
Signed, sealed and delivered, after being fully explained, in presence of
Thomas Wright, Second Lieutenant, 2nd Infantry,
"In the fall of 1853, in company with old man Beers and J.M. Blanchard, I left Sacramento City for Bear Valley (then nearly unknown). On our way we stopped one night at the Ohio House, kept by Ike Rice; and the next night we stopped at Jo. Bowies', in Spring Valley, who, with M.A. Britton, had just settled in that pretty little valley. One thing I noticed on entering Spring Valley was the wild oats. They were as tall as a horse's back and as thick as they could stand on the ground. From Spring Valley we went up Salt Canyon to Antelope Valley. T.A. Botts and Dr. William V. Henry had settled there. The latter still resides in the valley, but not in the same place. From Antelope we went across the mountains to Bear Valley, entering the valley on what is the Turner ranch now. I found clover in the valley that was seven feet long by measurement. There were plenty of deer, antelope, bear, and some elk at that time. I explored the valley and picked out my present place. I then thought this a beautiful and healthy place, and after twenty-two years' residence I am of the same opinion.58 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES
"On the 20th of January, 1854, in company with John H. Clark, I settled where I now reside. This valley received its name from a bear that was killed just below my house, at the old crossing, by a party from Colusa, in 1852, two of whom were Dr. Spaulding and Horace Pike. At the time I came into the valley there were no settlers, nor for six months after. John Royce and A.T. Noyes came next, and settled in the lower end of the valley. J.M. Blanchard, old man Beers, and Hull -- the man that was killed on Hull's Mountain by a grizzly, and after whom it takes its name -- were the next. Stephen Reese, Stewart Harris, Fielding and Waller Calmes next came in. William Robertson came about the same time. Reese, the Robertson family, and myself are all that remain of the old settlers in the valley.
"... Four miles from Bear Valley are what are called Wilbur's Springs; but the right name for them is Cantrall
Springs, for Joshua Cantrall is the man who took those springs up, and lived there until he died. Gil Roberts then bought them. They passed into the hands of Simmons and went by his name until he died. Then Wilbur came into possession, and the springs took his name and retained it."
"Section 22. County of Colusi. Beginning at a point on the summit of the Coast Range due west from the Red Bluffs, and running thence due east to said bluffs on the Sacramento River; thence down the middle of said river to the northwest corner of Sutter County; thence due west along the northern boundary of Yolo County to the summit of the Coast Range ; thence in a north-westerly direction, following the summit of said range to the point of beginning. This county shall be attached, for judicial purposes, to Butte County, until a county government shall be organized for the same in the manner to be prescribed by law."
Monroeville, Colusi County,COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 63
State of California,
December 10, 1851.
Statement of the Treasurer of Colusi County to the State Treasurer:
On the 1st day of December, instant, the present Treasurer of Colusi County was appointed to the office by the Court of Sessions of said county, to supply and fill the vacancy of Gr. P. Swift, Treasurer, resigned October 21st ; bond filed 6th of December, instant, which was justified instead of being accepted by the County Judge, by reason that said Judge was personally interested, and the said Treasurer this day enters upon the discharge of the duties of said office, by complying as far as practicable with the requirements of Section 49, in the latter clause; and to guard against the penalty imposed by the fifty-second section of the Revenue Act. Owing to the peculiar circumstances in which this county has existed during the six months past, relative to services rendered by its officers, our officers (present) will be detained somewhat (if not in some essential cases wholly impeded) in the collection of the state and county tax for 1851. Only $93.07 has been collected and paid into the treasury. Of this $11.97 1/2 is for court house; $25.95 for county purposes; and $55.14 1/2 for State and State loan on interest tax. The tax list was delivered to the Sheriff, or to the Under-Sheriff, J.C. Huls, who, as near as I can learn from information derived from unofficial sources, has collected some $401.46, exclusive of his own fees, and has resigned without making payment thereof either to the treasury or to his principal, December 8th. December 10th H.P. Bemis was appointed Under-Sheriff, and is proceeding to give notices as the law directs, except as to time, and will, it is expected, make a vigorous effort to collect the said taxes, which
64 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES
amount in the aggregate to $5,147.25, of which $1,838.30 1/2 is for State purposes; $551.49 is interest on public State loan tax; $1,383,30 1/2 is for county purposes; and $918.15 for court house and jail. Further, there are 101 polls assessed at $3--$202 for State purposes, and $101 for county purposes. The State Comptroller has received the Auditor's duplicate, together with a very brief statement of some of the difficulties under which we labor.
Some of the principal taxpayers (or who should be tax-paying persons) positively refuse to pay any tax. There was collected by former Treasurer, G.P. Swift, some $600 or $700 of poll and other tax on personal property. Of this I cannot specify, as the said ex-Treasurer has not, as yet, although ordered so to do by the County Judge, delivered over the money and papers pertaining to the office of Treasurer of Colusi County. It is expected that most of the tax will be collected within thirty or forty days from this time, although it will be, and is probable that a considerable portion of our tax for this year will remain delinquent, from the fact that many persons have removed from the county, and some from the state. I am unwilling to trouble you with so long a communication, but it may be essential to the welfare of the interests of our county, in this manner and at this time, that I, their County Judge and Treasurer, at present should explain.
