Excerpts from Sacramento Daily Union
California Floods of 1861-1862

(c) 2012, 2016, Mike Barkley


Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3337, 7 December 1861 p. 2


UNFORTUNATE--Indian Agent Hanson, while endeavoring to cross the mountains recently, with about three hundred head of cattle for the Nome Cult Reservation, was compelled by the depth of the snow and the exhausted state of the cattle to abandon the whole drove, being unable to save a single head.

p. 3


YESTERDAY -- A strong southerly wind prevailed in the latitude of Sacramento during the greater portion of yesterday, which, together with a lowering sky and a drizzling rain, gave promise of a severe and prolonged rain. The effect of the wind was seen and heard in the breaking down of swinging signs, the tearing of awnings, the loosing of tin roofs, etc. Notwithstanding the mud in our streets and the slight rains through the day, there was constantly dust enough in the atmosphere, gathered up from some unknown and unimaginable source, to blind temporarily the eyes of all who were not guarded in the use of it. . . .

A HARD TRIP.-- It is generally supposed that the climate of California is a mild one. So it is in many localities. The following case, cited by the Red Bluff Beacon of Dec. 5th, is an instance of severe weather and hard traveling:

L. C. Johnson, of the firm of Reis & Co., left the neighborhood of Downieville nearly four weeks since, and only succeeded in reaching here last Sunday. He reports immense quantities of snow on the mountains, almost down to the Sacramento Valley. For several days he was not able to make over five or six miles each day. Johnson is a stout and able man, and has been for many years engaged in driving cattle over the mountains, and the trail must indeed have been very bad to cause him to have been so long in making the trip. He says the "oldest inhabitant" represents that it has been the hardest storm, for the first one of the season, that has occurred for many years.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3338, 9 December 1861 p. 4


The heavy storm of wind and rain has not only suspended telegraphic communication between. California and the East, but has obstructed most of the State lines. The fall of rain at the North of us has been very heavy, and the Yuba, Feather. Sacramento and American rivers are still raised to a threatening hight. All over the country the roads are bad, and in many places, unpassable. Bridges have given way before the freshets in several mountain streams, and altogether the rain is making considerable trouble . The stage which connects at Lincoln with the railroad, and conveys passengers to Marysville, failed to reach the latter place up to a late hour Saturday evening, although due at one o'clock in the day. A portion of the Yuba has taken a short cut into the Feather river, leaving i's [sic] old course at a point a little above its mouth, and crossing the fields to empty into the Feather, farther down stream. If the Yuba river has drawn out from under the Yuba river bridge at Marysville, the approach to that city from the south side of the river will be rather inconvenient uutil ferry accommodations are provided. . The Yuba river was within three inches of high water mark of last [?]: winter, yesterday morning. We learn that the north fork of the American river at Auburn was higher last evening than it was ever known to be before.

At this point the Sacramento and American are up to a high mark, but not so high by four feet as they stood several weeks last winter. . . .

THE STORM.--The storm of the past week has been severe in the northern section of the State, carrying away a number of bridges and rendering some of the mountain roads next to impassable. At Marysville on Friday the fall of rain was very heavy, and the Yuba and Feather rivers were rapidly rising. The Appeal of yesday [sic] ran [?] the following, in reference to the storm:

Night before last the storm of wind and rain increased to a great hight, and extended, it would appear, over a great circuit of country in this vicinity. The towns as far up as Strawberry Valley and the Columbus House report rain having fallen in large quantity, and, as a consequence, all the creeks and larger streams have filled up with astonishing rapidity. Nearly all of the stages were late, and some of them, the San Juan, Downieville and Lincoln, failed to arrive at all up to a late hour last night. The Lincoln stage was detained by the rapid rise in the sloughs between this point and Johnson's, though it would have been impossible to reach town [?] by the road over the Yuba bridge at this place, as the Yuba was making a clean sweep across the tongue of land between the Feather and Yuba at dark last night. The Yuba's rise was about nine feet at that time, and the rise in the Feather something less. Should the rise continue we should have another disastrous freshet, but the sudden rise of the streams, so unusual for this season of the year, is not likely to be any greater, and, unless more rain has fallen in the mountains than here, the fall will be as. rapid as the rise.

In Trinity county, on the road from the Tower House to Weaverville, Lowden's bridge and two smaller ones have been carried away by freshets; and in Trinity Valley, one small bridge has been taken off in the same way, while several others have been so damaged as to be rendered useless until they can be repaired.

The road between Shasta and Yreka is well nigh impassable, and no mails from north of Shasta were received at the Post Office in this city during last week.

Samuel Langton, wno arrived at San Juan (Nevada county,) on Tuesday last, informed the Press that the recent rains have melted nearly all the snows on the mountains.

At Nevada the rain fell in torrents on Friday. The Democrat of Saturday says:

We are in the midst of another unusually heavy rain storm, which has continued without interruption for the last twenty-four hours, and as we go to press (at four P. M.,) there is no appearance of the storm abating. The great fall of rain has caused a sudden rise in the mountain streams, and an overflow of the Sacramento is anticipated.

The Transcript of the same date says:

"The greatest fall of rain we have known for some years fell on Friday night. The water actually [?] fell in torrents. Yesterday was emphatically a day the wettest among the wet. Deer Creek is higher than it was any time last winter. . . .

GOT THE START OF HIM.--The sudden rise of the river will bluff off the contractor to build a bulkhead at Rabel's Tannery. Rightmire has given bond to complete the work within a given time, but the river now promises to give him no chance to work during the Winter. The rise, too, is unprecedented for this season of the year, though our highest water in 1853--when the city was flooded--we believe was Christmas day. First of January calls were made in boats. The bank and levee at Rabel's are just as they stood last year, through all the very high water of the season, and therefore fully as able to withstand a flood. The only danger of injury to the levee is met when the river is at about half stage, and the Sacramento considerably lower. The American under such circumstances runs with a strong current and cuts away its banks wherever a sharp bend occurs. But when the Sacramento rises, as it has this season, before the American, the danger of undermining the bank so as to drop the levee into the water ceases, and the water must overtop it before it can commit any ravages inside. The high stage of the American yesterday shows that we may look for a full tide here, particularly as it rained tremendously yesterday afternoon and until we went to press. From the appearance of our streets last night, it is safe to estimate that the high grade to-day is in the majority.


The Storm -. . . .

San Francisco, Dec. 8th,

lt has been raining here all day, with high wind. . . .

p. 5


RISE IN THE RIVER.--During the past week the water in the Sacramento river has stood, at the foot of N street, according to the city guage, at from eleven to twelve feet above low water mark. At about noon on Saturday, a gradual rise commenced, which continued through the day. During the night and early yesterday morning the advance was more rapid, and at dusk last evening the water stood at seventeen feet eight inches above low water mark. The rise within thirty hours was about six feet. This hight is unprecedented at this season of the year. The highest point attained last year--later in the season--was twenty-one feet nine inches, or four feet one inch above the figures of last evening. The Sacramento and the American rivers have mutually contributed to this result. During the past week the upper Sacramento has been so high that the banks at Colusa have overflowed. Within the past few days there have been heavy rains in the mountains, which through the melting of the snows caused the American to rise suddenly about midnight on Saturday night. At about that time it rose so high as to flow over the bank at Mrs. McKeon's ranch, opposite Seventh street, into Sutter slough. By daylight the slough was filled with water, up to within four feet of last year's high water. A considerable portion of the river bank, in addition to that which was destroyed last year below Mrs. KcKeons house, was washed away in the night, inclnding several large sycamore trees. Yesterday afternoon the low section of road between Lisle's bridge and Hubbard's Garden, was several feet under water. The levee below R street, at a late hour yesterday afternoon, appeared to suffer little or none from the sadden rise. An active eddy is still formed by the old bark Ninus, but it appears to be leas destructive than last year. This point may, however, require attention from the proper authorities if the river continues to rise. The melting of immense quantities of snow had swollen the Feather, the Yubas and the Bear rivers on Friday and Saturday, according to accounts from that region of the State. The Bear river bridge at Johnson's ranch was swept away on Friday night, and the Marysville stage from Lincoln was compelled to return to the last named locality with Saturday morning's passengers. We are informed that during the afternoon of yesterday several of the residents of the vicinity of Rabel's tannery were engaged in repairing and strengthening the levee at that point. . . .

Rain.-- After several days of threatening weather, we were visited yesterday afternoon by a heavy shower. The rain commenced about noon and continued until nine o'clock. At that hour, the clouds in the southwest gave indications of breaking up, and the moon made its appearance. At that hour there had fallen during the day as we learn from Dr. Logan, 1.550 inches. This, added to the amount which had previously fallen, since the first of the month, makes the amount for December 1.630. The amount which fell in November was 2.170. Total rain of the season, 3.800.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3339, 10 December 1861 p. 2


The flood has deprived us of the mails, and the telegraphic wires being very badly deranged, knowledge of affairs in the outside world is rather limited. The communication between any given block in the city and the next is attended with much trouble and some peril. We give as full particulars concerning the inundation as could be gathered at such a time. . . . .

DEER IN AMADOR.-- The Ledger says: We have been informed that the section of country between Jackson and Lancia Plana abounds with deer, doubtless driven out of the mountains by the recent heavy snow storms.


Another calamity has overtaken our city. After having escaped for nine years--a time so long that many of our citizens had concluded the city was safe from damage by water--Sacramento was yesterday subjected to suffering and damage from the deepest and most destructive flood of those to which she has been exposed. It came, too, with the rapidity of a hurricane. In a few hours after the water crossed the levee, the whole city was under water. The flood precipitated itself upon us without warning, and found people totally unprepared. The levee is now an injury instead of a benefit, as it confines the water in the city, and has caused it to rise higher by probably two feet than it would have done had no levee existed on the south side.

Our system of levees embraces a line on the Sacramento from the mouth of the American South to Sutterville; a line from the mouth of the American along and near the river to a point east of Smith's Garden, some three or more miles from Front street. In 1853 a line was built for the better protection of the city, beginning on the Sacramento where R street strikes it, and running east on that street to about Sixteenth street, thence in a northeasterly direction along the slough by Sutter's Fort, until it strikes Thirty-first street--the eastern limit of the city--thence north with that street until it intersects the levee which runs up the American river. The city is thus surrounded by a levee. All the floods which had devastated Sacramento previous to the time the levee on the south and east of the city was constructed, came from the American river, and broke over the bank and levee east of Thirty-first street and outside of the city limits. It was believed that the levee on Thirty-first street in connection with the one on R street would protect the city from any flood, caused by a break in the levee, east of Thirty-first street. The American, this year, true to its old habits, burst over, and through the levee east of the city limits, and outside the levee on Thirty-first street. The water followed down that levee, on the outside, and would have passed harmlessly by the city, had it not unfortunately met with an obstacle in the railroad embankment. The railroad enters the city on R street, strikes the R street levee at Sixteenth street, thence down that levee to Front street. Before reaching Sixteenth street it crosses the old slough bed at the point where it was intended the water should pass, and the ordinance granting the company the right to enter the city, contained a provision that the company should build a bridge for so many yards in length. This was done, and the bridge kept open for several years, but within the past two or three the managing agents of the Company have taken the responsibility of filling up the space with earth and knocking away the bridge timbers. This was an illegal act, and was the cause of bringing upon the city the present terrible calamity. Had the bridge been left as the law specified, the flood from the American would have passed the city and left it unharmed. But it plunged directly against the railroad embankment--which was nearly or quite as high as the levee--and, as a consequence, rose until it overtopped both the levee and the railroad embankment. Which first gave way, we are not advised, but believe a breach was made first in the railroad embankment. The water set back so as to flow over the levee and into the city for a mile or more in width. For hours the water was from four to five feet lower south of the railroad after the water broke over than it was north of it; such, too, was the fact as to the level of the water in the city and outside of the levee. But long before this it has doubtless found its level, as the R street levee, notwithstanding it has been cut in several places, still backs the water up to a considerable extent in the city.

The levee at Rabel's Tannery, which is inside the corporate limits, and which was considered the weakest of any other, was standing at last accounts last night. It was relieved by the break above, though it seemed yesterday as if it would finally give way before the world of water which was pressing against it. If the levee gives way there, the depth of water will be considerably increased. After the water overtopped the levee above the railroad, it rushed through the southern portion of the city at a rate which in a single hour submerged many one-story houses to the roof. Before midday numbers of small tenements were floating, the inmates being rescued with difficulty. So powerful was the current created through the levee where openings were made, that houses were carried through them in several instances. The difficulties attending the removal of families surrounded by water have been very great. Several persons were drowned; and, had the water broken in during the night, the loss of life must have been fearfully great. Horses, cows, hogs, fowls, etc., have been drowned, but how many we have no means of ascertaining. The damage to property has been great and may be greater. Thousands to-night are houseless, while hundreds of families are in second stories, without the means of making fires.

The prospect is gloomy in the extreme for those who have been driven from their houses. The sad scenes witnessed and the sufferings experienced in a city of fifteen thousand inhabitants on such a day as yesterday, cannot be described. We are writing surrounded by water, and with the liquid element within a few inches of the fire under the boilers.

This is the fourth flood to which Sacramento has been subjected since 1849; one in the Winter of 1850; the second in 1851; the third on the 19th of December, 1852, which was renewed on the 31st of the same month. In that year people made their New Year's calls in boats. The fourth is now upon us. But Sacramentans never despair. They have always risen superior to all misfortunes by fire and flood, as they will above this when time has been given to recuperate. . . .

TERRIBLE FLOOD OF THE CITY. [all one paragraph]

It is our duty to record this morning the fact that our city has been visited by the most extraordinary flood ever known since the settlement of the State by Americans. We mentioned yesterday that the American, and Sacramento rivers had risen to a point about eighteen feet above low water mark--a point never before attained so early in the season. The rains of Sunday afternoon of course melted the snows in the mountains, which is the probable cause of the disaster from which or [sic] city has suffered incalculable injury. At about eight o'clock yesterday morning, it was announced that the levee had given way on the eastern boundary of the city, and that that portion of the city was being rapidly flooded. The report was treated by many, at first, as an idle rumor, but within an hour the fact become generally known that an immense volume of water was steadily advancing from the direction indicated. It appears that during the night the water had overflowed and broken down the levee of the American river east of the City Laundry, and had flooded a large area of country southward from that point. An immense volume of water collected in the angle north of Poverty Ridge, and east of the the [sic] levee which runs diagonally from R and Seventeenth streets to the vicinity of Sutter Fort. The water commenced to come through the openings of this levee before six o'clock in the morning, but as the progress of the current was entirely checked by the embankment of the R street railroad, such a mass accumulated in the angle and along the line of the eastern levee that at about eight o'clock it commenced to flow over the top, nearly all along the line from R street and the fort, and at various points north of the fort. All the streets of the city south of J were flooded by nine o'clock as far west as Eleventh and Twelfth streets, and many of them as far as Ninth and Tenth streets The tendency of the destructive current seemed to be along the southern section of the city--the R street levee damming it up and preventing its natural flow towards Sutterville. Residents of that section of the city, even when notified by their friends, seemed unable to realize their danger until their houses were surrounded by a rapidly rising current. Before nine o'clock many women and children in one story houses were entirely surrounded and hemmed in east of Eleventh and Twelfth streets, and in many instances their calls for assistance were distressing. There were at that hour brought into service, and the only means of transporting this class to dry land, mules, horses, wagons, etc. As early as nine o'clock there was a very general movement among stock owners and livery stable keepers, to drive out of the city, horses, mules, cattle, hogs, etc. All efforts at exit on the east were unavailing, and throughout the day large quantities of stock were driven across the Yolo bridge and down the levee towards Sutterville. When the water at ten and eleven o'clock reached the low portion of the city, at Fifth and Sixth streets, north of the railroad, its depth was so great as to set afloat and turn over a large number of houses in that vicinity. From very many of these houses, for the space of from one to two hours, women could be seen from the railroad at doors and windows calling for boats, or any means of transportation to the higher portion of the city. Boats were at first scarce, and for some time it seemed as though many lives must inevitably be lost. All the boats at the levee were soon brought into requisition; many were placed on wagons, and others were carried to the edge of the water, and were there manned and rendered heroic service in rescuing women and children from their perilous positions. We have heard the names of John Fisher and J. A. Duffy spoken of in terms of gratitude in this connection, as having rendered essential service. There are scores of others, as we know by observation, whose names we have not received, who did equally well. As the water arrived at the vicinity of the Pavilion, corner of Sixth and M streets, many families were driven from their homes and had no place of shelter. The doors of the Pavilion were locked, and there was no one present with keys. C. L. Knowles, with an ax, burst open one of the doors of the upper story, and then put a notice inviting families to take refuge within. The invitation was not thrown away. During the day. the Howard Benevolent Society accommodated in the building some two hundred persons, men, women and children--having kept four boats running constantly, bringing off from the flooded district those who were without the means of transportation. This number was fed by a cauldron being prepared for the supply of soup, and furnished with blankets at night for lodging. The water continued to back up from the R street levee, and flood in turn M, L, K and J streets. Soon after one o'clock these streets were from two to four feet under water. The inmates of one-story residences generally deserted them, while those who occupied two-story buildings engaged themselves actively in carrying into the second story all movable things. The cellars in town were of course filled with water and large quantities of stores were destroyed. Boats, scows, rafts, and every imaginable kind of water craft was brought into play on our streets. Men, women and children, furniture, provisions and clothing, were removed by these floating craft, and many an amusing incident occurred from the upsetting of portions of the flotilla, and from foot passengers, while walking in two or three feet of water, plunging unexpectedly in newly washed holes in the streets. At about 11 o'clock in the forenoon, the chain gang, under the direction of Overseers Long and Dreman, cut an opening in the R street levee between Fifth and Sixth streets. When the water first commenced to pass through the opening towards Sutterville, there was a fall from the city side of from eight to ten feet. It rushed through in a perfect torrent, almost equaling in volume and violence the mouth of the American river on the occasion of a sudden freshet in it when the Sacramento is low. A large number of houses in the immediate vicinity had been fairly afloat for some time, and the discharge through the opening in the railroad was such that from twenty to twenty-five of these houses, many of them two stories high, were swept through and dashed to fragments as they passed on their way towards Sutterville. Among this number was the large house of John Isaacs, which stood on Fifth street near R street. It was carried from its mooring at an early hour, and stood for a long time in an angular position. The proprietor having early sent his family to the upper portion of the city, remained on the wreck of his building, telling the boatmen who came near to first save the women and children in the vicinity. When the house was about to clear for Sutterville he jumped into a boat and landed on the railroad. Several openings beside that which was cut by the chain gang, were created by the natural action of the water, and the great discharge through them all resulted in lowering the water on J and K streets, at three or four o'clock, about a foot. Later in the evening, when the equilibrium of water on each side of R street was established, the back water filled up all portions of the city, and attained a higher point than that of the earlier period of the day. At nine o'clock last evening Our business office, on the first floor of the Union building, was flooded by an inch or two of water, which circumstance had not occurred during the afternoon. Throughout the day there were many rumors afloat of persons being drowned. Although these stories were frequently unfounded, there is but little doubt that they were, in several instances, too true. There is but little doubt that there was a teamster drowned somewhere this side of Sutter's Fort, a man and a child at Ninth and M streets, and a man at Sixth and P streets. We have been unable to learn the names of either of these parties, but the accidents were witnessed in each instance by several persons. The man and child were in a wagon at Ninth and M streets, and the horses plunged into a cistern--the lid of which had doubtless floated off; before assistance could reach them, passengers and horses were lost. It is greatly to be feared that the lives of women and children have also been sacrificed, as in many instances they were hemmed in in one story buildings without any means of even getting on to the roofs of their houses. During the greater part of the day the only dry portions of the city were I street, the river front, the R street levee and Poverty Ridge. I street and the levee were crowded much of the day with live stock, which was taken there for safety, In the evening many boats were occupied in taking passengers to and from the very few restaurants and hotels which were a le [sic] to furnish meals to customers, The most of them had their fires extinguished, and were therefore unable to do their usual cooking. A steamboat accident remains to be added to the incidents of the day. At about three o'clock in the afternoon the Swallow from Marysville arrived and attempted to pass through the draw of the bridge. The current was strong, and the boat was of course difficult to manage. The boat struck the pier and had her port side shattered in a frightful manner. Two lady passengers were seriously injured by the accident. Their names were Miss Elizabeth Neal and Mrs. M. Wyer, both residents of the neighborhood of Marysville. Both sustained injuries on the head. Mrs. Wyer's husband was on the boat in a sick bed. On account of the general confusion prevailing throughout the city yesterday, and the difficulty of getting from one point to another, we are unable to speak advisedly of the condition of the various portions of the levee around the city. At ten o'clock the bank at Rabel's Tannery was still standing, and no water of consequence had come into the city through the northern levee. At a later hour in the day it was reported that the banks at that point had given way. The cars for Folsom failed to go entirely through at any time during the day. The morning train went out beyond Poverty Ridge, passengers were carried a half mile in boats, and a second train carried them the remainder of the trip. The railroad is carried away in many places. The road to Sutterville and Camp Union by way of the river was passable during the most of the day, but towards evening the column of water from the city had washed away the embankment between lower and upper Sutterville, which cut off the passage. During the early part of yesterday, the water at the city gauge stood twenty-one feet above low water mark. At sun down it had raised six or eight inches above that point. The Yolo side of the river had not overflowed to any considerable extent. At ten o'clock last evening the water in the city had receded an inch or two. The events of yesterday will render it one of the most memorable in the history of our city.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3340, 11 December 1861 p. 1

[reprint of "Calamity" and "Terrible Flood" from 12/10.]

p. 2


We are now in such a position that the public future of the city must be considered. The people will be called upon to reply to the question--What next, in the municipal history of Sacramento? The answer to this question may be obtained by replying to the following: Is not self-protection the first law of nature? Does not necessity demand obedience? Can Sacramento exist as a city without a higher grade and levees which will place our future beyond all contingencies? Can the people longer endure the consolidation system of government? Can Sacramento repair her levees and protect herself against the high water which may yet follow, upon any other basis than cash? Does not her future existence depend absolutely upon repairing and strengthening her levees so as to prevent further damage by water? Can she obtain the money to pay for this work, upon which hangs her fate, except from the Interest and Sinking Fund?

It must be conceded, however unwillingly, that as a city, Sacramento is bankrupt. She was nearly in that condition previous to this destructive overflow; its visitation has placed her in a condition where it would be folly to pretend that she is able for the present to pay either the principal or interest of her public debt. This conviction is forced upon us--though we have heretofore steadily and determinedly opposed everything which had the appearance of repudiation. But we cannot shut our eyes to the fact that the only hope for the city even to pay any portion of her public indebtedness is for her citizens to place her upon a foundation up to high water mark, and surround her with a levee with a base so wide as to insure strength and permanency, and an elevation which will bid defiance to the highest flood. To do this, the city must have money, and where is it possible for her to obtain it, if she does not make a virtue of necessity and appropriate the $80,000 now in the Treasury to the sacred purpose of preserving her existence? She has no legal right to do this, we admit; but she has a moral and legal right to preserve .her own life, and is bound, morally and legally, to make use of such means as are within her power to accomplish that end. The necessity which may arise to save life, is above all law. Sacramento must act now, or be blotted from the map of cities. The untiring energy of her merchants, business men, mechanics and property owners, will enable them soon to regain what of individual property has been devoured by the flood, provided the city is so protected by a grade and levee as to give confidence in the future. To do this the city must act, and that with an energy and ability herefore unknown.

To repudiate an honest debt is disgraceful, because it is a refusal to pay when able; but when placed in a position by misfortunes which no human wisdom could have averted, where an individual or a corporation is unable to pay honest debts, it is fair and honorable to face creditors and the world with an avowal of the fact. This is precisely the position of Sacramento, and it is honorable on her part to admit her total inability now to pay her public debt, principal or interest, and to avow her determination to do so as soon as she is in a condition to discharge those obligations. No other course is left her, and her citizens will be forced to take the responsibility.

LAND HO!--One of the first sounds which greeted our ears yesterday morning was the rattle of wheels on J street. It was a pleasant sound, and a look from the window established the fact that we were again in sight of land. The night before we had been taken in a rowboat from Fourth to Seventh up the center of J, and found about two feet water in the street. in the course of the night it had receded, and left J and K again in a condition for traveling under the usual conditions. People were again moving up and down the sidewalks as if engaged again in business.

The condition of the streets, and the stores as they were opened, was indescribable, but the owners were busily engaged in cleaning the latter. Most of them wore cheerful countenances, apparently thankful that the misfortune was no greater. Probably no people in the world are more buoyant under misfortune than those of Sacramento. They have struggled with and risen triumphantly above circumstances more adverse and disheartening than those by which they are now surrounded. With strong hearts and resolute wills they will vigorously set about replacing that which is lost in property, and while doing so intermit no exertions necessary to the prosperity of the city they have twice redeemed from fire and flood. Never despair has been the motto of Sacramentans, and will be still. Under this motto industry, energy and economy will soon place Sacramento where she stood three days since . . .

THE TELEGRAPH--The telegraphic lines were down last evening in every direction, but workmen were out placing them in repuir.



The only news we were able to obtain from the North yesterday, was by the Marysville papers and passengers. The rise at Marysville exceeded that of any previous year. It was, if anything, more distressing than the inundation in this city, for the reason that the rise commenced at about eleven o'clock at night, and soon deluged the west end of the city. The rise was rapid from both the Feather and Yuba, and between the hours of six and seven in the morning, the Merchants' Hotel, a firm and substantial building, fell to the ground. Another three story building on E street, between First and Second, fell also. The steamer Defiance sailed around the city picking up those in perilous condition. The banking house of Rideout & Smith (late Low Brothers & Co.), corner of First and High streets, was sixteen inches under water. The Iron Foundry of H. J. Booth & Co. was some four feet under water. The water stood about even with the city grade on Monday at noon. About one mile east of Marysville, seventy-five milch cows belonging to J. Hoffstader were drowned.

The following detailed account of the condition of affairs at Marysville is from the Appeal:

Marysville is now slowly emerging from a flood, more disastrous and extensive in character than any which has been known since the place was settled by white people. On Saturday, the rivers were slowly rising, but not rapidly enough to justify the opinion that there would be much of a flood, but by Sunday morning at daylight it was found that the Yuba had backed up into the slough to such an extent that all the lower part of the town below E street was in danger, and the flats were fast filling up with water. The rain continued to fall in torrents during all of Sunday, and by night one sheet of water was stretched from the slough above Third street to the Yuba, making islands of most of the buildings below E street, on both sides of the slough, below Fourth street. All night long of Sunday the rain fell in sheets, and the wind blew furiously, adding to the terrors of those who watched through the night.

About daylight on Monday marning the outer side wall of J. L. Eaton's store, on the Plaza, fell with a tremendous crash, the foundation having been completely undermined by the water, which had now risen to such an extent as to cover the whole of that part of the city, except where the street was higher than the adjacent lots. Mr. Eaton's family reside in the upper part of the store, and they were hurried out at once, in their night clothes, and taken to the Merchants' Hotel, around the corner, on First street, and in about ten minutes after, to the horror of every one, the floors of that building gave way, and a great portion of the interior of the hotel was precipitated in a ruin, the whole of the cellar supports being suddenly cut out by an immense body of water which rushed in. The alarm which prevailed was frightful in the extreme, for at that early hour but few were up in the house, and the inmates, among whom were many families, were still abed, and came rushing out in their night clothes, and barefoot, in the rain and water. To add to the terrors of the hour, other brick buildings began to crash, a large brick store house in the rear of the Merchants' falling with a tremendous noise. Then the interiors of all the stores on the upper side of First street, around the corner to Lennox & Elwell's on the Plaza, fell one after another. The fire alarm bell now rang, and numerous citizens went to the rescue with teams and skiffs, and began taking people and goods to places of safety.

Rev. D. Deal, of the Methodist Church, living near the slough, was awake all of Sunday night, and before the Merchants' Hotel fell, heard cries of distress from the west side of the slough, and, ringing the bell of the church, brought boats to the rescue, and some families were taken from the roofs or upper stories of their houses, half under water, and when morning dawned the entire flat which lies below Sixth street, on the west side of the slough, was one sheet of water, numerous small houses floating around, horses, cows and hogs swimming for dear life, and roofs covered with affrighted pigeons and poultry.

All that portion of town bordering on the slough which makes into the Yuba above A street was afloat by daylight, and as the water rapidly rose during the forenoon, house after house was submerged, many of the smaller ones going off with the rapid tide, which set toward the Yuba. Dr. Teegarden's family were early driven out, and sought refuge in the residence of A. D. Starr, near by, but were soon after driven to the upper floors, the water rising to a hight of four feet in the parlor story. Starr's mill, near by, was also under water to a disastrous extent, his brick storehouse being nearly filled with water. Covillaud's and Hoffstader's ranches, up the Yuba, were early under water, the families being compelled to seek refuge in the upper stories, whence they were rescued by the steamer Defiance, which went around the Yuba bridge and took off the people in distress, who were destitute of the means of escape. Hoffstader lost all of his dairy cows, some seventy-five in number, all of them valuable American stock, which, with the damage to the property, stacks of hay, etc., floated off, will amount to a loss of $10,000.

The rapidity of the rise of the water was unprecedented, as when it began to break over the high ground next the river the rush was tremendous, but by noon the flood had reached the highest point, and news came in that a subsidence of two inches. had been noted in the upper part of the town. At that time the only portions of the town not submerged were as follows: Oa the Yuba water front, from the corner of High street to the foot of A street; on R street to Eighth, on Eighth street from C to A street, and on A street to Seventh. The entire lower part of A street from Seventh down to Second, was under water, and all of the cross streets over to C street, except here and there in spots which were higher than others; and nearly all of the part of the town east of C street was navigable with boats. Southward, the whole plain toward Eliza was one sheet of water, dotted with trees, roofs of houses, floating animals and wrecks of property of every description. The Yuba bridge, being supported at either end by high embankments, stood unshaken, but the water was up to its sills, and the steamer Defiance was able to navigate around its outer end, with ten or twelve feet of water over the turnpike. Westward, one vast water level stretched to Yuba City where a kindred inundation was raging--the entire town site being under water. Northward the plains were cut up into broad streams of running water, which were swiftly coursing toward the great sheet of water stretching between Yuba and Feather rivers, up as far as the residence of Judge Bliss, unbroken except by the upper stories of houses, trees and floating debris.

Any estimate of the total amount of losses must be necessarily vague, and not to be depended upon. We shall not, therefore, attempt even a rough estimate at present, though it must amount to several hnndred thousand dollars. Besides the losses on the Covillaud and Hoffstader ranches, above noted, there was a large amount of stock, mostly horses, lost from the Quintay ranch, many being valuable animals, belonging to parties in town. From the sheep ranch of Glazier Brothers & Co., a large number of sheep were lost, valued at ten or twelve thousand dollars, and a large lot of cattle belonging to Glazier & Thompson were supposed to be lost from a ranch in Sutter county. The heaviest losses in town were, of course, the losses to the dealers on the Plaza and First street, near the Merchants' Hotel. R. E. Brewster, L. H. Babb, Lennox & Elwell, J. L. Eaton, and others, are heavy losers, their goods being precipitated in broken piles into the cellars, filled with water. The losses of boarders and the lessees of the Merchants' Hotel are also considerable, valuable furniture, pianos, clothing, cash and small valuables being involved in an inextricable wreck, smashed and wet; though, by great exertions, many articles were saved. The loss falls very heavily upon small property holders in the northern end of town, where many small houses were torn by the strong current from their foundation and carried off beyond recovery, their unfortunate owners literally houseless and homeless, barely escaping, in some instances, with their lives. On Third street, below D, Hudson, Willey & Caine had a great quantity of lumber, which was floated off, though some of it was saved by being boomed between the houses at the end of Second street. Williams Co.'s flouring mills were filled with water up to three or four inches on the main floor, where all the flour was stored, and the loss to gardens, fences, out-houses and small sheds is scarcely calculable now.

Over the valley south of Marysville, which is lower land than north of the city, the flood extends for several miles, till it meets the first swell of the foothills, where it takes off in numerous sloughs, most of which impassable to teams and horsemen, some being raging torrents. This part of the valley was submerged very suddenly, and to a greater depth than has been known since 1853. All of the bottom land farms are flooded, and many were stripped of all the stock upon them. Forty horses were swept from Hedges' ranch, besides a large number of cattle and hogs. Hedges' house stands on a high knoll, which is now an island, the water filling the cellar. Numbers of hogs were drowned on Low's ranch. Where Feather river sweeps past Eliza, stock of every kind could be seen yesterday constantly passing down stream, some alive and strugglmg, and bellowing or squealing for life. The flood was also very destructive to game. Hare and rabbits have been destroyed by thousands. The hands on the stearner Defiance caught about a dozen large hare floating down stream on brush, hay and timber; and others were noticed perched on tree-tops, alone in a waste of waters. Several hogs were also caught for the steamer's table. The river was yellow with pumpkins and squashes occasionally. Large quantities of these vegetables had been left in the fields ungathered. Portions of corn and potato crops, also left ungathered, were of course utterly destroyed. At Simpson's, three miles up the Yuba from town, the old bridge was carried away; but the new structure, recently built, was still standing yesterday afternoon, its sills about three feet above the water. It is seven hundred feet long, and the sills are secured by iron bolts to piles driven twenty feet into the river's bed. Mrs. Simpson's house stands on a high knoll, unaffected by the water, which sweeps along at this point in a current of fearful strength. Her poultry house and poultry, with some fencing, were swept off, and. some damage done to grain on storage in an outhouse. Turner's bridge, just above Simpson's, is reported to have been destroyed, and probably has been. The ferry boat at Simpson's was saved.

Passengers who came from Lincoln by stage, on Sunday morning, found Bear river so well up that one end of the bridge at Campbell's was partly afloat. The driver hesitated to go on, but the passengers insisted, and he reluctantly pushed ahead. Dry Creek was forded without difficulty, though pretty full, but, arrived at Eliza, just at evening, after a slow and laborious drive, our irrepressible travelers found a wide waste of turbid and swift water before them. They went on afoot four or five miles to Simpeon's, hoping to cross to the city in a skiff, but the passage was too hazardous to be attempted, though earlier in the day the passengers and express matters by a previous stage had been boated across. Yesterday afternoon the steamer Defiance picked up the water bound travelers at Eliza, besides rescuing others along the banks. In going to Eliza, which is about six miles below town and the mouth of the Yuba, the Defiance did not follow the main channel of either stream but steamed straight across the submerged prairie, over fences, fields, telegraph wires, and perhaps houses. Within a mile of town the telegraph poles remained standing in calm water, their tops visible for a short distance only. From the deck of the steamer the city looked as though it stood in the centre of a vast lake.

Many persons living on the bottoms south of town narrowly escaped with their lives. Two Mexicans saved themselves by climbing a tree, where they remained several hours until rescued by a boat frem Low's ranch. The family of Hooper, above Simpson's, was rescued by a boat sent from the latter piece. Small boats could pass from Low's ranch to the city yesterday, the current not being very strong; but further up the Yuba, the flood could not be navigated without great risk, and boatmen refused to carry passengers at all, only going out to save endangered human lives. The country to the southward, as far as the eye can reach, presents a very melancholy spectacle, being one waste of muddy water, on which are floating houses, fences, lumber, hay, straw, and the dead and living bodies of hogs, cattle, and horses. The Yuba is said to be sixteen feet above its usual level, and the suddenness of its rise is unprecedented, and surprised everybody living in the bottoms, who else might have prevented considerable less of property. The low land, sloughs, and creeks, between the Yuba and Bear rivers, are now quite impassable, and the Bear river bridge at Campbell's has doubtless been washed away. The stages and stage horses that were unable to reach the city from that direction on Saturday and Sunday, have been taken to the Yuba ranch, near the foot hills.

There are a great many stories current of deaths from drowning and falling walls, but we can hear of only two upon which any reliance can be placed, strange as it may appear, when we remember the crowded hotel in which the floors fell without a moment's warning. A man, coming into the city on horseback, Sunday afternoon, was drowned near the Quintay ranch, and a woman was carried off in a small wooden house from the flat beyond the slough while a boat which had rescued her children was gone to town with them. The house went down the current so rapidly that it could not be seen when the boat had returned to the spot where it stood. The frequent sight of houses floating ark-like along the swift current was novel indeed, some of them being upright, some bottom up and some floating along lopsided. One house, full of furniture, lodged near Fourth street in a tree, and the furniture was saved by boatmen. The foot bridge across the slough at the head of E street, was floated off early in the day and went up country for a mile or two on the rising tide, but came back en the ebb. Many narrow escapes occurred at the Merchants' Hotel, when the floors caved in; one lady fell through in her night dress, but was rescued without any serious injury. A gentleman lodging in the second story, next door, fell through to the basement, where he was held across the floor joists by his arms, the falling bricks rattling about him. Two other gentlemen, Dr. W. P. Rice and Lambert, fell from the third story of the hotel to the basement, being bruised badly, but broke no bones. One old gentleman, whose retreat from his bedchamber was cut off by the falling of the stairs, escaped by tying his bedclothes together and letting himself down to the balcony below. But we could fill columns with such small matters without exhausting the catalogue of items. Skiff building was the order of the day, and though a dozen boats could scarcely be found in the morning, before night the waste of waters was covered with a fleet more numerous than that which threatens the coasts of Secessia about these days. The steamer Defiance was made useful by her owners during the day in cruising up and down the sloughs and streams, taking off the housewrecked inhabitants in the vicinity. The Defiance went up the slough as far as the head of D street, and probably none of those who witnessed it will ever forget the strange sight of a steamer away up there, where the dust was blowing but a few weeks since. The Defiance blew a tune or two to congratulate the inhabitants on the subsidence of the waters, and snorted her way back to the deeper water. But nobody who lives in Marysville to-day will ever forget the great flood of December 9, 1861, unless we should be so unfortunate as to have its terror and disaster washed away by the rising wave of another and a greater.

The following statement in regard to the fall of the Merchants' Hotel was published in yesterday's Bee:

As there are so many erroneous statements about the falling of the "Merchants' Hotel" in Marysville, I am requested to write for publication what I saw and know of it.

Col. D. W. Welty, Judge H. H. Hartley, Mr. Wheatley and myself, went up on the Swallow on Sunday, and arrived at Marysville about five P.M. We all put up at the Merchants'. The smell in the house was very disagreeable, which satisfied me there was water in the cellar. I went out and examined to see if the joists rested upon a center wall--which is very apt to be constructed temporarily, when, indeed, it is a wall that bears twice as much weight as an outer wall, when the joists meet upon it. I thought the joists extended to the main walls, but it was too dark for me to satisfy myself. I asked Mr. Low if the house was safe. He answered that he did not know the house had been sinking. If the house had been sinking, I concluded, as it was an old house, it must have sunk to a firm foundation, and therefore went to bed. Col. Welty and myself occupied No.28--partly over the office of the house. When we had stripped and were ready for bed, I looked for matches, but finding none, contented ourselves with a bell rope. After talking some time we fell asleep. About five in the morning Col. Welty heard a crash, as if a wall had fallen; but knowing I had slept but little the night before, he would not wake me, thinking it could not be the wall of the hotel. But very soon there was another crash, which waked me. We both got up; it was very dark. A boy came to the door; we asked for matches or a light, and he went away. Col. Welty found his pantaloons; I could not find my clothes. We stepped to the door to see if the boy was coming, Col. Welty says, "We must get out of this." Just then came another crash, and I went back, as I thought, to our room, to see if I could get some clothes; but found nothing but a gulf below, where the bricks were falling, and from which the dust and screams of women and children were mingling in terrible confusion. I went back, and the Colonel and myself ran through various passages, trying in the dark to find our way out. At length he found a window that opened out, so that by considerable effort we might reach the wall of another house. The window was rendered very tight by the sinking of the walls, but we got it open, and he reached its wall, which was also sinking. After he had helped me over, we passed over that house and found it separated by a passage of about six or seven feet wide--the wall seemed to be cracking--the roof had partially sunk. He found a board about six inches wide that would just reach the two walls, over a chasm of about thirty feet in appearance. Daylight had just then appeared enough to show us our perilous condition, the board he laid on the two walls barely reaching them. The Colonel instantly passed over and offered me his hand to help me over but I did not think it would. bear my weight, and I knew he could not hold up two hundred pounds in one hand; but he very correctly said, "It's the only chance" taking care not to step on the center of the board, I made the trip. On we went to another house, found a window fast, broke it, got in, and groping our way through the dark, finally found a staircase, down which we gladly made our exit into the street, amid an immense throng of anxious inquirers, with nothing on but a shirt and a sheet I had taken from some bed that we passed. We made our way to the Dawson House, where Kelly kindly furnished me some clothes; and we returned to the scene of destruction. There we found every effort being made to relieve the sufferers and save the furniture. One of the busiest among them was Judge Hartley, who had escaped from the ruins by tying his sheets together and letting himself down out of the window. The cool, quiet and effective service of Welty and Judge Hartley was truly worthy of commendation.

I lost my clothes, watch, etc., all worth, perhaps, $400. Mr. Welty lost all his clothes, except pantaloons and boots, some books that he had taken with him, and some valuable papers that very fortunately for me can be replaced from the records. To Mr. A. M. Paxton I am indebted for cashing my check when I had dressed and was again all right. The water in Marysville was just going into the principal streets when we left.