This county, as you probably know, was organized under an order obtained by the petition of its legal voters, of Judge Bean, of the adjoining Butte County -- election 10th of January, 1851. J.S. Holland was elected County Judge, and U.P. Monroe was elected Clerk and Recorder. The other officers elected either did not qualify or failed to give bonds according to law. At an election called and held on the 25th of February, other officers were elected ; of these, William G. Chard and Joseph C. Huls, the former Assessor and the latter County Surveyor, and John F. Willis, Sheriff, qualified and gave bonds, which were accepted by Judge Holland. The Court of Sessions was organized on the 8th of March, by the election of William B. Ide and Newell Hall to the office of Associate Justices, being the only Justices of the Peace qualified to vote at said election. Judge Holland was then quite unwell, and only able to superintend the said organization, which completed, he, being quite sick, left the newly elected Justices (a lawful quorum) to proceed in the county business. The said court divided the county into precincts, townships, road districts, etc., and ordered that the taxes for county purposes the year ensuing should be the highest rate allowed by law, which was then twenty-five cents to each $100, this county then not being in debt subsequent to the present year. Judge Holland lingered in an inconvalescent state and died on the 12th of April.
COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 65
An election was called on the 3rd of May, when John T. Hughes received a majority of the votes cast for County Judge. Newell Hall, Esq., removed from the township in which he was elected, and the office of Junior Associate Justice became vacant, and there was no other qualified Justice within the county except the Senior Associate. An election was called, and Justices called to supply vacancies. One Justice, viz., J.C. Huls, qualified and gave bonds ; and he became in due time a member of the Court of Sessions. Judge Hughes held one term of the Court of Sessions in Colusi only, and the only business brought before that session was the appointment of a road-viewing committee. On the second Monday of August, the Associate Justices met in accordance with the old law (Judge Hughes being absent from the county), when for the first time was presented William G. Chard's Assessor's list -- so indefinitely expressed that it was utterly impossible to equalize the said list, and the said Chard and his assistants were all absent from the county ; moreover, at this time we received the scattered fragments of the new Acts of legislation, by which we learned that since May 1st our acts were not in accordance with the supreme law of the land.
We had no longer any evidence, by the letter of the law, that we, the Associate Justices, constituted a legal quorum to do business ; that we are not lawfully, by any provision of the said new law, convened, not being called by order of the Judge for special term, nor yet convened in general term-time, and further, we are of the opinion that there existed on the 1st day of May, 1851, a vacancy in the office of County Judge of Colusi County. And having the Acts of the Legislature of California for our guide, we conclude that if a vacancy did exist on the said first day of May, it could only be filled by an appointment of the Governor. An opinion prevailed in the minds of said Court, that if an officer be illegal, all his acts, official, are illegal also; and if so, the Court has become disorganized by lack of a legal quorum. In conformity with this opinion, the Junior Justice refused to act, and the Court dissolved without adjournment. In this state the business of the county was suspended until the first Monday in October last, when, in accordance with the law, I, having been elected at the general election to the office of County Judge, and being duly sworn, convened three Justices of the Peace, being all the qualified Justices resident in said county, and organized again the Court of Sessions, which was engaged four days in the transaction of criminal business, when the Junior Associate was absent, and the other, after one day's further attendance, left also. A called session was ordered expressly for the purpose of hearing complaints and for the purpose of equalizing the assessment roll.
66 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES
and five notices were posted in the several precincts. On or about the first of October the Assessor returned to the county, and was ordered to go over his assessment again, or to appear and give such information as would enable the Court to equalize the list or assessment roll. On the 17th, one of the Associate Justices only appeared, and the vacancy could not be filled, and the Assessor being sick did not attend, nor did he procure and return to the Court any description of the personal property of the taxpayers, whereby the Court could be informed, in any wise, of the impartiality of the assessment, the amount of the personal property being given in the sum total, expressed by figures ; and it does not appear that any oath was required, or of what the amount of personal property consisted. The Court not being able to come to any decision on the subject of equalization of the assessment roll, the Court was adjourned to the 4th of November following. On the 3rd of November I repaired to the county seat for the purpose of holding the first County Court since the first organization, and having discovered on the 27th of October that the Probate Court had previously no record of its existence, I now discovered that the County Court and Court of Sessions were in the same condition, as also was the District Court, except such minutes as I myself, as a member of the Court of Sessions, had taken, and excepting the minutes signed by Judge Sherwood, of the District Court, Ninth District.
Thinking that these interests might suffer from such scattered condition of the only legal evidence of the existence of these Courts, I issued a special order to U.P. Monroe, County Clerk, ordering him to perform these several duties of the County Clerk himself, or to cause them to be duly performed by some one duly appointed and sworn as his deputy. And, there being no person willing to devote his whole time in keeping the office open, according as the law requires, at the county seat, and who was able to procure the requisite bonds, as I was bound in compliance with my official duties to be at the county seat to attend twenty-four distinct sessions of various courts per annum, and considering I should save 2,000 miles of travel, I rented out my rancho and accepted the service as Deputy County Clerk, and am become my own Clerk, in accordance with the old maxim, "If you would have a good servant and one you like, serve yourself." But to resume more particularly this long narration, of our county affairs in relation to taxes ; the said Court of Sessions, being on the 17th of October, adjourned to the 4th of November, and from the said 4th of November from day to day, until one of the Associate Justices was in attendance, at which time the equalization of the assessment roll was again attempted but again laid over to the
regular term in December, first Monday, in consequence of the inability of the presiding Judge legally to act in deciding a question in which himself and children were interested. During the interim, the County Assessor, being recovered of his sickness, appeared at my office and made some explanations in the manner of the assessments, also some corrections, and signed his assessment roll, officially, which was not done before. November 24th I received an answer from the Comptroller of State to a statement I had made in relation to abstract of taxable property in Colusi. I came to the conclusion that I had better proceed at once to make the Auditor's tax lists, and have them ready to be accepted or rejected by the Court of Sessions at its December term. I did so and made up the books (duplicates) on a basis of equalization proposed and signed by the only Associate Justice hitherto in attendance. On the first day of the December term. Dr. H.P. Bemis being appointed Clerk for the term, I called up the deferred business of equalization, and it was passed by the vote of both Associate Justices, and was so entered by the Clerk on the minutes. The aforementioned tax duplicates were examined and an order issued for their delivery to the Sheriff and Treasurer, with the order and execution on the backs thereof, for collection, duly executed and signed by the Clerk and presiding Judge.
The above represents our true state in relation to the past ; what it will be, in future, a little time will tell; the taxed swear they will not pay, and threaten combination to prevent the sale of property.
I shall be pleased to receive any advice or direction in the matter and shall conform to the requisition of the law as far as practicable.
Your very obedient servant,
Wm. B. Ide,
Treasurer of Colusi County, Cal.
"O Town Trustees! O City Dads!COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 83
This whole round world is full of fads,
And old Colus' hain't had her share;
Therefore we hope you'll do and dare,
"And give us these electric roads,
To run on down by Jimmy Goad's,
And way on out to everywhere.
O Town Trustees, do make a dare!
"Oh! do run down our streets them keers,
If every horse in town it skeers;
If one is now and then killed off,
You know there still will be enough.
"Oh, how we'll love to see'em go!
We've been so used to travelin' slow,
The people will come flockin' roun'
To see them keers come into town.
"I s'pose no woman'll wash a dish.
Or care much whether meat or fish
Gets fried a bit too much that day.
For every man will be away.
"The 'lectric will bring some things in
That we have hankered for like sin ;
And some things that we do not like
Will get a move on them and hike
"To other fields and pastures new.
We're sure we do not care. Do you?
I tell you it will just be grand
When City Dads take such a stand.
"Oh, don't you hear that big bell ring?
Oh, don't you hear them children sing?
Oh, don't you hear the big brass band!
Oh, can't you see the big glad hand!
"'Tis stretched to you from East and West.
Of all the lands, we love this best,
Where we have lived for many a year.
Where we have many a friend, and dear,
"And where we know we sure will die.
O Town Trustees, again we cry,
Do let old Coins' have her share.
O City Dads, do make a dare!"
"The district was organized November 22, 1887. Entirely feasible physically, it was still a disastrous failure because of the legal and financial troubles that beset all of the districts in the early nineties, but most of all because the forced irrigation of the great holdings included, averaging 870 acres for the entire district, and with forty owners holding an average of 2,225 acres each, could not possibly succeed under settlement conditions existing then or even now.COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 99
"The petition for the formation of Central Irrigation District was signed by sixty-four (supposed) freeholders, and was accompanied by the objections of nine non-resident landowners whose attitude in a way seems now to have forecasted the failure of the undertaking. Still engaged in the 'bonanza' grain-growing of the earlier and more remunerative period, when both yields and prices were higher, they conjured up visions of ruin with the bringing in of irrigation water. Irrigation would be bad for fruit, they said. It would even produce chills and would be a detriment to alkali lands. And besides, the irrigation of wheat and barley was not a success, anyway. All of the lands included, they averred, were not irrigable from the same source ; the boundaries of the district were improperly described ; and the Wright Act was unconstitutional. Further, these objectors intended in the near future to include their lands in an irrigation district of their own, which would include their residences, so that they would have a voice in the proceedings. When election time came, the opposition mustered only 51 votes out of 322, and organization prevailed.
"Unlike many of the Wright districts. Central Irrigation District started with a relatively complete engineering outline. The estimated cost was $638,900 ; and to meet this cost a bond issue of $750,000 was authorized by a vote of 189 to 36. In 1891 the estimated cost was raised by the consulting engineer to $940,364, and an additional bond issue of $250,000 recommended. The justification for this increase was said to be in the omission of allowances for organization, rights of way, and litigation in connection with construction, the three items amounting to $181,000 ; in an increase in the cost of excavation from 8.5 and 8.75 cents per cubic yard under the first contracts to 13.5 and 15.5 cents in 1891 ; and in unexpected and excessive costs of rights of way, in one case reaching as high as $212 per acre, with the usual rates $50 to $70 per acre. Bonds to the amount of $150,000 are said to have been sold for cash, and for a time the district had ample funds with which to meet contract installments. The market for bonds, however, soon became sluggish, and there were no buyers. Therefore, outside of
100 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES
small blocks given for engineering and legal services, rights of way, and preliminary purposes, the balance of the issue was mainly turned over to the superintendent of construction by nominal sale, and by him disposed of to contractors on the best terms he could get. In these various ways a total of about $570,000 of the bonds were put out. While the method of financing construction that was adopted carried the work forward for a few years, the time came when contractors would no longer accept the bonds, and in order to bolster up the market a special report on the project was made in 1891 by a consulting engineer of wide reputation, who was then largely engaged in reporting favorably on California irrigation districts. The district still remained, however, in financial distress, the opposition continuing their fight against it. In October, 1893, in order to clear up legal uncertainties and thus to stimulate bond sales, the district board brought confirmation proceedings under the then recently enacted statute permitting such proceedings. The superior court granted the confirmation sought by the directors ; but the old opposition, now ninety-one strong, appealed to the supreme court and finally succeeded in obtaining a decision that the organization proceedings of the district were illegal and null and void. In a previous case. Central Irrigation District had been upheld, but on other grounds, the correctness of which was not questioned in the later case. The main points of the later decision were that the organization petition of 1887 was not properly signed, and that the signers of an organization petition must be bona fide owners of agricultural lands desiring to improve their lands by irrigation, and not merely the owners of town property and lots, as was the case with many of the signers of the Central Irrigation District petition. While holding that bond sales made subsequent to this decision would be null and void, the validity of bonds already issued was not considered. In conformity with the decision, the matter went back to the lower court; and the new decree of the lower court, rendered March 1, 1902, was never appealed.