Many of the children and ladies escaped from the ruins of the Merchants' with nothing but their night clothes, and it is most remarkable that no one was killed and none very seriously injured. Dr. Price got up and started to go down the steps, but they were not there--so he fell down and another man upon him. Both were slightly injured.

Some ludicrous scenes occurred that will do to laugh over in future--at present let them pass. Ladies that made such narrow escapes, and appeared in the streets in white, without hoops, will not forget the scene very soon, while my friend Judge Hartley, will always recollect some incidents that were rather thrilling to the nerves of a sensitive man.

We came down on the steamer Swallow. She waited until nearly twelve o'clock for those that were coming down. Down as far as Nicolaus the land on both sides was covered with water. Horses, hogs and cattle were wading around or standing in the water. The damage is terrible. The water below Feather river was not out of its banks.

As we passed through Sacramento drawbridge the boat struck and tore off the ladies' cabin. Two ladies were injured, but not seriously.

As I have already written more than you will want to publish, I must stop.

The Merchants' Hotel is a perfect wreck, but the outer walls were standing.

Yours, A. M. Winn.
Sacramento, December 10, 1861.

At Nicolaus, as we are informed by the proprietor of the American Hotel at that place, the water rose to a point three feet higher than at any time last year. The American was the only house above water on Monday--the average depth of water being about two and a half feet. We learn from the same source that the towns of Vernon and Fremont were also submerged.

The whole country between the Feather and Sacramento rivers, nearly up to Yuba City, is covered with water.

P. M. Norton, a teamster from Forest Hill, informs us that the Crandall and North Fork roads, in Placer county, are under water and impassable. Four stage horses were drowned at Auburn Ravine on Monday, and the driver narrowly escaped.

Mr. Milliken of this city, who arrived from Folsom yesterday, informs us that the Salmon Falls bridge at Coloma, and the wire bridge across the North Fork of the American at Whisky Bar, are all swept away by the flood.

We have been informed that the town of Oroville has suffered considerably, but have been unable to obtain any particulars.

James Street, of the telegraph line, arrived in the city yesterday forenoon, from Salt Lake. He left Folsom in the morning train at the usual hour, and arrived by steam at the first break in the railroad, about three miles from the city. From that point half a mile of the road is washed away. Oa a portion of the track, wood and iron work had floated about a quarter of a mile to the southward. The water still passing through this break renders it impossible to cross except by boats. Mr. Street chartered a boat, there being none provided by the railroad company, and crossed to Sutter's Fort. At Folsom the water had fallen yesterday morning six and a half feet below the highest point of the day before. The two bridges across the American remained uninjured, but the trestle work of the railroad bridge, used in its erection, was carried away. No portion of Folsom was overflowed. The cars were running regularly to Lincoln, which point is also free from any indications of inundation. During the two days occupied by Street in crossing the mountains--Saturday and Sunday--it rained incessantly. The snow was nearly all washed away; the roads across the mountains were in the worst imaginable condition. The bridge this side of Placerville has been rendered impassable. There was no snow on the road beyond Carson City for a distance of four hundred and fifty miles.

From all the information we can gather, it appears that the present inundation far exceeds anything that has been known in any of the valleys since the country was first settled by white men.


As an evidence that the American river was higher Monday morning than it ever has been since the city was settled by Americans, we offer the fact that it flowed over its banks at Brighton, five miles east of the city, and inundated that entire section of country. So sudden was the overflow, that farmers in that neighborhood were compelled to seek safety by taking refuge in second stories and on the roofs of their houses, until relieved from their perilous positions by men in boats. Most of their stock is reported drowned. After breaking over the banks, a circumstance which has never before happened within the memory of Sacramentans, the water spread south to the railroad, which it crossed in a number of places by effecting breaches in the embankment and carrying away the superstructure and track. The road is passable from Folsom to a point about a mile this side of Brighton, and the cars came down yesterday to that point. From there to the city, passengers made their way as best they might. From where the cars stopped, to Poverty Ridge, there are a number of breaks, the largest of which is at what is known as Kip's Cut. Several were made a few hundred yards east of the ridge. Large logs were floated across the country, a number of which were lodged on the railroad. Some of them are reported, by those who have seen them, to be from three to four feet in diameter. After crossing the railroad, the water submerged the upper Stockton road for some two miles, and then made its way westward into the tules between here and Sutterville. One of the main bodies of water crossed south of the residence of L. W. Harris, on the ridge; another body crossed the lower Stockton road a short distance this side of the ridge near the Louisiana race track. At this point, about three miles from the city, the water is reported to have been from ten to fourteen feet in depth; this road is still impassable. From the course the flood took at Brighton, we conclude that some of the water from that point made its way to the city; that which inundated it came principally from breaks in the old levee, near the Tivoli House, which is some distance outside of the city, and the overflow this side of Smith's Garden. These streams united and rushed down the old slough, to and past the Fort, and outside the East levee, until it met the railroad embankment. We are informed that the water was backing up against the railroad as early as five o'clock in the morning; if this statement is correct, it must have been a couple of hours in backing up high enough to run over the levee into the city. Had the railroad embankment been cut when the water was first discovered, in all human probability the calamity of being again submerged would have been spared the city.

The crevasse made in the railroad embankment, between Sixteenth and Eighteenth streets, is reported to be about five hundred and fifty feet in length. This is where the trestle bridge was first built, and where one should be again constructed. We still adhere to the opinion before expressed that, had the railroad company kept the trestle bridge at that point, as the ordinance required. Sacramento would not have been submerged.

The breaks in the R street levee, upon which the railroad is located, are seven. The first at Fifth street, 100 feet; second, at Sixth, 200 feet; third, near Eighth, 350 feet; fourth, at Tenth, 60 feet; fifth, at Twelfth, 20 feet; sixth, at Thirteenth, 100 feet; seventh, at Fifteenth, 150 feet. Numerous breaks were also made in the levee from Sixteenth to Thirty-first street. These breaks must all be repaired, as well as the trestle bridge built at Seventeenth and Eighteenth streets, before the cars can run into the city. The Superintendent thinks he will be able to make repairs in three or four days so as to enable the cars to run to the Ridge. For the information as to the effects of the flood on the railroad, we are indebted to the courtesy of J. H. Nevett, who, in company with J. P. Robinson, Superintendent of the road, examined the line from here to Brighton.


The morning sun yesterday rose bright and beautiful over our city, but its beams fell upon a desolate and dreary scene. The waters had subsided during the night three or four feet, leaving L street and all the streets north of it beds of mud, strewn with planks from sidewalks and crossings, and amid which boats and rafts, used in their navigation the day before, lay helplessly stranded. South of L street, however, all the city was still submerged, and boats and rafts afforded the only means of locomotion in them. The scene in this part of the city, where the first fury of the flood was spent, was one of dismal devastation. Scores of capsized houses lay where they had been lodged against trees or other capsized and toppling dwellings, great piles of stray lumber and wood were floating about, and carcases of drowned cattle, horses and swine here and there disfigured the general wreck, amidst which boats and rafts were plying industriously, filled with people in search of their damaged household effects. On Ninth street, between K and R, were the bodies of fourteen or fifteen horses, and the loss of property belonging to families, resident there, was especially large. It is still difficult to ascertain the loss of life by the flood with any degree of exactness, owing to the multiplicity of wild exaggerations, the still continuing bustle and confusion, and the great difficulty of locomotion.

The body of a man named Levefre, whose family lived at the corner of Thirteenth and K streets, was recovered yesterday afternoon from the cistern at the corner of Ninth and M streets, by George Lloyd and Pat. Callaghan. At the time he drove in with his team, he was accompanied by a boy, who has also been reported drowned, but the boy was safely rescued by J. C. Weston. The bodies of the two horses, with the wagon and harness, were also taken out.

J. Kyberg and his son, who resided near Sutter's Fort, are missing. They were last seen in some kind of a box, on the water.

J. Smith, the Bee carrier, has not reported himself. He and his family, a wife and three children, were at his house surrounded by water. Their friends thought they had left in a boat, but nobody seems to know anything about them. It was again reported last evening that they were safe.

Mrs. Mary May, wife of T. C. May, was reported drowned, but the report was a false alarm.

A rumor came from Sutterville yesterday afternoon that twenty or thirty dead bodies had been recovered there, but the story is utterly incredible, although it would not be surprising if several others were drowned of whom we have no account. During Monday night, persons, from one to three miles down the river, state that they saw a number of houses floating past, and there is also a painful, and we hope unfounded, report that in several cases female voices vainly calling for help, were heard in the floating houses.

The loss of property by the inundation is immense, probably amounting in the aggregate to a million of dollars. The principal losses are of buildings, household furniture, and wood. Many merchants on J and K streets suffered heavily in the damage done by wetting their stock, but very generally they succeeded in piling their more valuable goods on upper shelves and boxes out of the way of drenching. H. M. Bernard, carriage maker, lost about $3,000 worth of carriage lumber, which was swept away, but saved a large lot of carriages and seasoned timber uninjured. It is estimated that seventy-five or a hundred buildings have been washed away from their foundations, but it is impossible to state the number with exactness.

Two sections of Lisle's bridge, across the American river, were swept off by the flood at dusk Monday night, but lodged near the Sacramento bridge, and are now secured near George Cooper's, foot of I street. These were the new sections built to replace the portion of of the bridge carried away last Winter, and the proprietors state it was through no fault of construction or weakness of the timbers that the bridge was again affected, but because it was built too low, catching the drift wood swept down by the flood.

The reported rapid falling of the American river at Folsom gives ground for hope that we have seen the worst of this disastrous flood; for if the river should continue to fall the lower streets will be gradually drained off through the openings made in the R street levee. Gangs of men were at work yesterday in K street, at the corner of Ninth, cutting a passage for the water to run off from J and K. streets. On Q street, near Seventh, at dark last night, the water was two feet deep and still slowly subsiding.

At nine o'clock, last evening, the water in the Sacramento was, at about twenty feet, being a foot lower than on Monday night. We judge that the river has been falling very slowly during the day.

It is gratifying to record that those of our citizens who escaped the flood have exercised a generous hospitality .towards the sufferers. Governor Stanford and Dr. Nixon took into the second stories of their houses a large number of homeless women and children; so did Mrs. Van Every at her boarding house on L street, and so did many others whom we are not able to particularize. The Howard Society took possession of the Pavilion, where, on Monday night, they accommodated about two hundred and fifty, and last night three or four hundred. The women and children were furnished with mattrasses, and all had blankets and an unlimited supply of excellent soup, prepared in a cauldron, and coffee and tea. This Society promptly furnished boats for the rescue of such as were in danger, and many others volunteered for the same benevolent work, with boats or such other means as were procurable at the moment. A. P. Soule and crew, from the steamer Swan, were out all day Monday, doing yeoman's service, without fee or reward. But the flood has also served to exhibit the bad side of human nature. During the life and death struggle in that part of the city where the flood first spent its violence, a number of persons obtained boats from the Front street levee, under pretence of rescuing those who were in imminent peril of drowning, and then took advantage of their extremity to extort money from the sufferers. One man had placed his wife on the roof of his house, which was already wavering and tottering in the flood, and, we are credibly informed, was obliged to pay one of these pirates $75 in gold before he would take her to a place of safety. In another house a man stood in the water nearly up to his chin, hailing a passing boatman, who responded that he would land him for $15. The man said he had not the money, and the unfeeling wretch thereupon retorted, "I'll leave you to drown, then." And he did leave the sufferer, but he was rescued by a boatman who was working without pay. In several instances men and women were obliged to pay $15 or $20 apiece for riding in a boat a block or two. The traveling expenses of a young lady who was taken from somewhere up town to a house in L street between Second and Third, part of the way in a carriage and the rest of the way in a boat, amounted to $35. A stranger in the city late Monday evening was charged $25 for boating from the Levee to the City Hotel, on K street, above Third. Men who would thus take advantage of a great public calamity to extort money from the unfortunate would be guilty of any infamous crime, and are wholly unfit for civilized life.

At eleven o'clock Monday night two women were taken by a man named Selby, whose boat was already full, from the roof of a house on Eleventh street near L, where they had been six or seven hours, unable to find a boatman who would convey them to a place of safety. Many incidents of a distressing character are related connected with the flood. The Front street levee was thronged with men, women and children, cattle, horses and hogs, during yesterday, many of whom were sleeping to make up for lost time. It was reported that one woman landed at the levee in the afternoon immediately thereafter gave birth to a child, which lived but a few moments. Another woman (or perhaps the same) stated at the Pavillion, Monday night, that she had given birth to a child that day, but knew not where either her newborn babe or her husband were at that moment.

p. 3


MARRIAGE EXTRAORDINARY.--At about halfpast one o'clock P.M. on Monday, officers Yates and Mcintosh, in command of a boat, noticed two ladies and two gentlemen standing at the corner of Sixth and I streets, looking wistfully for some means of conveyance from the spot. The flood had just reached its highest point. J street was inundated and the whole city was a scene of wild confusion. The officers stated that their boat was at the service of ladies free of charge to any part of the city. The ladies were unwilling to leave the gentlemen and all were taken on board. They had but little to say, but one of the men requested the boatmen to proceed to Seventh and K streets. On reaching that point he timorously requested them to moor at the steps of the Catholic Church. The request was complied with and the officers had the pleasure of seeing two of the parties married by Father Cassin. "There is a tide in the affairs of men which taken at the flood leads on to fortune." That of Monday may have been the tide, though that point can't be proven by our citizens generally.

A SAFE ELEVATION.--As necessity is the mother of invention, the pressure of the high water of Monday caused many an odd move on the part of owners for the preservation of their property. Three horses were blindfolded and taken up stairs into Stanford Hall, on K street, near Third. Last evening, a short time before dusk, it was decided to take them down again. In this operation the blindfolding process alone would not answer so well. The horses would no doubt have reached the bottom if started right, but the owners thought fit to provide a large box into which they were placed one at a time and lowered down the stairway by means of ropes. They were all landed in this manner in safety.

THE RIVER.--The water of the Sacramento stood at sunset last evening about twenty feet above low water mark, having fallen more than a foot within the last twenty-four hours. It is generally presumed that the river will necessarily rise to-day, as the waters at Colusa and Marysville have been very high. Our front levee will stand a rise of several feet, and as the Yolo banks some distance north of Washington are overflowing, it is to be hoped--with all good feeling towards our Yolo friends--the outlet will be sufficient to save our city from another inundation.

BODY FOUND.--At About four o'clock yesterday afternoon, the body of a man named Lefever was taken out of the cistern at Ninth and M streets, having been drowned at that point on Monday afternoon. He was seen to drive to the spot with a span of horses and light wagon. A boy 13 years of age along with him was saved. The man and horses were drowned. The Coroner impanneled a jury last evening to hold an inquest over the body, but after taking a portion of the testimony, the examination was postponed until nine o'clock this morning. . . .

THE TELEGRAPH.--James Gamble, Superintendent of the California Telegraph Company, started out yesterday with several hands and a boat to repair the line running east from the city. He succeeded in making all the connections to Poverty Ridge. The openings further east will be closed to-day so as to connect with Placerville. The San Francisco line will be looked to to-day.

NOT THE LAUNDRY.--In our account of the flood in yesterday's issue, we designed to say that the overflow of the American river occurred east of the city boundary; the types made us say "east of the City Laundry." As the City Laundry, if there be any, is located at some other point than the one referred to, it wont answer for a landmark in the present case.

RUMORS.--It is reported that a clergyman named Bailey, and his family, who resided in the lower part of the city, have all been missing since the flood of Monday. We are unable to learn anything definite on the subject. A rumor also prevailed yesterday that the wife of S. May had been drowned. The husband informs us that the report is untrue.

THE DEFIANCE.--The steamer Defiance arrived at the levee yesterday afternoon, from Marysville,. where she had been rendering important service in running through several of the most deeply flooded streets, taking off the inmates from second story windows. . . .

RISE IN THE MARKET.--Gum boots took a sudden rise in price about noon on Monday. When the water reached L street they were worth $8, as it came to K they went up to $9, at J to $10, and as the water reached its climax they were sold at $11 per pair. . . .

SLIGHTLY INJURED.--A portion of the plastering of one of the small rooms of the Pavilion fell from the ceiling on Monday night, injuring slightly several women who were sleeping beneath it.

DISPLACED.--A considerable portion of the lower floor of the Pavilion has been loosened and forced from its position by the force of the water of Monday afternoon and evening.

FORTUNATE.--Our neighbors at Washington, across the river, have so far been free from inundation this season, although their city grade is not equal in elevation to our own.


EDITORS UNION: Inasmuch as the calamitous flood that has just visited our city necessarily calls to mind, and would seem to impress more than ever upon our citizens the importance and necessity not only of establishing a grade that will protect our city from damage by sudden floods from the American river, but also the importance and necessity of a thorough and careful examination of our levee protections as well as the immediate surface drainage of the principal business streets in our city, I hand you a few observations:

Ist. The high water mark for 1853 on a sycamore tree, east bank of Sacramento river, at bridge across said river, as noted by Supervisor Granger, is twenty-two feet five and a half inches above zero of city water gauge.

2d. The water rose yesterday, at corner of K and Seventh streets, twenty-two feet eight inches.

At Lindley, Wooster & Weaver's store, corner of Seventh and J streets, twenty-two feet eight inches.

J street, between Second and Third, twenty-two feet eight inches.

At Huntington & Hopkins' hardware house, on K street, between Second and Third, twenty-two feet eight inches.

At George Schwartz's new market house, twenty-two feet eight inches.

Remarking that the granite coping or water table at Schwartz's house is above zero, city water gauge, twenty-three feet, one and one-third inches, then Schwartz, Gates & Co. were fairly five and one-third inches out of water.

The granite coping, or water table at your office on Third street, is above zero of city water gauge, twenty-two feet, seven and one-third inches; so that if my observations be correct, there ought not to have been more than two-thirds of an inch of water on the said coping or water table.

By reason of the press of other business, I am obliged to stop here, but at another time I will furnish you the elevation of other prominent objects in the city as compared with zero of city water gauge, flood just gone, and also the proposed Hite and Granger grades.
Respectfully, B. F. Leet.
SACRAMENTO, December 10, 1861. . . .

BROKE DOWN.--Among other damage done by the late flood, a portion of the Plaza fence, on Ninth street, has been washed away.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3341, 12 December 1861 p. 2


The water in the streets of Sacramento gradually subsided during the night of Tuesday and also yesterday. A slight break in the levee of the Sacramento yesterday, about two miles below the city, it was feared would be enlarged so much as to back up the water materially in a large portion of the city, but such had not been the case at a late hour last night. Wilson Flint and others were engaged last night in endeavoring to obtain a vessel and materials to repair the breach. If attended to promptly our city will be freed from much unnecessary water, which we can now do without very well.

A citizens' meeting was held in this city yesterday afternoon to take into consideration its present condition and to act in the premises. A Committee was chosen to prepare a plan for action. The meeting adjourned to meet to day at the Supervisors' room at eleven o'clock, A.M..

The Marysville papers report the drowning of from one hundred to one hundred and fifty Chinamen at various points on the Yuba, above that city, in consequence of the freshet, and some ten or twelve Americans are reported drowned and missing in the same direction. The flood on the Yuba has been more disastrous than elsewhere, so far as the destruction of life is concerned. . . .

The stage for San Juan and Nevada, with the mails, left Marysville yesterday on the Sacramento boat, for Eliza, from which point they were.transferred to the road.

The Overland Mail arrived in this city yesterday, and was a large one . . . .

ACROSS LOTS.--On Tuesday morning, December 10th, the steamer Governor Dana came down as far as Eliza; on Feather river, over the Sacramento road.


A meeting, not numerously attended, was held yesterday in the room of the Board of Supervisors, to make some provision for obtaining the means to repair the levees and improve the condition of our streets. A Committee was appointed to report to an adjourned meeting which is to meet to-day at eleven o'clock in the room of the Supervisors. The question under consideration is one of such immense moment that it is to be hoped every man who feels an interest in Sacramento will be present. Property owners, business men, merchants, mechanics and manufacturers should take this matter in hand and see that something is done, and that right speedily.

The case of the city is so desperate as to require desperate remedies. Work to cost tens of thousands of dollars must be immediately done to. protect, defend and preserve Sacramento from future inundations. The levee, from Sixteenth street to Thirty-first, and up that to the American river, must be rebuilt; from that point it may be thought advisable to repair the old levee, which runs up the river to the high ground beyond Smith's Garden. There are two bridges to be built across the slough at the end of J and and K streets. A new levee is also to be built at Rabel's Tannery, and for some distance this side. To accomplish this work and place the levees in a condition to defy high water, will require a sum of money which, in our judgment, cannot be obtained from any other source than the Sinking and Interest Fund. The act, in ordinary times, we concede would be illegal, and contrary to moral rules, but under the present circumstances such an act would be, in the eyes of all hnmane communities, pronounced just and right. The people, by the action of the elements, are placed in a position where it is utterly out of their power to pay, for the present, their public debt, principal or interest, and we insist that it is honorable for them to frankly acknowledge the fact. As to the money in the Interest Fund, it is no more sacred than the promise made in the bonds. The time has arrived for speaking cut [sic] plainly. If the interest is paid the first of January, and the city left in its present position, there will never be another dollar of principal or interest paid to the public creditors. The city will, from necessity, fail to pay next year, and the odium will be ten times greater than now, because we have before us the best justification for suspending payment, and appropriating money intended for creditors for the salvation of Sacramento. When her safety is secured, we shall then be in a position to talk about resuming payment. In times of great pressure, banks suspend payment, contrary to law and good morals, and public opinion sustains them. Why ? Because the necessities of the community, as well as the banks, require it. Sacramento is in a similar condition. She must suspend and apply the specie intended for her billholders to strengthening her position, so as to enable her to stand a heavier run than the one made upon her on Monday. She must save herself first; after that she will be in a condition to save her creditors. Ordinary rules of argument do not apply in this case. People feel as if self-protection was now the highest duty they are called upon to perform. That duty demands that they act immediately, and that they appropriate the money collected from them the past Fall in self defense.

AGENTS STIRRING.--We are informed that the coupons due next January are most of them in the city, and in the hands of D. O. Mills & Co., as agents, and that offers were made yesterday to the Auditor to indemnify him in any amount required if he would issue the warrants to pay them. This is rather taking the advantage, or trying to. It will be remembered that a law was passed last session or session before, authorizing the Treasurer to pay the coupons as presented. Until the question is decided as to what course the city is to take in reference to the money in the Interest Fund, the Auditor and Treasurer will be terribly censured if they consent to act for the bondholders and take snap judgment on the citizens. There will be a commotion in this city if such an act is consummated by secret engineering by the agents of the bondholders. Vigilance is necessary.

MATTERS IN SIERRA.--The Laporte Messenger of Dec. 7th has the following items of local intelligence: . . . .

Nearly all the new fire proof buildings in Laporte leaked badly during the late severe rains. . . .

[for the Union.]


MESSRS. EDITORS: Not having been present at the informal meeting yesterday, where I understand that it was proposed that certain of our citizens, probably; all those who wish to, shall advance sufficient money to meet the present exigencies of the city, and in return therefor have their property exempt from taxation for a given number of years, I protest now, as I shall before the meeting to-day, against this measure. There cannot be a tenable argument advanced in its favor that is not equally good in favor of doing as you propose--taking the Sinking and Interest Fund; and there are many objections to it that do not rest against your scheme. As regards repudiation, .they are the same--excepting only that one is bold, open, manly; and the other, to use the mildest terms, covert and hidden. Suppose we take $50,000 now out of our Sinking and Interest Fund. It will be diverted from its use, the law will be violated, and bondholders perhaps will suffer; but it is done openly, under the press of extraordinary circumstances; and if those who are injured cannot forgive, they can appreciate the necessity, and giving it its due weight in mitigation, feeling sure that nothing but the dread calamity under which they are suffering could cause a whole community to violate the obligations of its contracts. On the other hand, raise this $50,000 by a loan to be paid by the exemption of the loaned property from taxation--is it not equally repudiation; an indirect and attemptedly secret seizing of that same Sinking and Interest Fund? Is not 55 per cent, or $27,500 of that $50,000 of taxes which are to be released, as fully and as faithfully pledged to the Interest Fund as the money now in Mr. Bird's hands is? And are not the other $22,500 as solemnly pledged to the home holders of our floating debt? And as it has not been usual in Sacramento for private individuals to trade with the corporation without getting the best of the bargain and making "a little something," is it not just possible that the property to be released from the $50,000 will be such as without such a stipulation would yield $100,000?

But taking the Interest Fund is illegal--it can't be done. For the sake of the argument, granted; though, by of parenthesis, it reminds me of the story of the lawyer and his quondam client whom he saw looking out of a jail window. Lawyer--"What are doing there, Bob?" "Licked my 'prentice" "Why, they can't put you there for that." "There's no use your telling me that; I know they can't, but they did." Granting, as I said, for the argument sake, that the taking the Interest Fund directly is illegal, is it not equally illegal to take it indirectly? Is there any difference as to the fact of repudiation, though the manner of taking the money may be changed? The offense consists in diverting moneys from that fund, and it is immaterial whether they are so diverted before or after they reach the Treasury; and the same law that will be violated in one case will have to be broken in the other, with this disadvantage against the scheme for advancing taxes: forty-five per cent of the money unlawfully taken will come out of the fund applicable to our floating debt, out of the pockets of those who have given their merchandise or the sweat of their brows for their claims, and perhaps have them and nothing else to support their families with, whilst in the other case the whole money will come from the funded debt funds. In either case the fact of repudiation has been committed, and our public credit will suffer the ignominy and disgrace necessarily consequent upon such an act; but such ignominy and disgrace will certainly be less if we openly avow our necessities, and acknowledge that we are compelled to use funds previously pledged, than if we attempt to hide the facts and conceal our depredations.

[drawing of an engine, tender, 2 passenger cars] .
Cars of the Sacramento Valley Railroad will be run as follows:
Leave Brighton at 9 A.M. and 4 P.M.
Leave Folsom at 8 A.M. and 12 M.
As soon as possible arrangements will be made to transport passengers from Sacramento to the cars, of which notice will be given.
J. P. ROBINSON. [Bee copy.] d12

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3342, 13 December 1861 p.1


The San Francisco papers thus comment on the misfortune which befel our city lately:

Accounts from Sacramento represent that much suffering exists among the poorer classes there, who have been suddenly deprived of the ordinary means of subsistence. It is probable that none of these statements have been exaggerated. Many families are cut off entirely from their daily resources for food, and the few boats and flats plying in the streets are insufficient to meet the general requirements. The repeated calamities of flood and flame which Sacramento has suffered, enlist our sympathies cordially in behalf of her citizens in this additional affliction; The ties of humanity, and the fraternal feeling common to all Californians, point out to us the course we should now pursue.

It is not for us to direct the way in which relief should be extended. Let us first raise the money, and there will be no difficulty afterwards in determining what to do with it. Marysville, too, has some demands upon us, and in fact the Sacramento Valley, for the whole region, with the exception of the west bank of the Sacramento, is one sheet of water. Houses have been carried away, stock drowned, and clothing and provisions destroyed. A public meeting ought at once to be called, and something done to relieve our citizens in the interior in their present distress. It is only necessary to have some sort of an organization in order to secure a favorable response from our citizens. Who will begin the good work? There is not much time to be lost.--Alta.

The accounts of disasters by the present unprecedented freshet, which seems to have ravaged to a greater or less extent nearly every part of the Sacramento Valley, and probably most of the valleys in the northern portion of the Coast Range, begin to pour in upon us from every quarter. The destruction of life and property has evidently been much greater than we were prepared to learn, and still the fear is that the worst is not known. It is quite certain that much suffering now prevails among the inhabitants of a very large division of the State, and the people of San Francisco, who have long enjoyed uninterrupted prosperity, should promptly take steps towards affording all the relief in their power to whoever may have been brought to want by this unexpected visitation.

Marysville appears to have suffered more in the destruction of property than any other of the interior cities, although Sacramento was most completely deluged, and there the most distress among the poorer families will doubtless be felt. The water evidently passed over Marysville in a strong current, undermining the brick buildings and causing the complete destruction of several of them. The present misfortune, which has befallen so many of our fellow citizens, is one that could not have been provided against, further than to a limited extent, by human foresight. The formation of the country, with high ranges of mountains immediately adjacent to the valleys, will ever subject much of the most habitable portion of the State to frequent loss by freshets; although, from what is known of the past, we may reasonably hope not to see another overwhelming and un-looked-for flood like the present for twenty years to come.--Bulletin.

There is no doubt but that the recent flood in Sacramento--accounts of which are given elsewhere--has caused great want, destitution and ruin. Hundreds have lost their all; families have been, by the waters, driven from home and shelter and, to say the least, great destitution must be the consequence--destitution greater than has ever been caused by a like calamity in California. San Franciscans, who are ever secure from all dangers by flood, should, in their hour of trial and need, think of the people of Sacramento; and not only think of them, but they should contribute liberally toward a Relief Fund to be devoted to the relief of such poor families and persons as have been, by the flood, deprived of their, goods and homes. We urge San Franciscans to come up liberally in this matter, for we feel assured their liberality will come in good time.--Call. . . .

THE FLOOD AT FOLSOM.--The Folsom Telegraph of December 10th, says:

Yesterday, morning an unusual roaring attracted many people to the river at the suspension bridge, where the river is full of great rocks and holes. Since our view of Niagara we have not seen such a wonderful display of water. It was a flying deluge of muddy water, seemingly so strong, so angry, so determined toward the valley, that a mountain dropped into its course would have been driven away.

Yesterday morning the American river carried away the temporary arch of the great railroad bridge of the Central Railroad, at Folsom. This arch was a lengthy and massive wooden structure, erected to enable the construction of the permanent arch above. The bridge itself is all right.


The farmers of Colusa county were driven by the flood to the foot hills of the Buttes taking with them such of their stock as could be hurriedly driven.

Yuba City, opposite Marysville, was all submerged with the exception of the two knolls upon which stand the residences of G. M. Hapson, Indian Agent, and ex-Sheriff Kennard. It is thought that the new Sutter county court house at that place must fall, the walls being pushed out of line about a foot by the settling of the building. A large ranch belonging to the California Stage Company is located on the road to Marysville, four miles beyond Nicolaus. Not a single animal was lost from it. The Marysville Appeal of yesterday, has the following particulars in regard to the losses by the flood at various localities north of that city.

From Chico we learn that the flood at that point was extensive, and large numbers of cattle were drowned. It is reported that the amount of cattle drowned in the vicinity of Missouri Bend, near the mouth of Pine Creek, will reach three thousand, and that ranches and houses without number were submerged by the flood. At Bidwell's Bar the rise of water was said to be four feet higher than at any previous flood, and a great deal of damage was done to property, swept off or ruined by the deposit of sand or sediment swept down by the flood. Nearer Marysville, Bliven's ranch was completely covered, except one spot on which the house stood, untouched; the amount of stock lost from the ranch, however, is very small. From this point to the Honcut, and around by the Feather river to Marysville, the loss was very large, sheep, cattle, and hay being swept off in a promiscouous wreck. The general loss however, is less than on the Yuba.

The rise of the Yuba at Downieville is reported to have been very sudden, as a flood which had caused some destruction had but just subsided, when the rains of Saturday and Sunday brought up the stream again to such a hight that the town was flooded in a very short time. From the Jersey Flat part of the town many houses were reported to have been swept away, and every house is said to be gone from Durgan's Flat, while every bridge, flume, and wood work of the sort, in and around Downieville are reported as swept out by the flood which was as violent as sudden.

The first reports from Foster's, Long, Parks' and Ouseley's Bars were much exaggerated. We learn that at all of these places numbers of Chinamen were drowned, varying from eighteen to twenty five at each place. The flood has been very destructive of life to these poor pariahs everywhere, as they always congregate on the river bottoms where they work over old digging or cultivate vegetable gardens. At Foster's Bar the bridge went out, and Batchelder's and Flattery's stores went out, losing many goods. Several small houses went out at this point, and also at Sand Flat, Long Bar and at Parks'; but except this and loss of flumes and other mining apparatus, the damage was not very large. The largest amount of loss on the Yuba is undoubtedly among the ranch owners near Marysville. The loss of life is not so great as at first reported, many parties who were reported missing having been found in out of the way places, where they had been carried by the flood and force of peculiar circumstances. The Barnes family and Thomas Brophy's family are found to be safe, though they experienced much suffering and discomfort in their perilous condition.

At Nevada many of the lower floors of the buildings were deluged by water, from the large flume which passes through the town. The flume choked up, and the water flowed back and ran over the town. The damage to ditches and bridges in that region was very extensive.

THE LATE RAINS AND OTHER MATTERS IN SIERRA.--A correspondent of the Union, writing from La Porte, December 8th, says:

The rain has been pouring down here for the past forty hours, and it is thicker overhead and looks more like a severe storm than it has at any time. Rabbit creek is higher than it has been known for years. The flume will only carry a small proportion of the water, and the torrent is fast tearing the flume up. We fear it will throw about one hundred men out of employment, who are working above on the creek; we also have grave fears that the bridge across the creek will go off. It is said that Slate creek is so high that the bridge between here and Port Wine is in danger. It has stood several years. Ditches have been constantly breaking during the past twenty hours, although no water is turned in at the head--the water all gathering from the side hills. . . .

THF [sic] FLOOD IN PLACER.--A correspondent of the Union, writing from Auburn, December 9th, says:

The late storm is the severest one I have witnessed since my arrival in this State, which was in '49. We hear of damage being done by the violence of the swollen streams in every direction. Crandall's turnpike road, leading from Auburn to Secret Ravine, will be impassable for heavy teams for at least a month. It will cost about $4,000 to make complete repairs, and the loss of toll will amount to as much more, making their total loss not less than $8.000. I have not heard from Virginia and Gold Hill yet, but I presume, from my acquaintance with that section of country, that there is no claim or drain-race but what is filled to a level corresponding with the sides or banks of the ravine. On the North Fork I learn the water has been higher this time than it was ever known to be before--carrying away Rice's bridge, at Mineral Bar, on the road from Illinois town to lowa Hill. The North Fork bridge, just above Auburn, on the Yankee Jim road, is also in great danger of taking a sail to Sacramento City, as the abutments on one side are fast undermining, and should it go down it will cut off the whole "divide" from the county seat, except they take the circuitous route via Murderer's Bar Bridge and Folsom. Whisky Bar bridge has also disappeared amongst the wreck of matter, and will probably be picked up next Summer in Sacramento for kindling wood.

p. 2


Our citizens are moving energetically for the future welfare of the city, and the Board of Supervisors are so acting in concert with them that there is a fair prospect that immediate and decisive measures will be prosecuted for security against any future inroads of the water. The sum of $75,000 has, in accordance with the recommendation made at the public meeting yesterday, been transferred by the Supervisors from the Sinking and Interest Fund to a Special Fund created by them for leveeing purposes. Reports of the several meetings in this connection will be found in our columns.

The break in the Sacramento levee, some two miles below the city, increased a great deal in depth yesterday and some twenty feet in width. The river must find its level very shortly, and its hight last night was within two feet of the highest water in the city on Monday. San Francisco has come to the aid of our sufferers most generously. Over six thousand dollars is now in this city from that source, for the relief of those who are in distress by reason of the flood. A relief meeting was held also last evening at Platt's Hall.

Telegraphic communication in the State is pretty generally suspended, and the Overland Telegraph is also disarranged. . . .

THE FLOOD IN NAPA VALLEY.--Private letters from Suscol--four miles below Napa writby Simpson Thompson to J. L. Sanford of this city, gives an account of the flood in that region. Writing on December 9th, Thompson says:

We have had a terrific storm. There will be no more trouble about dry ground in plowing. The Suscol creek was all over the nursery last night, washing out around some trees and filling up around others--doing, in my opinion, much unnecessary work.

Writing in the forenoon of yesterday, December 10th, Thompson says:

Since yesterday forenoon there has been such a freshet in Napa river, and so much drift stuff, the steamer was either disabled or afraid to venture out. [She arrived in San Francisco yesterday evening, twenty-six hours behind time] The flood has given some of the shanties Hail Columbia in Napa. A number of the houses in Cornwell's addition, or what is commonly called Texas, were entirely washed away. Lynch Brothers' wholesale and retail liquor store was carried away. Hathaway's men and the writer, with another man, were on the river opposite, when some of the houses were floating down. I caught the tin roof of a house, and with a rope made it fast to the bank. This answered first rate as a raft. With a boat-hook we caught a large lot of lumber, posts--mostly new--also doors, chairs, tables, washstands, and poultry. On a door we picked up two chickens and a duck. We also secured three barrels--one full of cognac--besides a keg of "Old Tom," demijohns, etc. The banks of the river for two or three miles are completely lined with lumber, both old and new, whisky barrels, etc. One lumber yard that was on the bank near where the old bark used to lie, was completely swept away. I suppose the people about Vallejo caught much of the drift, as much must have gone down in the night and early in the morning. We did not go to "wrecking" till ten o'olock [Tuesday morning], when we saw the house going down. The ferry boat at Suscol was carried away in the night—supposed by a floating house or a pile of lumber.

Napa is inaccessible now with a team, as the embankments made this Summer have been washed away.--San Francisco Bulletin.

THE FRESHET IN AUBURN.--The Union Advocate of December 9th has the following:

The great rain storm which has prevailed for the past few days arrived at its greatest violence last evening. (Sunday), and continued with unprecedented violence until a late hour this morning. The river is said to have risen at a point near this place--the Ragged Staff Co.'s claim--to the hight of fifty-five feet above low water mark, carrying away houses, fluming lumber and everything standing upon the banks. As we write (twelve o'clock M) reports reach us that the North Fork bridge is in imminent danger of being washed away. The water is said to be running over it, and still rising, and though very strong, the stress upon it is so great that it cannot be expected to stand an hour longer.

We have just learned that the Mineral Bar bridge is washed away. A county official who has just returned to town from the lower part of the county hadn't time to give any particulars of damage beiow, but has authorized us to say in his name that "all the bridges from h--ll to breakfast were washed away."

Auburn Ravine is high enough to float the largest class steamboats, and affords water enough to entitle it to be declared navigable for any sized craft. Houses here in town have been carried off by the water, and from all points we hear of immense damage having been done to gardens, orchards, farms, fences, etc., the like of which was never heard of before. It is supposed that large numbers of cattle have perished in the low lands bordering on the Sacramento and Bear rivers.

Two men came very near losing their lives in the Auburn ravine, in Auburn, by having their houses carried away by the freshet, while they were confined in them, in the night, little expecting such an occurrence. The North Fork bridge reported gone has proved to be incorrect. Four horses, attached to the Sacramento and Gold Hill stage, belonging to Samuel Moore, were drowned in attempting to cross Auburn Ravine at Fort Tojam or Fox's Flat. The ranch or garden spot of Charley Morrison, one mile from town, was entirely destroyed and he driven away from home in the dead hour of night. The valuable vineyard, owned by Geo. W. Applegate, and situated at Lisbon, has been destroyed. The bridge crossing the Middle Fork of the American, near Coloma, has been swept sway and become a total loss. . . .

PRACTICAL SYMPATHY.--The expressions of sympathy by San Francisco people with the sufferers by the flood in this city, some of which are copied into the UNION this morning, has been followed up in a substantial manner. At a little past noon yesterday a check was received in this city, by telegraph, from F. MacCrellish & Co., proprietors of the Alta California, for two hundred and thirty dollars, to be paid to the Howard Benevolent Association for the relief of the sufferers by the flood. One hundred dollars of the amount came from MacCrellish & Co., one hundred from J. C. Beideman, and the remaining thirty dollars were left at the Alta office to be appropriated as above. At a later hour in the day the following dispatch was sent from San Francisco by R. G. Sneath to Sneath & Arnold of this city: "Ten thousand dollars raised for your sufferers. Six thousand goes up to-night." Such prompt and generous action is worthy of the commercial metropolis of the State, and the feeling which prompted it will be warmly appreciated by our people.


All accounts from the interior unite in representing the late freshet as the most fearful which has visited the State since its occupation by Americans. The floods have been higher and more destructive on the Yuba and American rivers and their branchea than ever before experienced. The water has in many localities reached elevations confidently supposed to be far above danger from high water, destroyed immense amounts of property, and in some instances life has been sacrificed when persons were so sure they were beyond danger as to remain until too late to escape. The loss of stock in the upper valley of the Sacramento, and on the Feather, Yuba and American rivers, has been fearfully great. Of course no estimate can yet be approximated. Many farmers have been stripped of everything except their land. Millions of feet of lumber and hundreds of thousands of cords of wood, and in many instances houses and barns have been swept away by the resistless current. Between this city and Sutterville, houses and furniture including bedsteads, beds, mattresses, bureaus, looking glasses, chairs, sofas, and kitchen furniture of all sorts--are lodged in one indiscriminate mass on land a little higher than that which surrounds us. Bees and beehives may also be put into the list, for hundreds, if not thousands of them, have been sacrificed by the inundation. The destruction of horses, cows, hogs, poultry, etc., has been fearful. The real loss to the city can never be known, for a great portion is in that kind of property which adds to family comforts, but which can never be estimated. Upon the industrious poor, the men who have labored for years to purchase and adorn homesteads for their families, the loss is crushing. The majority of this class of citizens were settled in the southern portion of the city where the water was deepest, and many have lost not only their furniture, clothes, provisions, flower gardens, etc., but their houses have been floated away and deposited on other lots or carried by the flood towards Sutterville, if not below that town. Their all is gone. Houses were swept through the crevasses in the R street levee-- some of them two stories-- and so powerful was the current that when two met below the levee the commotion was so great that they would scatter and drop into the boiling flood as if built of paper.