"The adverse decision of the supreme court above cited put an end for all time to any thought of continuing the old undertaking; and outside of a brief formal activity in 1902 and 1903, for the purpose of leasing Central Canal, no effort has been made to revive the old organization. Work on the system had practically ceased by 1891. At that time, while about forty miles out of a total of sixty-one and thirty-five hundredths miles of main canal planned had been built, the system was not continuous, and so could not be utilized ; nor had any headworks been constructed, thus preventing the running of water in the portion of the canal that was ready to receive it. The leasing of Central Canal, Jan-
nary 6, 1903, had for its purpose the placing of the old district system in the hands of interests that proposed to utilize a portion of it for conveying water to lands along Sacramento River wholly or largely lying outside of the old district. This lease was made to W.M. Sheldon, and was for a term of fifty years. Some years previously, hut after the failure of the district, B.D. Beckwith had made filings on Sacramento River, and had planned to utilize a portion of Central Canal in connection with his appropriation. Lacking capital, he interested Sheldon; and these two, after the execution of the lease of the canal, formed the Sacramento Canal Company, which later was taken over by the Central Canal and Irrigation Company, and finally by the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company. From this point forward the history of Central Irrigation District becomes merged with the history of the Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company and of its subsidiary, the Sacramento Valley West Side Canal Company. When these companies were organized, it was supposed that Central Irrigation District was finally entirely eliminated, in so far as its legal existence was concerned. The Sacramento Valley Irrigation Company gathered up most of the widely scattered bonds at a cost to it of thirty-five cents on the dollar, including accrued interest; and as one of the conditions of options secured on a large acreage of land in the old district, it agreed to guarantee lands not purchased under such options against any lien for these bonds. Later, a compromise was sought to be entered into with the landowners by which certain concessions should be made to the company in rights of way and certain other matters, in return for the destruction by the company of all of the old bonds held by it. Litigation brought on by those opposing this compromise, however, has entirely upset previous theories as to the existence of the old district and as to obligations incurred by the new company in taking over the old Sheldon lease from the district and a Congressional grant of a right to divert nine hundred cubic feet of water per second from the Sacramento River, obtained by the Central Canal and Irrigation Company, April 16, 1906. The final decision in this litigation, rendered by the supreme court, April 29, 1915, held among other things that lands within the old Central Irrigation District constitute the primary territory to which the original public use contemplated by the district and by the grant of Congress extends and continues, and that when demanded such lands must be served with water from the new system before it can lawfully be taken for use on outside lands. Through the agency of these two companies. Central Canal has been reconstructed and extended, water has been made available to approximately one hundred thousand acres of land, and considerable irrigation devel-
COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 101
opment, including irrigation by pumping from wells, has taken place. Thus, at this late date the old district comes in to complicate operations of the new companies that were organized on the theory that the old district was no longer of moment, and could not in any way limit the delivery of water to the lands outside of it, purchased, and later largely sold, by the various companies succeeding Sheldon and Beckwith. An even later decision of the California Railroad Commission, rendered June 14, 1915, that holds the Sacramento Valley West Side Canal Company to be engaged in public service, while not in any way affecting the old district, so changes the basis of water distribution by the new companies that ultimate entire reorganization, probably under one or more new districts, now seems altogether probable."
"Copper. -- About November 1, 1863, the first discovery of copper was made in township seventeen north, range six west, on south side of Little Stony Creek, by F.M. Rice and J.B. Turner, in finding a large nugget of native copper, and also rock containing considerable copper, on the grounds located by the discoverers and five of their friends as the Mary Union claim.COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 123
"The news brought within a few days many of the people from Colusa and the county at large, and also people from other parts of the state, to the locality.
"On November 4, 1863, the Commonwealth Mining District was formed. The Mary Union lode was traced in southern and northern course, and claims were located as follows : 1, Extension Copper Hill; 2, Blue Hill; 3, Colusa; 1, Little Giant; 5, Sacramento; all south of Mary Union. On the north were: 1, North Star; 2, Indian Valley; 3, Grand Island; this comprised thirty-seven thousand two hundred feet on that ledge or lode, or seven miles long in distance by six hundred feet wide. Separate lodes were found and claims located, as: The Eagle, the Blazing Star, the Wyandotte, the Lion, the Settlers' Claim and the Pioneer. A town was surveyed and laid out on the twenty-eighth section, township seventeen north, range six west, by Judge H.W. Dun-
124 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES
lap and others, named Ashton, east of Little Stony, situated on lands now owned by Josh. C. Smith and Jonathan Ping, two hotels, two stores, livery stable, blacksmith shop and mining offices constituting the town.