The high tide of the American appears to have been precipitated into the valley in one great wave, as if produced by the sudden bursting of the walls of an immense reservoir. Scarcely a bridge on its branches is left standing. At Auburn the North Fork rose fifty-five feet above low water; at Folsom, the flouring mill of Stockton & Coover, situated on a bar in the wide canon above the town, supposed to be above the highest water, was submerged to the second floor, and came near being carried away by the force of the current. After the volume of water rushed through the canon at Folsom, it appears to have rolled over the county on each side in resistless waves, which prostrated everything before them. The devastation of the water before it reached the city was terrible. It overtopped the bank at Brighton--a thing before unknown, and spread over the plain south of the river with a force which removed fences, broke over and through the railroad embankment, depositing in its course trees and logs upon the track, some of which would measure four feet in diameter. In some instances the superstructure of the road was lifted from the track with the rails, and removed to some distance. On the opposite side of the river from Brighton, the flood took its way across the country towards the Sacramento, taking with it pretty near everything with which it came in contact. Norris' ranch, of tens of thousands of acres, was completely submerged, an event which had not before happened within the memory of the oldest Indian on the ranch. Thirty miles of fence, made of redwood posts and boards, was lifted out of the ground, and with the lumber provided for building a new house, floated the owner knows not where. Hundreds of cords of wood, timber and uprooted trees have been deposited on the ranch, as well as incalculable quantities of sand. The water filled the houses on the place, one of them so full that the inmates were driven for shelter to a hay stack, which fortunately withstood the pressure. About a mile or so below Brighton, and some three or more from the city, is the mouth of the slough which formerly discharged large quantities of water when the river was full, past the Fort, thence into the Sacramento through the sloughs below Sutterville. When the city levees were built the mouth of this slough was closed. The water opened it in 1851; it was again closed in 1853--and from that date withstood all the floods since until last Monday. But the water rose so high as to run over the top of the levee at that point, and eventually cut most of it away, again opening the mouth of the old slough. The only water from the American which is now running past the eastern limits of the city, comes through this slough. The bank of the river from that point to the eastern boundary of the city, at Thirty-first street, is high, and rarely overflows, except at a few depressions. Through the garden and ranch of Smith, the levee was probably never over two feet high, and as no work has been done on it since 1853, except by individuals, it is now considerably lower than when first built. Over this levee the high tide of Monday flowed, for probably a mile and a half. There is another slough near the Tivoli House, which opened in 1852, was closed in the winter of 1853, which we understand stood this high freshet. All the points of which we have been speaking, it should be borne in mind, are outside of the city limits, and really beyond its municipal control. We have before stated that the water which rushed out at Brighton with such force, did not flow towards the city; it passed down east and south of Poverty Ridge. But that which came in at the mouth of the Fort slough, and that which ran over the levee at, and this side of Smith's, flowed directly towards the city until it reached the levee at Thirty-first street; it followed down that levee southward until the railroad embankment was met. As that had been, contrary to law and prudence, made solid, and as it was fully as high as the levee, the water was forced over the top of the latter and into the city, where it was dammed in by the R street levee. Sacramento was thus converted into an immense reservoir, and so remained with her inhabitants afloat in it until breaches were effected through that levee. We have expressed the opinion that the filling up by a solid embankment the space required by ordinance to be left open under the railroad, and was so left when the railroad was first built, was the cause of the inundation. A prominent citizen, who resides near the point where the water first struck the railroad, and who saw it when it first began to tumble over the levee into the city, declares that, in his judgment, if the trestle work first built by the Railroad Company, as the law directed, had been permitted to stand, the flood would have passed the city, and left it not only unharmed, but a large majority of her citizens would not have been aware that such a body of water was passing in the rear of the corporate limit. A little water might have made its way into the city where the levee had been cut down for road purposes, but not enough to attract attention. The responsibility of this distressing and destructive overflow is, therefore, fairly chargeable to the selfishness of the railroad managers, and the neglect of the city authorities to force them to comply with the law.

The fact that the trestle work had been taken away, and earth substituted, because cheaper and more durable than wood, was presented to the Court by the Grand Jury some two years since; the authorities have notified the agents of the company to restore the trestle work, but neglected to inforce their instructions by legal proceedings. People often spoke of the danger, but as Sacramento had so long escaped, the subject was permitted to rest until the supreme folly and wickedness of the act of closing the opening have been demonstrated at a cost of more than a million of dollars and an amount of suffering which no one can estimate.


The first work to be accomplished is to obtain money. Without it nothing can be accomplished for the relief and protection of the city, and we have little confidence that it can be raised from any other source than the Sinking and Interest Fund. It is proposed to borrow it from citizens, to be returned in twelve months; but this would be a species of relief predicated on the contraction of another debt. No further debt should be contracted if it can possibly be avoided. Almost any measure is to be preferred to adding to our million six hundred thousand indebtedness. The plan reported yesterday by the Committee, will meet the case if successfully carried out, and place the city in a better position than she has ever occupied for resisting the assaults of high water. In our judgment the late flood has proved that the city can at a reasonable cost be placed in a position entirely secure from the effects of high water. But to effect this object a hundred thousand dollars in cash are required. With that sum our levees may be so repaired and improved as to render them impregnable. But no half way work will answer. We must adopt as thorough a system as they have in Germany, and perform the work in like manner. Patching will not answer the purpose.

Up to this time there has literally nothing been accomplished since the flood appeared, by the authorities. They seem to be paralyzed, probably for want of means or credit. A little energy on their part would have enabled them to stop the crevasse two miles balow the city, on the Sacramento. It was then not more than ten to fifteen feet wide; it is now from sixty to eighty, and the river pouring a torrent of water through it. As the level inside is several feet below the level of the river, and unless it falls, the volume of water passing through the levee must increase until the level inside and outside are the same. This may take several days, but when that level is found Sacramento will be flooded from back water. The prospect is not so pleasant as it might be. With force enough and means the crevasse could have been closed yesterday morning; it may be done still. The President of the Board of Supervisors was to have commenced work on it early yesterday, but did not for some cause.

Last Spring the Board of Supervisors did a silly thing in consenting that the proprietors of the St. George Hotel might cut the I street levee for the purpose of running a sewer through it into the slough. They agreed to put a good stop gate to it, but did not; and when the water rose the sewer was filled with sacks to keep out the water. But it is coming in quite liberally through the sewer, and unless attended to there is danger of a break at that point.

To put this city in a proper position for the Winter will give employment for a thousand men for a month. The levees are to be repaired and raised; one or two good bridges to be built over the slough at the Fort; the streets are to be repaired, the sidewalks and crossings are to be put into a passable condition, and provision made for draining the streets. With the money all this can be done in a few weeks; without it not a thing will be effected, as the credit of the city is so low that men refuse to work for her if paid in scrip. Money must be had for these improvements or they cannot be made, and if they are not the fate of Sacramento any one may predict. Her destiny is now hanging upon the action of her citizens, If they are equal to the occasion all will be well, and Sacramento will soon be again in a proud position; if they fail her in this emergency they will have lived in California to little purpose.

BOARD OF SUPERVISORS.--This body yesterday took the responsibility of acting as recommended by the Committee of citizens, and nine-tenths of the community will applaud the act as intended to relieve suffering humanity. Legal or illegal, their motives will be approved by citizens and strangers. As the Board of Supervisors is the legislative body of the county, their orders by ordinance ought to protect the Auditor and Treasurer, if they obey them. And they would be justified before any jury in the State. The Treasurer may do so, but he is not bound by the law to inquire into the authority of the Board of Supervisors to order him to pay a warrant drawn by the Auditor. If he pays, no jury can be found who would hold him or his securities bound to respond in damages. This would be done on the ground that the Supervisors were responsible to the law, and not the Auditor or Treasurer.

A CARD.--Elsewhere we publish a card from D. O. Mills & Co., denying that they have most of the coupons on the city debts, as agents. They have only two thousand dollars of the amount. In giving the information, which came from a source in which we had confidence, our sole object was to call attention to what appeared to be a new feature in the case, so far as the Interest and Sinking Fund was concerned. It was not our intention to reflect upon D. O. Mills & Co., as, if those gentlemen had been the agents of the bond holders, we should consider them in the line of their duty when using all legal means to collect the money due their correspondents.

WARNING TO THIEVES.--Since the water has subsided, some thieves have left their tracks in thinly settled neighborhoods. They have visited some houses where the doors could not be shut, and committed depredations. Now that people have very generally either returned to their houses, or placed some one in charge, it is likely that there are as many well loaded shot guns and revolvers in doors as there are thieves on the outside, and if the latter do not go off, the former will. . . .

TELEGRAPH POLES WASHED OUT.--For a distance of one mile, commencing four or five miles below Marysville, the telegraph poles are washed oat of the ground.


The meeting of citizens called on Wednesday afternoon to consider the present crisis in our municipal affairs, and adjourned till yesterday forenoon, reassembled at the rooms of the Board of Supervisors, at eleven o'clock yesterday morning, with a large accession of numbers. As the Supervisors' room was too small to accommodate the crowd, without calling to order President Shattuck requested those in attendance to meet in the County Court room.

President SHATTUCK called the meeting to order in the County Court room, and said the Committee appointed yesterday to report a plan of action, etc., had just informed him that they would be ready to report in a few minutes

J. H. WARWICK and several others inquired what had been done at the meeting yesterday, and at the request of the President, R D. FERGUSON read, for general informatlion, the brief report of the preliminary proceedings in yesterday's issue of the UNION.

J. H WARWICK said, while they were waiting for the Committee he desired to suggest that all persons present would take pains to ascertain the names of those individuals who had been profiting by this public calamity, by extortionate practices, with a view to giving them the benefit of a notice that should last during their miserable lives, and be a disgraceful entailment to their posterity. [Applause ]

Judge CROSS said he thought it would be well to have a Committee appointed to ascertain the names of all such parties, and moved that Mr. Warwick and twelve others be appointed such a Committee.

B C. WHITING said according to parliamentary usage Judge Cross should be appointed Chairman of the Committee, if raised on his motion, and he hoped the motion would be modified in that respect.

Judge CROSS said he would prefer not to be on the Commitee, although he considered it his duty to do all he could to relieve the distressed and punish offenders. He had made the motion because he took it for granted, from Mr. Warwick's making the motion, that he had some available information on the subject referred to, and as he was one of our Representatives elect, it would be very appropriate that he should serve on the Committee.

Mr. WARWICK said several instances of the nature referred to had been mentioned to him yesterday and to-day. Mr.Haswell had told him of one man charging fifty dollars for conveying food a short distance to a destitute family, and he had heard of a man in a boat threatening to leave a woman to drown unless she would pay him fifteen dollars to save her. He thought they owed it to society to make a dreadful example of such men. They were furnished with boats by charitable individuals to save lives and property, and then took advantage of their possession of the boats to reap a golden harvest out of the necessities and the very lives of the wives and children of citizens.

GEO O. HASWELL said if such a Committee was raised, and would call upon him, he would give the name of one man who had charged fifty cents a loaf for bread.

WILSON FLINT said this was mere trifling; it was like fiddling while Rome was burning. This city was now in greater peril of flood than it ever had been before, and it was no time now to hunt up and punish offenders. Before to-morrow there was likely to be a break of from 300 feet to a quarter of a mile wide. It was no time for red tape or city ordinances; let them for the time being forget all about such things and go to work, every man of them, to avert the danger. If they had gone to work last night the break might have been stopped easily; to-day it would take four times the material and labor, and to-morrow it would require ten times as much, and probably the work could not be done at all. There was a shallow flat between the break and the river, and a dam could be built around the break, if they set about it at once. Even those men who had extorted money had done some good, and they wanted even that class of men who would not work for anything but money. Yesterday a hundred men went down to the break and offered to work for five dollars an hour, and nothing less, and finally returned to the city, where, he had no doubt, they were compelled to beg their suppers. For his part, he had been hard at work for three days.

Mr. WARWICK said he had also been bard at work, and if there was work to be done, he was ready to go at it side by side with Mr. Flint, or any other man. He had only offered this motion while the meeting was waiting for more important business.

At this point it was announced that the Committee was ready to report, and

L. B. HARRIS, who had been chosen Chairman of the Committee, came forward and said: I have no written report to make, but will report verbally. The Committee found a great many difficulties in the way. As everybody knows, this city and its citizens have been drained time and again by private subscriptions, for various purposes, and it is almost impossible to fix upon any plan by which we can raise money. If we have money, we can protect the city; there is no doubt about that. We have fixed upon, or rather decided to suggest two plans. One is to raise money upon the personal security of good men in the city--get them to give their notes as collateral security, and raise the money in that way. I presume there are enough good men who would come forward and give money for that purpose, but that is to be ascertained only by trying the experiment. There is a question whether we would succeed in that way. Some have thought we could not, unless we got it from San Francisco, and that San Franciscans would be loth to lend their money to Sacramentans at this time. The other plan or suggestion is one that I must say I am a little loth to make, but under the present circumstances I do not think that I have a right to hold back on account of any feelings of delicacy. The suggestion is, that we take some means of appropriating the interest funds, and it is proposed to do that in this way: I believe that if the Treasurer is indemnified, and the Board of Supervisors will pass the necessary resolutions, he will pay over the money on the warrant of the Auditor. I believe we could indemnify the Treasurer and take this step without the least injury to the bond holders; on the contrary I think it would benefit them, because if we do not raise the money to protect the city they will never get a cent of the principal on the original bonds. They may get the interest now on hand and that is all they ever will receive in the world; while if we take the interest money now on hand to protect the city we may hereafter be able to pay the whole of the principal if we do not pay the interest. I believe there are enough citizens willing to sign the indemnifying bond for the Treasurer. I lay these two propositions before the meeting and let them choose between them. Several of the Committee are willing to go on the bond for $2,000, and I will for one, so that if the bondholders institute proceedings we can make it up to him. As to the means of protecting the city when the money is raised, that did not come within our province to report upon.

CHARLES CROCKER asked if the Committee had consulted with the Treasurer as to what he was willing to do.

Mr. HARRIS said they had not, but understood that he would acquiesce.

GEORGE ROWLAND asked if any estimate of the expense had been made, so as to know how much money would be wanted.

Mr. HARRIS replied that there had been no estimate, but they thought $30,000 or, $40,000, properly expended, would protect the city; two or three citizens should be appointed to act with the President of the Board of Supervisors, to see that the money was judiciously expended.

C. CROCKER asked if the Board of Supervisors would pass such an ordinance ?

Mr. HARRIS answered that the Committee could not learn that.

B C. WHITING said he thought there would be no difficulty on that point; he had heard several of them sensibly concur in the sentiment that self-protection was the first law of nature.

Mr. HARRIS said this would really not be taking the money, and leaving the bondholders without a remedy, because they would be secured, and he understood that unless there was enough money to pay all of the interest none of it could be paid.

C. CROCKER said it could be paid as fast as the coupons were presented.

GEORGE ROWLAND said he did not suppose it would cost one-half the money to do all the work necessary within the limits of the street levees. The Railroad Company must keep our R street levee in repair, and it would only be necessary to repair the levee to Rabel's tannery.

Mr. HARRIS said he had been of the opinion that $20,000 cash, properly expended, would protect the city. He had submitted a verbal report in behalf of the Committee, and the Committee asked to be discharged.

CHARLES CROCKER said the Committee had only suggested plans which had been the street talk ever since the flood. They had ascertained nothing, did not even know whether the Board or Supervisors would pass such an ordinance, whether the Treasurer would deliver up the money to the citizens, or whether they would have to take it by force. They knew that any such ordinarce would be illegal, and unless the Treasurer and Auditor would act in harmony with the citizens nothing would be effected by that course. They had not ascertalned whether if the bond proposed were executed, Mr. Bird, the Treasurer, would accept it; and, in short, they were as much in the dark as they were yesterday.

Mr. HARRIS said they could not ascertain whether the bond would be accepted until it was made out, but Mr. Bird had told a member of the Committee that he would accept a sufficient bond.

D. O. MILLS said he hoped the meeting would accept the first proposition made by the Committee. He had been charged with being interested as an agent of the bondholders, but his house was not interested in the coupons to the extent of one dollar, and his course here was not at all influenced by such considerations. He did not believe there was any immediate danger of another flood, as the snows were all melted from the mountains, and they would have probably two or three months to work upon. The impression was that the city was poor, but there were plenty of wealthy men in it. They had just gone through a prosperous season, and everybody had made money, and it was only the people who were not worth much that had been ruined. Men who had the largest interest here had not been seriously injured, and their loss would have to come out of their profits, so that they would be able to afford it. Let them first try to raise the money among the citizens; and if $40,000 was necessary, he would put down $5,000 of it--[applause]--a proportionate sum if less was required. Then they would only have to ask for a special tax to pay the money raised in this way back to those who advanced it. The city could afford to pay it, for it was a fact that property here paid as much interest as in San Francisco, and capital did quite as well here--the only advantage in San Francisco being that they had had a great rise in the value of property there. If they went ahead right in this matter and saved their credit, they would soon have a similar rise of property here.

Judge CROSS said these suggestions were good as far as they went, but did not reach the point. He moved to adopt the latter proposition of the Committee because it was not taking the interest money, but only borrowing it. If the Legislature of last Winter had a right to borrow the Swamp Land Fund to pay themselves, the city certainly had a right to borrow this Interest Fund to protect the city and save the lives of the inhabitants.

GEORGE ROWLAND said they had better first make an effort at least to raise the money by subscription. They might lose their property and recover it again, but if their good name was once lost it would be difficult ever to regain it. If they failed to raise the. money by subscription, then it might be necessary as a matter of self preservation, to take the other course.

H. H. HARTLEY said he regretted that the Committee had not made a more detailed report. There seemed to be lacking in the first place an actual knowledge of the difficulties under which they were laboring, and secondly, a knowledge of the way in which these difficulties might be obviated, and the amount of money necessary for that purpose. He thought there should be a numerous Committee appointed in each ward, and these Committees subdivided, so as to get an accurate report of what was required to be done and the ways and means of providing the required funds. He was opposed to taking the interest money, at least till an earnest effort had been made to protect themselves by their own means. They would then stand before the world in a better light than if they supinely took the first money they could find. Cities, more than individuals, lived upon credit, and if it was known that without an effort to help themselves they had taken the interest money on their debt, the city would never get credit again in the world. If after every effort to raise the money by other means had failed, they took this interest fund, they would be leas blameable.

CHARLES CROCKER said he thought the wealth of the city was pretty well represented there, and as a merchant of the city of Sacramento, her good name was dear to him. He therefore called on gentlemen present to state how much they would subscribe to raise the money according to the plan proposed by Mr. Mills.

D. O. MILLS responded. $5,000; H. H. Hartley, $500; L. B. Harris, $2,000; James Anthony & Co., $1,000; Goss & Lambard. $500; C. H Grimm, $500; B R. Crocker. $1,000; E. P. Figg, $500; Judge Cross, $500; L. H. Foote, $200; George Rowland, $200; Cohen Brothers, $200, and another party, whose name our reporter did not catch, $500, making a total of $12,600.

Mr. CROCKER said his idea was simply to feel the public pulse, so as to ascertain whether the difficulty could be overcome in this way, without resorting to, not exactly stealing, but taking the interest fund.

.C. H. GRIMM said if the public pulse was ascertained to-day, they would find two-thirds of the city in favor of taking this interest money. It was not proposed to steal it, but to give the Treasurer ample security for the bond holders. This sinking fund was cash on hand that could be used immediately, and if they raised money by subscription it would not be available perhaps for a month. It was only a question whether the bondholders should lay out of their interest for a few months, or the city go to ruin. He thought the bondholders were better able to stand it than the citizens, and did not believe such action would at all impair the credit of the city. They did not repudiate by that action, they simply said they had a more sacred use for the money accumulated in their hands than paying the interest with it.

Judge CROSS called for his motion to adopt the last proposition of the Committee.

E P FIGG suggested that the President and County Assessor take from the assessment roll the names of fifty persons who paid the highest taxes, and allowing them to act as a Committee to devise ways and means for this emergency. If they had to take desperate means let that Committee decide upon it, and he had no doubt that all others would acquiesce.

Mr. GRIMM said the difficulty was that large Committees were notoriously inefficient, and such a Committee could not act before they would be stopped by an injunction.

CHARLES CROCKER said he saw no way to get hold of this interest fund; that was his objection, but by subscriptions they could raise the money at once, as every man's check would be good for the amount. This $80,000 was locked up by the forms of law, so that any man who should take it would render himself liable to the bondholders. If any gentleman could point out a way to get at the money legally, he said take it.

L. B. HARRIS asked why they could not go on with both propositions at the same time. Let them go on and take up subscriptions, and if they failed to raise money enough in that way, they could then resort to the other plan.

WILSON FLINT said what they chiefly wanted now was labor. Plenty of men were idle and living on charity, and let such men be informed that they could have food and shelter only by going to work on the levees . They wanted a provisional government--a sort of Jeff. Davis arrangement here for a few days. Men were starving who yet had strong, willing hands. He did not think all the men of Sacramento were like those who yesterday refused to work for less than five dollars an hour.

J. H. WARWICK suggested that the Treasurer, Auditor and members of the Board of Supervisors . be invited to come before the meeting and state whether they would act harmoniously with the citizens in this matter. Then they would know exactly where they stood, [Applause.]

The PRESIDENT said so far as he was concerned he could not come before a public meeting like this and agree to do an illegal act. The members of the Board of Supervisors had sworn to support the laws, and they could not say go and take the money unless there was some legal way in which it could be done.

Mr. CROCKER said that was it--that was the very difficulty he had forgotten.

Dr. NICHOLS said he had no ready money, but he would be ready to sacrifice a portion of his property to raise what money he could on it to do this work by subscription, but he was utterly opposed to this project of robbery, by taking money from the treasury which they had no right to. It belonged not to their own citizens, but to people all over the world, and they had no more right to take it than to take money deposited in bank by D. O. Mills or B. F. Hastings. He would prefer to submit to a special tax, if it took half he was worth, rather than add to the names already given to the people of Sacramento that of robbery outright. He would give five hundred dollars to raise the money by subscription, if he could raise it, or, at all events, as much as he could raise.

Dr. J. F. MORSE said as a citizen of Sacramento, he repelled the remarks just made entirely and totally misapplied. [Applause.] He would say, with vehemence, that the plan proposed was not robbery. If it were robbery, then, although he had intended to live honestly, he was guilty of robbery when adversity some years ago drove him to bankruptcy. Sacramento city was in the same condition of adversity now. She did not propose to commit robbery, but she was utterly prostrate by a succession of calamities, under which she had been struggling twelve or thirteen years with wonderful energy, but the charge of robbery was totally unapplicable. It is true that they were placed in an embarrassing situation. He had all his life abhorred the idea of repudiation, especially when applied to corporations, and he still abhorred it, but he could see no other resource than borrowing from the treasury that money which was to have been appropriated for interest.

CHARLES CROCKER said the difficulty was how to get the fund. There was no way but to wait for an Act of the Legislature, which could not be passed under a month or two. Mr. Bird had said he would not pay the money over without legal authority.

Dr. NICHOLS said they had already paid this interest money. It was deposited in the Treasury, but it belonged to the bondholders, and there was the robbery.

A GERMAN said he hoped the meeting would hear a few words from a Dutchman, and went on to give his views. He had lived in Sacramento since 1851, and paid heavy taxes, but there was nothing to show for it. The city debt had accumulated beyond all endurance, and he thought they had paid enough interest. The only way was to repudiate their debts and begin again. Then let them build proper levees, run a sluice or a canal all the way to Sutterville, and give the river its course to the tules. [His remarks were not distinctly understood by our reporter]

Judge CROSS said he knew there were names on that subscription list of men who had not a dollar to provide for their families, and the plan of raising money by subscriptions would never succeed. He therefore appealed to the meeting to take action at once, for as Mr. Flint had said, there was no time to lose. Let the Board of Supervisors pass the ordinance appropriating the money, and then appeal to the Legislature to legalize their act.

C. H. GRIMM urged that in taking this fund the city was only getting an extension of time from its creditors as a business man might do. The credit of the city! Why, the city had no credit today. This money was not yet due to the bondholders, and to take it for the purpose of protecting the city was no act of robbery, but simply getting an extension of time. How to get hold of the money seemed to be the question, but they knew where it was and Mr. Crocker knew as well as he how it could be got hold of.

D. W. WELTY suggested that if the Board of Supervisors passed the ordinance, and the Auditor issued the warrant, the Treasurer could not go behind the warrant and refuse the money, and the Legislature could legalize the ordinance as it had legalized many illegal ordinances of San Francisco.

CHARLES CROCKER asked the President if he would sign such an ordinance.

C H. GRIMM and several others interrupted, stating that this was no place to ask such a question.

Mr. CROCKER said then he would move that the meeting adjourn, and instruct the Board of Supervisors to meet immediately and pass such an ordinance.

WILSON FLINT said he wished to make a practical suggestion. He had two hired men with nothing to do, and he would go to work with them on the levee for a month. How many houses on J street would send a man each?

The PRESIDENT said the question was on the motion to adjourn and instruct or request the Supervisors to pass the ordinance.

J. H. WARWICK suggested that the motion should include the preparation of a bond to indemnify each officer.

Mr. CROCKER accepted the modification.

FRANK HEREFORD said if the ordinance was passed the money would be given up, and it should be done immediately. The Supreme Court had decided time and again that even a law of the Legislature attempting to divert moneys from the channel for which they had been appropriated, was unconstitutional.

CHARLES CROCKER--Dash the Constitution now.

FRANK HEREFORD said the Treasurer was willing, nevertheless, to be governed by what his bondsmen said, and if they were satisfied he would give up the money.

C. H. GRIMM said, as one of Mr. Bird's bondsmen, he was willing to instruct him to give up the money.

Mr. HEREFORD moved that a Committee of five be appointed to prepare an indemnification bond, drawn up so as to bind its signers, indemnifying Mr. Bird's sureties. Then let them request Mr. Bird to give up the money.

Mr. CROCKER withdrew his motion in favor of that of Mr. Hereford.

The PRESIDENT said the Board of Supervisors could not legally hold a meeting without five days notice.

Mr. CROCKER said they did not want legality.

Mr. HEREFORD said be was aware that the ordinance, if passed by the Board of Supervisors, would not be worth the paper it was written upon; but if they took the course we had suggested, it would open the doors of these vaults. All Mr. Bird asked was indemnity for himself and his bondsmen.

Mr. CROCKER suggested that the easiest way would be to let the Treasurer's bondsmen withdraw their sureties.

Mr. GRIMM said they could not do it.

The question was taken on Mr. Hereford's motion, and it was carried.

The PRESIDENT appointed as the Committee: Frank Hereford, Judge Hartley, L. B. Harris, D. W. Welty and E. P. Figg.

Mr. WELTY said his idea was to create a special fund, and transfer the money to that fund, and then provide for expending the money in a judicious way.

CHARLES CROCKER was added to the Committee to procure the names of persons willing [sic] to sign the bond, and nine gentlemen gave their names at once. The meeting then adjourned for an hour and a half, to give the Committee time to report.


The PRESIDENT called the meeting to order at twenty minutes after two o'clock, the attendance at that time being comparatively small.

H. H. HARTLEY read the following,


Your Committee to whom was referred the subject of the mode of immediately providing a fund for the purpose of protecting our city from further ruin and devastation, have given the subject as much consideration as it is possible under the terrible emergency in which we are now situated; and as the present moment is one which calls for action, we present the result of our deliberations, omitting the reasons which have led to the various conclusions:

First--We find it impossible to provide funds by direct subscription or loan, in consequence of the amount necessary and the short space of time in which it is required to be forthcoming.

Secondly--We recommend that the citizens as a mass should request the Board of Supervisors to hold a special meeting forthwith, and then and there to pass an ordinance instanter, temporarily transferring to a special fund to be created for that purpose, the Sinking and Interest Funds in the Treasury of the City and County of Sacramento; said fund when so created to be solely used for the purpose of protecting our city from further impending destruction.

Thirdly--That a Committee of five citizens be appointed to co-operate with the Board of Supervisors, to see that the said funds are faithfully and judiciously applied to their legitimate object.

Fourthly--That a sufficient number of our citizens do forthwith tender and give to our County Treasurer a good and sufficient bond, in an ample amount, to indemnify him and his sureties from any liability on his official bond, caused or to be caused by his obeying the ordinance of the Board of Supervisors as aforesaid.

Fifthly--That a like bond be prepared and given to the County Auditor (if desired by him), to fully indemnify him for performing any act he may be required to do in the premises.

Sixthly--That this meeting hereby unconditionally pledges itself to "stand by" the Board of Supervisors, County Treasurer and County Auditor, and all other public officers, in carrying into effect the above recommendations, and pledge ourselves to do all in our power to hold them harmless.

Seventhly--a Committee of ten be appointed in each ward as a Committee of Safety; as, also, a General Committee of ten for the city at large.

Eighthly--our Senators and Representatives be and they are hereby instructed to prepare and present to the Legislature immediately on its assembling, Acts relieving the County Treasurer, County Auditor, Board of Supervisors, and all other of the public officers who might be liable on their official bonds or otherwise, for carrying these recommendations into effect; and also, an Act to provide for the collection of a special tax to supply the deficiency in the county treasury which may be caused by the temporary diversion of the said Sinking and Interest Fund.

The Committee also submitted a form of a bond to indemnify the Treasurer and his sureties, and a draft of an ordinance to be submitted to the Board of Supervisors, directing the Auditor to draw his warrant in favor of -------- for the sum of -------- dollars, to be paid by the Treasurer out of the Sinking and Interest Fund of the city of Sacramento.

The PRESIDENT suggested that it would be necessary first for the Board to pass an ordinance creating a protection.

Mr. HARTLEY said he supposed that would be necessary, but the Committee had only drawn the ordinance as a suggestion to the Board.

Dr. J. F. MORSE moved that the report be received and adopted.

Mr. CROCKER called on property holders present to come forward and sign the bond.

Mr. HARTLEY moved to amend the report so as to intrust the expenditure of the money to the President of the Board of Supervisors and five citizens. Carried.

Mr. CROCKER said during the recess he had been out on his own responsibility to see what could be done in the way of raising money by subscription. He had been unable to find many merchants, as some were at lunch, and others had gone to San Francisco, but he had obtained subscriptions amounting to $17,500, to be paid over provided it should be disbursed by a Committee of citizens, and provided measures can be taken making the loan receivable for taxes next Fall. He thought they could raise $80,000 on the same basis, which they could realize immediately. He had done this, so that if they should fail, by lawyers' tricks or otherwise, to get hold of the Interest Fund, they would have something to fall back upon.

A Committee of three was ordered to be appointed to procure signatures to the bond.

Some one suggested that as the money could not be raised immediately, measures should be taken to put men at work on the levee at once; but no motion was made on the subject.

Judge CROSS moved that the Committee of Citizens to take charge of the fund, consist of L. B. Harris, C. H. Swift, Newton Booth, E. P. Figg and J. F. Morse.

Dr. MORSE declined, and suggested that the name of Mark Hopkins be substituted--which was done. The Committee was then appointed.

Mr. HEREFORD said there was another blank in the ordinance to fill, and that was the sum to be appropriated. He understood the amount in the fund was over $83,000. Judge CROSS moved that the amount be fixed at $50,000. He was informed by Mr. Crocker that the work could be done for $20,000, but they had better have enough.

Dr. MORSE said he did not think that sum would meet the necessities of the case. A sub Committee had been sent out to ascertain the extent of the damage, and had reported after as careful a survey as time allowed, of the crevasse above Smith's Gardens, and another bad place between there and R street, that it would require at least $25,000 each to repair those places. That would take $50,000, and much more would remain to be done. The city should be put in a condition fit for the Legislature, and not meet that body with muddy and broken streets, and everything else disheartening to legislation in their favor.

C. CROCKER said if the object was to fence in the whole of the State of California, they might as well give up. He was in favor of putting the levee on Thirty-first street, and the others right around the city, in good condition, and that was all they needed. Make those levees broad and strong and high and the city was safe, as it never would be by building miles on miles of half made levees. Let the Railroad Company never fill up the gap again in the slough, for it was that which had brought the flood upon the city.

L. B. HARRIS said he thought there were two ways of protecting the city. One was to commence where the north cross levee meets the American river levee, and make it secure, together with the R street levee, leaving the ground open above, so that the water could pass out that way; or if they were not going to do that, then build a levee plumb down to the mouth of the slough, doing away with cross levees altogether. Either way would protect the city, but he was inclined to favor the first.

Mr. CROCKER said he had no objection to drawing the whole fund, if they could get it. [Laughter.]

C. L. SWIFT said he was one of the party which made the examination, and they concluded that it would be impracticable to stop the mouth of the slough at Smith's. The only practicable way was to strengthen the Thirty-first and R street levees.

Mr. CROCKER said he was not a levee builder, but he would bind himself to do the work for $20,000.

On motion of Mr. HEREFORD, the blank was filled with $80,000 and the report was then adopted.

Mr. CROCKER moved to adjourn till eleven o'clock tomorrow to give the Board of Supervisors time to act. Lost.

H. M. STOW moved that a Committee of Safety be appointed to consist of ten persons from each ward and ten from the city at large.

The motion prevailed, and on motion of J. C. GOODS, the President was requested to appoint the Committee and furnish the names to the UNION for publication.

Judge CROSS said there were two parties in this matter, and the interests of the city ought to be considered. He understood that most of the bonds were held by persons wno did not reside in the county, but had agents in Sacramento and San Francisco who could act for them. It was proper to consult with them as to what they would do for the relief of the city, and it was their duty to do what could be done to sustain the value of their securities. He therefore moved that a Committee be appointed to confer with the bondholders and their agents, and entertain any propositions they might have to make for relief in the present extremity.

J. C. GOODS said he thought this was a singular motion at this time. The meeting had already decided to take this money and devote it to another purpose, and it seemed strange after that to propose to confer with them. He moved that the proposition be laid on the table.

Judge CROSS said he could not take that view of the matter. He wanted to ascertain whether they would be willing to aid in protecting their securities. It could not be disguised that repudiation stared this city in the face unless they got same relief. They had been ground down for twelve years with debts illegally contracted, and these bondholders were holding the evidence of those debts, which they had obtained at from twenty to sixty cents on the dollar. They could afford very well to come forward and give the city liberal terms. He made the motion in good faith, and believed every bondholder would approve of it.

The motion to lay on the table was withdrawn, and Judge Cross' motion was lost.

L H. FOOTE said Mr. Crocker, a responsible citizen, had offered to do the work for $20,000, and also stated that he had obtained subscriptions to the amount of $17 500. He thought it was a shame to repudiate for $2,500, and he moved that the Board of Supervisors be authorized to contract with Mr. Crocker to repair the levees for $20,000. and that a Committee be appointed to raise the other $2,500.

L. B. HARRIS--Crocker would not take the job, "you bet."

The motion was lost.

Dr. J. F. MORSE said be hoped the Board of Supervisors would meet to-night, because he understood that before twelve o'clock to-morrow the funds would be placed out of reach by injunction. It would be nonsense to undertake to do anything unless the Board would act heartily with them.

The PRESIDENT said there were five members of the Board of Supervisors in the city, and he thought it would be possible to get a quorum to-night.

E. P. Figg, C. H. Swift, Paul Morrill, Frank Hereford and W. F. Knox, were appointed the Committee to procure signers to the bond.

J. W. COFFROTH said he was informed that before ten o'clock to-morrow a mandate would probably be issued by Judge McKune or Judge Robinson, to prevent the taking of this money.

The meeting then adjourned till eight o'clock in the evening.

The PRESIDENT announced that he would call a meeting of the Board of Supervisors for five o'clock, P.M.


The meeting was called to order at a few minutes after eight o'clock by President SHATTUCK, who stated that his business was such that he could not remain during the evening, and it would be neceaiary to elect a Chairman in his place.

Judge Swift was nominated and elected as Chairman.

The Committee of Safety, appointed by the Chair, was read as follows:
First Ward--R. T. Brown, E. M. Skaggs, -- Despecher, -- Lambard, Henry Trusler, -- Sanders, -- Wilson, James Doran, J. Pierson, S. Hunt.
Second Ward--C. H. Grimm, E. P. Figg, C. H. Swift, Mark Hopkins, J. F. Morse, A. K. P. Harmon, Louis Sloss, A. Boyd, D. W. Welty.
Third Ward--H. H. Hartley, F. Hereford, L. A. Booth, G. W. Mowe, M. McManus, E. B. Ryan, Charles Crocker, D. W. Earl, F. F. Taylor.
Fourth Ward--L. B. Harris, A. G. Richardson, R. C. Clark, A. Aitkin, R. J. McDonald, Leland Stanford, Peter Keefer, Dr. Montgomery, Benj. Crocker, R. C. Montgomery.
City at large--Henry M. Stow, B. F. Hastings, Newton Booth, C. J. Huntington [C.P.?], W. M. Harron, T. M. Lindley, -- Cushing, John Gillig, James Anthony, Dr. Harvey Houghton.
The ordinances passed by the Board of Supervisors creating a Protection Fund, and appropriating $75,000 therefor, were read. [See report of proceedings of the Board of Supervisors.]

Mr. BOYD said these ordinances met his full concurrence, and he saw no necessity for the large Committee of Safety. He therefore moved to reconsider the vote by which the Committee was appointed.

Dr. J. F. MORSE said he saw no harm in having this Committee of Safety, but he had no objection to the reconsideration.

After some discussion, the motion to reconsider was lost.

The CHAIRMAN called for a report from the Committee appointed to procure signers of the bond.

E. P. FIGG said Mr. Bird, the Treasurer, was to consult with his legal adviser and report at nine o'clock tomorrow morning, and by the terms of the ordinance a different bond would have to be prepared, so that the Committee had not deemed it necessary to procure further signatures for this bond.

Mr. BOYD moved that the meeting adjourn till ten o'clock in the morning.

Dr. J. F. MORSE said, in view of the fact that it was necessary to act to-night if at all, he was satisfied that there was no intention on the part of the officers to surrender this money to the citizens. He was sorry to see such a disposition evinced to defeat a measure essential to the safety and preservation of the city, and was satisfied that there would be no occasion for any future meeting. He had been charged by many persons on the streets with participating in a meeting which was doing illegal acts, and encouraging the idea of repudiation of the debt of Sacramento City. He denounced that charge as utterly, entirely and offensively untrue. [applause] If their acts designed to save the city were wrong, he would rather participate in that wrong than stand in the place of those who would crowd this unfortunate city to the wall and extract the last drop of blood. He believed the course proposed was the only one to save the city from repudiation.

C. H. GRIMM said the Treasurer had told him that he wanted to do with that money what the people who placed the money there wanted him to do with it. He was willing to pay over the money, provided his bondsmen could be secured, but he was in a tight place, and did not know what to do, and had gone to consult with counsel about it. He would much rather a body of men should come over and choke him and take the money away from him than to take it in the way proposed. He had no idea that the Treasurer would throw any unnecessary difficulty in the way, and hoped the meeting would not adjourn till he returned.

Mr. FIGG said he was informed that the Auditor would not draw his warrant.

Mr. GRIMM said he understood the Auditor, too, had gone to consult his lawyer. He was more satisfied than ever that the course pursued by the meeting met the public approval, for every man he had met had commended his course. It was the only way to save the city from repudiation.

Judge GROSS repelled the idea of repudiation. He, too, had met citizens outside of this meeting, and they indorsed his course unanimously. They were borrowing this money in an extreme case, und [sic] pledging their words for its repayment. Yet he apprehended that they would not get the money. He was not afraid to take the responsibility of moving the adoption of the report, but they would not get the money.

A German said he thought it was very well to let the bondholders have the money. He was for building levees on every street, all over town, and let the bondholders do the best they could.

Mr. BOYD said he had no doubt if they sent a Committee of about a hundred of the highest taxpayers to the Treasurer's office, he would consent to let the money go.

Dr. MORSE said there was good ground for believing that an injunction would be served on the Treasurer before ten o'clock to morrow morning.

Mr. SWIFT, the Chairman, said the ordinance required the previous filing of the bond before the warrant was issued. For that reason the Committee had not thought it worth while to get the bond already prepared signed.

Mr. GRIMM said the Treasurer's difficulty was that no bonds would indemnify him for doing an illegal act.

L B. MARSHALL said he did not believe a bond could be drawn for such a purpose that would bind any man who signed it.

After waiting some time, during which gentlemen talked against time, Mr. GRIMM said he was satisfied Mr. Bird was not coming back to-night, and be would wait for suggestions.

Dr. J. F. MORSE said he was satisfied, on reflection, that nobody would issue an injunction on this fund, and the citizens would get hold of it yet.

After several other suggestions, the meeting adjourned till nine o'clock in the morning.