"Further discoveries required the formation of districts as follows :
"Stony Creek District, December 24, 1863; St. John District, January 2, 1864; Snow Mountain District, January 5, 1864; Pacific Mining District, February 6, 1864; Mountain District, March 14, 1864; Lane District, also in March, 1864. In many of these locations the principals were: W.M. Rice, T.M. Rice, J.B. Turner, R.G. Burrows, James M. Berry, N.J. Greene, G.W. Keys, J.L. Howard, C. Dixon, J. Hop. Woods, Harry Pevton, J.A. Rush, H. Fairchild, W.K. Estill, G.W. Ware, Amos Roberts, J.K. Weast, J.W. Lane, Gil. Roberts, Judge H.W. Dunlap, Fred Clay, Mart Gibson, H.A. Van Dorsten, A. d'Artenay, William Johnson, J.J. Lett, H. Mitchum, W.M. Gassuway, Dav. Lett, Henry McCausland, J.C. Johns, A.N. Greene, Thomas Votaw, W.W. Greene, D.A. Greene, Jackson Hart, L.H. Baker, Joseph Whitlock, J.W. Goad, Stewart Harris, W.W. Noble, Charles Denmark, G.W. Noble, Joseph Ingrim, Thomas Talbot, J.W. Brim, James Taggert, A.J. Slye, and Julius Weyand, all of Colusa County, besides many persons from adjoining counties and the state.
"The agents of Flood & O'Brien, of San Francisco, had located a claim (the Ophir) running over and into the lines of the Mary Union Company, and a dispute arose between the parties, which was adjusted by a miners' meeting on February 4, 1864, deciding that Flood & O'Brien had to abandon their location. The parties did do so at once, and left for San Francisco, and, as appeared afterwards, to the injury of the further exploration of the locality. Their instructions were to spend a large sum of money before they should give up the work.
"The ores found in all this territory were native copper, red and black oxides, blue carbonates or indigo copper, and gray ore, the red oxides always carrying a trace of gold, and the gray ore a small per cent, of silver. Assays run as high as thirty-three per cent, copper.
"Strata of ore were found all over the country, claimed to be well-defined ledges, and as such were located, though hardly ever worked to prove their value.
"All well-defined ledges ran from southeast to northwest.
"The most work was done on the Mary Union, Copper Hill, the Colusa, the Sacramento, the Pacific, the Lion ; and all of them undoubtedly will develop into mines of value if worked properly.
COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 125
"During the first excitement of the new discovery, there were incorporated the following claims:
Nov. 14, 1863, Mary Union Co., 1200 shares, at 40 $18,000 Dec. 17, 1863, Colusa Co., 345 shares, at 100 34,500 Dec. 31, 1863, Pioneer Co., 3300 shares, at 5 16,500 Jan. 8, 1864, Copper Hill Co., 4500 shares, at 5 22,500 Jan. 25, 1864, North Star Co., 4500 shares, at 4 18,000 Jan. 25, 1864, Blazing Star Co., 3900 shares, at 10 39,000 Feb. 6, 1864, Pacific Co March 7, 1864, Sacramento Co., 5400 shares, at 5 27,000 June 15, 1867, Lion Co., 5400 shares, at 20 108,000
"The work in 1864 shows the Mary Union shaft about fifty feet and several cuts or short tunnels; the Copper Hill shaft, ninety-five feet ; the North Star tunnel, sixty feet ; the Lion shaft, forty-two feet, and incline about sixty-five feet. The quantity of ore was small, the quality good. In the fall of 1864 the development of the mines was not satisfactory to the stockholders, the assessments became delinquent, and a great portion of the stock had to be taken by the company, for the assessment. Outside mining speculators and prospectors paid no more attention to our mining region, from the date of the Flood & O'Brien agents leaving the locality, and our home capitalists and stockholders only offered to sell what they had, never offered to help develop the lodes.
"Work was suspended for the season, and several attempts were made in 1865 to resume work; the only company continuing work was the Lion, which took out some fine ore.
"A. d'Artenay, the principal owner, had assays made on Lion ore. These appearing satisfactory, he made preparations for erection of smelting works near the mine. In 1866, when every preparation for the enterprise was arranged, he died. His brother, T. d'Artenay, and Fred Schrieber, of Marysville, proceeded in behalf of the company. Professor Isenbeck erected a fire-clay cupola furnace, steam engine for crushing ore and blast, at a great expense of money. The taking out of ore, hauling to smelt the ore and coal, and running the smelting works, were only commenced when the furnace failed to do the work. A steady flow of the molten mass could not be accomplished; several trials were attempted, but all failed, and the furnace was declared unfit to smelt this kind of ore. Coffee & Risdon, of San Francisco, offered to put up a Haskell iron, water-lined furnace, warranting the same to smelt the Lion ore profitably and satisfactorily. The company agreed to their proposition, and the furnace was erected, and put under the management of their agents, Messrs. Johnson and Norcross, both being experienced smelters. They could run out a few copper brick in good shape; but after one or two hours' run, the metal would chill or freeze, and the furnace had to be. cleared of the substance causing the failure. This proved to be
126 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES
asbestos, which does not melt nor flow off, and, when completely covering the surface of the furnace, will prevent its flow.
"Mr. Norcross gave his opinion that only a reverberatory furnace of the Swansea pattern could successfully and profitably smelt this quality of ore. The Haskell furnace was shipped back to San Francisco, and other attempts to smelt this ore have not been made since ; the trustees continued to develop their lode, and as their ore, assayed by State Assayer Hanks, showed twenty-one per cent, copper, they shipped several tons to San Francisco in 1876, but did not realize enough for cost of production. The company has a quantity of ore on the dump, but cannot figure out a profit to keep at work, and therefore have suspended.