THE FLOOD AT SANTA ROSA.--A correspondent writing to the Alta from Santa Rosa, under date of December 9th, says:

Santa Rosa creek overflowed its banks last night, and the water was eighteen inches deep in some of our streets. The floors of the Eureka Hotel and Santa Rosa House were covered. Part of the bridge across the creek has gone, and the bridge across the slough above town is gone entirely. The water is full of fence rails and other drift wood. So far as we know, no lives have been lost and no serious pecuniary damage has been done to any of our citizens. . . .

The undersigned offer their gratuitous services to all sufferers from the inundation needing medical assistance.
F. W. HATCH, M. D.
J. F. MORSE, M. D.
J. M. FREY, M. D.
A. B. NIXON, M. D.
dl8-lt H. W. HARKNESS, M. D.
. . . .

p. 3


THE RIVER AND THE LEVEE.--At sunset last evening the gauge at the foot of N street indicated a hight in the river of twenty-one feet eight inches above low water mark, showing a rise within the past twenty-four hours of ten inches. This hight is but one inch less than the highest point attained last year, (twenty-one feet nine inches,) and ten less than that of 1852, (twenty-two feet six inches) It is the opinion of some or [of?] the upper Sacramento steamboat men that we shall have by or before to-night eight or ten inches more of water from the North, while others, with the same facilities for judging, think the river cannot be higher until we have additional rains. In either case we run some risk of another overflow of the city, at least in part, within a day or two, from the back water caused by the crevasse above Sutterville and the possibility of other openings in the levee near the city. The crevasse referred to was about fifteen feet wide on Tuesday, about thirty feet on Wednessday, and fully sixty feet last evening. It is increasing in depth as well as width, and is discharging a large volume of water. The present fall is about two feet, and the natural effect will be to back the water on to the city to that extent, with the increased rise of the river added. Wilson Flint made an effort yesterday to take down a cargo of bricks in gunny sacks, bales of hay, etc., on a barge, and stop the breach in the morning. He appealed to a number of merchants to send horses and drays to haul the brick from the Forrest Theater to the barge, but they were unfortunately all busy. He appealed also to a number of workmen to aid in filling the sacks, but they demanded $5 per hour. There was nobody to become responsible for that amount. Nothing was therefore done towards stopping the crevasse. Wilson Flint states that he sounded the channel of the opening last evening, and that it is twenty feet deep at the center. Some forty or fifty feet from the levee, the river was but five or six feet deep, on which embankment he designed to build a circular levee to stop the current. It is constantly at that point wearing a deeper channel, and cannot probably now be stopped until the river falls. The levee below R street is also in an unreliable position. It is wearing away gradually and may give way at any time. If it shall break open, the level of the water in the city will inevitably be governed by the level of the water in the Sacramento for the balance of the season. A decided effort should be made to-day to strengthen it.

THE FLOODED PORTION.--The water had so far receded from the western part of the city yesterday afternoon, that the inundated portion was limited to the section lying between Third and Seventh and south of M streets. On all the adjoining streets the late occupants of houses were busily engaged in cleaning out and fixing up those of their houses which can be made inhabitable again. The scene presented is one of confusion and desolation. Some of the houses are turned over, some lean sideways, some are turned partially around, some are broken and shattered, and all are covered inside and outside up to the high water mark with mud--mud of the worst kind, of a soft, slippery, greasy character, which it requires a great deal of labor to get rid of. The streets are strewn with fences, doors, shutters, lumber, cord wood, broken furniture, dead horses, and lifeless cows and hogs. Fruit trees and shrubbery are greatly injured, if not utterly destroyed. Boats of various sizes are still actively engaged in the water, picking up whatever is worth taking possession of. Many families are evidently preparing to go into their houses in a few days.

"SABE, JOHN."--A man who had just narrowly escaped plunging down a submerged basement on Monday, turned around to warn a Chinaman who was wading immediately behind him. "Take care, John," he said; and John responded, "Me sabe, me sabe;" but keeping on, he had scarcely uttered the words when down be went plump over head and ears. The man grabbed the end of the pig tail, which was all of John that could be seen, pulled him out and placed him in an upright position, saying, "Ah, you sabe, John?" "Me no sabe much big dam," said the irate Chinaman, sputtering the water out of his mouth and nose, and then resumed his march, a wetter if not a wiser John. . . .

NOT INJURED.--On Thursday afternoon, when several children were playing on the balcony of the store at the southwest corner of J and Eighth streets, one of them, a boy about five years old, fell to the ground, a distance of at least fifteen feet. He would probably have been killed except for the great abundance of mud, into which he landed. He jumped up at once, uninjured, and very earnestly inquired, in a loud voice, "Where's my ma. Where my ma." His mamma, who was on the balcony above him, lost no time in satisfying his curiosity as to her whereabouts.

FERRY AT THE FORT.--A regular ferry boat was started yesterday from J street, near the Fort, to cross the new made channel, which had cut off travel from the county. Horses and wagons are ferried across. The proprietor has probably started his ferry without applying to the Board of Supervisors for a license. Ranchmen from Brighton arrive by that route, while those from further south were able yesterday to drive through the water from Poverty Ridge.

DAMAGED GRAIN.--The most of our grain stores and warehouses presented yesterday an animated appearance, resulting from the work of overhauling damaged wheat, barley, flour, bran, etc. Large quantities of these articles had been wet and were rendered comparatively valueless. Wheat was sold at six bits per sack, barley at two bits, etc. The most of it was sold for hog feed, but a portion was purchased by ranchmen for seed.

DEAD ANIMALS.--Complaint is made in all parts of the city of the presence of the carcases of drowned animals. A considerable number have been hauled out to Seventeenth street and left there, after taking off their hides, exposed to the sun. This should not be allowed in the neighborhood of dwelling houses. They should all be removed so far as not to be offensive to any one.

MORE OF THEM.--We are informed that R. W. Dunlevy, at Fourth and M streets abandoned his own property on Monday to the ravages of the flood, and devoted his time and efforts to saving those who were in danger. His own loss, it is said, amounted to several thousand dollars. We also hear the names of M. Cook and Constable Cartter spoken of as rendering generous and important service on that occasion.

INQUEST.--Justice Stephenson of Mormon Island held an inquest yesterday on the body of a Chinaman which was found lodged among the rocks on the south bank of the American river. The only witness examined was Samuel Davis, by whom the body was found. The jury found a verdict to the effect that the deceased came to his death by drowning. . . .

A RUNNING STREAM.--During the whole of yesterday a running stream of water passed along the north side of J street, from Fourth to Fifth. It evidently comes from the Slough, and is presumed to originate from the sewer which was cut along Fourth street last year for the benefit of the St. George Hotel. It may do serious injury if not stopped. . . .

NOT HE.--We have received a note from H. McCluskey, boatman, who states that he rendered essential service on the day of the flood with his boat. He charged but a dollar a head where he charged at all, and thinks that indiscriminate censure of boatmen is unjust. . . .


Relief for Sacramento Sufferers--Schooner Burned--Body Recovered.

SAN FRANCISCO, Dec. 12th. Citizens of Sacramento in this city met today, at the store of A. M. Winn & Co. On motion of Mr. Winn, Colonel Zabriskie took the chair, and on motion of P. B. Cornwall, A. M. Winn was appointed Secretary. On motion of Mr. Winn, the following preamble and resolutions were adopted:

WHEREAS, the people of Sacramento are suffering for food and clothing, and immediate relief is necessary; therefore

Resolved, That we request the citizens of San Francisco to ship such articles as they can spare, by the boats to the Howard Benevolent Society of Sacramento.

Resolved, That we recommend the appointment of Relief Committees by the Masons, Odd Fellows and Firemen of San Francisco, and the appointment of Receiving and Disbursing Committees by similar associations in Sacramento.

Resolved, That we appoint a Committee of thirteen to make collections and to meet with the citizens of San Francisco, at Platt's Hall, this evening at seven o'clock, and lay before them the condition of our citizens and ask for relief.

The following were chosen a Committee: J. C. Zabriskie, Chairman; S. C. Hastings, L. Krambach, G. Ambrose, E. F. Gillespie, Lloyd Tevis, S. Waterman, P. B. Cornwall, C. A. Johnson, Charles G. Jackson, G. K. Fitch, N. L Drew, and A. M. Winn, Secretary. At one o'clock to-day there had been collected five thousand dollars for the relief of the sufferers. The California Steam Navigation Company tender free carriage on their boats to all goods designed to relieve the people of Sacramento. Mr. Platt tenders the free use of his hall for the meeting to-night. . . .

The new grade of Filbert street, between Jones and Taylor streets, has been washed away by the rains. . . .

A meeting was held to-night at Platt's Hall, for the purpose of devising means for the relief of Sacramentans. Charles H. S. Williams presided. Speeches were made by Judge McAllister, General Winn and Colonel Zabriskie. It was stated that two thousand dollars worth of goods were sent up by the boat to-night, and five thousand subscribed by Front street merchants.



A special meeting of the Board of Supervisors was held last evening, to take into consideration the recommendations made at the citizens, meeting held during the day. There were present President Shattuck, and Supervisors Woods, Russel, Hansbrow and Granger.

The following ordinance was introduced, the rules suspended and the ordinance passed by a unanimous vote of the members present:

ORDINANCE NO.--. Creating a Special Levee Fund.

The Board of Supervisors of the City and County of Sacramento, hereby order and ordain as follows:

Section 1. There is hereby created a special fund to be known as the Fund for the Preservation of the City of Sacramento from Future Inundations by Water, and the sum of seventy-five thousand dollars is hereby transferred from the City Sinking and Interest Fund, of any money now on hand in said last named fund, to said special fund,

Sec. 2. This ordinance to take effect from and after its passage.

The following ordinance was introduced and, the rules being suspended, passed by the unanimous vote of those present:

ORDINANCE NO 118--To provide for saving the City from total destruction by Inundatian.

The Board of Supervisors of the city and county of Sacramento hereby order and ordain as follows:

Section 1. Upon the fixing [?] with the Auditor, of the indemnity bond, which at a public meeting of the citizens this day held in the County Court House, was ordered made, and which said bond shall be for at least seventy-five thousand dollars, the President of the Board of Supervisors and the Auditor of the city and county shall draw their warrant or warrants on the City Special Levee Fund, in favor of Paul Morrill, Mark Hopkins, E. P. Figg, C. H. Swift and L. B. Harris, who are the Committee appointed by the meeting aforesaid, for the sum of seventy-five thousand dollars; and the Treasurer is hereby required upon the presentation of said warrant or warrants, to pay the same.

Sec 2. The city and county of Sacramento hereby pledges itself, and requires that the aforesaid Committee, before receiving the money aforesaid, shall also guarantee to the President of the Board and the Auditor and Treasurer, that they the said city and county, and they the members of said Committee, will hold them and each of them, the said President, Auditor and Treasurer, and each and every of their several bondsmen harmless and free from any damage of any kind or nature whatever, that may arise or accrue from any act done or to be done by said President, Auditor and Treasurer, or either of them, in carrying this ordinance into effect.

Sec. 3. The Commitee named in the first section of this ordinance shall, before receiving the warrants herein provided to be drawn, file a bond satisfactory to the President of the Board, that they will expend the money only as herein provided.

Sec. 4. Said Committee shall have the sole and absolute disbursement of said money, and no portion thereof shall be paid except upon accounts properly audited by said Committee; and, provided, that said Committee shall report under oath, weekly, the amount expended, and the objects for which the same has been expended, and shall accompany such reports with proper vouchers.

Sec. 5 This ordinance shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage.

The following resolution by Supervisor HANSBROW was adopted unanimously:

Resolved, That this Board recommend to the Committee of citizens having charge of the monies which have been drawn out of the Sinking and Interest Fund to appropriate the amount of five thousand dollars to be used and disbursed by them to relieve in part the suffering of the many poor and houseless families who are now destitute in our midst in consequence of the flood.

The following resolution by Supervisor HANSBROW was adopted:

Resolved, That a Committee be appointed by this Board to confer with the officers of the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company as to the practicability of constructing and moving their track, so as to enter the city on the Northern portion of the same.

Board adjourned.


EDITORS UNION: An article appears editorially in yesterday's UNION, which we conceive does us great injustice. It stated, upon information, that we hold, as agents, most of the coupons due next January, and couples this charge with a very ungenerous intimation that we are seeking to obtain the payment thereof by clandestine means. The entire statement is radically false; we neither hold nor in any way, directly or indirectly, control, nor have we any interest in the coupons, with a solitary exception of about $2,000 left with us for collection when due, and entirely subject to our discretion. While our opinions respecting repudiation are decided, they are altogether unbiased by any personal interest; and we leave it to our fellow-citizens to take such action on this subject as they may deem judicious.

D. O. Mills & Co.
Sacramento, December 13, 1861.

FROM NEVADA TERRITORY.--From Nevada papers to the 7th December, we glean the following intelligence:

FRESHET IN THE CARSON--MILLS CARRIED AWAY.--The recent rise in Carson river carried away all the dams above Sproul's. This was built in the most substantial manner, and withstood the flood. It is thought nearly all the dams below are indebted for their safety to the stability of this one.--Territorial Enterprise. . . .

THE HIGH GRADE.--We noticed yesterday that a large quantity of damaged hams and other merchandise were being emptied into the street in front of one of our principal J street houses. The quantity was such as to raise the street nearly to the level of the high grade.

RELIEF FROM SAN FRANCISCO.--C. Crocker expects from San Francisco a large quantity of dry goods, clothes, etc., for gratuitous distribution among those who are in need. He was notified by telegraph to that effect by Frank Baker, last evening.

LECTURE--POSTPONEMENT.--The lecture of Rev. Mr. Hill, on "Henry Clay," which was to have been delivered this evening, is necessarily postponed. Due notice of the time of its delivery will be given.

REPAIRING.--A large number of workmen are engaged in repairing the railroad between Poverty Ridge and Brighton. . . .

p. 4

FLOOD ON THE COSUMNES.--A correspondent of the Bee, writing from Cosumnes Bridge, December 10th, says:

We had a great overflow of the river at this place yesterday morning. The heavy rain of Sunday night, and the previously warm day melting the snow on the mountains, brought down a freshet which raised the water fourteen feet in twelve hours!--overflowing all the low lands for miles around, and completely arresting all traffic. The rise of the river was at the rate of one foot per honr till two P.M.; remaining stationary till seven o'clock, when it began to recede. At the time I write this (five P.M., Tuesday), the roads are again open--the water having gone down about ten feet. We hear of great damage, loss of stock, etc, on all the low grounds in the vicinity, and the bridge at Michigan Bar was so strained that it was found necessary to cut away about eighteen feet to save the remainder

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3343, 14 December 1861 p. 2


. . .The sum of $38,507 was raised from citizens of Sacramento yesterday, for the protection of the city, $12,800 were paid in. It is hoped that those who have taken in hand the matter of strengthening our levees will act at once, and lose no more precious time by delaying operations. The Subscription Committee will resume their labors to-day.

The Sacramento and American rivers are about at a stand still, although it is said the former rose slightly yesterday, instead of falling, as was generally believed.

In our columns will be noticed an account of the efforts which have been made in San Francisco to render assistance to citizens of Sacramento who have suffered by the late flood. The amount contributed in money and the necessaries of life, has been quite generous and evinces a most benevolent spirit on the part of our brethren of the Bay City.

The Howard Benevolent Society, which has been made the trustee of a large amount of donations for the relief of the destitute of the city, had a meeting last evening, and took action as to the proper mode of distribution. They will guard against imposture, as will be seen by an advertisement elsewhere. . . .

. . .The late storm did considerable damage in Carson Valley, as we learn by telegraph.

THE PROTECTION FUND.--The following is a list of the subscriptions obtained yesterday by the Committee appointed at the Citizens' Meeting:

    D. O. Mills & Co.. (pd) $5000 C. H. Grimm 500 B. F. Hastings & Co.... 5000 E. P. Figg 500 Gas Company 5000 Samuel Cross 500 Lew. B. Harris....... 2000 Dr. H. L. Nichols 500 H. W. Bragg & Co.... 1000 L. H. Foote 200 James Anthony & Co.. 1000 Cyrus Coffin 100 B. R. Crocker........ 1000 L. & S. Wormser 500 Leland Stanford (pd).. 1000 H. Kuham [?] 100 C. H. Swift (pd) 1000 Henry C. Kirk 50 Lord, Holbrook & Co. 1000 Greenbaum Bros (pd). 200 H. H. Hartley 500 --- Steudeman (pd).... 150 Charles Crocker....... 500 Locke & Levenson.... 100 Goss & Lambard 500 John Bigler.. 100 T. M. Lindley (pd).... 500 Booth & Co. (pd)..... 1000 Dr. J. F. Morse. 300 Hull & Lohman (pd) ... 500 C. H. Cummings (pd). 200 Berry Morgan (pd)... 75 H. O. Beatty (pd) 100 J. Hanks 50 Boyd & Davis.... -- George Rowland (pd). 200 D. W. Welty (pd) ..... . 50 McWilliams & Co . . . . . 200 C. C. Jenks (pd) 100 Thos. Findley ... 100 H. H. Spaulding (pd) . . 50 Ebner Bros. 100 A. O. Hinkson (pd)... 50 Barton Bros. 200 A, Greenbaum (pd)... 50 H. E. Robinson (pd)... 250 G. K. Van Heusen 50 A. Lamott (pd) 200 Beck & Ackley 50 Huntington & Hopkins. 1000 P. H. Russell (pd)..... 200 W. F. Knox (pd) 100 Hardy Bros. & Hall pd 500 J. B. Harmon (pd) .... 100 N. F. Turton ....... 50 J. E. Bateman .. ... .. Jerome Dayton ... .. L. Elkus (pd) 25 Jared Irwin.... 50 W. L. Uhler(pd)...... 25 E. Black Ryan (pd). . . 100 L M Hubbard (pd).. . 50 J. H. Gass 50 W. G. English . 50 George R. Moore 50 J. W. Winans . . . ..... 500 Frank Hereford 25 Timothy Wilcox...... 200 H. Starr 10 G. W. Rlcker 10 C. Cole (pd) 100 J. Wetzlar (pd) 100 E. B. Crocker 50 Bigelow & Brooks (pd) 25 W. P. Coleman....... 1000 ---- Jansen ...... 50 T. A. Talbert (pd) .... 25 A. T. Nelson (pd) 25 C. B. Kenyon 100 Jesse Morrill ......... 25 Harmon & Co 500 James Faris & Co (pd) 100 O'Connell & Ryan 200 L. & S. Wormser 100 Massol, Merwln & Co. . . 100 Cash (pd) 500 C. L. Bird............ 50 ______ M. Greenhood 25 Total $38,570 M. Wachhorst... 25
The total amount paid in is $12,800. The Committee will resume its labors to-day.

THE PAVILION.--Yesterday was a busy day at the Agricultural Pavilion. The San Francisco steamer brought up about forty cases and bales of clothing, blankets, etc., donated by San Franciscans, to be distributed by the Howard Benevolent Society, and the goods were taken to the Pavilion, opened and arranged on temporary counters, and goodly supplies given out to needy applicants. Among other necessaries we noticed mattresses, blankets, comforters, boots, shoes, stockings, coats, pants, dresses (ready made), bonnets, under garments and shawls. Many very costly goods for ladies' wear were among the lot, the donors probably considering them just as comfortable as poorer ones. Those who are in want of warm clothing, and unable to buy it, have only to make their wants known and they will be supplied by the Howard Society, until the means of relief deposited with them are exhausted. Large numbers of women and children still remain at the Pavilion, and are bountifully supplied with goodu sbstantial [sic] food.

THE UNION AND THE FLOOD.--The Nevada Transcript, of December 12th, speaking of the flood in Sacramento, says:

THE SACRAMENTO UNION office, on Fourth street, having its engines in the cellar, will not be able to turn out its immense edition, as the cellars must be full, and the engines of course stopped.

There are four errors or misstatements in the above. The UNION office is on Third street, not Fourth. Its engine is not in the cellar. It was able to turn out its " immense edition." The engine was not stopped, and the UNION lost no day in publication. We acknowledge, however, there has been quite a flood in Sacramento, and that it came up to the floor of our first story.


The effect of the late flood upon the agricultural and mining interests of the State will be in the highest degree disastrous. The sudden rise and tremendous torrent of water which plunged from the mountains into the valleys demonstrates that gigantic works by human hands will be demanded before the flood which our mountain streams empty into the valleys can be confined within and over the beds of the rivers in those valleys. Such a mass of water as was discharged from the mountains in the recent storm, demands and takes possession of all the low grounds in order to make its way to the ocean.

For some eight or nine years, the farmers on the Sacramento have not been very seriously injured by high water, and many of them had probably concluded that the day of floods had passed. They have, therefore, gone forward in improving their farms--building houses and fences, intended as permanent improvements. Hundreds of thousands have been expended in this manner, and for improved stock, by men who have applied to the improvement of their farms any surplus dollars realized since 1853. In a single day all this has been swept from them by the remorseless torrent, and they are left to begin again in the world, if they have the courage to undertake a second improvement on land so much exposed to the devastating floods. A single case will serve to illustrate the general condition of the farmers in this valley: Below this city, and on the Sacramento, there is a fine farming section, in ordinary times, extending from thirty to forty miles in length, by a width varying from two to seven or eight miles. This whole section, with the exception of the tule portion, is settled by industrious and thriving farmers, who have not been overflowed since 1853. Last season--by a close and vigorous watch, they succeeded in keeping the Sacramento from overflowing the land for some ten miles below the city. By private enterprise the river has been leveed in a slight way, from the city to near the Georgiana slough. But, after getting some ten miles below last year, we believe the levees proved insufficient.

This year the section we are describing was mostly flooded from the overflow of the American river east of the city. The water which rushed into, through and past the city, spread over the country south of Sutterville and inside the levee of the Sacramento river. As a consequence, the farms for miles below here are submerged, the fences of the owners are mostly washed away, and, unless the river falls within a short time, no crops can be safely calculated upon this season. In fact, unless the slough above Smith's Garden can be closed, the farmers below Sutterville cannot risk putting in crops; because they are liable to be overflowed at every rise of the American during the Spring and Winter.

No event so disheartening to the farmers on the Sacramento, Feather, Yuba and American rivers has occurred since this valley has been in possession of the Americans as the recent flood. It has destroyed the labor of years, deprived men of the means for continuing their farming operations, and, even if they had the means, the insecurity of their position is so great that few will have the heart to attempt to raise a crop.

From the mountains, the news received announces disaster after disaster from rushing torrents. The damage inflicted upon miners can never be known, but it must reach in amount to a startling sum. Reservoirs have been destroyed, ditches cut away, mining claims filled up, flumes torn up, cabins floated off, fences demolished, gardens ruined, orchards washed out by the roots, the water leaving desolation in its track. The loss to the mountain counties in roads and bridges, will reach a figure which would astonish the country could it be correctly ascertained. The fury of the flood extended to the north portion of the State, causing as great a freshet in the rivers which empty into the Pacific ocean, and as great a destruction of property on them, as on the rivers which discharge their waters into the Sacramento valley.

This flood has caused more destruction of property, and more suffering in California, than the various campaigns in Missouri have caused to the property and people of that State. It may be classed as a terrible visitation.

STREETS AND SIDEWALKS.--The wretched condition of our streets and sidewalks calls for the immediate attention of the authorities, as well as of the People's Committee. The sidewalks and crossings ought to be repaired at the earliest moment; they are now in an impassable condition. Individuals have suffered so heavily as to render many of them unable to repair their sidewalks. In all such cases the Citizen Committee should act and let the expenses be paid by the owner at some future time. Drainage, too, must be provided for. It has been frequently asserted that the city is so flat as to render it impossible to drain off the water; but since the flood, ditches have been opened through J, K and L streets, through which water runs with a pretty strong current thus showing, as we have often declared, that the water on the streets would run off if drains were provided. The ditches through those streets are left unbridged--they should be bridged so as to render the streets passable, and the work ought to be done today. Deep holes have been washed in numerous places on the main traveled streets, which should be filled. Something, too, ought to be done about providing means for people to enter and depart from the city with teams, stages, etc. The bridges at the Fort have been destroyed, and two good ferries ought to be maintained there under the supervision of the authorities. Private individuals have established one over the slough near the fort; but that is not sufficient, and besides, the matter should be regulated by law.

The draining of the streets is a matter which demands immediate attention. Lindley & Co. and some others employed Engineer Leet yesterday to lay a drain in Seventh street, to carry the water from their cellars. He thinks that not only the streets, but the cellars on J street, can be relieved by under drainage, and that without difficulty. Why not go forward and adopt a plan for clearing the streets of water?

THE MEANS OBTAINED.--Finding so many difficulties of a legal character in the way of obtaining the money in the Interest and Sinking Fund, a few leading citizens concluded to make another effort to raise the money by individual loans, to be returned within twelve months by a special tax. The sum proposed to raise was $45,000, of which about $30,000 was subscribed immediately. With such a prospect of means, work, under the supervision of the Committee, was commenced to strengthen the levee below R street, and, if possible, to close the crevasse two miles below the city. Work was also vigorously begun at the point on I street where the St. George sewer was permitted to be put into the levee. Energetic measures will be taken to repair and strengthen the levee on all sides, and the people may now look forward with hope to the time when their city will be free from water, and protected from further encroachments from the American river. There is much to be done, and the Committee has before it a laborious and responsible duty. But the members are men who are equal to the crisis. Our prospects are brightening.


Relief Measures--Arrest for Stealing--Libel of Vessel--Donation--Fatally Injured.

The Central Committee of Relief met to-day and provided subscription books for members of the sub-committees, to guard against imposition. The certificate reads as follows:

Mr. ------- is authorized to receive contributions of money and provisions, clothing or bedding, for the relief of the sufferers by the flood at Sacramento and other parts of the Slate.

Signed by H. F. Teschemacher, J. N. Risdon and W. C. Ralston. . . .

The Late Storm in Carson Valley--Damage to Property.
CARSON CITY, Dec. 13th.

The damage done by the late freshet is not as serious as at first anticipated. Gregory & Riddle's saw mill was damaged about $3,000--having gravel, logs and bowlders washed into it, completely covering boilers and engine. The foundation was slightly injured. Childs & Hunt's quartz mill was slightly injured. Ash & Co.'s saw mill was carried away.

At Washoe, a slide took place, demolishing three houses. One man named Penrod, a brother of Mina Penrod, Clear creek, was buried. His body is not recovered. The damage is confined to mills and ranches located at canons at the foot of the mountains. Carson river is very high, though not overflowed.

The water was from three to five inches deep in the streets here, but in lese than twenty hours all was dry.

At Gold Hill several mills were injured; none seriously. At Silver City all the mills were more or less injured, but none permanently. Kingsbury & McDonald's road, above Genoa, was washed and injured not less than $5,000. Stages, however, still pass over it. The weather is now delightful. . . .

THE FLOOD IN PLACERVILLE.--The storm of last Saturday and Sunday caused the waters of Hangtown creek to overflow its banks, doing a great amount of damage to property holders. . . .



The meeting of citizens convened to devise ways and means for the protection of the city against inundation. reassembled, pursuant to adjournment, at the County Court room yesterday morning, Judge C. H. Swift presiding. There was a very large attendance of the more [?] substantial citizens.

The CHAIRMAN said there was a Committee appointed yesterday to confer with the Treasurer and Auditor in relation to the probability of getting the City Interest and Sinking Fund for the purpose of appropriating it to the preservation of the city from future inundation. He was on that Committee, but would ask some other member present to state whether any definite answer had been received from those officers. He had seen the Treasurer this morning, and he was not prepared then to give an answer. If he was present he would like to hear from him, or from his attorney.

J. B. HARMON said Mr. Bird was here a moment ago, but had gone out again. He (Harmon) had an interview with him last night as counsel, together with one or two other citizens, and he had no objection to giving the meeting his own views on the subject.

At this time Mr. BIRD came in and spoke to Mr. Harmon.

Mr. HARMON (resuming) said Mr. Bird desired him to state what passed between them. What Mr. Bird would do was a matter that he would decide for himself, but before they reached the Treasurer they must go to the Auditor who, according to the plan proposed, must countersign the warrant of the President of the Board of Supervisors. If the Auditor refused to draw the warrant, that would let the Treasurer out, and whether he would refuse or not was another question. The question here was, Could the citizens get the money legally? Mr. Bird applied to him last night to consult upon that question with him, both as a lawyer and as a friend, two things which did not mix very well, perhaps, in these matters. As a lawyer he advised Mr. Bird that there was no legal way of getting the money except by choking him and taking it out of his hands. [Laughter.] He (Harmon) did not believe, in short, that the bond the citizens proposed to give the Treasurer was worth the paper it was written upon. They were in desperate circumstances, and as a citizen he was in favor of doing anything to bring relief that legally and morally they might do, but a bond to indemnify a public officer for a known violation of law, would undoubtedly be void. Where a public officer was in doubt as to his duty such a bond might hold, but here it was universally admitted, or ought to be, that the money could not legally be drawn out. In such cases the Courts would hold the bond to be void on the ground of public policy, because they might as well undertake to indemnify a man for stealing a horse, or committing a murder. That was his decided opinion, although possibly he might be in error. This money was appropriated by law to pay the coupons of the bond holders, and in his judgment could not be reached even by an Act of the Legislature. In respect to her city debt Sacramento was placed in a worse position than most other cities, and if the Legislature were to pass a law to draw out this fund the Courts would enjoin it, because it would affect the contract between the city and the bond holders, and would therefore be unconstitational. In other cities the corporate authorities were usually authorized to levy a tax to pay the interest on the city debt, and if they neglected to levy that tax the interest would not be paid; but the law in relation to Sacramento declared that fifty-five per cent of all the revenue raised should be set apart as an Interest and Sinking Fund, so that if any money was raised at all for any purpose fifty-five per cent of it was bound to go for that purpose. The bond holders took their securities with that understanding, so that this case would come clearly within the clause of the Constitution of the United States, (which he claimed still to be governed by) which prohibited the impairing of contracts. Again, would the Treasurer be protected by the warrant of the Auditor? He said no. If there were money in the General Fund, and the Board of Supervisors appropriated for any purpose, for charity, or even to be thrown into the river, and the Auditor countersigned the warrant, then the Treasurer would be protected by the warrant, but in this case, the money was specifically set apart by law for this particular purpose, and the Treasurer or his sureties could not be protected by the authority of the Board of Supervisors. There was no way in which they could be legally protected if the Treasurer paid out this money.

CHARLES CROCKER said then let them do something else, and he was there prepared to make a proposition. He thought yesterday that he foresaw the end of this affair, and on his own responsibility he went around yesterday with Mr. Warwick, and saw as many as he could of the citizens possessed of means. He had been unable to see Booth & Co., Sneath & Arnold, and some other large firms, yet he had met with a good degree of success. This morning he saw Mr. McLane of the Gas Company, who proposed if the citizens would raise $40,000, they would contribute $5,000, provided steps should be taken to have the loan receivable for taxes next Fall, and B. F. Hastings had just now authorized him to say that he would lend $5,000 upon the same terms. [Applause] Let them stop talking about taking money that did not belong to them, and go to work to bring this city into safety. They could do it and no mistake. [Applause ] There was money enough if they would only go about raising it, and he was prepared to double his subscription of yesterday. [Applause.] Let them stop harping about money that belongs to others, and that he was fully satisfied they could not get. Let them resolve to rise superior to this emergency and overcome the difficulties before them. Let them appoint three or four influential men to take that paper and fill it up with subscriptions, and he was confident that in less than two hours they would get $40,000. He was told that they were threatened with a break right there on Fourth street, and they could not get a dozen men to put a pick into the ground till the money was raised. He moved that a Committee of three be appointed to raise the money, pledging the citizens to take the necessary action to secure the passage of a law authorizing the reception of the evidence of the loan in payment of taxes. Then every man would feel safe in making the loan.

The CHAIRMAN said he thought that it would be better to repay the loan by a special tax to be levied immediately.

Mr. CROCKER said that would be still better, and no doubt it could be done.

J. H. WARWICK said he knew there were many who would willingly subscribe, and for one, though he had not money he had moneys worth, and if any one would advance the money on his watch and chain, he would put them down to the account of the fund. [Applause.]

Thereupon Mr. Warwick stripped off his watch and chain and laid them on the table before the Chairman.

C. CROCKER said that was the right spirit to redeem the city, and called for the question on his motion to appoint a Committee of three to solicit subscriptions.

The motion prevailed by a decisive vote.

The CHAIRMAN named as the Committee, C. Crocker, J. H. Warwick and Dr. J. F. Morse.

Dr. MORSE said his time was so peculiarly occupied in the city that he could not attend to the duty as well as others. He proposed that Mr. Boyd be appointed in his place.

Mr. BOYD said he must decline because he could have no faith in this movement and no heart to work for it. He was for getting out this $75,000 anyhow. [Applause] That was money which had been contributed pro rata by every citizen, it would do no good to the bond holders at present for the Treasurer had assured him that he would pay out none of it till the full amount was there to meet all the coupons, and it was lying idle and useless as it would for months to come.

CHARLES CROCKER said they could not get it, and while they were wasting time about it the flood would be upon them.

Dr. HOUGHTON said the bond holders themselves would be in favor of their taking the money, because if they did not the bondholders well knew they would never get another dime. This interest would be the last that this broken down city would ever pay.

Judge HARTLEY suggested that if an indemnity bond would be void, they could nevertheless get one or two hundred names of men who would feel themselves morally bound, and who, if any difficulty arose, would stand in the gap and save the Treasurer and Auditor harmless. He believed Mr. Bird himself would assent to it.

CHARLES CROCKER inquired of Mr. Bird if any amount of bond would induce him to pay over the money.

Mr. BIRD replied that he could not say what he would do; he had seen no warrant yet. But he would say that no bond and no number of gentlemen's words could protect him against a criminal prosecution, for in law it would be a crime.

Mr. CROCKER--lf the warrant is drawn will you pay it?

Mr. BIRD--I would not like to make such a promise.

Mr. CROCKER--Would it render you liable to a criminal action?

Mr. BIRD--l will let my counsel answer that.

Mr. HARMON said he had so advised Mr. Bird, but at the same time told him that he thought no jury could be found who would render a verdict against him. [Applause.]

Mr. BIRD said that might be so, but nevertheless it would go abroad to the world that he stole the money and deserved to be punished for it, although he escaped.

A gentleman suggested that if the Treasurer paid over the money contrary to an injunction it would be contempt of Court, and there would be no jury about it.

Mr. HARMON said he approved of Mr. Crocker's idea, that Sacramento had not yet gone down, and could rise superior to any calamity. But if they wanted to indemnify Mr. Bird, he would suggest that the Supervisors, by ordinance, appoint a Board of Levee Commissioners, whom the citizens might approve, authorizing them to borrow the money dollar for dollar, and then call upon the Legislature to legalize their acts. That would be the only way.

Mr. BOYD said he knew something about raising money in Sacramento, and he knew that the very men generally foremost in subscribing were now many of them unable to do anything.

Mr. CROCKER said they only lacked $11,000 of raising the amount required.

Mr. BOYD insisted that it was wrong to call upon a few men to sacrifice their means for the public good when there was money lying idle in the Treasury.

Mr. CROCKER asked if it was any worse to ask individuals to contribute, than to ask an honorable man to become a criminal.

Mr. BOYD said there was another mode of getting the money, and he did not propose to ask Mr. Bird to do anything criminal.

Mr. CROCKER--Then for God's sake go and get it, you that want it.

W. W. UPTON said the city had already been flooded, and the water had done pretty much all the damage it was likely to do; let them not add to the calamity the destruction of the financial reputation of the city. If this money should be illegally taken it might well be said that Sacramento had "gone in." The treasury was not the only place where gold coin was lying idle. There was coin in Hastings' and Mills' banks, and by Mr. Crocker's plan it could be drawn out, saving the city and its reputation. This might not be repudiation, but the world would call it so; it would go to New York and to London that Sacramento had repudiated.

Col. SANDERS said he had come back to be a citizen of Sacramento again. He warned the citizens to be careful who they trusted their money with, for there were sharks among them who wanted to get means to make off. [Laughter.]

The CHAIRMAN said he would appoint as the third member of the Committee, on Mr. Crocker's motion. J. Anthony.

Mr. Anthony declined to serve, and Mr. Boyd was appointed.

The CHAIRMAN said he would use his influence to have the Legislature pass an Act to raise a special tax to pay this loan immediately.

Mr. WARWICK said he would pledge the Sacramento delegation to do all they could to make that subject the first business before the Legislature.

R D. FERGUSON said he had just returned from the levee below R street, and it was in imminent danger. Some one with authority to act was wanted there immediately, or in two or three hours the water would be sweeping the country down to Sutterville, and backing up over the city.

Mr. CROCKER said be moved that the President of the Board of Supervisors go and stop all the leaks, and he would see that the expense was paid. [Applause ]

Dr. J. F. MORSE said as the determination to push the subscription and make that the mode of relief, he would move that the Committee appointed last night be the Committee to take charge of and lay out the funds raised.

The motion was modified so as to appoint six on the Committee, namely: Messrs. L. B. Harris, C. W. Lightner, C. B. Swift, W. F. Knox, Mark Hopkins and R. P. Figg, and then adopted.

Mr. BOYD .said, although it was against his idea of the best policy to pursue, yet as the course was resolved upon, he would consent to serve on the Committee to solicit and collect subscriptions with Messrs. Crocker and Warwick, and would do whatever it was his duty to do.

MR. CROCKER--Now, gentlemen, you do the work and we will get the money.

The CHAIRMAN declared the meeting adjourned sine die. . . .


POSITION the Directors of the Howard Benevolent Association request that parties who have suffered by the late inundation would bring with them a note from one of the undersigned, vouching for them, or from some person known in the community.

Charitable people, both in the city and outside, are desired to use their efforts to hunt up needy and destitute families, and either send a voucher or call at the Agricultural Hall for such relief as may be needed.

The efforts of the active members or the Society are constantly exerted to meet all the wants of sufferers, but are not fully adequate to investigate cases and afford relief as promptly as may in all cases be requisite, and prevent imposition.

The Society, by the generosity of the citizens of San Francisco, Sacramento, and other places, is in a condition to relieve all cases of great destitution, and desires only to guard itself from gross imposters.

The Board of Directors will be in session at Agricultural Hall at all times.
GEORGE W. MOWE, Front st.,
L. A. BOOTH, J st.,
JOHN McNEILL, cor. J & 7th,
N. A. H. BALL, Agricultural Hall,
JOHN H. CARROLL, Front st.,
CHARLES ROBIN. J bet. 6th & 7th,
JAMES L. ENGLISH, J bet. 1st & 2d,
H. W. HARKNESS. K bet. 2d & 3d,
JOSEPH W. WINANS. J cor. 3d,
GEORGE L. LYTLE, K cor 4th,
SAMUEL CROSS, K bet. 6th & 7th,
T. M. LINDLEY, J cor 7th,
P. H. RUSSELL, J bet. 7th & 8th,
THEO MILLIKEN, J bet. 6th & 7th,
F. A. GIBBS, 7th bet. I & J,
JOSEPH M. FREY, K cor. 4th,
RICHARD DALE. J bet. 6th & 7th,
EDGAR MILLS. J bet. 2d & 3d,
N. GREENE CURTIS, 6th bet. I & J,
R. T. BROWN, J bet. 3d & 4th,
D. O. MILLS, J bet. 2d & 3d,
O. D. LAMBARD, I bet. Ist & 2d,
A. M. HAYDEN, at Wells, Fargo & Co,
REV. W. H. HILL, 7th bet. G & H,
DR. J. F. MONTGOMERY, cor J & 7th,
A. G. RICHARDSON, at Wells, Fargo & Co.,
LEW. B. HARRIS, Ridge,
N. L. DREW, 3d bet. N & O. d14 . . . .

p. 3


THE DANGER.--The Sacramento river has risen four inches since our last report, the city water gauge at the foot of H street marking at dusk last evening a trifle over 22 feet. During the day yesterday the rise was very slow, so much so that many people supposed the river had stopped rising; but an accurate measurement showed a rise of three quarters of an inch from one o'clock to half-past five. There were serious apprehensions during the day yesterday that the levee would give way at the weak spot just below R street, and a large crowd of our fellow citizens stood around the spot during the day, waiting for the catastrophe and not lifting a finger to avert it. The only way to make absolutely certain of that point seems to be to build a new levee inside of it, but President Shattuck expressed the opinion that it could be secured by sinking a large canvas in the river so as to cover the threatened place and prevent the water from washing it. The canvas will probably be prepared some time next week, if at all, but perhaps that would be soon enough, as no immediate danger need be apprehended at that point. At the Halfway House the crevasse has, of course, continued to widen and deepen, and men have continued to look at it and invent plans to mend it, without doing a thing towards carrying out their numerous admirable inventions. The swirl of the rushing torrent through the gap seems to have the effect of paralyzing the energies of men. Possibly it suggests to them the idea of an overruling Providence, and they wait and watch in vague expectation that Providence will in some inscrutable manner dam up the current. The fall of water through this opening is only about two feet, and consequently it cannot dam up the water in the lower part of the city so as to raise it more than two feet higher than it is at present. The rise in the submerged streets yesterday was six or eight inches. At the breaks in the R street levee there was no perceptible current either way, the slough below filling up from the Half Way House crevasse just about as fast as the city filled from seepage, drainage, etc. Probably the most dangerous point at present is the threatened break in the I street levee, at Fourth street, where Hardenbergh was allowed to put in a drain from the St. George Hotel to the slough. As water has an irrepressible tendency to run down hill, when the slough was filled by the flood the drain worked admirably the wrong way. During the day, yesterday, the end of the drain in the alley back of the St. George sent up a large bubbling fountain and in J street copious streams flowed eastward, threatening to inundate the floors of shops on the north side as far as Fifth street, where the water was carried across the street in a ditch. Yesterday afternoon men were set to work under the direction of the Citizens' Committee, and succeeded, it is hoped and believed, in finding the mouth of the sewer in the slough, and after surrounding it with canvass, filled in sand bags and earth till they succeeded measurably in choking it up and stopping the flow of water. Some uneasiness was felt late yesterday afternoon in regard to the Sixth street levee, between the Chinese chapel and the Ohio Brewery. Considerable earth caved in, but by means of sacks of earth the place was made tolerably secure.

MEETING OF THE HOWARD BENEVOLENT SOCIETY--The active members of this Society met last evening at eight o'clock, at the banking house of D. O. Mills & Co., for the purpose of adopting proper measures for the disbursement, among the sufferers by the flood, of the large amounts placed in their hands. D. O. Mills stated that the donors of the $7,300 brought up by Louis McLane, from San Francisco, deputed that gentleman to make known their wishes in relation thereto. The Howard Society, being a city institution, they thought it necessary, in order to effect the end they had in view, that they should especially request that their contributions should go to the relief of any persons in distress, whether in or out of the city, whose cases come to the knowledge of the Society. At an informal meeting of several active members, held in the morning, assurances had, he said, been given that the wishes of the donors would be faithfully fulfilled. Rev. W. H. Hill and Dr. Montgomery were elected active members. A communication was received from John G. Downey, inclosing a check for $100 for the relief of the sufferers. Doctors Harkness, Montgomery and Frey were appointed a Committee to superintend and have the care of such hospitals as may be found necessary. A hospital will probably be provided to-day for the sick ones now at the Pavilion, among whom are three women, enceinte, another with a child two days old, and others in a weak and exhausted condition. R. T. Brown was duly elected Permanent Secretary of the Society. Edgar Mills, N. G. Curtis, W. H. Hill, and R. Dale were appointed a Committee to assist the Board of Directors during the present contingency. The names of Murray Morrison, and Dr. Blake were dropped from the list of active members, and that of N. L. Drew was added. Several motions, all of which are embodied in the advertisement of the Society, in another column, was carried, and after appropriating $500 to a Contingent Fund for the Directors, the Society adjourned until Saturday. The meeting of the Society was a long one, and the exchanging of important information and suggestions consumed most of the time. The Society was so pressed with the duties of the occasion that no time was found for giving any acknowledgment, formally, by resolutions, for the generosity of the people of San Francisco. At the meeting, however, the reporter was requested to thus explain the apparent omission, and to say that the proceedings of the Society in reference to the matter would be published at an early day.

RELIEF FOR THE SUFFERERS.--Relief for the sufferers by the late flood came promptly and liberally to hand yesterday. The people of San Francisco upon the first receipt of the news of the disastrous inundation here, commenced moving in the matter. The bankers of that city, alone, immediately subscribed the sum of $7,300, and appointed Louis McLane their agent to bring it up. Forty cases and bales of clothing, etc., was also speedily raised, and these munificent donations reached this city by yesterday morning's boat, and were placed in the hands of the Howard Benevolent Society. Further sums to a very large amount, $20,000 it is said, have also been subscribed, and will reach us in a day or two. The generous sum already named is, it should be remembered, from the bankers alone. Our people are overwhelmed with gratitude at this warm and substantial sympathy exhibited by the people of San Francisco, and would, if practicable, give it a suitable expression. The donations will be disbursed among the needy by prudent hands, and the pressing necessities of all who will make their wants known can doubtless be ministered to. In addition to the above, a considerable sum has been subscribed by others. The California Steam Navigation Company paid over to the Howard Association $1,000 yesterday. Governor Downey, last evening, sent in a check for $100. The San Francifco [sic] Bulletin Company forwarded to the Union office the sum of $100, to be applied for the relief of the suffering poor in Sacramento. The amount was handed over to the Treasurer of the Society. Three hundred dollars was given to the Treasurer unaccompanied by any name. The Association will soon publish the list of donations received from all sources.

CASTAWAY.--"A Sutterville Blacksmith" sends us an amusing account of the manner in which he and his friend passed the night of Monday last, "on a lone barren isle," as already mentioned in the Union. They at first climbed a tree for safety, and afterwards came down again, managed to light a fire, and cooked a chicken, which the flood brought them, and made themselves as comfortable as possible. During the night they saw floating by them "horses, haystacks, chickens, cats and pieces of boards, and household furniture of all kinds." Twenty soldiers from Camp Union were bivouacked on the other side of the flood, sent by Major Coult to render any assistance in their power, and the blacksmith says one of the soldiers swam three-quarters of a mile to get a boat for them. He concludes his communication by expressing a hope that when Major Coult and his boys get after Jeff. Davis, they may run him on an island, surrounded as he was on Monday night, and never let him off.

THE CITY APPROACHES.--A ferry has been established at Lisle's bridge, and milk wagons and other vehicles were safely brought over yesterday from the part of the bridge still standing to the shore on this side, and vice versa. The road is good to this ferry down Twentieth street. A wagon loaded with wood, and drawn by four mules, came across Norris' bridge yesterday, and the wagon was only wet a little way up the wagon-body. The ferry at Sutter's Fort continues to run regularly. Ranchmen frem the upper and lower Stockton roads cross from the north end of Poverty Ridge to M street, by fording on the line of Twenty-first street. The water is about four feet deep and more than a block wide. It is impossible to haul a full load across. Many are hauling out damaged grain, etc., and boating it across the channel and then reloading it. There is a constant stream of water passing this point. It comes from the American river, where the first break occurred and runs down into the Sutterville slough. . . .

SUNDAY NOTICES.--There will be divine service to-morrow morning at the Rev. Mr. Benton's church, at the regular hour. As it is not certain that the church can be lighted in the evening, there will be no service then. Rev. Dr. Peck will preach to-morrow morning and evening at the Sixth Street Methodist Church. Subject in the morning, "The Flood." The church is in good condition. There will be divine service at the Presbyterian Church, Sixth street, between J and K, at quarter before eleven o'clock A.M. Sermon by the Pastor. Subject, " God's Providence in the Flood." All are invited to attend; no service in the evening. . . .

NEPTUNE HOSE COMPANY.--At a special meeting of Neptune Hose Company, held last evening, the following preamble and resolutions were passed: "Whereas, many worthy families have been rendered houseless and destitute by the late inundation of this city; therefore, be it Resolved, That we hereby tender the use of the house of this company to any families that may require it; Resolved, That we the members of this company do pledge ourselves, separately and collectively to do all in our power to alleviate the sufferings of those who may claim our protection. . . .

GOOD AGAIN.--We are informed that W. H. Taylor, agent of the California Steam Navigation Company, sent yesterday to the Howard Benevolent Society a check for $1,000. The Navigation Company have, during the past season, manifested great liberality in many respects. We are also informed that on Monday night, when the city was flooded, large numbers of homeless persons were taken on board the steamers Gem, Swan, Swallow and Helen Hensley, on each of which food was cooked and furnished free of charge all night.

NOT GUILTY.--It has been stated that the crevasse below the Halfway House was caused by a ditch cut across by direction of Supervisor Dickerson, to let the water in the slough run into the river. This, Wilson Flint assures us is incorrect. Supervisor Dickerson's ditch was cut at Sutterville, where it should have been, and the break at the Halfway house was caused entirely by the force of the torrent in the slough on Monday, which forced its way through into the Sacramento river, then much lower than at present.

A RAY OF HOPE.--We learn that the Calaveras, Mokelumne and San Joaquin rivers have not risen a great deal in consequence of the late rains, which extended mainly over the northern part of the State. This fact affords good ground to hope that the surplus waters of the Sacramento will be mainly carried off in the direction of these rivers, instead of backing up on the city as has been apprehended. Yesterday afternoon the water below Sutterville was passing off as freely as at any time "since the flood."

FENCES AND SIDEWALKS.--Wemmick, with all his knowledge of and love for "portable property," would be astounded to see fences and sidewalks included in that sort of wealth as they have been here during the past week. The owners of the wandering goods are quite successful in recovering them. Many who thought they had secured a good lot of drift wood have found themselves poorer by having to surrender a neighbor's fence, sidewalk, or porch. . . .

LIVES SAVED.--Police Officer Cody has stated to us that Adams, the proprietor of the Washton Bakery, saved from the flood on Monday his (Cody's) wife and three children. Cody's house was located on the corner of Eleventh and H. His family were in imminent danger, when Adams disinterestedly left his own affairs to attend to those of a suffering fellow citizen

MEANNESS.--We are informed that on the night of the flood, some eight or ten persons, who had been driven from their homes, were refused admission to the house or even the yard of a wealthy resident of Poverty Ridge. It is also stated that a man who was sick, crippled and penniless, was a day or two since refused admission to one of our hotels.

WANT TO KNOW.--Many of the ladies of the city are anxious to learn by what means they can wash successfully such laces, etc., as have been exposed to the yellow mud of the late flood. It cannot be disposed of by any ordinary means. Let chemists answer, or anybody else who knows.

AT WORK.--Almost everybody is busy. Those who can are at work for the public good, and those who have been badly wrecked, are setting things in order about their own premises. Such industry as is being exhibited will very soon restore our city to something like its wonted appearance.

PETTY THIEVES.--The presence of large quantities of goods at the Pavilion yesterday, tempted some suspicious looking strangers to that place. Chief Watson had a look-out for them and it is not probable that they met with any considerable success, if they were after plunder

THE LEVEL.--Parties who took the level of the Sacramento with instruments yesterday afternoon, report that the surface of the water is within one inch of the hight of the flood of Monday. This is all very well if it will keep on its own side of the levee. . . .

BACKS OUT.--S. Wormser, of the firm of I. and S. Wormser, on Thursday subscribed $500 to the fund for building a new levee. Yesterday he repudiated the act, but will contribute the sum of $100 to the fund.

CAMP FIRES.--At various points on the Front street levee, between I and R streets, camp fires are kept up all night, around which groups of sleeping men may be seen by taking a midnight promenade along the river. . . .

ADVICES FROM STOCKTON.--A dispatch to the San Francisco papers, dated December 12th says:

Woolf and Cohen returned last evening from a pretty tedious trip to Sacramento by land. From them we learn that the road is open to within a mile or two of Sacramento. Dry creek bridge has gone, but the creek is fordable, and the report that Hicks' bridge is broken is incorrect. The bridge is in good order, but the causeway for a long distance each side has been overflowed to a great depth.

The travelers left here on Monday morning, stayed over night at Riley's waiting for the water to fall, and reached Poverty Ridge--within two miles of the Sacramento river--some time on Tuesday.

We learn from William Hicks that the freshet has caused no damage to the long bridge over the Cosumnes. The main bridge over Dry creek is still standing, while the bridges on each side are swept away. The Mokelumne river is bank full, but no fears are entertained of an overflow sufficient to cause any damage.

The Cosumnes is even higher than the Mokelumne, but the water has more facilities for escape, the river being wide at points where otherwise it might cause much damage.

The Calaveras shows no signs of an overflow, the water not having reached within several feet of its banks at the bridge-crossing. . . .

The water in the main slough has risen rapidly during the past few days, and in Mormon Channel is running to a considerable depth, although showing no indication of an overflow.

The steamer Christiana left this city for French Camp early this morning. She will continue to ply between this locality and French Camp Slough--known during the high water of the Winter of 1862 [sic] as Ragtown--should the extent of the freighting trade warrant it. . . .

THE FRESHET NORTH.--A correspondent writing to the UNION from Red Bluff, furnishes the following particulars of the late flood in the North:

Charles Shafer, Express Messenger for Greenhood & Newbaur, was probably drowned on Saturday evening last, while on his way from Shasta to Volcano. The last seen of him was about four miles from Weaver, and he probably undertook to ford Brown's creek and was carried down. The machillas of his saddle were found about a mile below the ford. The body was not recovered.

Above Trinity Center, on the Yuba road, the bridge at Swift creek is gone; also Fitch's bridge. In Fitch's house the water was four feet deep, and he was obliged to take his family, with the corpse of his oldest child, who died the day before the rise of the water, on to a hay stack, where they remained part of two days. Of seven ferries and bridges on the Sacramento river from this place, (Red Bluff,) north, there is but one uninjured.

At Lewiston, Trinity river, two white men, James Dougherty and another, were drowned, and a little below, from fourteen to twenty Chinamen.

In all probability, the Stage Company have not a bridge standing on their road to Yreka. The Sacramento, opposite Shasta, was eight feet higher than in 1852-3. Swinford, Woodward & Co.'s mill, with twenty-five thousand feet of lumber was carried off. The loss was heavy. . . .

THE CONDITION OF SACRAMENTO.--Speaking of the present position of Sacramento, the San Francisco Herald says:

We are disposed to be as profane as Uncle Toby in the story of Le Fevre and swear that she shall not die. The energy of her business men and mechanics is deserving a better fate. We contend that it is the duty of the Legislature which will shortly assemble, to take her case in hand and rescue her from the calamitous position into which she has fallen.

DAMAGE IN GRASS VALLEY.--The Grass Valley National of Dec. 10th says:

The damage to property in and about Grass Valley has not been very large, although it has thrown some five hundred laborers in the quartz mines out of present employment. The Allison Ranch, Lafayette Scadden's and Jenning's mines have been compelled to suspend operations from the unusual influx of water. The damage in that way to both employers and employed is very great. Many other mines of smaller extent have also been filled with water

FREIGHT TO FRENCH CAMP.--The first load of freight to French Camp since the rains, by water, was shipped yesterday by James Pearson. The indications point favorably to a brisk trade in boat-freighting to French Camp ere the season closes.--Stockton Independent


Notice.--Consignees of freight are notified that all merchandise brought up by the boats of the California Steam Navigation Company, and now on the levee at this city, is at their sole risk. If desired, the freight can be stored on the steamer Eclipse. at the risk and expense of owners. A. REDINGTON, W. H. TAYLOR, } Agents Sacramento, December 12, 1861. dl2-8t

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3344, 16 December 1861 p. 1

THE REFORM SCHOOL.--Many apprehensions were felt by our people for the condition of the State Reform School, as it was generally supposed that the flood would certainly come into the basement floor, but from Pelton, who came down from there yesterday noon, we learn that the grounds were left untouched by the inundation, and stood out high and dry amid the surrounding deluge. The Feather at that point was about level with the bank, which is high, but did not go over its edge. This demonstrates beyond a peradventure, that the site of the building is the best which could have been chosen. Marysville Appeal, Dec. 12th. . . .

BRIDGE CARRIED AWAY.--English's bridge on Bear river, between Auburn and Grass Valley, was carried away by the late flood. . . .


From our interior exchanges, so far as the same have come to hand, we condense the following statement of the disasters by flood in the several counties during the week last past:


The bridges at Coloma, Uniontown, Salmon Falls and Chile Bar, on the forks of the American river, were all badly damaged. No mail from Georgetown or Auburn had reached Placerville for about a week, on Friday. No Sacramento mail reached there during three days of last week. The Democrat mentions the following losses in the county:

Center and Morrill's bridge over Weber creek was swept away, and the toll house of the Placerville and El Dorado Turnpike Company, on Hangtown Creek, a few hundred yards below our office, shared a similar fate. The rear wall of the new Methodist Episcopal church, in the basement, was crushed in by a bank of earth falling against it, making a hole about ten feet square, through which heavy bowlders rolled in on the floor. Three Chinamen near Uniontown, with their cabin, were swept away. Efforts were made to save them, but the current was too swift and strong for a boat to reach them. Nearly all the bridges over the little streams, so far as we have been able to learn, were destroyed.

Hangtown Creek overflowed its banks, and carried off some necessary but not very valuable property. The roads are represented to be in an almost impassable condition--in several places almost entirely washed away.

The following in reference to the condition of travel in the county is from the Coloma Times:

Communication from Georgetown, Greenwood, and in fact from the entire ridge between the Middle and South Fork of the American river to Sacramento, can be had by the way of Shaw's wire bridge at Mormon Island, which, we understand, remains uninjured. There is but one bridge across the Middle Fork of the American river--that is known as the Murderer's Bar wire bridge. We have not heard authoritatively, yet we presume that it escaped--it is a wire suspension, far above high water, and if the abutments stood, no other injury could be done it. The Rattlesnake Bar wire bridge, we learn, was not damaged at all.


The miners in Placer have suffered severely, and the damage to roads and bridges has been large. The Dutch Flat Enquirer says the Mineral Bar bridge, on the road from Illinoistown to Iowa Hill was carried away. This was considered one of the most substantial pieces of workmanship in the county. Ford's Bar bridge was also carried away. This bridge was for horsemen and foot passengers from lowa Hill to Dutch Flat, and was one of the great thoroughfares from Placervilie, Georgetown, Forest Hill, lowa Hill, Dutch Flat, Little York on to Nevada and Downieville.

The water reached its hight on Monday. At Junction Bar, a wire-suspension foot bridge, several cabins, and a number of large waterwheels, flumes, etc., were carried away. Every house on Pleasant Bar was surrounded by water, but by means of ropes, stone ballast and other fastenings they were prevented from floating away. On Horse-Shoe Bar the damage was extensive, the place being nearly all covered with water. At this bar, and also at Mad Canon Bar, Poverty Bar, Maine Bar, and Oregon Bar, immense losses were sustained by the carrying away of water wheels, derricks, sluices, flumes, mining cabins, and lumber. At Volcano Bar, a wire-suspension bridge which cost $2,500 one year ago was destroyed. Large numbers of Chinamen are reported by the Courier to have been drowned at Poverty, Maine, and Oregon Bars, and at the confluence of the Middle and North Forks of the American.

The new "Dardanelles Ditch" has been greatly injured by the freshet, the earth on the upper side in many places caving in and filling it up. The dam at the head of the Dutch Flat Company's ditch is said to have broken on Monday last, on the Main Fork of the North Fork and also their dam on the Middle Fork of the North Fork, causing a damage to the company of a thousand dollars or more.


Seems to have been touched lightly. The gulches and ravines were much swollen, but no serious losses are reported. The Chronicle says that some miners in Steep Gulch, back of Mokelumne Hill, had all their dirt carried away, and supposing that the Water Company's flume had broken down and emptied its contents into the gulch, went up to the agent and demanded some two thousand dollars damages. On being informed that there had been no water in the flume for the last ten days, they had to look to a higher source for their pay. At the Buckeye, the Gopher mining claim was entirely washed out. Loss about $800.


The rush of water which has swept the valleys did its work in the mountains, of course, some days before we felt it. The Yreka Journal of the 4th gives the following account of the overflowing of the creeks and gulches in that region on the preceding Saturday:

At five o'clock, water was rushing down Main street a foot deep, and Yreka creek was booming and flooding its banks from Main street almost to Dr. Wadsworth's residence. The water surrounded our office, and rushed in swift currents between the houses and barns back of us. At seven o'clock the Yreka creek bridge, on Miner street, floated off, stopping against stumps of trees about half a mile below town. All the buildings on the east side of Main street towards the creek, were surrounded if not flooded with water, and many gardens are completely ruined, being covered with sand and driftings from Greenhorn. Yreka creek divided south of Yreka, and one stream ran through town within fifty feet of Main street, flooding several premises in town and all along the creek to Shasta river.

Shasta river divided into several streams, at this time, and spread over ranches and claims, doing great damage and rendering the roads impassible for coaches. Scott river overran its banks and spread out over the adjoining country like an immense lake. In Scott Valley the telegraph poles were floated out for a distance of miles. The Journal estimates the losses of miners on McAdams creek alone, at $30,000.


The Trinity Journal estimates the loss on Trinity river at $150,000. The flood has made a clean sweep of the flumes, dams, mills and water wheels of miners, and has carried off many bridges, ranch improvements, fruit trees and much rich soil on the Trinity and its tributary creeks. Among the losses recorded by the Journal we find nine bridges--some totally destroyed, others badly damaged, and partially carried off--ten dams, several mills, and a long list of flumes and water wheels.


At the highest stage of the flood the South Yuba was twenty six feet above low water mark, and twelve feet higher than at any time last year. The Nevada Democrat of Tuesday had the following:

The Illinois, Webster's, and both of Freeman's bridges, were carried away on Sunday night, also the suspension bridge at Washington.

Considerable damage was occasioned by the tearing away of dams and flumes in Deer creek. The flume of Jeffrey & Co, coming into Deer creek at the Main street bridge was washed away, damaging the company to the amount of about $2,000. The bridge at the foot of Nevada street, Worrell's bridge at the Eagle saw mill, and the dams of Bovyer's ditches, the one above and the other below town, were swept off.

A gentleman from Jones's Bar informs us that great damage was occasioned by the flood at that place. At the upper end of the bar, where the channel is narrow, the water raised forty feet above the low water mark, being twelve or fifteen feet higher than ever known before. The foot bridge which crosses at the Bar, together with flumes, dams, sluices, derricks, and mining utensils generally, were carried away. One of the flumes destroyed was over a mile in length, and cannot: be replaced for less than four thousand dollars. The quartz mill belonging to Fellows, at German Bar, was swept off.

The middle Yuba rose ten feet higher than at any previous time in the past ten years, and six feet above the highest water marks.

The Marysville Appeal has the following in reference to bridges in Nevada county:

We have before stated that Wood's bridge across the South Yuba, at Bridgeport, and Freeman's, across the Middle Yuba, near North San Juan, have been carried away by the freshet, as well as Webber's bridge across the South Yuba on the road between Nevada and North San Juan. Teams and stages are now crossing at Bridgeport by boat, and a huge ferry launch is being constructed for regular use until the bridge can be rebuilt. Freeman says he will have a new bridge by the first of January. Webber intends to construct a wire suspension this time; and so should all mountain bridge men hereafter.


The Appeal says that the only street of consequence that was flooded was First street, and that the water therein was only from eighteen inches to two feet in depth--and adds:

On First street are built the Merchants' Hotel, and the few brick stores which fell in. The larger and best built portion of the town was not flooded at all, and the leading thoroughfares were thronged, with man and women gazing at the surrounding waste of waters.

The heavy losses in Yuba county are among farmers and miners. Many families in moderate circumstances, residing west of F street in Marysville, must have experienced losses, not large, but neverless distressing to them. Along the Feather and Yuba bottoms, many people, overtaken by the flood on the night of Sunday the 8th, fled to the tree tops. One man took his three children to a tree and tied them up in the branches, where they remained several hours in the cold before a rescuer arrived.


The Beacon says the losses in the neighborhood of Red Bluff are but small. A slaughter house with some hides was swept off of the east bank of the Sacramento at that point. It is said.that Loomis Ward of Tehama has lost seven hundred sheep. In the town of Tehama the water was, says the Beacon, one foot in depth.


J. W. Henderson arrived at San Francisco Saturday, and informed the Alta that the river rose as high there last Monday as in the Sacramento valley.

Eel river rose thirty feet above low water mark, and carried off many fences and much live stock.

Russian river rose fifteen feet or more. At Cloverdale the river cut a new channel, leaving the sawmill of Caldwell & Levy in the middle of the river. The mill was injured, and report says it will probably be abandoned. Between Cloverdale and Healdsburg the farmers lost much. Their fences and domestic animals were carried off, and in some places the soil was washed away.

At Big river two men were drowned.


At Oroville the Feather river had risen to a great hight on Sunday morning, the 8th, and boats had to be brought into use for the removing.of the inmates of houses on the bar. Many houses were made fast by ropes, but when night came few had withstood the violence of the torrent. On Monday morning the bar was entirely swept of every human habitation, and the flood threatened the town itself. The Record gives the metes and bounds of the inundation, there, as follows:

At the saw-mill and at the foot of Downer street, the water reached Montgomery street. At the foot of Myers street it was high enough to deposit quite an amount of drift wood immediately in the rear of Faulkner & Co.'s banking house. At Huntoon street it caused the hasty removal of the horses, harness, coaches, etc., from the stable of the California Stage Company, and giving it a pretty thorough washing out; while across the street, Nye's stable suffered the same fate. Chinatown barely escaped inundation, the water having just reached the street. The flood reached its highest stage about seven o'clock, Monday morning, and by ten o'clock its receding was perceptible.

The entire damage is estimated at $10,000. The farmers on the river, down as far as the Honcut, suffered severely, many being driven out of their houses, The Oroville Railroad grade was not disturbed, it being eighteen inches above the highest water mark. On Chico creek and the Sacramento river, within the limits of Butte county, thousands of cattle have been drowned, and ranch improvements carried off in great quantities. Major Bidwell of Chico has sustained considerable losses.


The Folsom Telegraph says that at that place the American rose eight feet higher on Monday than at the time of the great flood of 1852.

The Stockton Independent of Thursday has the following:

We learn from Hicks that the freshet has caused no damage to the long bridge over the Cosumnes. The main bridge over Dry creek is still standing, while the bridges on either side are swept away. The Mokelumne river is "bank full," but no fears are entertained of an overflow sufficient to cause any damage. The Cosumnes is even higher than the Mokelumne, but the water has more facilities for escape, the river being wide at points where otherwise it might cause much damage. The Calaveras shows no signs of an overflow, the water not having reached within several feet of its banks at the bridge crossing.


The freshet was very destructive at Santa Rosa. On Sunday night the people of the town were aroused by the ringing of bells, and half the town was found to be submerged to the depth of from one to four feet, by the rising of Santa Rosa creek. The Democrat says:

The damages sustained by our citizens and the county from the destruction of bridges and injury to roads were considerable, but we have not space for details. Fences were swept away, hogs drowned, hay and poultry carried off; in short, everything encountered in force by the flood was destroyed or carried away. The bridge at the southern entrance of the town was damaged to the extent of $300.


The following bridges, not mentioned by us before, we believe, have been swept away by the deluge, viz: Rice's bridge, on the North Yuba; also the bridges at Downieville and Goodyear's Bar, in Sierra county; the bridges across the Yuba at Foster's Bar and Bullard's Bar, and the bridge at Johnson's crossing of Bear river; also Turner's bridge across the Yuba, a few miles above Marysville, and Wood's wire suspension bridge at Parks' Bar (Yuba river), have all gone by the board. . . .

p. 2


. . . The management at the Metropolitan Theater, San Francisco, gave a benefit for the Sacramento sufferers by the flood on Saturday evening. The theater was crowded.

In our columns will be found . . . and a condensed statement of the ravages of the flood in the interior of the State.

Under the head of "The Safety of the City," will be found an authoritative statement of the progress made by the Citizens' Committee in providing for the protection of the city. Several communications on the same subject will be noticed in this issue.

Colonel Bowie, of the Fifth Regiment sent a dispatch from San Francisco, on Saturday, to a citizen of Sacramento, requesting that, if more men were needed to work on the levee, word should be sent to Major Coult at Camp Union, expressing his (the Colonel's) wish that he would send up as many men as might be necessary.

The total amount of relief received in this city for the sufferers by the flood, from the citizens of San Francisco, up to the present time, is twenty-seven thousand seven hundred and ten dollars and forty cents, of which amount twenty-two thousand seven hundred and ten dollars and forty cents was in cash, and about five thousand dollars in well selected merchandise. Such instances of prompt and profuse generosity on the part of a community are of very rare occurrence.

The weekly report of the City and County Auditor exhibited the following balances as being on hand at the close of business on Saturday: In the County Treasury, $91,547.36; in the City Treasury, $81,425.55. Total, $172,972.91. . . .

REMOVAL OF THE STATE CAPITAL.--Before Sacramento had shaken the water, in which she had been submerged, from her garments, two or three papers in the interior and one or two in San Francisco commenced the work of urging a removal of the State Capital. If the people of the State should deem it inexpedient to retain the Capital here, Sacramento will not complain, but she protests against any [??] being made upon her in this connection before she has closed her war against the watery element, which has been struggling to overwhelm her. We are pleased to see that some of our cotemporaries [sic] take the same view, and are too generous to participate in this vulture-like attack upon a suffering city. The Bulletin says:

If there has ever been a disposition in any portion of the State to remove the State Capital to some new place, the present misfortunes of Sacramento would cause such a proposition to be frowned down with withering scorn. The people of California have too much magnanimity, too strong a sense of justice, to countenance any attempt to take advantange [sic] of the misfortunes of one community to further the schemes of another. Not a single reason exists now for moving the seat of Government from Sacramento that has not existed in equal force for the past nine years; but, on the contrary, the entire safety of the State's property there is more completely established than ever. The fourth and highest flood ever known has swept over the city, and not an ordinarily well constructed brick building is known to be damaged. The new State House, with its foundation eight or ten feet below the surface of the ground, and the walls laid in cement above high water mark, may stand through a hundred such inundations as the present without damage, while the halls of legislation and public archives will of course, be above the reach of water. The levee may be cut away, so that Sacramento will be liable to partial overflow every two or three years, and yet that city can grow and prosper, and still deserve to be the State Capital. These overflows, when anticipated, need not be calamities. They deluge the city for a few days, cause suffering among the poor, and suspend business, but when the water subsides the damage is soon repaired. Many large cities in the world are subject to periodical overflows, and being prepared, suffer little more loss than other cities experience from the interruption of business by snow storms.


A prominent citizen sends us a communication upon the probable cost of repairing the levee from M street to the American river, as well as the work at Rabel's tannery. But his estimate, it strikes us, would not put that levee in the condition it ought to be placed. It should not only be repaired, but made broader and higher. What is done should be thorough. The Citizens' Committee is moving in the premises, as may be seen by a statement in another column. The members are moving energetically. They have generally selected the weak points for commencing work. As stated, the work near Rabel's tannery is important; the danger of a break was imminent, and but for the desperate efforts of those living in that neighborhood, night and day, as we are personally aware, the city would have been flooded from that point before daylight Monday morning. A broad and high levee is needed at that point.

We regret that the Committee find it impracticable to stop the crevasse at the Halfway House, through which the water of the Sacramento is rushing. If it is impracticable to close that crevasse, the people in the southern portion of the city are dependent upon a fall in the Sacramento for freedom from inundation. The residences of many of them are still so submerged as to render them uninhabitable, and if the Sacramento continues high all winter they must remain under water. Certainly this will be the case unless the R street levee can be repaired so as to keep out back water.

There has for several days past been more or less talk of endeavoring to have the railroad come in on the north, rather than the south side of the city. A correspondent from Nevada also advances the same idea. A railroad embankment on the north side, and near the American river, would prove a very great defense to the city. It would not do away with the necessity of a levee, but it would add materially to our safety. When application was made to the City Council there were two railroad companies asking for the right to enter the city. Connected with one were such men as ex-Governor Burnett, J. B. Haggin, and other prominent citizens the other was mainly represented by C. L. Wilson. Most persons were then confident that the Sacramento company would be most likely to build the road, and acordingly it wus granted the right of way to come in on the south side. Burnett, Haggin, and others permitted their project to drop. Wilson & Co. went ahead and finally built the road to Folsom. This is the reason why the railroad happened to come in on the south instead of the north side of the city. As before remarked, a railroad embankment on the American river would prove a very great protection to Sacramento, in place of flooding it as it did in its present location. The Railroad Company could, in part, make its peace with the people of Sacramento for having built a solid embankment on its present line, which acted as a dam to back the water into the city, thereby doing them an irreparable injury--by changing the location of the road to the bank of the American river. A railroad embankment, sixty feet wide on the top, from the high ground near Brighton to the Sacramento river, would prove a breastwork to the water of the American, which it would be unable to surmount more than once in a century.

WORDS OF ENCOURAGEMENT.--Several of our cotemporaries [sic] are engaged in giving us friendly words of encouragement in the midst of our "sea of troubles," for which the citizens of Sacramento feel duly thankful. The Bulletin says:

Sacramento is situated just where commerce demands a city, and four floods cannot wash her out. If every man, woman and child now resident there, should pull up stakes to-morrow and depart, a colony would pour in before Spring and rebuild a town, for that is the place for one. If the grade of the city has been put too low, that is a mistake which time will rectify. The building of levees is not a much more serious job than constructing streets on marshy, tidewatered ground. To do the thing up right requires money, and with time, economy, and the determination at all risks to pay every dime that is already borrowed, the money will be forthcoming. Sacramento has come out of repeated baptisms of fire and water, and is certainly now devoted--not to destruction, but to the high career that awaits those who take their burnings kindly, and their rude baths with good nature. She has Resurgam branded on her flank, and the owners of that brand never suffer their sort to stray permanently into the lowlands or lack good pasture.

When the Legislature meets, however, it may be deemed sound policy for the State to unite with the local government in constructing a new levee around the city on a more limited circuit than the present--such an embankment as will defy the approaches of any flood that can be expected until Noah's experience is repeated. A comparatively small sum of money, if honestly disbursed, would build such a levee.

The Alta adds:

The people of Sacramento, however crippled their corporate finances may be, have wealth enough among themselves to repair all the damages occasioned by the flood. No matter how they proceed, the money will have to come out of the pockets of the citizens in the end, and it is just as well to fall back upon these receptacles of cash now as ten years hence, especially, as by so doing, disgrace and ultimate ruin will be avoided.

The Journal, speaking of the money raised by Sacramento for self-protection, remarks:

This noble action by the brave citizens of Sacramento relieves our State and all its components from the fear of a great evil, for repudiation by Sacramento would have been necessarily followed by the destruction of confidence in every species of California security. The course of the city under the severe pressure of suffering it has now to endure in thus maintaining its faith, will be justly appreciated, and every right-minded man will strive to proffer every assistance to the citizens of Sacramento in their noble efforts which can be constitutionally extended, and which a generous magnanimity can bestow.

The San Francisco Mirror also says;

The citizens of Sacramento have agreed to rebuild the levee and effect all necessary improvements by private subscription, and if $40,000 were raised on the spot. The proposal to repudiate is not to be taken as derogatory to the reputation of those who favored it, but rather as the natural result of a panic in which all classes participated. This sober second thought action redounds, therefore, very highly to their credit.

The Marysville Appeal remarks: .

Energetic measures are being taken to drain the streets as fast as possible. May the beautiful and undaunted "city of homesteads" soon rise from the flood, higher and drier and securer than ever.

GIVE THEM LEGAL AUTHORITY.--As those who have voluntarily come forward and offered to loan the city from forty to fifty thousand dollars to be expended, and placed it in the hands of a Citizens' Committee, the Board of Supervisors might, by ordinance, authorize the Committee to act for the City as the agents of the authorities. By doing this, and then auditing the accounts for money paid for work, a claim with a legal semblance would exist against the City and in favor of the Committee.

A CORRESPONDENT makes some suggestions about cleaning and draining the streets, which are worthy of consideration. The business streets and sidewalks ought by all means to be cleaned, repaired and drained before the first of January. The Committee will have to give this matter consideration.

The Committee report it impossible to close the slough above Smith's until after the American falls. A contractor in the city offered yesterday to fill it up so as to stop the water and build a new levee for five hundred dollars. When doctors disagree who is to decide?


It is very well known that, when an emergency presents itself, and money is required for the public good--for the public safety--the few only respond. In most instances, too, the same parties, probably because they always have done so, and because they are ready to meet an appeal in a public crisis promptly and liberally when first called upon. Such men advance their means cheerfully, while many around them owning more property, and requiring more protection, do not subscribe a dollar. Sacramento is not an exception to this general rule. In a crisis like the present a few of her citizens invariably have the heavy burden to bear, simply because they are public spirited and willing. Since it was determined to raise the money demanded for immediate use in repairing the levees and strengthening them, by subscription, and the proposition has been circulated to obtain subscribers, we have taken the trouble to get a list of fifty of the heaviest taxpayers in the city. The amount each man pays in taxes is placed in one column; the sum he subscribes to the loan, expected to be returned by a special tax, in another. It will be seen that of the fifty heaviest taxpayers only six advance to the city more than the annual amount of their taxes, while twenty-seven--over one-half--have not subscribed one dollar. A good many taxpayers not included in the list of fifty have subscribed liberally; but a good many of the largest property holders have not yet subscribed anything. It may be that some of them are absent, and will yet respond. For their own credit we hope they will; in a time like the present, for those who are able, to hold back, is calculated to place the delinquents in a very unenviable position before their fellow citizens.

The majority in the late meeting finally determined upon the present plan to raise the money needed; it is one that involves some risk of future payment, which should be shared generally by property holders. Those who decline will be adjudged worthy a place in a city black list.

The following is the list to which we have referred. Our readers can analyze it at pleasure:

    Amount Subscrip- City Tax. tion to Loan. B. F. Hastings $3,048 $5,000 D. O. Mills & Co. 2,829 5,000 Sacramento Valley Railroad . . 2,781 000 H. E. Robinson 2,244 350 Kleinhans & Bro. 2,238 000 Boyd & Davis ....... 1,959 000 Cal. Steam Nav. Co. 1,883 ----- Hull & Lohman 1,719 500 L. B. Harris 1,644 2,000 Sacramento Gas Co. 1,427 5,000 Booth & Co. 1,405 1,000 E. P. Figg 1,278 500 R. H. McDonald 1,258 500 Stanford Bros. 1,225 1,000 Lindley, Wooster & Weaver. . 1,216 500 John Gillig 1,104 000 J. H. Carroll & Co. 1,039 500 Sneath & Arnold 1,034 250 Lanos & Co. 1,029 1,000 J. Carolan & Co 926 000 Lord, Holbrook & Co. 921 1,000 P. H. Burnett 879 000 A. K. Grim, for Samuel Norris 875 000 Rosanna H. Keenan 857 000 Lloyd Tevis 843 000 Ebner & Bros 837 100 Sacramento Valley Railroad . . 831 000 C. Crocker 827 500 Harmon & Co. 822 500 F. W. Fratt 813 000 E. M. Skaggs 786 000 S. Brannan, (Wetzlar, Agent) . 784 000 J. W. Winans 756 500 V. G. Fourgeaud 751 000 Milliken Bros.... 718 000 John McNulty 710 100 A. G. Tryon 708 000 Sacramento & Yolo Bridge Co. 702 000 C. J. Jansen 692 000 C. J. Hooker 677 000 A. C. Monson 672 000 S. P. Dewey.. 674 000 D. E. Callahan 667 000 John Rivett 665 000 James Anthony & Co. 660 1,000 Melvina Hoopes 640 000 H. M. Naglee 648 000 J. C. Jorghaus...... 647 000 P. Vertimer 644 000 C. H. Grimm 639 500
. . .
THE TELEGRAAH [sic].--To satisfy numerous inquiries as to the prospects of a speedy telegraphic communication with the rest of the country, we will state that Mr. Dent, the operator at this place is busily engaged in putting in order the line to Sacramento, which is in a much worse condition than was supposed. Between Eliza and Bear river there are miles of the line down, poles and wires prostrated by a strong current which appears to have swept over the ground. The line is all down to a point near Bear river, and it is probable that the connection will be made before our next issue.--Marysville Appeal, Dec. 15th. . . .

REGULAR.--The Mountain Democrat in closing an article on the flood, says:

But notwithstanding the violence and severity of the storm, the Overland Mail arrived with remarkable regularity, thus establishing the fact that the Placerville route can be safely and speedily traveled in the worst seasons.

DROWNED.--Jabez Atwood, a native of Providence, Rhode Island, was drowned at Marysville on Saturday. He was boating at the foot of B street with another man, when they were capsized, with the fatal result above recorded, . . .

THE BEEF MARKET.--The Marysville Appeal says the butchers there are quite uncertain as to the future state of the stock market, and adds:

But a short supply for beef is now on hand, and a movement of some sort must take place soon. No offers have been made by dealers as yet, but it is the impression that prices will advance as soon as any cattle come into market, as there must have been many hundreds of fat cattle drowned in the late floods, though it would seem, from all accounts, that the largest loss is among cattle of the poorer sort.

THE LEVEE AND STATE CAPITAL.--At a late meeting of citizens of San Francisco, Gregory Yale offered the following resolutions, which were passed:

Resolved, That in the sense of this meeting the next Legisature should take into consideration the necessity of adopting a system of levees to protect the State property at the Capital from damage or destruction by inundation from the American and Sacramento rivers, at the expense of the State.

Resolved, That in this day of peril to Sacramento we should not talk of adding to their calamities the removal of the State Capital to any other place. . . .


. . . . The benefit at the Metropolitan Theater last night for the Sacramento sufferers, drew a very crowded house. . . .

[Lodge symbol]. I. O. O. F.--At a Regular Meeting of the General Relief Committee of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows held in this city this day, it was Resolved, That the thanks of said Committee and the Order in general be tendered Bro. P. G. M , H. M. HEUSTON, for the very generous offer of the use of his Furnished Brick Dwelling, northeast corner of I and Seventh streets, for Brothers of the Order and their families now in distress. Infornation of cases of distress is respectfully solicited by said Committee.
JOHN TODD, Chairman. Sacramento,
Dec. 15, 1861. d16-6t
[Bee copy.]