"In 1877 J.W. Brim, Jackson Hart, George Heath and W.K. Aldersley took several tons of ore from the Mary Union and Copper Hill grounds and shipped it to San Francisco, but failed to pay expenses and discontinued.
"In 1880, E.A. Frenzel, H. Gehrt, G.W. Hopkins, and James W. Warwick relocated claims on the Mary Union and Copper Hill grounds, working two seasons, finding new deposits, and running a tunnel to main lode, but suspended work to await a better value of copper.
"In 1883, J.L. Jordan, of Santa Rosa, and J.W. Cook, now of Maxwell, relocated the grounds of the Colusa Company, working some time ; but they suspended, and since that time nothing has been done in these mines.
"Coal was discovered in the foothills on the road between McMichael's, in Antelope, and G.C. Ingrim's, in Bear Valley, in the spring of 1855, by Isaac Howell and son; but no developments were made.
"In 1865, J.B. Turner also found coal on the left bank of Little Stony Creek, near Ashton, of good quality, but never developed any of the seams.
"In 1882, E.S. Ashley, in Antelope Canon [with tilde], one half mile east of Sites, found coal of fine quality. A tunnel was started to examine the extent of the deposit; but this not appearing satisfactory, work was stopped.
"In 1887, John Arnett discovered a good vein on Little Stony Creek, two miles southeast of Smithville. Not considering it profitable, no further exploration was made by him. As coal exists in many places in the western part of the county, the discovery of large deposits will depend on the pospector [sic] of a future day.
"Gold and Silver.-- In 1864, J.W. Brim, J.K. Weast and others found quartz containing both metals on Trout Creek, at the foot of Snow Mountain, situated a few miles west of Fouts
[photo The Stone Corral ]
Springs. They put up an arrastra and worked a few months ; but returns not being satisfactory, they suspended.
"About the same time the Manzanita mine, at Sulphur Creek, was worked by Woodruff Clark and William Cherry, for gold, paying fairly well. There were other silver claims prospected, namely, the Foolcatcher, by San Francisco parties, but only to a very small extent.
"Quicksilver was discovered in 1865, in the western part of Bear Valley, and across the line in Lake County.
"The Abbot mine for several years paid well. The Ingrim, Buckeye and Sulphur Creek were developed and beginning to pay a profit, when the price of the metal fell to fifty per cent, of former values, and the production was not profitable. J. Furth, J.W. Brim, J. Hart, W.S. Green, G.C. Ingrim and others were prominent in that industry. Their works were closed and have never been reopened.
"Sulphur exists in large deposits at Sulphur Creek, whence Johnson, of Sulphur Creek, shipped a great quantity in 1866 and 1867. The shipment is now discontinued.
"Petroleum was found in many places in Antelope and Bear Valley in February, 1865. The Lane Mining District was organized at that time. Quite an excitement was created by the news, and people came rushing to the hills to locate claims, and to bore for oil. Louis Lewis bored with hand-drills, on what is known as the Glotzbach place, on Freshwater, a well about four hundred feet deep, the same now being a flowing well emitting a strong inflammable gas, burning freely if conducted through a funnel and set afire. The oil was not in sufficient quantity, and the gas could not be used profitably ; so the place was deserted by Lewis.
"Hughes and Mrs. Warner, of Sacramento, used a steam engine in boring for oil at Mr. Lane's, now McMichael's place. They never succeeded in finding oil worth mentioning.
"Taylor, of Virginia City, bored at the Gilmore ranch, in Bear Valley; and several others bored in different places in the foothills. Not being successful, they suspended work, and no new effort has been made since to prospect for oil.
"Chrome Ore. -- This ore was discovered in township nineteen north, range six west, on Big Stony Creek, by J.P. Rathbun, William Needham and others, several years ago.
"Several shipments of the ore were made; its quality was reported to be good, but the work was discontinued from some cause not known. A mine is now being opened southwest of Newville.
"Limestone was also found by Rathbun Brothers, in township sixteen north, range five west, two miles north of Leesville,
on the Indian Valley road, in 1878. They erected a limekiln and burned lime of very good quality ; but the limited demand in the vicinity was the cause for stopping further prosecution of work."
"My friends, we are here tonight to celebrate the fiftieth year of our existence as a church, which was organized by Brother James Kelsey in the year 1859. Rev. Moses Clampit was the first presiding elder of what was then called the Marysville District; and James Kelsey was the pastor of Colusa Circuit, which embraced Grand Island, Colusa, Princeton and Marvin Chapel, then known as Davis schoolhouse.144 COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES
"Brother Kelsey told me that, the first time he came to Colusa, about a mile below the town he met a man in a wagon, and he stopped him and inquired if he could tell him if there were any Christians in Colusa. The man looked at him apparently a little surprised, and said, 'Mister, you are a stranger to me, but I will bet you this jug of whiskey against five dollars that you can't find a Christian in Colusa.'
COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 145
"Brother Kelsey came on a little further, when he came to a gallows where they had hanged a man a few days before. But the sainted Kelsey did not let these things move nor discourage him; he came on to town, and here he found a few faithful Christian men and women -- W.F. Goad, Mrs. George F. Jones, of Chico, J.T. Marr and his good wife, and a few others. He then organized this church, and preached here once a month in the old courthouse, which was used for preaching at that time. It was the house occupied by Judge Moore as a residence until a few years ago.