One of God's Noblemen,
Mr. Norris Sullivan rescued my wife
and child, and other helpless women and children, from a watery grave during the flood. In doing this he neglected HIS property, most of which was destroyed. I was absent from the city at that time, and have been unable to find him to acknowledge his heroic conduct. His name must be added to the list of noble men who saved human lives without charge.
dl6-lt* CHARLES R. SUMNER. . . .

[drawing of a cow] COWS LOST.

the Flood in Sacramento, TWO COWS one black and white, rope on her neck, and branded O on her right rump; the other red, with a white stripe on her back, and branded J B on her side. Whoever will return both or either of them to McDOWELL & CO., corner of Front and N streets, shall be suitably rewarded. d16-8t

[drawing of a horse] MARE FOUND--ON THE
9th of December, during the flood, a SORREL MARE, fifteen hands high, three years old, left feet white, white stripe on forehead, with brand on the right shoulder. The owner can get her at Toll's Stable by paying the expeses, d16-8t*


by the Citizens on Friday last will require a number of Laborers to work on the Levee at Rabel's Tannery and Thirty-first street.
Apply on the ground to the Superintendent. Payment in cash. C. H. SWIFT, Chairman.
C. W. LIGHTNER, Secretary dl6 . . .

p. 3


FIRE.--A one story dwelling house, owned by William Hardy and occupied by Frank M. Chapman and family, on the north side of N street, between Seventh and Eighth, caught fire at half past eight o'clock last evening, it is said, from a large fire built for the purpose of drying clothing. The fire spread to the adjoining house on the east side, a two story house, owned and occupied by John F. Roberts. Part of the furniture in Roberts' house was saved, but Chapman's furniture and both the dwellings were destroyed. Roberts' house was insured for $300, but was probably worth three times as much. He is a man about seventy-five years old, and will feel the loss severely, having but little to depend upon. He is the father of Capt. T. L. Roberts of the Washington Rifle Company, First Regiment California Volunteers. The fire companies had a very hard time in getting to the fire through the flooded streets and over broken sidewalks. Engine No. 5 broke through the plank sidewalk on L street, and was pried out with great difficulty. Soon after it got mired and the firemen impressed a span of horses which dragged out the machine and took it to the fire in a hurry.

THE WEATHER.--ln consequence of the prevalence of fogs and clouds we have scarcely had a glimpse of the sun during the past week. There have been some indications of rain, which was of course to be dreaded in view of our muddy streets, high rivers, damp houses, etc. Yesterday a moderate northwest wind prevailed, giving the promise of clear weather. At about twelve o'clock M. the sun made a decided effort to take a peep at Camp Union through the curtain of floating clouds, and was very nearly successful. In the evening, at about sunset, a golden gleam came through the gap of the Putah in the coast range, giving promise of light and warmth and prosperity, at an early day. Our sidewalks in many places, are becoming dry and quite passable. The glow of sunlight, a clear sky, falling rivers, liberal contributions to the protection fund, sound judgment on the part of our committees, and manly energy on the part of all our citizens: these are needed to meet the emergency of the day, and these combined will meet it successfully.

THE ROLL OF HONOR.--We have mentioned, from time to time, the names of those who were magnanimously and effectively engaged on Monday last in aiding those who were in need of aid on account of the destructive flood of that day. It is alike creditable to human nature that assistance was so generously given when required, and that those who received it are so desirous now to award the meed of praise to those from whom it came. We have been requested to say that Nathaniel Boice threw open his two story brick house in the northeastern portion of the city, and extended all the aid in his power to those who were in need. John McIsaacs, saloon keeper at Front and N streets, is said to have been very active with a boat throughout the day. J. H. Warwick, member elect of the Assembly, and Charles Duret worked throughout the day and evening, removing from danger many who were perilously situated.

STAGE ARRANGEMENTS.--The stage office of this city has been removed from Second street to the What Cheer House, Front and K streets. Notice is given in another column that passengers are ticketed through from Sacramento to all parts of the State at the same rates as before the washing up of the railroad by the late flood. The cars at present come from Folsom to Brighton only. As the Railroad Company refuse to provide any means of transportation for passengers between that point and the city, the stage companies have put on a number of their coaches, established a ferry at Sutter's Fort, and send out and bring in passengers, without loss of time or additional expense. The traveling community will, therefore, suffer little or nothing by the injury done the railroad. This arrangement went into effect on Wednesday morning last.

CONTEMPLATED SUITS FOR DAMAGES.--The subject of the liability of the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company for the damage done to real and personal property in this city, is being pretty freely discussed among those who have suffered by the late flood. It is generally held--as the agents of the company stopped up the natural water course on R street, near Seventeenth, not only without any legal authority but in the face of the protest of the City Council, and thereby on Monday last dammed up the water until the city was deluged--that therefore the Company, as a company, and the agents individually are responsible for the injury done. It seems probable from present indications that several hundred suits will be commenced, and that our lawyers and Courts will be busy with the subject. . . .

THE RIVER.--The Sacramento had fallen at sunset last evening to twenty-one feet five inches above low water mark, having declined seven inches from its highest pomt--twenty-two feet attained on Friday evening. There is no reason to doubt that the river is going down, and that the levees will soon be in a condition in which they can be effectually repaired. The leak of the St. George drain at Fourth and I streets has been stopped, or nearly so, and the point on the Sacramento, below R street, seems likely to give no immediate trouble. . . .

NEITHER PROUD NOR PARTICULAR.--On the morning after the late inundation, a large hog was found in a well furnished residence in the eastern portion of the city, taking a warm and comfortable snooze in the best bed in the house. He was evidently neither proud nor particular as to where he slept.

ARRESTS.--The following arrests were made on Saturday:. . . John Doe, alias, by officer McIntosh, on a charge of petty larceny, in stealing a boat belonging to C. E. Wyman. . . .

MARYSVILLE.--Marysville Appeal, in noticing the relief meeting at San Francisco, says:

A monster meeting was to be held at San Francisco night before last, to take measures for the relief of sufferers by the flood at Sacramento and Marysville. San Francisco is always first in charitable deeds. We are happy to know that Marysville did not suffer beyond her own ability to afford relief.

[For the Union.]

MESSRS. EDITORS:--Having spent most of the day in an examination of the condition of our levee, and in making some sort of an estimate of the cost of repairing it in such manner as to protect the city from immediate danger of another overflow, I propose to give the result of my observations to the public through the medium of the UNION. Commencing my examination at the point where the east levee intersects M street, near Twenty-third, and following the levee eastward and northward to where it intersects the American river levee at a point near the junction of A and Thirty-first streets, I found the embankment broken through and washed away in many places. But along this entire line the ground outside of the levee was high enough to enable laborers to procure all the earth necessary to repair the breaches. There would be no difficulty, with an adequate force, in making that portion of the levee perfectly secure in one week's time, provided we have favorable weather. I estimated, from merely walking over the ground--estimating it by my eye without stopping to measure it--that it would not take over ten thousand cubic yards of earth to repair it. It would require some little ploughing, ditching, etc., to prepare the bed for receiving the new earth. But the cost of repairing all this part of the levee, could not well cost over five thousand dollars. Possibly, if the weather should be fair, it might fall considerably short of that sum.

From the intersection of the two levees, near the crossing of A and Thirty-first streets, the American river levee requires raising and strengthening for about two hundred yards. This work could be done without difficulty and at a trifling cost--say not to exceed $500. Then at the lower extremity of this repaired levee it would be necessary to commence an entirely new piece of levee, gradually diverging from the old one, and extending inland to such a distance as to be entirely free from all danger of being undermined and carried away by the river, which at this point has been encroaching on the land. After getting past this point of danger the new levee could be gradually turned back so as to connect with the old levee below. This is the point at Rabel's tannery, about which we have heard so much.

This levee would require about five cubic yards of earth per lineal foot. In my opinion it would not require more than eight hundred feet of new levee. Indeed, I would consider it safe with six hundred feet, if some work was done to protect the bank of the river, of which I will presently speak. But, putting it at eight hundred feet, it cannot reasonably cost over $2,000 The soil is dry and sandy, and may be removed with remarkable facility. From the last mentioned point down the American river to I street, the necessary repairs would be very slight indeed. Fifty or one hundred dollars' worth of labor on all this part of the levee would render it perfectly secure.

Coming down I street, of course the levee would be perfectly secure but for that wonderful piece of engineering connected with the St. George Hotel, alike indicative of the sagacity of its projector, and of the wisdom of the city fathers who sanctioned it. But seriously, there is mere [more?] danger from that place than is generally apprehended. A straight piece of timber leading through an embankment, which is intended to hold water is always dangerous. The water is apt to follow along the underside of such a piece of timber, and if the smallest hole is formed there, the timber above makes a kind of arch to sustain the superincumbent earth, while the orifice is enlarging by the action of the water. This place should be narrowly watched, and the first time the water falls sufficiently the street should be reopened, the trough taken out and the ditch refilled, ramming the earth well as it is replaced.

I will now return to the place at Rabel's tannery. The making of eight hundred feet of new levee at that place would not be sufficient unless some steps were taken to prevent the cutting away of the banks. To protect the bank is neither so difficult nor so costly as is generally supposed. In this place it would probably require one hundred piles to be driven. I am told that Mr. Rightmire will furnish them at the spot, fifty feet in length, for fifteen dollars each, and that it will only cost ten dollars each for driving. This will make, for piling, $2,500. When the piles are driven, the space between them and the banks should be filled up with willow brush, and broken brick, gravel, bags of sand, and whatever heavy material can be most conveniently obtained, should be thrown on the brush to keep it at the bottom. If this is done the bank will never wash behind the piles The brush is cheaper than planking, can be obtained at or near the spot, and is far more safe, for this reason: The planking is frequently undermined, and taken off by the action of the current, whilst the piles are still left standing. Brush can never wash out whilst the piles remain. If it is undermined it simply sinks down and fills up the hole beneath, instead of floating off. When a bank is thus protected, the only question that need be asked is, will the piling stand? While the piling stands there is no question but that the brush will stay behind it and protect the bank if properly weighted down. The interstices of the brush would soon fill up with the sediment of the still water that it would create, and thus would be formed a solid embankment behind the piles, which would materially assist them in sustaining the action of the current, and tend greatly to increase their stability.

In this connection, I am informed that there will not probably be found any gravel or hard substance to prevent the driving of fifty foot piles to such a depth that the tops will be even with high water mark. This opinion is founded on the fact that parties who have bored wells in that vicinity have not met with gravel or bowlders until attaining a depth of over fifty feet. When other piles were driven there they were driven with great care, but they were only thirty feet long. I would be afraid that thirty foot piles would not stand, but would be torn out by the action of the current. With fifty foot piles there could be no danger.

Above and below this point the banks are protected by willow brush. A point on the opposite side of the river, which threw the current across, has been washed away, and the current is not now cutting at Rabel's tannery. The water is still there now, but it would not be safe to trust it in another rise without protection. The danger, however, is greatly diminished.

The cost of filling in the brush I am unable to estimate. The labor of the chain gang could be well employed in cutting the brush, and the additional cost of filling it in could not well exceed $2,000, and might not cost even $500.

To recapitulate, the cost of repairing the levee from the crossing of M street up to the American river, and down the American to the foot of I street, so as to make it perfectly safe and reliable, ought not to exceed $12,000. or $13,000, and the work may be done without difficulty in the present stage of the water.

Commencing at the crossing of M street, and following the levee southward and westward to the foot of R street, there are numerous breaches, and so far as I was able to examine them, the water was too near on a level with the surface of the ground to readily obtain the material for repairs in the vicinity of the breaches. The only way to repair this portion of the levee (unless the water should fall considerably) is to get the Railroad Company to repair their track by building trestle work across the slough which runs between the east levee and Poverty Ridge, so as to connect the Ridge with the R street levee, and striking the latter at about the intersection of 18th street: By this means the cars could bring down dirt from the ridge, and construct their track before them to the foot of R street. Another set of cars could be switched off the track at the junction of the railroad and the levee, and run back up the levee, making repairs before them until a point is reached where the repairs can be made from the earth adjacent to the breaches. What this would cost I have not been able to learn. But certainly there are ample means in the hands of the Committees to accomplish it. For the present I will conclude here, but will, in another article, present some further views on this subject.

Saturday Evening, Dec. 14th. .


EDITORS UNION: Would it not be practicable for Sacramento to buy the right of way along the line of the eastern levee of the city--say 50 or 100 feet, or any width necessary, and dig a canal entirely across from the American river to the Sacramento river, below the R street levee, or as far down as necessary, using the dirt taken from the canal in building the levee. The canal, of course, would carry but a small amount of water, but every little helps, and the dirt taken therefrom would be all sufficient to protect your city from the flood. The top dirt or soil should be placed on the outside of the levee, and at the proper season sowed with alfalfa, blue grass or red clover. Alfalfa, I think preferable, as it is next to impossible to kill it when once started; and as the roots run very deep and are tough and fibrous, would in two years, at furthest, make your levee impregnable.

These suggestions have probably been made hundreds of times, and probably others much more valuable; but as I have noticed no such, I give them to you for what they are worth, and expect you to treat them as you see fit.

Yours, truly, etc., JNO. PATTISON.
Nevada, Dec 12, 1861.


As many of our citizens are anxious to learn what progress the Committee appointed by them on Friday, December 13th, have made by providing for the safety of the city, the following, from responsible authority, will give them the necessary information:

In a matter of such importance, although the necessity of action is immediate, it is equally important that the whole of the danger should be thoroughly examined before coming to a conclusion. It required the whole of Friday, Saturday and Sunday to view the different breaches in the levees, inquire carefully into the manner in which the city was overflowed--not only recently, but on former occasions--and to consult as to the best method of providing against the recurrence of such a calamity.

The breach below the Half Way House, in the Sacramento, was found to be of such magnitude as to preclude all hope of repairing it, the water pouring in with great velocity fully fifteen feet deep and sixty feet wide, the water on the side from which the work would have to be done varying from five to ten feet in depth; no material at hand wherewith to stop it, and the levee on either side low and precarious. The extent of damage to be done the city by it could be easily calculated by the eye, viz: the backing up of the water through the opening in the R street levee to the hight of a few inches. This has shown itself to be small. The Committee, therefore, decided not to spend any of the fund in attempting to close it at present, but wait until the Sacramento subsided a few feet, when repairs will be practicable, and will then be done.

Much alarm was felt by many about the threatened breach below the R street levee and the "Hardenbergh" sewer, at the corner of I and Fourth streets. The Committee considered the former place perfectly safe for the present, and expended some labor on the latter, and partially succeeded in stopping the flow of water through it. They are of the opinion that ne [no?] real danger threatens the levee at that point, although the water still flowing through it is a source of inconvenience to the property holders in that immediate vicinity.

The Committee have concluded to proceed at once to erect a counter levee at Rabel's Tannery, inclosing the entire portion threatened by the wearing away of the bank of the American. But few of our citizens are aware of the danger which existed at that point, it was owing to the great exertions of the few men residing in the reighborhood, and the providential bursting of the embankment above Smith's Garden, relieving the strain on the weak levee, that the city was saved a night of horrors. Had it broken at that place (the tannery) the water must have flown with a depth of six feet and a front of several hundred yards, the entire diagonal length of the city, and would have scarcely subsided at the present time. Deeming this the weakest point in the city defenses, and the construction of a levee there the speediest and cheapest method of securing it, the Committee will proceed to-day to its erection. Men and tools will be sent out at once, and the work will be done under their personal supervision.

The breaches in the east levee, commencing at Thirty-first and B streets, following its line until it intersects the R street embankment will be repaired at the same time, beginning at the former point, where comparatively dry earth can be obtained to fill them, as it would be useless to repair them with new earth alone. The slope facing the east, or waterside, will be revetted with gunny sacks. Where that material is used in filling the openings, in order that it may not be thought "patched work," an additional width and hight will be given the section at these points.

At the present time it would be folly to attempt reconstructing the embankment across the slough above Smith's Garden, the water still running through it, and no dry material at hand for use. To construct an entire new levee of new earth, unless faced on one side with materials which would resist a current as well as a pressure, would be a useless expenditure. It can only be erected permanently during the Summer months and be of use, after having stood some time, having a chance to settle. After the expense of the first mentioned work is paid for, there ought to be still a large fund on hand which can be appropriated for that use, A large portion of the city will be left outside, which, if left without benefit by the levee, ought not to be taxed to refund the present subscription. The Committee aim to do the greatest amount of benefit to the greatest amount of property, and a knowledge of these facts by those outside of the levee ought to satisfy them,

The Committee have had no conference with the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company as to their future plans in restoring the R street embankment and trestle work over the slough, but have appointed a Sub-committee to ascertain their views in the matter.


EDITORS UNION: While the city fathers of Sacramento are assuming great responsibilities in this great crisis of your history--if not existence--allow me to ask them, through you, why they do not take the responsibility of stopping the reconstruction of the railroad embankment into the city where it has existed? Do they want the city submerged again? It will surely be so. I would as soon have the city and State Capitol built in the bottom of a lake temporarily dried up. Let them say to the Railroad company-- "you may build your track along the bank of the American river, and come in on the north side of the city." It would be no injury to the railroad, but it would be a great benefit and protection to the city. The embankment could be built of solid material brought down from the foot hills that no flood would wash away. Should a flood ever threaten its overflow large trains of earth could then be run directly to the dangerous point and dumped in, and thus forever protect the city. The cost will be but trifling compared with your present loss. I have no doubt but the Legislature would make an appropriation to aid such an enterprise as an effectual protection to the State capital. On the drainage question I would say let large gates be constructed in the levee below the city, with large sewers leading from the lowest portions of the city to those gates--after the style of lock gates to a canal--to drain off the water, should any ever again flow into the city.

By constructing several such gates, and by removing the entire present railroad embankment to fill up the lower portions of the city, and then constructing a new, large and solid railroad embankment around the north side of the city along the river, you will accomplish a permanent protection to your city; otherwise I fear that the people of the State will demand a removal of the capital to some other locality.

These suggestions are respectfully submitted, with all due deference to the wisdom of those who are more intimately and deeply interested in this matter, for their consideration.

H. C.
Nevada, Dec. 14, 1861.


EDITORS UNION: The Levee Committee will, I am informed, have men at work tomorrow (Monday) repairing the levee on its northern and eastern line, so that in a few days we will be protected from any ordinary rise of water from the American river. It is of vital importance to our city that at least the business portion of it be put in order before the meeting of the Legislature; and I suggest the following plan: Let a Committee of business men from J and K and the intervening cross streets, collect a fund (two or three dollars from each business house will do), for the purpose of clearing the mud from the graveled and planked streets. Let them hire a dozen teams, and men sufficient to haul the dirt into the low cross streets; keep open the present temporary drains, and make others where needed, and in two weeks those streets will be in better order than they have been for the past two winters. Let the Levee Committee spend a few hundred dollars in reconstructing the crossings within the limits mentioned, the citizens go to work promptly and reconstruct their sidewalks, and by the first of January we can present a better appearance to "the assembled wisdom" than we have done for years. Who of our energetic business men will set the ball in motion? J. H. N.

p. 4

DAMAGE TO MINING CLAIMS.--On Sunday night December 8th, in Nevada, considerable damage was done in the mining claim of Rogers, on American Hill, by the bank caving in and breaking up the iron pipes. The damage was about $400. The cave was occasioned by the heavy rains--the water soaking in the cracks and loosening the earth.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3345, 17 December 1861 p. 1

. . .
MINING ABOUT COLUMBIA.--The Tuolumne Courier of December 7th, says:

The late storms have overflowed the most of the mines with water, and but little mining has been done in this section for nearly a month, * * * In the early part of this week Manly & Co. took out of their claim, on Knapp's ranch, a nugget weighing forty two ounces, nearly pure gold, which was sold to Daegener for over $700. They also washed up forty-aeven ounces of gold dust; the whole valued at about $1,500.

THE SAN JOAQUIN.--The Stockton lndependent of December 14th says:

We are informed by Captain Bruns, who arrived in this city last evening frem the mouth of the San Joaquin river, that an immense quantity of drift wood, stumps of trees, and timber, are floating out under a heavy force from the water, and every appearance at the month of the river indicates a rapid rise above. . . .

THE FLOOD AT DOUGLAS CITY.--The Gazette published at Douglas City, Trinity county, saying, under date of December 4th:

From this point down to the North Fork, everything is reported as swept away, including the bridges at North Fork, McGilvery's, Sturdivant's, and the new one built this past summer [?] at Louis Raab's. Every wheel and flume from Steiner's Flat down to North Fork is gone. Every mining claim along the river has suffered to a greater or less degree in the loss of sluice boxes, etc., and taken all together, the late flood has destroyed fully three times the amount of property of any previous one. Since the above was put in type, we have heard that the new flume of McCampbell and Given, which crosses the river at Soldier's Bar, and the bridge at Sturdivant's are safe. , , ,

p. 2

GOOD PAY.--Walker & Co. took out of their claim on the Klamath river, near the mouth of Humbug, Siskiyou county, in four days, with four men engaged, the amount of twenty-two and a haif ounces. The late freshet has probably filled their claim at present. . . .

p. 4


. . .
The [?] benevolent ladies of San Francisco are making clothing, on an extensive scale, for the Sacramento sufferers by the flood. Collections were taken up in the churches of that city on Sunday for the same object. . . .

The Citizens' Committee broke ground yesterday upon the work near Rabel's Tannery, on the American. A levee, thirty feet wide at the base, [?] will be constructed inside of the weak point.

The Supervisors, at their meeting yesterday, appointed a Committee to confer with the Sacramento Railroad Directors upon the subject of removing their track to the north side of the city.

The laborers upon the new Capitol building resumed work yesterday.

CITIZENS' COLLECTIONS.--The aggregate amount of money collected from citizens up to last evening, for the protection of the city, was about $46,000 [?]. Of the fifty heaviest tax-payers whose names were published yesterday in the Union, only about three or four have come forward, in addition to those who had subscribed previously. To-morrow we shall republish the list, with the subscriptious of those who shall have put down their names up to that time. We trust there will be no lukewarmness in this matter, and that these who have the largest interests to protect will not stand back, while men of more humble means are coming forward with commendable liberality, and setting so noble an example. In this important crisis of our city's fate it is to be hoped that not only the heavy taxpayers will do their duty in this matter, but that others will give according to their means, so that our city may be amply protected and placed on a permanent basis of prosperity. Now is truly [?] the accepted time to give, and now is the day of our temporal salvation.

RELIEF IN STOCKTON.--The San Joaquin Republican of December 15th makes mention of a meeting held in that city, on the day previous, for the relief of citizens of Sacramento. J. M. Conley was authorized to take charge of all items [?] and articles contributed for the relief of the sufferers. and deliver them to the Howard Benevolent Society of Sacramento. Rev. Mr. King [?] spoke of the great suffering and destitution [?] among those of the people of Sacramento, who have been driven from their homes by the flood and urged contributions of clothing, bedding and provisions. On motion of Sperry, all articles contributed were requested to be left at the store of S. T. Nye, for shipment, and Messrs. Barnes [?] and Pollard were requested to gather the articles and see to their shipment. Over one thousand dollars were collected by December 15th. [?]

THE FLOOD IN SHASTA.--A correspondent of the UNION, writing from Shasta, December 15th, [?] gives the following particulars of the late flood in the vicinity of Shasta:

During.the past week we have experienced the severest storm and flood ever known by white men since California was settled. It commenced snowing and raining on Thursday evening, December 5th, and continued incessantly till [?] Monday evening; during which time, Trinity river rose ten feet higher than was ever known by civilized man. It swept away every bridge from Scott mountain to the month of the river. All the houses and stores situated on the banks and bars of the river were carried down the stream. Bell's bridge on Clear creek, was damaged, end Judge Landrum's bridge on the same stream, at Briggsville, was carried down to the Sacramento. Thousands of head of stock were drowned in this county. . . .

STAGE ROADS NORTH.--ln speaking of the travel from Shasta to Yreka, the Courier says:

The roads are in the worst condition. Immense slides of rock, trees and earth at some points block it up, and in others the road itself has [?[ slid away. There will be no more staging to Yreka for a long time. The mail will be carried through on mules.


Some of our cotemporaries in San Francisco and elsewhere appear to misapprehend the position of Sacramento toward her public creditors. They jump to the conclusion that she proposes to repudiate her public debt, principal and interest. No such proposition has been submitted to the public, so far as we are advised. The Committee appointed by a mass meeting of citizens to report a plan of action, submitted a report, which was published; it contained no recommendation to repudiate, but in view of the extraordinary circumstances by which the people of the city were surrounded, the Committee did announce that the Sinking and Interest Fund was the only source from which money could be obtained to meet the public exigencies, and recommended that indemnifying bonds should be executed to the Auditor and Treasurer for their protection, provided they surrendered the money when ordered by the Board of Supervisors. The action of this body in passing an ordinance to transfer the interest money to a "Protection Fund" was passed in accordance with a recommendation included in the report of the Committee, which was adopted by a mass meeting almost unanimously. The Board of Supervisors is, therefore, unjustly censured by some of our cotemporaries for the passage of that ordinance. It was subsequently found that no legal bond could be made to protect the Auditor and Treasurer from responsibility for performing an act admitted to be illegal, and the plan to raise money by subscription to a loan, to be returned by special tax, was revived. The original idea was not repudiation--for that is a refusal to pay when able--but suspension for the time, and a forced loan from the Sinking and Interest Fund until the city could be placed in condition to again resume payment This has been the ground we have occupied since the city was overtaken by the late catastrophe. In our judgment the destruction of property was so great, the means of the people of the city so crippled, that they would be justified in the face of Heaven and earth in saying to their public creditors, "We are unable now to pay the interest of our public debt, and we ask an extension until we can secure Sacramento from floods, and thus place ourselves in a condition to resume paying our interest. It is necessary for us to apply money we intended to pay interest with, to secure our existence as a community."

Had the creditors of our city been present, they would have said to each other, "It is for our interest to accede to this proposition--for unless we consent to let the interest run for a year or two the people of Sacramento will never be able to pay us one dollar of either principal or interest. But if we give them time--permit them to use the money now on hand to strengthen and enlarge their levees and so secure the city as to fix in the public mind full confidence in the safety of property, the people will finally be able,to pay their indebtedness." This would have been the reasoning of business men in their private transactions. Do not the merchants of San Francisco adopt this process of reasoning as to their customers and creditors in Sacramento, and do they not act upon it? Do they not willingly and cheerfully extend to those who have suffered, further time? The man who would force a debtor to the extent of suing out attachments against him would be pronounced a wretch. So with holders of mortgages. How many hundred are there in this city, who, if they have not already done so, will say to their creditors, "We do not expect those who have suffered by this fearful visitation to pay interest until they can place themselves in a position to do so without inconvenience." When individuals or large firms or corporate companies are deprived of the means of paying their debts by the destruction of their means by fire or flood, they announce the fact to their creditors that "they are unable to pay unless the time of payment is extended," and the business world pronounces the act not only honorable but commendable; forty-nine times in fifty their creditors would grant the extension asked. Why then should not the same policy be adopted by the creditors of the city for their own protection? Sacramento, as a city, has met with a disaster which swept from existence nearly or quite one quarter of the assessed value of the property of her citizens. In view of this destructive calamity, she proposed to say to her creditors, that her people were unable to pay the interest on their public debt, and ask for an extension of time. In the presence of the devastation which surrounds her people is it dishonorable for them to acknowledge their inability to pay now, and to apply means provided to pay interest to preserving the existence of their city? In our opinion it is not, and, if our city creditors were here, they would take the same view of the case. They would see that no other course could be pursued to ultimately enable the people of Sacramento to pay their indebtedness. But as they were not here, and could not be consulted, we hold that the people were justified in making the effort to obtain the money in the Interest Fund--that they would be justified still in obtaining it in order to protect themselves and avert a much greater loss to their public creditors. We reiterate the conviction, which has been fairly driven into our mind, that the only sure remedy against ultimate repudiation is to appropriate the money in that fund to raising and strengthening the defenses of the city against high water. The fund now being raised, though liberal, will prove insufficient for that purpose. There is more which should be done than most people are aware.

Persons at a distance may moralize and denounce "repudiation," but unless they come here, and stand among the ruin produced by this unprecedented flood, they are not at the right standpoint for forming an unbiased and impartial judgment. Self protection is recognized as the first law of nature in all communities; it is this law which we proposed to apply to Sacramento. She must be protected before she can do full justice to her creditors. It is her highest duty to protect herself first, her creditors second, and when she accomplishes the first, she does protect her creditors.

This we have advocated the morning after the inundation. In an article published Tuesday morning, the UNION said:

To repudiate an honest debt is disgraceful, because it is a refusal to pay when able but when placed in a position by misfortunes which no human wisdom could have averted, where an individual or a corporation is usable to pay honest debts, it is fair and honorable to face creditors and the world with an avowal of the fact. This is precisely the position of Sacramento, and it is honorable on her part to admit her total inability now to pay her public debt, principal, or interest, and to avow her determination to do so as soon as she is in a condition to discharge those obligations. No other course is left her, and the citizens will be forced to take the responsibility.

The above is copied to show that it was not repudiation, but suspension for a time which we urged as the policy forced upon the people by an imperious necessity, and as the only one likely to preserve the city as well as her creditors. In an article published the succeeding day the subject was continued, and the opinion expressed that if, under the circumstances, the money in the treasury was paid to bondholders on the first of January next, it would be the last they would receive of either principal or interest This may prove to be a mistaken opinion, but we have seen nothing yet to justify a change. We copy from an editorial in Thursday's UNION:

The people, by the action of the elements, are placed in a position where it is utterly out of their power to pay, for the present, their public debt, principal or interest, and we insist that it is honorable for them to frankly acknowledge the fact. As to the money in the Interest Fund, it is no more sacred than the promise made in the bonds. The time has arrived for speaking out plainly. If the interest is paid the first of January, and the city left in its present position, there will never be another dollar of principal or interest paid to the public creditors. The city will, from necessity fail to pay next year, and the odium will be ten times greater than now, because we have before us the best justification for suspending payment, and appropriating money intended for creditors for the salvation of Sacramento. When her safety is secured, we shall then be in a position to talk about resuming payment.


There is a considerable diversity of opinion as to what plan should be adopted in the way of repairing and building levees for the protection of the city. Some are for repairing the Thirty-first street, and R street levees, and leaving the American river slough open, so that when the river rises it will divide and a part of it pass by the Fort, back of the city, and be discharged into the tule south of Sutterville. Another class advocate the repairing the levee along the American to the high land east of Smith's Garden--building it at least five feet higher than the old one.

Against the plan of repairing the Thirty-first and R street levees, and leaving the American to discharge a portion of its water past the city, it is urged that the work necessary could not be performed for some time, in consequence of the condition of the soil and the extent of the breaks. Another objection predicated upon the fact that the system of levees to reclaim the land below Sutterville, contemplated by the Swamp Land Commissioners, a contract for which was to be let in a few days, embraced a levee from the Sacramento river to the high land south of Sutterville. Such a levee would, of course, dam up the water and throw it back upon the city; but if the slough is left open east of Smith's, this plan is impracticable. The plan of the engineer was predicated on the assumption that the city levees were safe and sure to keep the water of the American within its bank. But the recent flood has demonstrated that levees, strong enough to resist the floods of the American river, must be built from the city limits to the high ground east of Smith's, to protect the farmers between here and Georgiana slough. These facts may cause the surveyor of the district below the Sutter grant to change his plan, so as to include a portion or all the work on the American east of Thirty-first street.

It is the opinion, too, of men of sound judgment, that the most practicable, as well as the surest plan of defending the city, is to build a broad and high levee on the American, from the high land east of Smith's down to I street. In 1851 the floods broke through the levee at a slough this side of the Tivoli House, and also at the slough east of Smith's. The City Engineer of 1852 recommended that a new levee be built from Thirty-first street, on the American, to the high land in a southeast direction, leaving the old levee, built in 1850, unrepaired at the sloughs. The first flood carried away the new levee, and the City Council was forced to fall back on the old line of levee on the bank of the river. They filled the sloughs at the Tivoli House, and at the high land, in mid Winter, so thoroughly that they stood for nine years without ever having a dollar's worth of work expended on them. The levee did not break now, the water ran over it and finally cut it down. Had it been two feet higher it would have stood firm. If built new, broad, and five feet higher than the old one, we do not see why it should not stand for a half century. That kind of a levee would certainly protect the city from the water of the American. A prominent citizen and heavy taxpayer has handed us a memorandum of his views on the system to be adopted, which we give for the benefit of whom it may concern. Whatever is done should be entered upon immediately. The views to which we refer are as follows:

Commence at the high ground above Smith's Garden, and repair the break at the slough. Make the levee from there down to I street an average of from five feet at the upper end to two feet where it intersects I street, higher than it now is, and proportionately stronger at the base and top. Continue the same, with either the additional elevation of two feet, or less, if thought advisable, to Sutterville; there unite with the levee to be built by the Swamp Land Commissioners. Let the levees be built of a width sufficient to make a carriage way on the top of them the entire distance. It is believed by many that this work can be accomplished so as to make city perfectly safe from any overflow, at the same that the reconstruction of the system of cross levees would cost, and that most of the work could be done to greater advantage as the earth with which to do it, can be had in a much dryer state, and can be procured for building the inner or cross levees, most of the earth for building the latter being wet and difficult to obtain.

The advantages of protection to property by this plan is apparent; we not only protect all the city property, but also protect some sixty thousand acres of valuable land, tributary to the city, and which, as long as the water is allowed to flow through Sutter slough, is rendered almost valueless, destroying thousands of fruit trees and vines which could be saved. Another argument in favor of this plan is, that we obtain a level of the back water at the same level as the mouth of the slough below here, which would be somewhere about Sutterville, thus giving an opportunity of thoroughly and effectually draining the city. An argument against this is that we are building too much levee--that we must confine ourselves to a small space, and make that safe. Our experience shows that we have had no difficulty with any of the outside levees, except high up on the American river. That must be protected and made safe. There is no difficulty in making a safe levee to protect us from the Sacramento. Let all the money be spent on one main outside levee, and the city can be thoroughly protected and drained without raising the present grade of the streets. Even the upper portion of the levee, along the American river, has to be raised ten feet higher than it is. The soil there is convenient, the banks are high, and there is our only danger.


Death of J. A.. Monroe--Insolvency--Relief Movements--News from the South--Troops for Humboldt and the South--New Postmasters--Prize Fight--Alleged Case of Brutality. . . .

Platt's Hall, the chess room of the Mercantile Library and Odd Fellows Lodge room have been taken possession of by ladies engaged in making up clothing for Sacramento. One hundred and thirty ladies were at work to-day, employing a large number of sewing machines. A quantity of clothing went up to-night. The Sub-committee are still raising funds. The Odd Fellows' Lodges will contribute handsomely. The sums collected in the churches yesterday have not been ascertained. . . .

p. 5


THE WORK BEGUN.--The Committee of Safety, C. H. Swift, L. B. Harris, E. P. Figg, C. W. Lightner and Newton Booth, appointed by a meeting of citizens a few days since, commenced work yesterday afternoon at Rabel's tannery. They have decided to build a new levee around the weak spot at the tannery. It will commence east of the tannery, and run about five hnndred feet in a direction slightly south of west, diverging from the present levee some five or six rods. It will then run in a northwesterly direction about three hundred feet, to the old levee. It will be thirty feet wide at the base, ten feet at the top, and about five feet high. It runs through the lands of Rabel, Justin Gates and Hopping. The first and last named grant their land without compensation. Dr. Gates presents no objection to the use of his land, but thinks that, as a small tract cost him about $1,500, and as the levee divides it, leaving but little which can be used, he will, at some future time, ask that the matter of compensation shall be left to three arbitrators to settle. Some fifteen or twenty men were employed during the afternoon. Four or five spans of horses were also employed with scrapers, drawing up the earth for the embankment. Of this number, a span of blacks and another of iron grays belonging to D. E. Callahan, and a span of grays belonging to L. B. Harris, were doing excellent service. They all have been more accustomed to the carriage than to labor of this character. They work, however, with sprightliness and energy, as though they believe that labor is honorable, and that the city can be saved by "pitching in" with a will. They are furnished by their owners, for the service, free of charge. One section of this work is under the immediate control of W. Turton, and another of C. Farley, and the whole under the supervision of W. F. Knox. There will be a larger number of men employed to-day. The Committee contemplate cutting brush on the opposite side of the river for the purpose of strengthening the levee. It was rumored yesterday that S. Norris, the owner, had threatened to get out an injunction to prevent such action if attempted. This report must certainly be false, for we don't believe there is a man in the State, or a lawyer in the city, mean enough to take such a step under such circumstances. The brush is utterly worthless for any other purpose. The Committee will, of course, confiscate the brush,

CORONER'S INQUEST.--Coroner Reeves held an inquest yesterday afternoon at Patterson's, in Brighton township, over the body of an unknown Chinaman. Cicero Card, W. Hornback, A. A. Ellis, Aaron Piles, Moses Pingrey, and F. A. Judd were impanneled as Jurors. The only witness examined was E. G. Carpenter, who testified as follows: "About 10 o'clock A.M. yesterday I was.searching on the flat near this place for drift, etc , and I discovered the deceased, now before the Jury. I do not know the deceased, nor by what means he came to his death, though I am of the opinion that he was drowned. I found on examination that the jaw bone was broken and scalp was all torn from the top of the head, which appears to have been done by drifting through the bushes and timbers. The deceased had no clothing on or any valuables about his person when I found him. I think he had been dead about six or eight days." The Jury returned the following verdict: "We, the Jury summoned to ascertain the cause of the death of the deceased, now, before us, do find that he is a Chinaman, aged about twenty-five years, and his hight is about five feet six inches, and that the name of the deceased and cause of his death is to us unknown, although we are of the opinion that he was drowned."

ADDITIONAL NAMES.--Several additional parties have been mentioned to us as entitled to special reference for their energetic and disinterested conduct on Monday last in rescuing the unfortunate from the flood. Stephen Butler, a drayman of the city, manned a boat at an early hour, and made good use of it throughout the day. W. Keefer, a young man living beyond the fort, on J street, jumped on a horse and rode several miles to the river, and tying a boat to the horse's tail, in the absence of harness, brought it in quick time to the district flooded, and rescued more than a dozen persons with it. T. K. Stewart, near Rabel's tannery, at an early hour took off on a wagon from near the fort several persons who had no other means of escape. He afterward, with J. W. Dexter, manned a boat, and rescued a number of others. George Young, of the firm of Pike & Young, Fourth and L streets, and Samuel Ellison, of the schooner San Pablo, are spoken of in terms of gratitude for their generous services.

POLICE COURT.--The only business before the Police Court yesterday, was the trial of E. P. Veach for pety [sic] larceny of a boat built of rough boards, and worth from three to ten dollars. A German, who spoke as good English as he could conveniently on short notice, related how he built the boat the day after the flood and stood it up against his house to be ready for use next morning; how during the night he heard somebody run off with it; and how, after several days search, he fonnd it in possession of the defendant, who said he purchased it of a small boy. Justice Gilmer was personally cognizant of the general good character of defendant, who stated that he found the craft water-logged (jetsam and flotsam) in the street, and took possession thereof to subserve his locomotion. The Court decided that no larceny had been committed, under the circumstances, but awarded the boat to its builder.

WATER FROM THE PLAINS.--At an early hour on Monday morning of last week, W. H. Beatty, who lives in the eastern portion of the city, came in on horseback and asked the President of the Board of Supervisors to order the railroad to be cut through, as the water was damming up rapidly and would flood the city unless let through the levees. The President, with characteristic energy "didn't do it;" said a flood was impossible, and that the water was nothing but the water from the plains which had fallen the day before. It is interesting to our citizens at this stage of the affair to know that it was nothing but "water from the plains." . . . .

ARRESTED.--B. Cohn was arrested yesterday by Constable Cartter, for assault and battery on Henry Triechler, of the Mechanics' Exchange, on I street. Triechler and others were engaged on Sunday evening in digging a trench across I street, at the alley between Front and Second streets, to drive the water off. Cohn and others objected, and a quarrel ensued, in which Cohn siezed [sic] Triechler's shovel and struck him on the head with it, inflicting an ugly wound. The details of the case will probably be brought out to-day.

STEALING LUMBER.--A great deal of complaint is made on account of the larceny of sidewalks, fencing, etc., in the flooded district. A day or two since a section of sidewalk in front of the Blue Wing, at Fifth and M streets, was towed off from in front of the building, after the boatman had been forbidden to take it. Such men should be taught that larceny is the same in the eye of the law whether committed on the flooded or unflooded portions of the city.

BEING REMOVED.--Many of the dead bodies of drowned cattle, which were lying around in various parts of the city have, within the past two days, been drawn off by ox teams and thrown into the river. There are many yet remaining which should be similarly treated.

REPORTED MISSING. An elderly lady, named Huff, who resided near Sixth and O streets, is said to be missing since Monday last. It is feared that she may have been drowned.

AT WORK AGAIN.--The work on the State Capitol was resumed yesterday, having been suspended by the late flood.

STILL FALLING.--The Sacramento river is still falling, having declined about four inches yesterday.


Monday, Dec. 16, 1861.
The Board met at two o'clock P.M. President SHATTUCK in the chair, and all the members present except Supervisor Hall. . . .

Samuel Norris sent in a petition, stating that he is the owner of Rancho del Paso, on the north side of the American river; that the recent flood has carried off a portion of Lisle's bridge, cutting him off from access to the city; that being the owner of the land he is entitled to all the ferry rights, etc.; is well acquainted with the ferry business, and has the boats and other property necessary; that public convenience requires the immediate establishment of a ferry there; that there has not been time since the flood to give the requisite notices, and that he asks to be granted a license immediately to run a ferry across from Twentieth street.

E. B. CROCKER said, as there was now no means of crossing, it was a case of public necessity, calling for the action of the Board without delay.

Supervisor GRANGER said he understood a ferry had already been established, communicating with the remaining portion of Lisle's bridge. He moved that the petition be referred to the Committee on Roads, Bridges and Ferries. Carried, and the Committee requested to report on Wednesday.

Supervisor HITE said as a member of the Committee on Roads, Bridges and Ferries, he would report that the two bridges on J and K streets, to the east part of the city, had been taken away, and a ferry established there by some party, who was charging very high prices. He thought the man should be called upon for his license and stopped, or a reasonable scale of prices established for him. His prices were twenty-five cents for a single horse, fifty cents for a single team, and one dollar for a four horse team, and he had all the business he could do--crossing teams very rapidly. He thought that was rather heavy on the public. No bridge could be built there just at present, but he thought a bridge could be built there very soon by making it a toll bridge, and he was going to offer a resolution on the subject.

Supervisor WOODS said two or three persons were going to run opposition to the ferryman, and they would soon bring the toll down.

Supervisor HANSBROW said he hoped there would be no toll bridge; better let the matter run a little, as it could not last long.

The PRESIDENT said the Citizens' Committee had raised about $50,000 to build levees, bridges, and such other work as might be necessary, and he thought they would attend to this matter.

Supervisor HITE thought that money could be laid out to better advantage elsewhere, and they could get this bridge built by authorizing some one to build it and take tolls.

Supervisor GRANGER suggested that the Committee establish a scale of prices for the ferry.

Supervisor WOODS said to do that it would be necessary to grant a license for a year. He thought the Board could do nothing better at present than let them work out their own salvation.

Supervisor WATERMAN said it was not likely there would be any opposition, and in two weeks the ferry would clear $2,000. One or two small boats were building, but not large enough for heavy teams, and the man could not be bought cut for $500 to-day; in fact, it was the best business in California just now. He was opposed to giving away an exclusive privilege of that sort, unless the Board regulated the prices.

Supervisor GRANGER moved that the Committee establish a scale of prices for the ferry, and the rate per month of license.

Supervisor DICKERSON said he hoped nothing of the kind would be dene [sic]. The ferry would not be required more than two weeks longer, and in the meantime it was a great accommodation to have a boat there. They had better leave this matter open for competition, and attend to more important and pressing business

Supervisor WATERMAN said it would be impossible to give any other man a chance to compete, for the ferry was altogether on the man's own land.

Supervisor DICKERSON said there was a crevasse in the levee just back of his ranch, down the Sacramento, and an old gentleman was there with a boat bringing people around. There was no competition, but he found it a great advantage, as it was the only way he could get into town. He would be glad to get the Board to shut up the crevasse, but until that was done he hoped the old man would be allowed to continue. This was a parallel case, and if seme man had had energy enough to start a ferry there, they had better let him go on.

Supervisor WOODS suggested that no license had been applied for yet.

Supervisor GRANGER replied that no one had a right to run a ferry and take toll without a license, and he would let this man apply for a license. He was liable to a fine of two hundred dollars if he took toll without a license, and if the ferry was worth anything, let him pay some revenue to the city for it.

The PRESIDENT said the Citizens' Committee had the matter under consideration, and contemplated putting a temporary bridge across the slough there. He had no doubt they would do it in a few days, and meanwhile it would be better to grant no license, but encourage competition.

Mr. KEEFER, an elderly gentleman residing in that vicinity, said he would like to make a statement. He would pledge himself to take fifty dollars cash and go and stop the crevasse at Burns' slough and dry up the slough in two or three days so as not to require any ferry. The slough was washed away for a short distance, but the water could easily be turned into its natural channel, and in a few days would do all that was necesssary to do

While he had the attention of the Board, he would like to make a statement in regard to another matter. He understood the Board had appropriated eighty dollars for plank on the south road in his District (Road District No. 6). and for some reason Mr. Jones, their Road Overseer, had not obtained the plank. He wished to cast no reflections upon Jones, but he would propose that if the Board would give the planks, the Stage Company and the citizens would take them up there and put them down, without farther expense to the county. There were several bad places where the old bridges had been washed away; one of them, above his house, was twenty or twenty-five feet wide.

The PRESIDENT said he understood this was beyond the slough, on the cut to the railroad, and outside of the city.

Supervisor HANSBROW said he would move that not exceeding eighty dollars' worth of lumber be granted.

The PRESIDENT said be thought the best way would be to declare the office of Road Overseer in that district vacant, and appoint a new Overseer.

Supervisor HANSBROW said he would move that the office be declared vacant.

Mr. WATERS (a resident in the vicinity), said he was satisfied that the bridge alone would cost more than eighty dollars, and the small bridges and culverts would cost not less than twenty dollars for each one. He judged that two hundred dollars in cash would be as little as the whole work could be done for. The trouble was, there was no one to order out the people to do work on the road. He had not paid a cent of road tax, nor done a day's labor on the road for four years.

After a long discussion, the office of Road Overseer in District No. 6 was declared vacant, and Windsor Keefer was unanimousiy elected to fill the vacancy, his bond being fixed at $1,000.

Supervisor WOODS moved to advertise for three days for proposals to fix the bridges and culverts on that road.

Supervisor GRANGER opposed the motion, because under the present extraordinary circumstances it was their duty to violate the letter of the statute in order to have the work done immediately.

Supervisor HANSBROW took the same view of the case, and moved to grant not exceeding $200 worth of lumber.

Supervisor WOODS withdrew his motion, and moved instead that $50 worth of lumber be granted.

Several other motions were made, and the Board finally voted (5 against 2) to grant $100 worth of lumber.

Supervisor HITE said although he was on the Levee Committee he was not here at the recent special meeting of the Board; he was engaged in getting his folks out of the water, and did not get through till Saturday evening. Since that time he had been engaged in viewing the levees and learning the condition of the city, to see if it was possible to keep it above water. A great many had expressed the opinion that the city had gone in, and that it would require $100,000 or more to keep out the water; but he was of opinion that half the money already raised. if properly expended, would serve to render the city perfectly secure. From Brighton to Patterson's the water was running over, but a two foot levee would keep it out. As a representative of the people who were to be called upon to pay taxes to reimburse this citizens' loan, he claimed that it should be properly expended and not fooled away in damming up the water after it got into the city instead of preventing its coming in. The water at the points he had spoken of was many feet higher than the levees they were about to build up, and one-half the expense in building a levee from Rabel's tannery to Patterson's would keep it all cut. He proposed, then, that the city should be taxed to build a levee from Burns' slough down the American and Sacramento rivers to Sutterville. At Smith's Gardens and above it a levee of three or four feet would be enough, and it could be built now very easily. At Burns' slough, they had been told today that the water could be stopped for fifty dollars. He proposed to tax the county to make an old fashioned turnpike from Brighton up, and then the whole thing would be secured.

Supervisor WOODS suggested that the citlzens of the county would not consent to be taxed for such a purpose.

Supervisor HITE said he hoped this Board would appoint a Committee to confer with the Citizens' Committee, and request them to expend the money in that direction. He thought they had not viewed the ground as they should have done, and people in the city were not aware of the condition of things up that way. Besides the material for levees--sand and gravel--on the river banks was much better than elsewhere,

Supervisor HANSBROW said he was fally satisfied that the Citizens' Committee were entirely competent to perform the work it had undertaken, and he thought it was not the duty of the Board to advise, or interfere in any way, unless called upon. The citizens had appointed a Committee in which they had more confidence than in this Board, and he was fully satisfied with their action. Besides, he was opposed to the plans and schemes of Supervisor Hite. This city had sunk thousands of dollars already in that system of knee-high leveeing. The best suggestion he had seen was that of having a railroad run along the river bank and do the leveeing, and believed it would be to the interest of the city to give the right of way and a large bonus with it for such purpose. He therefore called up the resolution offered by him on that subject at the last preceding meeting of the Board.

Supervisor DICKERSON called attention to the condition of the levee between the Half-way House and Sutterville.

Supervisor HANSBROW's resolution was read as follows: Resolved, That a Committee be appointed by this Board, to confer with the officers of the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company as to the practicability of ccnstructing or removing their tracks so as to enter the city on the northern portion of the same.

Supervisor GRANGER advocated the revolution as the initiation of a measure of the utmost importance and one which, if carried out, would give security to the city against future inundations. A railroad could build and maintain levees cheaper than anybody else.

Supervisor HANSBROW urged the importance of taking immediate action, before the Citizens Committee should expend money, perhaps uselessly in that direction. He had asked Mr. Robinson whether such a thing could not be brought about, and he replied, "Yes, possibly; but it will take a long time."

Supervisor WOODS said he would vote for the resolution, because he wanted to give the Railroad Company a chance to negotiate peaceably for coming in on the north side, and if they would not he would vote to stop them out entirely.

Supervisor HITE said Mr. Robinson would ask more than any sane man would be willing to give, and a railroad could not follow the river bends. The Placerville road would be sufficient protection.

The resolution was adopted, and Supervisors Hansbrow, Hite and Granger were appointed the Committee.

Supervisor WOODS said Mr. Rightmire wanted to make some explanation in regard to his contract to build a bulkhead at Rabel's tannery.

Supervisor GRANGER said he understood that there had been a very material change in the river at that point, and that the dangerous point was now some distance lower down.

J. W. COFFROTH, counsel for Rightmire, made a statement of the case, proposing in behalf of Rightmire, that the contract be cancelled, provided the Board would refund to him the cash already expended, amounting to about $1,000, more or less, for which he would produce vouchers.

After a prolonged discussion the Chairman of the Levee Committee was directed to confer with the Citizens' Committee, and ascertain whether it would be advisable to go on with the work, and report to-morrow morning, so that the Board could take action at once.

Adjourned till ten o'clock to-morrow morning. .

[For the Union.]

MESSRS. EDITORS: In an article written on Saturday, and published this morning, I endeavored to show that the levee might be repaired in a short time, and with the means in the hands of the Committee appointed by the citizens. An examination of the lower part of the levee made yesterday, convinces me that it may be done even more readily than I then supposed.

The question that next presents itself is, would the city be safe if the repairs suggested were made? I have no hesitation in saying that all that portion of the city west and north of the east and R street levees would be secure [?] if these repairs were properly made. But it has [?] been often asserted heretofore that the city was perfectly safe, that it could not be overflowed, etc., and yet it was overflowed. That the city was safe, perfectly safe, upon the completion of the R street levee, from all danger except that created by the folly and madness of its own citizens, I have no doubt.

The first act of suicidal policy on the part of the city, after the completion of the R street levee, was to allow the Railroad Company to make a solid embankment of earth from the point where it leaves R street, near Sixteenth street, to Poverty Ridge, leaving only a few feet--sixty or eighty, perhaps--of open space for the outlet of all the water that might pass down back of the east levee, in case of a breach in the American river levee above Thirty-first street.

Instead of leaving an opening of sixty or eighty feet at this point, there should have been left one of a fourth of a mile. The railroad should have rested on trestle work from the point where the surface of the ground west of Poverty Ridge sinks below the grade of the road, until it struck the R street levee. This opening--I judge from mere inspection without measurement--would have been nearly a fourth of a mile, and amply sufficient for the passage of all water that could ever come through back of the city.

The next piece of suicidal policy was to allow the Railroad Company to take off about eight inches of the top of the R street levee in order to lower it to the grade of the road, and then to lay the rails on top of the embankment made by the city. The city should have insisted on the railroad company making an embankment of their own for the rails to rest on. This should have been made on the south side of the levee, and resting against it. In this way ten feet of thickness, and so much of additional strength would have been given to the weakest part of our R street or inner levee. The Railroad Company would have gladly accepted even this privilege. By building against the levee already built, they would only have required for the road an embankment ten feet thick at the bottom, and of the same thickness all the way to the top. To have built an independent embankment of their own, without the levee to lean against, it would necessarily have cost twice as much and been much less secure. The bottom in some places would have required a thickness of thirty or forty feet, instead of a regular thickness of ten feet. The levee on the inside would then have been left from eight inches to a foot above the railroad, thus guarding against a very high overflow.

The next act of suicidal policy was in the Board of Supervisors permitting the levee to be opened on the line of Tenth street, to admit the passage of brick wagons under the railroad. This was deliberately destroying, at one blow, every possible advantage that could in any event accrue to the city from the construction of a levee--that cost, if I recollect rightly, over $150,000.

If we had a breach above Thirty-first street or below R street, that cut infallibly destroyed all advantage that the R street or east levee could be to the city. Why the Board of Supervisors thus deliberately destroyed what had cost the city so much, it would be hard for any sane man to even guess. It is true that if the levee had stood everywhere else, and the water had not been thrown into the city by the railroad embankment, this cut might have been filled up in time to save the portion of the city above R street. But this would have been a difficult job on the spur of the occasion, and one of great uncertainty as to the result.

It is said that the Board of Supervisors did protest against the filling up of the cut between Poverty Ridge and the R street levee. This does not relieve the Board from the responsibility for our disaster; far from it. It is an acknowledgment that they saw the danger, but neglected to meet it. For they might have done more than protest--they might have enjoined. But why protest against the destruction of the levee by the Railroad Company while they were pursuing a similar course themselves by allowing it to be cut at Tenth street?

But it is asserted, and believed by many, that even if the R street levee had not been cut, and the railroad had not thrown the water into the city, still the Sutterville levee would have backed the water into the city. That is a palpable mistake. The whole of the R street levee (except a few places where the roads crossed, and which could have been repaired without difficulty, even after the water commenced running in,) was higher than the levee extending down the Sacramento towards Sutterville. The water from above would have flowed over the top of this latter levee before it reached the hight of the R street levee. This I know from personal inspection.

There are many wild and absurd stories about the water having risen above the top of the R street levee before it broke away, etc. I have examined the R street levee and find that there is no water mark on the top of it, adjoining the place where it has given away. Where the levee was left standing below its junction with the railroad the water was not nearer to the top than about one foot.

Our city will be perfectly safe from floods if we will hereafter elect men to office who have some little knowlede [sic] of the system of levees by which we are protected, and will endeavor to strengthen and keep them in repair instead of destroying them.

There are other matters connected with our levee system and a system of drainage for the city, upon which I may furnish an article or two for the UNION, if you Messrs. Editors should think them worth publishing.

SACRAMENTO, Dec. 16, 1861. H. O. BEATTY. . . .

[drawing of a horse] in N street, a SMALL BAY HORSE, with one white spot on the face, and one white fore foot. The owner can find him at JOHN SKELTON'S, N street, between Second and Third. d17-6t*

p. 8

BURIED MONEY.--A Frenchman on Filibuster Flat had about seven hundred dollars buried in a yeast powder box, near the margin of the river, and when the flood came he became a little anxious lest it should be washed away. So he and four or five of his countrymen commenced diving for the treasure, which they finally fished up in about seven feet of water, some twenty feet from the spot where it had originally been placed. Monsieur was so rejoiced at the recovery of the money that he forthwith invested twenty dollars of the same in claret, etc.--Douglas City Gazette, Dec. 4th.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3346, 18 December 1861, p. 2


The Board of Supervisors voted yesterday to cancel the permission originally given the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company to run their cars on the R street levee. . . .

MATTERS IN MENDOCINO.--A correspondent, Writing from Navarro, Mendocino county, December 9th, says:

The rain has been falling almost incessantly for three weeks, and the streams are now impassable leading from the valleys to the coast. As the very existence of California depends on rain, we must put put [sic] up with it, although it brings dark and gloomy days, with no rays of sunlight for weeks at a time. The flat at the mouth of the Navarro, where the Hendy sawmill stands, is nearly inundated, and the weather has been so rough that shipping lumber has become almost impossible, and dangerous to life and property. Two lighters (immense scows) got between the breakers and the vessel the other day, and could not get back to shore. One filled after having her deck load of freight washed off. No lives were lost. Millions of lumber in logs has been set afloat by the freshet, and reached the booms for supplying the mills above here. . . .

RELIEF MEETING AT MARYSVILLE.--A donation of some $1,400 having been sent to Marysville from San Francisco, for the relief of the citizens of the former place, supposed sufferers by the flood, a meeting was held in Marysville on the night of December 16th, and it was voted to return the money, thanking the donors for their liberality. A subscription was started and $500 or $600 raised for the relief of sufferers in Marysville. . . . .

WHERE OUGHT THE WORK TO BE DONE?--From the information we obtain, as well as from our own observation, we conclude that the first work should be done at the Tannery, and at the Burns slough, east of Smith's Garden. Whatever may be the determination as to repairing the Thirty-first and R street levees, it is evident that it is impracticable to do the work while water is flowing through the Burns slough. That flow of water should be stopped forthwith. G. W. Colby, who formerly owned the land upon which it is located, and who has examined it, says that the water can be shut out for less than a hundred dollars. The work should be done forthwith, and preparatory to any improvements to be put on the cross levees. The Committee ought to have several hundred men employed in levee repairing. The levee built in Burns' slough, in 1853, was three hundred feet at the base, and about one hundred and fifty on the top. It would have stood for a century if the water had not risen over it. By rebuilding and raising it from five to ten feet higher than before, it will remain firm until 1961. The ground there is favorable for work; it is not on the Thirty-first or R street levees, because they are more or less surrounded by water. Assistance to build the levee along the American may probably be obtained from the Swamp and Overflowed Land Fund. There are 60,000 acres of land to be drained and protected between the Sutter grant and Georgiana slough, but the American river must be leveed before that land can be protected. It is probable, too, that the farmers on that land who have been overflowed by the water from the American, if applied to, would subscribe liberally in work to be done by themselves and teams, to build a levee on the American which will secure them for all time against an overflow from that quarter.

We repeat, that, in our judgment, the first work ought to be done at the Tannery and at the Burns slough. Let a few thousands be expended at these points, and the city is safe for the Winter. Until the water is stopped at the slough, it is impossible to work on the cross levees.


As a matter of interest just now, we republish the ordinance granting the right of way to the Sacramento Valley Railroad to come into the city on the R street levee. It was approved March 1, 1855, by R. P. Johnson, Mayor. On the same day the right to enter the city on the north side, either on A B or C streets, was granted to the Sacramento Railroad Company which was organized by P. H. Burnett, J. B. Haggin, and others. Unfortunately for the city, this Company failed to go forward with their enterprise, while the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company went forward, and constructed their road on the south side of the city. It will be seen that the ordinance required the Company to "bridge all sloughs, east or outside the R street levee * * and they shall leave unimpeded the running of the waters of said ditch and sloughs which it may cross." Section 5 grants the temporary right to lay down rails from Sixth street to the river; and provides that the city authorities may, after twelve months, by giving the Company notice, have the temporary track from Sixth street taken up and removed. If the Company refuses to remove it when notified, the authorities may proceed to have it done at. the expense of the Company. This notice the Supervisors may now give, if they deem it advisable. They may also pass an ordinance repealing that of 1855, granting the Company the right of way, on the assumption that it has forfeited all rights acquired under it by not keeping bridges over the slough east of the R street levee. But such an ordinance would be void, unless the Courts decide that the Company has forfeited its rights under the ordinance of 1855.

A good many citizens are anxious to have the railroad line transferred to the north side of the city, in view of the damage it has caused to the property of citizens by being on the south side, but we confess that we do not see how it is to be accomplished, unless it can be made the interest of the Company to remove. A railroad embankment on the north side, on a grade to to correspond with the elevation of the levee, would as certainly add to the protection of the city as the present embankment did to its destruction. Under no circumstances can the railroad be permitted to come into the city on the south side on a solid embankment. On the north side it would be required to build an embankment as solid as possible. It is possible that the donation of lots in Sutter Lake for a depot, machine shops, etc., as suggested by a correspondent yesterday, might be some inducement to the Company to assent to the proposition to remove its line north of the city. For years past the railroad has made use of Front street as its depot. It is probably the only railroad in the world without a depot at its main terminus.

But the people of Sacramento must not depend upon railroads for protection. They must act for themselves, and with energy and rapidity. If the R street levee is to be repaired the railroad will be compelled to do it, in order to relay their track and renew connection with the Sacramento river. This is a consideration which comes properly before the Board of Supervisors.


We republish below the list of names of fifty of the heaviest taxpayers in the city, with the amounts which they have subscribed. Since our last publication, six more have come forward and given in their subscriptions, which will be noticed in the annexed list. It will be seen that nearly one-half of the whole number of this class of taxpayers is still behind, but they will undoubtedly respond when called upon. When the full amount of the subscriptions shall have been rendered by the large as well as other taxpayers, we will publish the list in fall:

    Amount Subscrip- City Tax. tion to Loan. B. F. Hastings $3,048 $5,000 D. O. Mills & Co. 2,829 5,000 Sacramento Valley Railroad . . 2,781 000 H. E Robinson 2,244 250 Kleinhans & Bro. 2,238 000 Boyd & Davis 1,959 1,000 Cal. Steam Nav. 1,883 ---- Hull & Lohman 1,719 500 L. B. Harris 1,644 2,000 Sacramento Gas Co. 1,427 5,000 Booth & Co. 1,405 1,000 E. P. Figg 1,278 500 R. H. McDonald 1,253 500 Stanford Bros. 1,225 1,000 Lindley, of Wooster & Weaver . 1,216 ---- John Gillig 1,104 ---- J. H. Carroll & Co 1,039 500 Sneath & Arnold 1,034 250 Lanos & Co. 1,029 1,000 J. Carolan & Co. 926 200 Lord, Holbrook & Co. 921 1,000 P. H. Burnett 879 000 A. K. Grim, for Samuel Norris 875 000 Rosanna H. Keenan 857 500 Lloyd Tevis 843 000 Ebner & Bros. 837 100 Sacramento Valley Railroad . . 831 000 C. Crocker 827 500 Harmon & Co. 822 500 F. W. Pratt 813 000 E. M. Skaggs 786 000 S. Brannan, (Wetzlar, Agent) . 784 000 J. W. Winans 756 500 V. G. Fourgeaud 751 000 Milliken Bros.... 718 000 John McNulty .......... 710 100 A. G. Tryon 708 000 Sacramento & Yolo Bridge Co. 703 500 C. J. Jansen. 692 000 C. J. Hooker 677 000 A. C. Monson 672 000 S. P. Dewey 674 000 D. E. Callahan 667 250 John Rivett 665 000 James Anthony & Co. 660 1,000 Melvina Hoopes 640 000 H. M. Naglee 648 000 J. C. Jonghaus 647 250 P. Vertimer 644 000 C. H. Grimm 639 500
THE FLOOD IN SIERRA.--The late storm in La Porte and Downieville was very severe. The Messenger of Dec. 14th says the damage to ditches, bridges, roads and mining operations was almost universal. The Rabbit Creek Fluming Company had their works badly injured. Greeley & Reed lost a dam which cost $1,000. The Messenger adds:

Not a dam was left in the stream below the main bridge by our office. The bridge is sufficiently undermined to render it unsafe. The one on the Secret Diggings trail was carried away. In Clark's Ravine, Secret Diggings, Lee & Matthews' loss is over $1,000, which is only a fraction of the mischief occurring in that vicinity. The Feather River Ditch Company may require $1,500 to replace their ditch in its previous condition. Capt. A. N. Smith's, perhaps $700. But the loss of water money, which these ditches would otherwise have brought in, will amount to more than the repairs. A large number of hands are at work upon them, and the water will soon be running. Quite a number of companies are anxious to commence piping. It is safe to say that the freshet made a clean sweep of the sluice boxes in all the creeks of this region; railroad tracks and dump houses suffered furiously, in all directions. The four bridges crossing Slate creek, between this place and Port Wine, St. Louis and Pine Grove, were taken partly or wholly away.

The flood about Downieville was very disastrous. The Sierra Democrat proprietors, fearing for the safety of their building, had all their materials removed. The Democrat of Dec. 14th says:

It was estimated that two thousand cords of wood went by the Durgan bridge, Saturday and Sunday. Sunday noon, after two houses had gone under it on the current, Jersey bridge broke and swung round, heading with the Jersey end down stream. Stout cables on the other end held it long enough to cause the current to lift the structure upon a gravel shoal near the right bank. Men then made for the bridge with more hawsers, and it was soon made fast to the bank; and the current being broken against it, soon commenced raising the shoal with deposits of gravel, bowlders and sand. We here give a statement of losses, as nearly as they could be gathered: J. N. Flandreau & Co., mill logs, bridge, aqueducts, flumes, milldam, residence, barn and out buildings, $10,000; Solomon Purdy, foundry and fixtures, dam, damage to Jersey Flat water works, $2,500; Thomas Freehill, Durgan bridge and Snake Bar water ditch, $2,000; and about fifteen others were damaged to the amount of some $15,000. . . .


Granting the Right of Way to the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company to construct their Railroad within the corporate limits of the city of Sacramento.

Be it ordained by the Mayor and Common Council of the city of Sacramento:

Section 1. The right of way is hereby granted to the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company to construct and lay down railway tracks and operate thereon, within the limits of the city of Sacramento, on the terms, conditions, restrictions, and subject to the provisions hereinafter mentioned.

Sec. 2. The said railroad may be constructed from the eastern bounds of the city in a westerly direction, on and along R street and upon the R street levee, as far as the west side of Sixth street, and along and across any streets or alleys within the following bounds of the city, viz: From Sixth to Twelfth street, and from L to R street, which may be selected by said Company to obtain a sufficient or necessary curvation for the purpose of communicating with and running their locomotive, passenger and freight cars to their depot, which they may erect within said described limits.

Sec. 3. The said Railroad Company shall have the right to lay down one or more tracks, with necessary and suitable turnouts, side tracks and switches, and to operate thereon with either steam or horsepower, within the bounds and upon either of the streets or alleys they may select, mentioned in the preceding section: provided, that said track or tracks be so constructed as to leave free from obstruction the passage of the streets and alleys so selected, for carts, drays, carriages, or other vehicles, horse and foot passengers; to leave also unimpeded the running of the waters in the sewers and gutters which it may cross, and not run their locomotives over said track or tracks at a greater rate of speed than twelve miles per hour, and at all times provide their locomotives and cars with breaks [sic] and proper safety guards; and that the principal office of said Company shall be permanently located in the city of Sacramento, and otherwise conform to the provisions of this ordinance.

Sec. 4. The said Railroad Company shall at their own cost and expense, widen and strengthen said R street levee, and keep the same in good repair as long as they shall occupy it, and that said Company are hereby prohibited from cutting awsy or reducing the uniform height of said levee, without first obtaining permission from the Mayor and Common Council.

Se:. 5 The said Railroad Company may, and they are hereby authorized to construct on the R street levee, a temporary railway track from Sixth street along the said levee to a point sufficiently near the Sacramento river to allow of a proper and necessary curvation to come on to Front street northward of their railroad, and that the said temporary railway track shall be constructed along said Front street to the foot of M street, at such distance from the back of the river as the Mayor and Common Council may direct, and the said track shall be laid down as not to obstruct the free passage of teams, carriages, drays, or other vehicles, and to be used only for the purpose of transporting from the river to Sixth and R streets, by horse power, the materials for the construction and stocking of their road or roads, and also from said Sixth street to the river all lumber, lime, stone, produce, or other freight from the interior; provided, however, that the Mayor and Common Council shall at all times have the power, after the expiration of twelve months from the approval of this ordinance, to require the said temporary track to be removed at the expense of the said Company, by giving six months notice to said Company, that the said removal is by them required for the public good, and if upon such notice said Company neglect or refuse to remove the same at the expiration of six menths, the said Mayor and Common Council may cause the same to be removed at the expense of the said Company. It is also provided further, that said Company shall at the time of constructing such temporary track, or wherever the same may be considered necessary by the Mayor and Common Council, to construct proper sewers or culverts to admit of drainage, and the unimpeded passage of water to the city draining machine, of such dimensions as shall be prescribed by said Mayor and Common Council, and approved by the City Surveyor; and also, to construct bridges or convenient crossings at all the intersections of the streets running at right angles of said railway track, to admit of the free passage across said track of wagons or other vehicles, and foot passengers, and they shall maintain and keep in good repair all said sewers and crossings.

Sec. 6. The said city reserves to itself the right to cause the removal of the said railway track or tracks specified or granted in section second of this ordinance, upon their giving six months notice in writing through the Mayor and Common Council to the said Company to that effect; and upon the payment to the said Company by the said city of the assessed cash value to the city, at the time or immediately after such removal may be made of all necessary improvements pertaining to the business of said Company contiguous thereto, together with the original cost of laying down said railway track or tracks, and the necessary expense of taking up and removing the same, said value, cost and expense to be determined by disinterested persons, who shall be duly qualified and be selected in the following maaner, to wit: One by the Common Council of said city, and one by said Railroad Company, and in case they are unable to agree, the two thus selected shall appoint a third person to act in conjunction with them--the decision of the majority of whom shall be final.

Sec. 7. The said Company shall bridge all sloughs east or outside of the R street levee within the corporate limits of the city; and also bridge the ditch or trench alongside and north of said levee, leading to the city draining machine; and they shall leave unimpeded the running of the waters of said ditch and sloughs which it may cross.

Sec. 8. The said Company shall fix upon the location of their road as aforesaid, deposit a map and profile of the same in the office of the City Surveyor, certified to by the Chief Engineer of said Company, and notify the Mayor and Common Council of said city in writing to that effect, within ten days after the approval of this ordinance.

Sec. 9. The said Railroad Company shall not construct or connect with any railway track or tracks terminating at or near the Sacramento river, at any point without the limits of the city of Sacramento, and within the limits of Sacramento county.

Sec 10. The said Railroad Company shall commence grading upon the road within thirty days after the approval of this ordinance, and they shall prosecute the work without delay to completion, and shall within one year from the date as aforesaid, complete and put in running order at least fifteen miles of said road from the western terminus of the same. If said company shall fail or neglect to comply with the provisions and requirements of this ordinance, or shall violate any of its provisions, then all the rights acquired by said Company under and by virtue of this ordinance, shall become void and of no effect.

Sec 11. This ordinance shall take effect from and after its passage.

Approved March 1st, 1855.

R. P. JOHNSON, Mayor.

I hereby certify that the above ordinance was passed by the Common Council, Feb. 19, 1855.

Secretary of the Common Council.

LOSE [sic] OF RESERVATION CATTLE.--It has been stated that Indian Superintendent Hanson lost about 300 head of cattle on the coast range in a storm. This is a mistake. Only some seventy-three cattle and two horses were frozen. . . .

In compliance with a resolution of the Board of Supervisors, the CITIZENS' LEVEE COMMITTEE hereby give notice that a Meeting will be held in the County Court Room THIS DAY, at 11 o'clock A M , to take into consideration the propriety of removing the Railroad to the northern part of the city.
C. H. SWIFT, Chairman.
C. W. Lightner, Secretary. d18-1t

that Sealed Proposals for building two Bridges, one over the J street slough, and one over the K street slough, will be received at my office until 12 o'clocck [sic] M on the l9th instant. Bids must be separate, and state the cash price, and the price if paid for in evidences of the city's indebtedness. J. HOWELL, Clerk,
By W. M. Knox, Deputy Clerk.
Office Clerk Board of Supervisors. }
December 17, 1861. } d18-2t

p. 3


HYDRAULIC HOUSE RAISING.--We understand that Edward Fell, of San Francisco, has made arrangements to bring to this city his hydraulic apparatus for raising brick buildings. He has already engaged to raise a building for Isaac Lohman, and has a prospect of contracts enough to keep him employed for some time. The owners of Ebner's Hotel, the Lady Adams Building, Heywood's Block, the new building on the corner of K and Second streets, and various others on J street, will in all probability raise just as soon as Mr. Fell gets thoroughly to work, and the ease, safety and economy of the enterprise are established. By this means our citizens can avail themselves of a double security to merchandise, such vast quantities of which have been recently destroyed, and in due time we can raise our streets to an elevation that shall give us drainage, dry cellars, and a much better reputation than levees alone can afford as. In San Francisco, during several years past, brick buildings of large size have been raised with entire success by hydraulic process. The levee, grade and drainage questions should be looked at in all their bearings, and the wise and practicable plan should be adopted, whatever it may be.

GRAND LARCENY.--A man named Samnel M. Sidell, a German by birth, was arrested yesterday, by Lieutenant Deal, on the steamer Nevada, at half-past one o'clock, on a charge of grand larceny. The arrest was made on a warrant sworn out by William Belsteatt, a German also, who resides between this city and Sutterville, on the river front, by whom Sidell had been employed. Belsteatt accuses Sidell of stealing $1,100, which had been buried, and the locality of which was not known by any body except the owner and the prisoner. The money had been buried in a tin can, and was missed about a week ago, soon after the flood. The prisoner had in his possession when arrested the sum of $350, which, however, he claimed as his property. The remainder of the money. $750, could not be found. The case will be more fully investigated in a day or two.

REPAIRS COMMENCED.--It is gratifying to perceive that many of our citizens have commenced the work of repairing sidewalks and replacing the street crossings, which had been displaced by the water. It is highly desirable that these improvements should be made without delay, wherever practicable, and especially in the central portion of the town, where there is constant travel. We are now out of all danger from another flood until there are additional rains, and the Committee of Safety will doubtless have the levees so far repaired in a short time as to insure security until permanent protection can be afforded. The time for the meeting of the Legislature is rapidly approaching. Order should be brought out of the chaos which surrounds us before the meeting takes place. . . .

PROVIDING ROOM.--The Committee of Safety have commenced, at Rabel's tannery, the erection of a building in which to feed and lodge the workmen who are employed and to be employed on the construction of the new levee at that point. About double the number of teams and men were at work yesterday that were employed on Monday. W. F. Knox, who superintends the work, is a member of the Committee of Safety, and receives no compensation for his services, as might have been erroneously inferred from our reference to the subject yesterday. . . .

FIRE.--At about a quarter before six o'clock yesterday morning, two one story frame houses on the north side of I, west of Third street, were destroyed by fire. They belonged to F. Fairchild. One was occupied by Chinamen as a restaurant, and the other by the same class of tenants. When the fire broke out there appeared to be no American in sight to give the alarm. The bell of Engine Co. No. 3 was at length rung, and one or two persons shouted in such a manner as to give the impression that the levee had again given way.

SEALED PROPOSALS.--The Clerk of the Board of Supervisors advertises for sealed proposals for the erection of a bridge on J street and another on K street, over the slough near the fort. Bids must be handed in by, or before, twelve o'olock to-morrow. An effort, it is said, will be made to obtain from the Board of Supervisors a license to build toll bridges at these points. None but free bridges should be built there.

EXAMINATION.--Those who desire aid from the Howard Benevolent Society, in either food or clothing, are questioned so far as is deemed necessary by the Examining Committee, as to their occupation, means of living, character, etc. All who are not found to be unworthy are assisted. The demands of a few only have been refused.

WATER AND WEATHER.--The water st the Sacramento gauge at sunset last evening stood twenty-one feet above low water mark, having neither fallen nor risen during the past twenty-four hours. The sky was clouded during a great portion of yesterday, showing some signs of rain. In the evening they presented a more broken appearance, promising a postponement of rain and a period of clear weather.

ON THE SAFE SIDE.--At one of our hotels, yesterday morning, a boarder called for mackerel for breakfast, with the remark: "I am darned sure they were not drowned by the flood, but I don't feel so certain about beef and pork." He had been around town considerably, and had seen so many drowned cattle and hogs lying around, that he concluded to be on the safe side,

DRAINAGE.--A number of workmen were engaged yesterday in digging a trench in the center of Eighth street from I to K streets, to drain off the water now standing north of I street. The work is done under the direction of Civil Engineer Leet, and is paid for by voluntary subscriptions of residents of that part of the town, collected by A. C. Sweetser and others.

AID FROM SAN FRANCISCO.--N. A. H. Ball received yesterday, from Rev. T. Starr King, of San Francisco, a check for $375, collected from his congregation on Sunday last, for the use of the Howard Benevolent Society. He also received from the ladies of the same congregation twenty-four packages of clothing for the same purpose. . . .

THE FRANKLIN SCHOOL HOUSE.--Franklin school house has since the inundation been occupied by the Howard Benevolent Society, as an auxiliary to the Pavilion, in the good work of feeding and clothing those who are in need.


TUESDAY, Dec. 17, 1861.

The Board met at ten o'clock, the President in the chair, and all the members present. The minutes of yesterday were read and approved.

The bond of Windoar [sic] Keefer, Road Overseer of District No. Six, for the penal sum of $1,000, was recieved and approved.

Supervisor HITE offered a resolution that the Committee on Drainage receive proposals for building bridges across Burns' slough, on J and K streets, the bridge on K street to be made passable for teams in fifteen days from the date of contract, and the work to be paid for in cash received for tolls, under an ordinance to be passed by the board.

The PRESIDENT suggested that the resolution should properly go to the Committee on Roads and Bridges.

Supervisor HITE said he preferred to refer it to the Committee on Drainage, because the Committee on Roads and Bridges was composed, with one exception, of members living in the country. He proposed to raise the money by levying tolls on the bridges, the money to be paid over weekly to the party taking the contract and the toll gatherer to be appointed by the Board of Supervisors.

Supervisor GRANGER said he doubted the propriety of establishing a toll brdge within the city limits.

Supervisor HITE said there was no money to build the bridges in any other manner, and it would be a very light and temporary tax on the traveling public which would not be felt. He proposed this as the only means of building the bridges without embarassing the city by creating further indebtedness.

Supervisor WATERMAN moved to amend by substituting the Committee on Roads and Bridges.

Supervisor HANSBROW arid he was opposed to any project of establishing toll bridges in the city. The policy was bad, and they had refused to authorize toll bridges even in the country.

The PRESIDENT suggested that the Citizens' Committee should attend to this matter. It struck him that they had more money than they could expend on the levees just now.

Supervisor HITE said he had conversed with members of the Citizens' Committee, and they seemed to approve of his plan. Mr. Swift told him that he did not think the Committee had any authority to build bridges. The city was now on the very verge of bankruptcy and they ought to take whatever measures they could to have the work done without increasing the debt.

Supervisor GRANGER said if the resolution was amended so as to receive proposals at the same time for doing the work, and receiving evidence of city indebtedness in payment, he would vote for it; that would show what the difference would be, and the people would understand why the Board established a toll bridge, If they decided to do so.

Supervisor HITE said he had no doubt the plan he had proposed would meet the approval of the citizens.

Supervisor GRANGER said be might be satisfied that that was the wisest course, but the public did not know it.

Supervisor HITE replied that he was not so very timid about the public. If he did his duty the public would be satisfied.

Supervisor HANSBROW favored the amendment suggested by Mr. Granger, and moved a further amendment, that the contract be made by the full Board, instead of a Committee, as Committees were more liable to be influenced by pressure brought to bear upon them, to lead them astray.

Supervisor HITE said he should be opposed to building this bridge in any other way than by levying tolls, yet he would accept the amendment of Mr. Granger, and would consent that the contract should be made subject to the approval of the Board.

After further conversation, the resolution was withdrawn, to be presented in a new draft as modified.

Supervisor HANSBROW said Mr. McLane, who had established the ferry acrcss the slough at the point referred to, was present and would like to make a statement.

Permission having been given, Mr. McLane said he inferred from the proceedings of the Board yesterday that the impression was that the ferry was established there to make money; but such was not the case. He called on Mr. Robinson on Wednesday to make arrangements for bringing their passengers by the stage lines into the city, but Mr. Robinson declined to do anything in the premises, stating that the railroad now ended at Brighton, and passengers must get in from there the best way they could. He (McLane) had thereupon had this boat made and put there to ferry the stages and mails across, intending to charge tolls only for the purpose of covering his expenses, amounting altogether to about $400. They commenced running on Thursday morning, and had taken yesterday $306. Probably by this time it would amount to $375. He dld not know that there was any law requiring him to have a license; in fact, he did not think of it. He only put the boats there for the sake of transporting the mails and passengers of the Pioneer and Overland Stage Lines. He considered that the Railroad Co. was really bound to bring the passengers in according to their contract, but as that company neglected to do so, he thought it was his duty to provide some means of transportation. After the ferry had paid for itself, he was willing the Board of Supervisors should take the boats and fix their own rates of toll. He thought the width of the slough there was not over one hundred feet.

Supervisor WATERMAN said teams were ferried across very rapidly, and he thought the ferry must be making $200 a day.

Supervisor HANSBROW said this matter was up yesterday, but the attention of the Board having been called to other matters, no action was taken. He thought, after this explanation, it would look rather like extortion to call on Mr. McLane to pay for a license. The Railroad Company had manifested the same spirit in this case as in hundreds of other cases during the past few years. He thought the Board need take no action unless the rates were deemed extortionate, and in that case they might reduce the rates and give a longer time. It was good policy to afford all possible facilities to stage companies, and especially the Overland Company.

Mr. McLANE said he had proposed to sell out his boats to-day, and let the party purchasing fix his own terms with the Board of Supervisors.

Supervisor GRANGER said he would prefer to have Mr. McLane turn the matter over to the city, after having collected enough to remunerate himself; then let the city establish the lowest possible rates, and pass McLane's stages free.