"A Sunday school was then organized, and W.F. Goad was the first superintendent. In the year 1860, Rev. B.R. Johnson was our presiding elder, and J.G. Shelton preacher in charge. That year we built the parsonage now occupied by Brother Horn. In 1861 T.C. Barton was presiding elder, and J.G. Johnson preacher in charge. In 1862 O. Fisher was presiding elder, and T.C. Barton preacher in charge. In 1863 O. Fisher was presiding elder and I.G. Hopkins preacher in charge. We then had preaching and all church services in the new courthouse. In 1864 T.C. Barton was presiding elder, and T.S. Burnett was preacher in charge. Brother Burnett was the brother of the first governor of California. In 1865 T.C. Barton was presiding elder, and J.G. Shelton was preacher in charge. That year the first church choir was organized in Colusa by Mrs. Ella B. Wall. She had given a concert and purchased an organ. The choir had met several times for practice and were prepared to give good music. District court had been in session for several days, and preaching was in the court room. Judge Keyser and a number of distinguished attorneys from abroad were in the congregation. Brother Shelton arose in the judge's stand and announced the first hymn, read the first two lines, and turned to the choir and said, 'You may sing it now, after a while, or not at all, just as you please.' One of the choir said, 'We will sing it now'; and they did. This was the beginning of choir singing in Colusa.
"In 1867-1868 P.O. Clayton was presiding elder, and J.G. Shelton was preacher in charge. During these years, the little old church was built by Brother Shelton, and dedicated by Bishop Marvin, and Colusa was changed from a circuit to a station.
"In 1868, at the conference in October, P.O. Clayton was appointed presiding elder, and L.C. Renfro preacher in charge; and they were here three years, until 1871.
"In 1871-1872 T.H.B. Anderson was presiding elder, and G.W. Fleming and E.K. Miller preachers in charge. During 1873-1875 T.C. Barton was presiding elder, and E.K. Miller preacher in charge. In 1873 the Pacific Annual Conference was held in
Colusa by Bishop Doggett. On Sunday morning Bishop Doggett preached in the theater; and Brother Hoss, now Bishop Hoss, preached at night. In 1876 T.C. Barton was presiding elder, and J.C. Heyden was preacher in charge. In October, 1876, Rev. George Sim was appointed presiding elder, and T.H.B. Anderson preacher in charge. During the pastorate of the latter, this Trinity Church was built, the corner stone being laid on the 15th day of August, 1877, under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of California. Hon. W.C. Belcher, of Marysville, acted as Grand Master. The day was beautiful, and all Masonic lodges in Colusa County were represented. Brothers Sim and Anderson were here two years. James Kelsey was presiding elder, and T.H.B. Anderson preacher in charge, from October, 1878, to October, 1879.
"The building committee that built this church was T.H.B. Anderson, chairman; J.W. Goad, secretary; W.R. Merrill, J.T. Marr, C.C. Crommer, Jackson Hart, George Hagar and E.W. Jones. J.B. Danner was the builder of the brick work. Rice and Beach were the carpenters, and A.A. Cook, of Sacramento, architect. The cost of the building and furniture was $25,000, or thereabouts. It was dedicated February 20, 1881.
"The preachers that have served this congregation since then are as follows: In 1880, C.C. Chamberlain ; 1881 to 1883, T.A. Atkinson; 1883 to 1887, T.H.B. Anderson; 1887 to 1890, J.C. Simmons; 1890 to 1892, R.J. Briggs; 1892, E.A. Garrison; 1893, C.E.W. Smith; 1894 to 1898, R.F. Allen; 1898 to 1900, C.M. Davenport; 1900 to 1904, J.E. Squires; 1904 to 1906, W.P. Baird; 1906, J.R. Ward; 1907 to the present date, J. W. Horn.
"This church has been a power for good in this community; its influence cannot be estimated in this town and county. Among the beautiful pictures that hang on my memory's wall is this church and its membership. When I think of Kelsey, Shelton, Miller, Barton, Fisher, Chamberlain, Simmons, Garrison, Allen, and a host of others that have labored here with us, and that have gone on before and are now walking the golden streets, I almost wish that I were there. When they meet, it may be that they wonder why it is that we. Brother Anderson, tarry here so long. My prayer is, that we may so live that when the summons comes for us to join the innumerable company, we may hear the welcome plaudit, 'Well done, good and faithful servants'."
"The plains were dotted with scattering groves of spreading oaks; while the clover and wild grasses, three or four feet high, were most luxuriant. The fertility of the soil was beyond question. The water of Chico Creek was cold, clear and sparkling; the mountains, flower-covered and lovely. In my chase for stolen horses I had come across a country that was to me a revelation; and as I proceeded up the valley, through what was later Colusa County and beyond it, I was struck with wonder and delight at this almost interminable land of promise."
"It so happened that Castro had sent Lieutenant Arce to the north side of San Francisco Bay to collect scattered government horses. Arce had secured about a hundred and fifty, and was taking them to the south side of the Bay, via Sutter's Fort, and to the San Joaquin Valley. . . . Fremont, hearing that the horses were passing, sent a party . . . and captured them. This, of course, was done before he had orders or any positive news that war was declared. . . . Thus, without giving the least notice to Sutter, the great friend of Americans, or to Americans in general, scattered and exposed as they were all over California, he precipitated the war."
"Beginning at a point on the summit of the Coast Range mountains due west from the Red Bluffs, and running thence due east to the said bluffs on the Sacramento River, thence down the middle of said river to the northwest corner of Sutter County, thence due west along the northern border of Yolo County to the summit of the Coast Range, thence in a northwesterly directionCOLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 195
following the summit of said range to the point of beginning."The district thus defined was attached to Butte County for judicial purposes.
"O, I'm the crew and the captain bold.The following extract from one of Ide's letters to his brother may serve to heighten the picture of his manifold titles and duties :
And the mate of the Nancy brig.
And the bosun tight and the midship mite.
And the crew of the captain's gig'."
"Monroeville, Colusi County, Cal., November 9, 1851.COLUSA AND GLENN COUNTIES 197
"I am seated in the office of County Clerk of Colusi County, where I am at present, by virtue of the elective franchise, having been made Judge of the County Court, civil and criminal, president of the Commissioners' Court, or the Court of Sessions of said county, and Judge of Probate; and, by appointment duly recorded, I am made the County Clerk, Clerk of the District Court (Ninth District), and of the Court of Sessions, Clerk of the Probate Court, County Recorder and County Auditor. These several offices, at present, limit my official duties; but I suppose I shall, just to accommodate our floating population, be compelled to serve as Treasurer, Deputy Sheriff, Deputy County Surveyor, and very probably as Coroner and Justice of the Peace, and very probably as Deputy Notary Public.
"This account may excite some surprise, but I will explain: nine tenths of our population are here today, and tomorrow are somewhere else. Our population is like birds of passage, except
that their migrations are not exactly periodical. All the circumstances which combine to make it difficult to obtain responsible and permanent county officers combine to make these officers necessary. At present ten individuals pay more than three fourths of the taxes paid in the county, and comprise nearly all of its permanent residents. These men as a general thing reside on their ranchos, to attend to their private atfairs, and are the only residents of the county who are able to give the requisite bonds. At the polls the non-residents, when they unite, have the elections as they please; and the result is that transient, irresponsible persons are elected and bonds of a like character are filed. Last year the sovereign people elected as County Judge (who is the acceptor or rejector of all official bonds) a dissipated lawyer, who of course accepted such bonds as came to hand; and the administration of public affairs, financially, went on swimmingly for a few months -- all the offices were promptly filled, bonds filed, and gin, wine and brandy bottles and glasses occupied the places of stationery. The records of the courts became unintelligible to sober people. Not a court of any kind, except Justice of the Peace Courts, was held within the county (except the Court of Sessions, and that was uniformly conducted by the Senior Justice, while the presiding judge was otherwise employed).According to Green's History of Colusa County, J.C. Huls, one of Ide's fellow officers during his term as judge, is authority for the following anecdote, which illustrates the versatility of Ide in discharging the duties of several offices simultaneously.
"The property holders, as we are called here, refused to pay their taxes on the ground of the insufficiency of official bonds. . . . Judge _______ resigned, and the election resulted in the choice of one of the property owners, your brother. And a further result was that legal bonds are required, which transient persons cannot procure."
"While in this place, I made a trip with seven others for Tanner and Fowler, all having ox teams with the exception of Tanner, who was with us; and he had horses. Loaded with freight, it took seventeen days to make a fifty-mile trip. Tanner and Fowler got a dollar and a half per pound for hauling this freight. On this trip we were mired down a good part of the time, for the roads were awfully muddy. . . .
"My stepfather bought an ox team from an emigrant and gave it to me. The best day's work I ever did in my life was with this team. I hauled one load of flour to Mormon Island, on the river just above Folsom, then a mining town. When I reached Mormon Island the man paid me in gold dust. It was a little red toy barrel level full. I had three yoke of oxen on this trip. When I started home I kept thinking about Indians, as two white men had recently been killed by them. I was only a boy, and as darkness came on I was afraid to camp on the road, so kept on going until I got home, arriving there at midnight. . . .
"I afterwards took the gold dust I received for this trip with me to New York, and had it coined. They gave me one hundred forty four dollars for it."
"It is our business to develop the Sacramento Valley, and in behalf of the Association I wish to say that we will do this. I have a valuable history of irrigation work since I have been in the great valley, and the value of that work is incalculable ; I recognize its full force when I hear these people speak of the vastness of the preparation and the money they are spending in preparing their plans for this work for the United States government. I undertook to do it all individually, and to demonstrate what could be done. Doing my own engineering and paying my own expenses, I located the present Central Canal and prophesied this work, and now I find that the United States will take years to go ahead, and feel how small have been my efforts. But, gentlemen, my only hope, as I am on the decline of life, is that some day I may stand on Pisgah and see a Promised Land for God's people in this valley. Then I will be ready to die."The fact was, that, in every essential, in outline and in detail, in its hydrography, agriculture, proper division of landholdings, transportation and economics, he had worked out the whole problem to a solution ; and those who follow will use his work or rediscover what was to him an open book of principles. That was his last public utterance, and the contrasts of the occasion gave the full measure of his work. His footsteps had plodded over the whole field, and then came the government, paying tens of thousands only to follow him.
Softly part away the tresses
From her forehead of white clay.
And across her snow-white bosom
Let her pale hands lightly lay:
Never idle in her lifetime
Were they folded thus away.
She hath lived a life of labor.
She hath done with toil and care ;
She hath lived a life of sorrow,
She hath nothing more to bear ;
And the lips that never murmured.
Nevermore shall move in prayer.