Supervisor HANSBROW said if the ferry was to go into the hands of private parties as a matter of speculation, he would be in favor of strenuous measures to prevent extortion.

Mr. McLANE said, very well; he would hold on to it, and await the action of the Board.

Supervisor HITE verbally reported, as Chairman of the Committee on Drainage, that he had conferred with the Citizens' Committee, and they thought it would not be necessary to build the proposed bulkhead at Rabel's tannery, and that the better course for the Board would be to rescind the contract with A. D. Rightmire, as proposed by him.

Supervisor HANSBROW said: Then it was only necessary for Mr. Rightmire to prepare his vouchers and accounts, and present them to the Board.

A. D. RIGHTMIRE said he proposed to go to San Francisco for that purpose to-day, and would return with all the vouchers of his expenditures, but he would like to have some definite understanding before he left that the contract was to be rescinded. He only asked that the Board should make him whole as to his expenses, and not a dime beyond that.

Supervisors GRANGER, HANSBROW, and the PRESIDENT thought no formal declaration was necessary on the part of the Board--that the word of individual members was sufficient

Supervisor HITE offered a resolution that on the presentation of the proper vouchers the Board would proceed to cancel the contract, paying Mr. Rightmire his necessary expenditures.

After a protracted discussion, in which all the members expressed themselves in favor of accepting Mr. Rightmire's proposition, the resolution was withdrawn with Mr. Rightmire's assent

Supervisor HANSBROW said, as one of the Special Committee appointed yesterday to confer with the officers of the Railroad Company, in relation to the removal of the railroad to the north side of the city, he would make a verbal report. In the first place it was unfortunate that the President should have appointed a Committee a portion of which was opposed to the object sought. He had called upon Mr. Robinson, and that gentleman declined to make any proposition, saying he was not authorized to do so, but he stated that if the Board would make any proposition, he would immediately call a meeting of the directors to take the subject into consideration. He hoped some definite proposition might be made, by means of which they could get at the subject, for he considered it one of the first importance. The excuse Mr. Robinson made at first was that they could not get the right of way, and that the Board had no right to do this or to do that. He (Hansbrow) then asked him what they would do, supposing the right of way was obtained on the north side. He replied that then it would take time, and intimated that if they could have till next season, the Company would give the matter serious consideration. He then spoke of coming in on the R street levee, and Supervisor Hansbrow told him that he should oppose that now and forever. Immediate action should be taken on this subject, and he (Hansbrow) suggested that the President should call a public meeting to get an expression of the views of the citizens. He was satisfied that ninety-nine hundreths of the citizens were opposed to allowing the railroad to he rebuilt on the R street levee, and nothing would protect the city and give the public confidence like a railroad levee on the north side. The railroad was at first allowed to come into the city only to Sixth street, then they were allowed a temporary track to the river for the sake of convenience in building their road, then they obtained permssion to run up to M street, and lastly to L street, but never beyond that, though the Company had taken it upon themselves to lay their tracks to K street.

Supervisor RUSSELL said he thought it was the place of the Company to ask the Board on what terms they would allow them to come into the city, instead of the Board asking them on what terms they would consent to come.

Supervisor HANSBSOW said J. Mora Moss had threatened repeatedly to take up the tracks and remove the road to some point below, and doubtless they had often gained concessions by making such threats. He had no doubt that the Board would dictate the terms; amicable negotiation would be the best policy. He did not believe, however, that in any event the Board would allow them to rebuild on the R street levee.

Supervisor GRANGER said if he had been present at the conference with Robinson he should probably have concurred with Supervisor Hansbrow. He was in favor of calling a public meeting to ascertain whether the people were willing to allow the Sacramento Valley Railroad to terminate where it has done; if so, upon what conditions; and if not, upon what terms they would be willing to allow them to come into the northern part of the city, follow the line of the old levee, and come into I street at about Seventh street. His own opinion was that the city could well afford to pay the Company $100,000 to come in that way. He did not want to take the responsibility of acting, however, without first consulting the citizens; because, if the railroad should eventually be driven to Sutterville they would be blamed for it

Supervisor RUSSELL moved that the report be adopted.

Supervisor WOODS said he would vote for the report, although it looked to him like child's play to call citizens meetings. The Board should be capable of acting for itself, getting the opinion of its legal adviser.

Supervisor GRANGER repeated that he was unwilling to take the responsibility of acting without first getting the sense of the citizens by a public meeting. Then if the railroad should be driven to Sutterville he would not be responsible.

Supervisor HITE moved to lay the matter over till to-morrow, in order to learn whether the Board legally had power to prevent the rebuilding of the railroad on R street

Supervisor GRANGER said there was no doubt they had the power. All the ordinances granting privileges to the Company were conditional, and not one of the conditions had they fulfilled.

Supervisor Woods said then the Board ought to rescind the ordinances at once.

Supervisor GRANGER said he preferred to get an expression from the people first.

Supervisor HITE said, while they were consulting the dear people, Mr. Robinson would have his railroad rebuilt coming into the city on the old track,

Supervisor GRANGER said, in that case, thay would get him out again, and he would be one to help do it.

Supervisor HITE said he was as much opposed to the levee on R street as any man, notwithstanding that he had been unjustly charged with being Robinson's tool.

Supervisor DICKERSON said this was altogether a city matter, in which the country members did not feel called upon to take part; but when they knew what the city wanted, they would take hold and help them out.

Supervisor WOOD said there were hundreds of idle men here who would now be fully employed, if the railroad depot was on Sixth street, where it ought to be.

Supervisor HANSBROW offered the following:

WHEREAS, The Sacramento Valley Railroad Company have, by the act of filling up the gap in the R street levee, most flagrantly violated their contract, in not complying with the same; therefore,

Resolved, That the privilege heretofore granted to them, in allowing them to run their cars on the R street levee, is hereby rescinded.

The resolution was adopted by a unanimous vote.

Supervisor HITE offered a resolution, which was also adopted, requesting the Citizens' Committee to call a public meeting of citizens to take into consideration the propriety of removing the railroad to the northern portion of the city.

Supervisor HANSBROW called attention to the condition of the levee on Second street. He understood the water was seeping through an old sewer there, and flooding the foot of J and K streets. The chain gang was engaged in cleaning out the water tanks, but he supposed the Citizens' Committee would attend to it.

Supervisor HITE again offered his resolution relative to bridges on J and K streets, modified so as to read as follows:

Resolved, That the Committee on Roads, Bridge and Ferries will receive proposals until 12 o'clock M on the 19th instant, for completing two bridges--one across the slough at J street, and one across the slough at K street--the bids to be accompanied by plans and specifications. Bids for each bridge to be separate, and to state the time when each will be completed under the contract--no bid for the K street bridge to be considered unless it agrees that the bridge shall be passable for teams within fifteen days from the date of the contract--each bid to be accompanied by at least two sureties, of at least double the sum of the bid--the bids to state cash price, to be paid out of tolls to be received at said bridges as rapidly as it accumulates, and price if paid for in city evidences of indebtedness.

Supervisor WOODS said he should vote against any man's receiving tolls.

C. H. SWIFT, Chairman of the Citizen's Committee, having been called upon to make a statement on this subject, said the Committee had been receiving every day numerous applications to build bridges and repair roads injured by the flood, but he conceived, as did most of the Committee, that they had nothing whatever to do with building bridges. He had no doubt that a large proportion of the citizens were opposed to building up R street levee, and it would be useless to build up the Thirty-first street levee if that was not done. Various plans had been talked of, but the Committee hardly knew what to do. This morning he had an interview with some of the Swamp Land Commissioners. Heretofore their action had depended on the idea that Sacramento city would take care of itself, and therefore had proposed to levee across this side of Sutteiville, leaving the whole county to be flooded if the American river should break away again. Now he thought they would see their error and join with the city in putting up a strong, permanent levee down the American river. That would be the only way to reclaim the tules below the city.

Supervisor HITE's resolution was adopted.

On motion of Supervisor WOODS, the Clerk was directed to notify the officers of the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company of the action of the Board.

Supervisor HITE offered a resolution requesting the Levee Committee to confer with the Citizens' Committee, at the meeting of the latter today, and request them to have all the labor performed by them for the protection of the city expended on the banks of the American and Sacramento rivers, as the Board deemed it unnecessary to repair any cross levees.

Supervisor GRANGER opposed the resolution, because he thought it looked too much like begging a job, and Supervisor Hite withdrew it.

Supervisor RUSSELL asked what disposition was to be made of the ferry across Burns' slough.

Supervisor GRANGER said he thought that matter had been disposed of. If not, he moved that the Committee on Roads, Bridges and Ferries be authorized to make arrangements with Mr. McLane.

Supervisor WATERMAN said the lumber in the scow out there did not cost more than $75, and it was made in one day. He thought $400 was more than the whole establishment cost.

Supervisor GRANGER's motion prevailed.

Supervisor WOODS said he was informed by the Auditor that the amount of taxes to be collected by J P. O'Neill, the Road Overseer of the Twelfth District, was $1,304. He therefore moved that the additional bond of that officer be fixed at $2,000. Carried.

Adjourned till ten o'clock Wednesday morning

THE STATE CAPITAL.--The Marysville Appeal has the following remarks, in connection with the noble and self-sacrificing spirit evinced by the people of Sacramento, and the removal of the Capital, as contemplated by two or three hasty journals:

It is a creditable fact that the press generally speak sympathizingly and generously of Sacramento, rejoicing in her determination not to repudiate, and expressing hearty wishes that she may soon rise with unabated vigor and beauty from her last and greatest afliction. The general opinion seems to be that the State cannot afford to have its second city wiped out, and that destruction is not its destiny. "All is not lost," so long as the "unconquerable will" of her plucky citizens remains. But some journals have taken advantage of her misfortune--a misfortune that might have been averted, and that will be hereafter--to suggest that the Capital ought to be removed. The suggestion is ill timed and ungenerous, to say the least; though this might be overlooked if it were supported by any good reasons. The fact is, the last flood is no more an argument in favor of removal than any previous one. After the experience of several floods, and learning the full extent of the danger to which the city was exposed, the almost unanimous sentiment of the State decided that Sacramento was the most central and every way eligible site for the capital; and all the machinations of her enemies, and of interested parties in other localities, could not prevail against her. For many years she has protected herself and the State property amply against floods, till a greater than all others came to teach her what must be done to assure her security through the whole future. The Legislature meanwhile contracted for the erection of a splendid capital, which has already been commenced on a broad and substantial foundation that defies the flood. The public mind has settled down upon the quiet and comfortable conviction that the long discussion as to the proper location of the seat of government would not be revived, and that we are to have public buildings worthy of our wealthy, vast and vigorous State, and sufficient for the use of many generations. Until it can be proved that Sacramento is unable to protect itself against future floods, every suggestion for a removal of the capital should be ruled out of order. Until then, we shall insist that the capital remain where it is, and that, if necessary, the State shall aid to make it perfectly secure. If Sacramento does not yet despair of herself, the people and their representatives should not despair of Sacramento.

GOLD HILL CAVED.--Gold Hill, a famous mining locality in Nevada Territory, caved in December 13th, owing to the late storm. The Territorial Enterprise says:

The principal cave occurred about noon yesterday, at the claims of Mosheimer & Winters, and Hurd & Winters, situated at the southwest side of the hill. There has been a fissure, occasioned by the ground settling along the west side of the hill for some months. The recent rains permeated the loose formation, and on Sunday the indications of a cave became so obvious that the workmen ceased operations. Yesterday morning the ground commenced settling gradually, and about noon a huge mass, which rested on timbers--the rock having been completely excavated--fell, leaving a chasm about forty by sixty feet at the surface, and some thirty feet deep. One of the companies have a tunnel running from the base of the hill and intersecting the mine at a depth considerably lower than the cave, and it is probable they will be able to prosecute the work by this means after the mouth of the tunnel has been cleared. The tunnels of some of the claims adjoining on the north have partially fallen in, and the bent state of the timber indicates an immense pressure.

It is difficult to say whether the caving will stop now, or the whole of Gold Hill proper fall in. The mine has been improperly worked. The whole hill resting on timbers and it would not surprise us since what might properly be compared to a portion of an arch, has given way, to see the entire structure fall.

DAMAGED HAY.--Large quantities of hay in the city have been destroyed by the late flood. The limited quantity of the remainder now in store has caused it to rise rapidly in price. It sells at from thirty to forty dollars per ton. . . .

Party Postponed.--The managers having charge of the social party, which was to have taken place at the High School on Friday next, have decided to postpone the party indefinitely, for reasons too obvious to require mentioning. . . .

p. 4

DEATH BY A LAND SLIDE.--La Porte Messenger says a remarkable land slide took place at Cold Canon, on Monday last, resulting in the death of a man named Jack Smith. A ponderous mass of earth left its resting place of ages, and debouched down the ravine into Canon creek below, a distance of three fourths of a mile, leveling everything in its course, and filling up the mouths of the tunnels, to the serious annoyance of their owners. Smith and a companion were taking a leisurely stroll down to Poker Flat, and were about crossing the ravine, near the foot of the mountain, when the movement of the earth was first discovered by the latter, within thirty feet of where he was standing. Not being so near the center of its course as his unfortunate companion, he just managed to escape; but poor Jack had no chance to elude its fury, and was instantly buried alive. Nearly twenty-four hours were consumed in exhuming the body of the deceased. So great was the amount of earth slid down that it dammed Canon creek dry for the space of fifteen minutes, notwithstanding the creek was at its highest flood.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3347, 19 December 1861, p. 4


. . .
The colored people of San Francisco have held a meeting for the relief of colored sufferers by the flood in this city. They decided to forward their subscriptions to the Howard Benevolent. Society. . . .

The steamer Pacific is, to-day, four days overdue from Oregon.

Some sixty men are at work on the American river levee at Rabel's Tannery, and twenty at the point above there, from which the water came into the city, on the 9th instant. It is thought that by to-night all the water of the American will be turned into its proper course. . . .

DRAINING.--The ditch dug in Fifth street proves that the city north of L street can be drained without difficulty. Ditches dug through the center of three streets, between Front and Ninth, with connecting cross ditches, would carry off all the surplus water. Those ditches would of course be cut through J, K and L streets, and substantially bridged; but on the cross streets they might be left open provided a fence of short posts and a single plank were put up on each side to keep people out of them. A ditch in the middle of a street, if to be left open, is greatly to be preferred to one near the sidewalk, as it leaves the houses on each side so that they can be approached with wagons. The ordinance offered yesterday is hardly specific enough; it gives too much unrestricted power to individuals. . . .

EAST WEAVER CREEK.--The flumes of Warren & Rueb, Henry and Sev. Jacobs, and Wilson, Carr & McGowan were completely demolished by the flood last Sunday. The water was much higher than the week previous. The damage cannot fall far short of $10,000. Another length of the East Weaver bridge also went away. . . .

TELEGRAPH TO MONTEREY REPAIRED.-- A telegram from Monterey says the telelgraph line which was broken at the Salinas river, has been thoroughly repaired, and is now in fine working order. . . .


It may be very well to call a meeting of citizens to exchange views upon the plan to be adopted for repairing the levees, and removing the railroad to the north side of the city; but we doubt whether many of our citizens are in the possession of the requisite information to enable them to form a judicious opinion as to what should be done under the circumstances. No estimate is had of the practicability or cost of repairing the R street and Thirty-first street levees, or the levee on the American. Before a public meeting can decide understandingly upon the subjects to be considered, it must be placed in possession of the proper data. The question is one of great moment to the people of the city; the future hangs to a great extent upon it; therefore it ought not to be decided upon the impulses which may rule the hour.

The original idea which governed in building the R street levee, was to protect the city against back water from the Sacramento. The year before it was built the water backed up from below Sutterville to such an extent as to inundate the city from the south as high up as K street. The water stood at that level for some three months. As a protection from similar visitations in the future, the R street levee was erected in 1853. It was at first designed to extend across the slough to the ridge, but upon the suggestion that such a levee would turn the floods of the American into the city, should it break through or overflow the levee east of Thirty-first street, the plan was changed so as to turn the levee this side of the slough, running near its west bank to Thirty-first street, thence north on that street to the American river. By running that levee along and on this side of the slough, it was intended to give to the city a double protection from the floods of the American, as it was confidently believed that if the levee ever gave way at the head of the slough, as it did last week, the Thirty-first and R street levees would keep it out of the city. And they would have done it, had not the railroad subsequently built a solid embankment from the end of the R street levee to the ridge, which forced the water into the city in spite of the levee on Thirty-first street. One of the main ends for which those levees were built, at a cost of about a hundred thousand dollars, was defeated by the railroad embankment. The R street levee and the railroad embankment would have protected the city against back water from the Sacramento river. If further protection from back water is considered necessary, that levee must be repaired, or the streets all brought up to the grade line proposed by Supervisor Hite. If it is not deemed necessary to defend the city against back water the R street levee may be permitted to remain as it is. If that levee is not reopened it will be useless to restore the one on Thirty-first street, as one depends upon the other. But if the R street levee is condemned, it should be for reasons other than that it confined the water which was forced into the city by the railroad embankment, until every part was submerged. Those who built it, were very well aware that if the water ever came into the city the R street levee would hold it here until it was cut away. But the intention was, not to permit it to get inside.

Experience has demonstrated that, if the money expended on the cross levees had been applied to the building of a levee from Burns' slough, east of Smith's Garden, down the American to I street, sixty feet wide on the surface, and ten feet higher.than the old one, the waters of the American would have been confined to the north side of it for all time. A levee to correspond down I street, and along the bank of the Sacramento to Sutterville, would, in 1853, have effectually protected the city of Sacramento against floods for a time which we shall not offer to limit.

Would not the same character of levee on the American and along the Sacramento protect the city now against the highest flood which may come in a century? Upon this point there is no room for doubt; such a levee as we have described would insure the safety of the city beyond all contingency. Then why not build it? The answer may be because we have not money enough to do that and repair the cross levees, and the objector prefers to repair the Thirty-first and R street levees, if a choice is to be made between doing that and building a strong levee on the American. But cannot both be accomplished? Of course they can if the money is provided. The amount required for such a heavy undertaking has not been estimated. It might take $100,000 or $150,000. Well, suppose it would, what is $150,000 when compared to the absolute safety of this city from overflow? A quarter of a million would be a light matter when placed in the scale against the existence of a city like Sacramento.

Situated as the people of this city now are--liable as they are to be inundated to a greater or less extent by every rise in the American--the common safety demands that the American be first shut out, and the levee so repaired, raised and strengthened as to keep it out. When that is done the question of repairing the cross levees may be settled at the pleasure of the people. They can also determine the grade to be adopted for the streets. If a high one is determined upon, cross levees will be rendered comparatively unnecessary. With all our streets two feet above the present level of J, we should have nothing to fear from back water.

The proposition to withdraw the right, of the railroad to come into the city on R street, by Act of the Board of Supervisors, strikes us as neither fair, just, nor manly. It looks like an attempt on the part of a city in distress to benefit by the misfortunes of a railroad company. The city may negotiate with the railroad company, may offer inducements which will make it the interest of the company to change their line from the south to the north side of the city; but it would require months to move, and the cost would probably reach $200,000. No reliance for defense this Winter can be placed on the railroad, even if it were practicable to move the line. The people must rely on themselves; they must build their own levees and then supervise them. They can never give up the control of one of them to a railroad company. But, if disposed the Board has no power to prevent the railroad from repairing its line and resuming its connection with the city. If is has forfeited its rights under the ordinance of 1855, the Courts must so decide, and not the Board of Supervisors. If such forfeiture has been worked the Court would enjoin the Company from coming in on the R street levee, unless they obtained another grant. But until such a judgment is rendered no power exists to legally prevent the Company from repairing its line into the city. The Board may demand that it shall be built on trestle work east of the R street levee, and also over the breaks in the R street levee to stand until it shall be determined whether that levee is to be rebuilt. Legally, the railroad would obtain no legal advantages by repairing its line, which it does now possess. A large portion of its property, including all its locomotives but one, is west of the break in the R street levee, and it would be an outrage to prevent them from connecting. Indeed, the Company would be compelled to make that connection before it could move the track to the north side of the city, were it ever so willing. Uniting the two ends of the road, if not a military, is certainly a railroad necessity. If disposed, the Board can give the Company the legal six months notice to quit the levee below Sixth street. . . .

RAIN IN NEVADA.--The Democrat says, according to a rain gauge kept by Ewer, at Grass Valley, the quantity of rain that fell there during the late storm--commencing on Friday evening, Dec. 6th, and ending on the Monday morning following--was a trifle over sixteen inches. One or two rough measurements were kept in Nevada, indicating a fall of about eighteen inches; and from information derived from a gentleman who was at Jackson's Ranch during the storm, the quantity that fell on the summit must have been twice as much as fell at Nevada.

A correspondent of the same papar, writing from North Bloomfield, Dec. 12th, adds:

It rained here without intermission for 72 hours--the longest duration of time, for one continued storm, within my experience in this State. The largest amount of damage done in this vicinity, I believe, has to be borne by Marriott, McCaughan & Co., one of their ditch dams being entirely carried away and damaging the other considerably, besides covering up their tail flume to a great depth, and sweeping away all the tools belonging to the company, in the shape of picks, shovels, barrows, crowbars, sluices, etc. Their loss will amount to fully $500. The Union Flume, belonging to Walters, Andrews & Co., is also damaged, probably to the amount of $300 or $400.

FLOOD IN KLAMATH.--An Extra of the Yreka Journal dated December 11th says:

By the exertions of Alfred Mallett, who swam streams to get here, with a letter from George W. Sleeper, of Sawyer's Bar, we have information of the losses on Salmon river, in Klamath county. Life and property shared in the general whirlpool of destruction. The first freshet passed off very well, although great damage was done to many claims, carrying away flumes, wheels, etc. The last freshet destroyed everything.

From Sawyer's Bar to the mouth of Russian creek, all the miners have sustained losses, not only on Salmon river, but also on Eddy's Gulch, from which we are unable to get any account of the full losses. On Compromise Gulch, every dam and flume is gone. Every claim at Buckhorn Bar is filled up, and all the machinery is wrecked or swept away.

At, Stewart's Flat, a gloom pervades, from destruction of life and property. The place contained seven houses, and the occupants were obliged to leave for high ground, being surrounded with water. August Leek, a German, one of the first and best men on the river, was drowned in attempting to swim to the shore, and swept down the river. . . .


Passenger Suit--Heller Relief Meeting of Colored People--The Broderlck Will Case--John H, Stewart--New York Money Matters--Trade in San Francisco--Death of an old Sacramentan.

. . .

The colored people held a meeting last night to raise funds for colored sufferers in Sacramento. It was stated that the Howard Association has indiscriminately given aid to colored and white, and it was resolved to turn the funds over to the Howard Society, without any special direction as to employment. A Committee was appointed to make collections among the colored population. A collection taken at the meeting amounted to $101. The Committee will report on Friday. . . .

Telegrams from New York to-day announce that the suspension of cash payments is discussed as the only remedy available. . . .

Steamer Pacific is three days overdue from Oregon. . . .

NO WONDER THERE WAS A FLOOD.--The Sierra Citizen, referring to the storm at Downieville, gives this statement of the amount of rain fall in a brief period:

A correct rain gauge of Dr. Kibbe says that in the short period of three days--from nine o'clock on Friday morning until Monday morning at the same hour--over twelve and a half inches of rain fell; and on Sunday over seven inches. In November, 13.59-100, and in December, 14 46-100 inches fell. It must be borne in mind that when over a foot of rain falls on a level, the amount rushing from mountain sides, four miles high on either side, the additional amount which must necessarily accumulate, is incalculable. . . .

p. 5


THE LEVEE REPAIRS.--The work of repairing the levee at Rabel's tannery is progressing quite rapidly. The superintendent, W. Turton, had some sixty hands, and nine teams with wagons, and eight teams with scrapers, busily engaged on the work yesterday afternoon. The locality presents a lively and business like appearance. C. Farley, with about twenty hands, commenced work at ten o'clock yesterday morning at the head of Burns' slough. This slough connects with the American river about one mile beyond Smith's Garden, two miles beyond the tannery, and four miles from the Sacramento river. This slough runs in a southwesterly direction past Sutter's Fort, and running west of Poverty Ridge to the low lands above Sutterville. It has furnished, since the flood, a constant stream of water, so large as to make a ferry boat necessary at the fort and make fording near Poverty Ridge quite difficult. The slough is about one hundred feet wide at the river. The volume of water passing into it is about one foot deep. Two hundred and fifty gunny sacks were taken out and filled. Theae are placed, along the line of the embankment, one, two or three abreast, as the case may require. They are followed up with earth from wheelbarrows. At half past four o'clock last evening an embankment had been built about half way across the breach, effectually stopping the current, so far as constructed. It will doubtless be completed to-day. This work will have the effect of stopping entirely the water now flowing from that point to Sutterville, at the present stage of the American river. It will be followed up by a substantial and permanent levee. The Committee of Safety met at nine o'clock yesterday morning, and decided to direct their efforts for the present to the river levees, leaving the cross levees for future action. In accordance with this line of policy, they will at once set to work three divisions of men on the American river. The first division at Rabel's, already, under full headway, have been so far boarded in the vicinity. For the accommodation of the second division, at Burns' slough, the erection of a house 37 by 70 feet in size, was commenced yesterday. The third division will commence between the two, and arrangements are being made for the use of the Tivoli House for boarding the workmen. The Committee pay $30 per month and board, for laborers, and, if necessary, find blankets, and deduct the cost from the wages. They pay for teams--the driver, two horses and wagon--$5 and board for the driver, he finding feed for his horses. There have been more men and teams offering than could so far be engaged. Many more, however, will be needed in a day or two. . . .

RAILROAD MOVEMENTS.--It seems that the Sacramento Valley Railroad has not fulfilled its contracts to the letter with the different stage companies. It was under contract to carry the passengers of the stage companies between Sacramento and Folsom, as well as the mails. The breaks in the R street levee and the embankment east of that levee, rendered it impossible for the cars to run into the city; they were obliged to stop at Brighton, which is about four miles from Sacramento. It would be natural to suppose that the railroad company would contrive some plan to land their passengers both ways in Sacramento, and take them from the city to the present railroad terminus. But they declined to do this, and left passengers to get to and from their new depot as best they might. Such an arrangement did not suit the stage companies. When they booked passengers to and from Sacramento, and received the passage money, they felt in honor bound to do what they promised. Finding that the railroad agent was making no provision for landing or taking passengers in the city, the agent of the Pioneer and Overland lines--McLane--immediately put on stages between the city and the present terminus of the railroad, to accommodate their passengers, and to convey the mails. To secure his object, McLane was forced to build a flatboat at the slough for ferry purposes. He has done and is doing work which ought to have been done by the agent of the railroad company. From Brighton to Lincoln we hear the cars make regular trips, as per schedule. We also hear that the only locomotive the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company have east of the break is the C. K. Garrison, and that said locomotive is so disabled as to be unfit for use, thus forcing the old company to rely upon the locomotives of C. L. Wilson, of the California Central, to perform the service between Brighton, Folsom and Lincoln. Outside of the city, and north of Brighton, the railroad does not appear to have been injured by the flood.

RAILROAD MEETING.--The Citizens' Levee Committee, in compliance with the request of the Board of Supervisors, called a public meeting, to be held in the County Court room at eleven o'clock yesterday forenoon, to take into consideration the propriety of removing the railroad to the northern part of the city. Owing to the short notice given, only a few persons were present, but the meeting organized by the choice of Dr. Harvey Houghton for Chairman, and George Rowland, Secretary, and then adjourned to meet at the same place this (Thursday) evening, at seven o'clock. Doubtless the meeting this evening will be well attended, as the subject is one of the greatest importance.

POLICE COURT.--In the Police Court yesterday, the following business was disposed of by Judge Gilmer: . . . The case of B. Cohn, charged with an assault on H. Treichler with a shovel, was continued until this morning. The examination of S. M. Sidell, charged with grand larceny in stealing $1,100, was continued until to-day.

HOWARD HOSPITAL.--Howard Benevolent Society has established a temporary hospital in Van Winkle & Duncan's building, on Fourth street, between I and J streets, for the benefit of the sufferers by the flood who are sick and unable to provide for themselves. Doctors Harkness, Fray and Montgomery have charge of it. There are now fourteen inmates in it.

ANOTHER CONTRACT.--The owner of the Bank Exchange, corner of K and Second street, Mrs. Keenan, has contracted with E. Fell to raise the building at once. The appearances are decidedly in favor of Second street being made high and dry. Fell went down yesterday to expedite the speedy shipment of his hydraulic apparatus.

GOOD TIME.--T. Bradley's stage, of the Accommodation Line, left Placerville yesterday morning with eleven passengers. It arrived in this city at one o'clock and forty minutes, beating the railroad passengers by the same route. Crandall, the driver, says the roads are not the best in the world, but still they are quite passable.

CLEAR EVENING.--We were favored last evening with a clear sky, a full moon, and an invigorating breeze from the northwest. . . .

A PROPOSITION.--There are a number of piles on Front street, near P, and a pile driver in the American river, at Lisle's bridge. It is suggested that by bringing both to bear the People's Committee could, in two days, at a slight cost, with the aid of sacks of brick, etc., stop the crevasse above Sutterville. If this could be done, it would relieve the lower part of the city of a considerable portion of the water now standing on it.

INSOLVENCY.--George Harvey filed, yesterday, a petition in insolvency in the District Court. It is stated in the petition that the petitioner has been a resident of the county for ten years, and has been engaged recently in keeping the "Mineral Point House." He has lost by fire, flood, high notes of interest and bad debts, and asks to be discharged from his debts and liabilities.

SUBSTANTIAL CROSSING.--A new crossing--probably the most substantial in the city--was laid down yesterday at Seventh and J streets, between Lindley, Wooster & Weaver's and Sneath & Arnold's corners. It is constructed of plank ten inches wide and three inches thick, the center being three planks wide, with an additional side plank on either side.

LICENSE GRANTED.--The Board of Supervisors yesterday granted a license to the parties who own the ferryboat at Sutter's Fort to run the same and collect toll. As two bridges are to be built in the same neighborhood, and as the Committee of Safety has now a large number of men at work damming the water out of the slough, it is not likely that there will be much use for the ferry.

MISSING.--A man named James Brown has been missing from San Francisco for about two weeks. It is presumed that he came to this city, and it is feared that he may have been lost by the flood of the 9th instant. He was a native of Ireland, thirty-two years old, wore black whiskers, and had on a heavy gray coat. . . .

PUMPING.--A large number of pumps are kept going in various portions of the city, discharging water from the cellars. The pumps generally work well, and the cellars too. So far as we have observed, it is about an even thing between them.

DONATION FROM STOCKTON.--M. Conley and H. C. Patrick, who arrived in this city on the steamer Christina from Stockton, on Tuesday, brought over to the Howard Benevolent Society $600 in cash, and several hundred dollars worth of clothing. . . .

SALMON FALLS BRIDGE.--We learn that this bridge is now fully repaired, and that the travel over it has been resumed.


WEDNESDAY, Dec. 18. 1861.
The Board met at ten o'clock A. M., the President in the chair and all the members present. . . .

Supervisor HITE said he went down the Sacramento river yesterday at the request of Supervisor Dickerson, and looked at the levee there. He found it very weak in many places. At one point it was broken away so that a large stream was running over from the river into the tules, and at numerous other places it was almost broken away. He was informed that the Citizens' Committee would repair these places as soon as the river falls, when it can easily be done. He was also informed that the Committee now proposed to expend all their money on the levees on the banks of the Sacramento and American rivers, abandoning the cross levees entirely, and they desired to learn if that course would meet the approbation of the Board of Supervisors. It certainly met his approval, and he trusted the Board would give some expression of opinion upon the subject.

Supervisor HANSBROW said he was hardly prepared for an expression as definite as that, but would move that the Board concur in any measures the Citizens' Committee should think proper to adopt

Supervisor RUSSELL said it met his approbation and he would move that the Board heartily approve of that course.

Supervisor WOODS did not think the Board had any right to take action on the subject, unless the Citizens' Committee formally communicated with them, either by petition or in some other manner, so that the matter could appear on their books.

Supervisor GRANGER thought the proper way would be for the Committee to ask the Board to appoint a Committee to confer with them, and would cheerfully vote for such a Committee if it was asked for. A verbal communication was not sufficient and opinions or advice volunteered sometimes was not received very gratefully. The public might think they were still itching to have a hand in the outlay of that money, and he desired to avoid any such imputation.

Supervisor RUSSELL withdrew his motion.

Supervisor HANSBROW said there was a hereafter to this matter, and if the citizens wished the advice of the Board, they certainly knew there was but one way to get at it properly. If the Board was to be implicated in this matter, there should be something more than a verbal report to appear on their books.

Supervisor GRANGER suggested that Supervisor Hite represent to the Citizens' Committee that if they wished it the Board would be willing to appoint a Committee to confer with them. The people had placed confidence in that Committee, thinking perhaps that they were more worthy of confidence than this Board, (he would not discuss the matter now,) and he, for one, was not disposed to interfere unless called upon.

Supervisor HITE said he had full confidence in the Citizens' Committee, and thought they had come to their senses. The work they were about to perform he believed would be the thing that had been desired for years, and he intended to subscribe all he was able towards prosecuting that work. He did not intend to stand upon formalities. Yesterday he asked for a Committee to confer with them, but some thought it would be sacrificing their dignity, and to-day when the Committee asked if the Board would approve what they proposed, objection was made that it did not come in the proper form to please some gentlemen. The plan pleased him well, and he intended to subscribe and go to work upon it. All he had was under water this morning, and he wanted to get a sight of it as soon as possible. If gentlemen would visit the lower part of the city, which he represented, and which was now all under water, he thought they would come to the conclusion that this was no time to stand upon formalities or to exhibit any feeling of jealousy.

Supervisor GRANGER disclaimed any feeling of jealousy, and said, although he was not a "hardshell," yet he was a little sensitive. The citizens had preferred to intrust this matter to a Committee, whether it was because they believed the Committee more competent than this Board or not; and now, if that Committee wanted to confer with this Board, let them ask it. He knew there were many who supposed that the members of this Board had the privilege of going to the public treasury and helping themselves to whatever they pleased, and that it was only necessary to be a member to become rich in a short time. He had been asked repeatedly what they had done with all the money, as if the members of the Board had access to it. Such was not the case. He would not upon any point of etiquette throw the least obstacle in the way of the Citizens' Committee; but in the incipient stage they took this business upon themselves, the people believing that they were either more honest or more capable than the Board of Supervisors, which was the legitimate authority; and though he did not complain of it, he was opposed to interfering until properly called upon.

The PRESIDENT said there was no motion pending.

Supervisor HALL said he was on the Committee in relation to application for ferry privilege across the American river, and although he had not been to the spot he had heard the statements of both parties and several citizens living in the neighborhood. From all he could learn, he was rather in favor of granting ferry licenses to both parties for a month or so. Both claimed the franchise, and the Committee was not able to decide which was right. He thought it would be for the interest of the public to have two ferries, and would so report. He was not informed whether both ferries would run at the same point or not

The PRESIDENT said the same matter was before the Board last year, and a Committee reported adverse to allowing Norris to establish a ferry.

Supervisor GRANGER said it was not necessary to establish this ferry, and besides, the Board had no right to do it. Mr. Harris or Mrs. Harris bought the bridge of Norris, and with it, according to the decisions of the Supreme Court the bridge franchise, although Norris contended otherwise. The city, therefore, had no power to grant a ferry franchise within a mile of the bridge unless the public necessity required it, which was not the case. Norris' bridge was two miles above, and Harris & Pearls had established a ferry connecting with the remaining part of their bridge, so that the public was sufficiently accommodated. Norris' action was founded on his dislike to Harris rather than any desire to accommodate the public. When Lisle's bridge was swept away last year, Norris having the exclusive right of transit, raised his rates 50 per cent, to the highest limit allowed by the terms of his license. Harris & Pearls had their bridge franchise from the Legislature, and had sacrificed $30,000 in two floods, and the Board should not attempt to interfere with their franchise for the sake of gratifying private pique. Harris had property here, paid his taxes, and asked for nothing but what he was legally entitled to.

Supervisor WOODS said Pearls & Harris also raised their rates of toll the same as Norris did, and only put them down again when compelled to by the competition of Norris' bridge. They were all alike in trying to make as much money as possible; nevertheless, he believed Pearls & Harris had the franchise, and would vote accordingly.

Supervisor HALL said he had no sympathy with either party, but both told their stories and made out a fair showing. Norris complained that he had no opportunity to present his proofs before the Board, and he would modify his report so as to set apart a day at the next meeting for the hearing or both parties.

Supervisor HITE said he understood Harris had given his notices for a ferry, and had his boats there now ready to accommodate the travel. It would be unjust to allow another party to establish a ferry alongside of him.

Supervisor GRANGER said Norris did not own the land on this side of the American river, and he knew that some days ago wagons did pass by means of the ferry at Pearls & Harris' bridge.

Supervisor RUSSELL said be had the papers showing that Harris owned six acres, more or less, on this side of the river.

Supervisor HANSBROW said he had no doubt that Harris had the right, but he thought courtesy required that a hearing should be granted, as recommended by the Committee.

The subject was finally assigned for hearing at the first meeting next month.

. . .

Supervisor HITE introduced "an Ordinance for the cleaning and repairing of certain streets."

Sec. 1 makes it the duty of every owner or occupant of any building fronting on any street that has been filled in and planked or gravelled, or the owner or possessor of any vacant lot fronting on any such street, to remove the surface mud from the whole front, from the line of the sidewalk to the center of the street, and cause the same to be deposited in some adjacent unfilled street or alley.

Sec. 2 makes it the duty of such owners or occupants to fill up all holes occurring in such streets with broken brick, gravel or other hard substance, to the level of the surrounding surface.

Sec. 3 provides that if any such person shall allow such surface mud or holes to remain five days after the passage of this ordinance, or five days after receiving notice from the Chief of Police to remove or repair the same, he shall be deemed guilty of misdemeanor and punished by fine of from $5 to $250, or imprisonment from one day to three months, or both such fine or imprisonment.

Sec 4 requires the Chief of Police to enforce the ordinance.

Supervisor GRANGER moved to amend section 1 by adding "to be designated by the Superintendent of Public Streets." Adopted.

Supervisor WOODS moved to amend section 3 by striking out so much as related to imprisonment.

Supervisor GRANGER said it was true that they could not imprison a man for anything but a criminal offense, nevertheless he saw no objection to allowing the provision to remain as it was.

Supervise WOODS said it would be of no use, and he hoped it would be stricken out

The amendment was adopted and the ordinance was then read a second time by title, and under suspension of the rule unanimously passed.

Supervisor HITE said he had another ordinance to introduce relating to drainage.

SUPERVISOR GRANGER.--Will it drain the city if we pass it?

Supervisor HITE.--We will try it, anyhow.

The CLERK read as follows:

An Ordinance regarding the City Drainage.
The Board of Supervisors of the city and county of Sacramento do order and ordain as follows:

Section 1. The Special Committee on Drainage is hereby made a Standing Committee on Drainage.

Sec . 2. Any private individual or individuals are hereby authorized to cut at their own expense drains or ditches in any street, or alleys, for the purpose of surface drainage, provided that the center of such ditch or drain is not more than five feet from the sidewalk; and provided that where any such ditch or drain crosses any street or alley it shall do so through a suitable wooden culvert, or sewer, made of redwood plank, having an iron grating at the upper end, and covered to the level of the surface of the street or alley; all the material for the constructing of such crossing sewers to be procured and furnished by the Committee on Drainage, on the city's account.

Sec. 3 In such places as said Committee may, from time to time, deem the most important to drain, the chain gang shall perform the work, or so much thereof as possible, but the Committee shall incur no expense on behalf of the city except for the drains at the crossings of streets or alleys.

Sec. 4. It is hereby made a misdemeanor for any person to drive any vehicle, or drive or ride any animal in any ditch or drain opened under the provisions of this ordinance, or in any manner whatever to fill in or destroy any such ditch or drain; and any person who shall be guilty of any such offense, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not less than $10 nor more than $200, or by imprisonment for not less than five days nor more than three months, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

Sec. 5. The Committee on Drainage is hereby authorized to procure from time to time such materials as may be necessary to construct the cross drains, including iron grates at the head of each of said drains, and to make contracts for the necessary carpenter's work therefor, but not to incur any expense whatever for digging or filling in said cross drains.

The ordinance was read a second time by title and laid over.

Supervisor HITE also introduced an ordinance concerning the J and K street bridges. The ordinance establishes the rates of toll on the bridges to be built across the slough, near the head of J and K streets (the figures are left blank however), and provides that the Board of Supervisors shall elect a toll gatherer for each bridge, who shall pay the tolls received to the City Treasurer, the Treasurer to keep the same in separate funds, to be known as the J and K Street Bridge funds, and only pay out the same on warrants drawn on accounts audited by the Board. Read a second time by title and laid over.

H. Wykoff, Road Overseer of District No. 11, made a statement as to the condition of the road between the Western House and the Prairie House. Mining is done on each side of the road, and the rains wash the stuff into the road, so as to render it impassable. By running the road in a straighter line, over vacant lands, a bad place could be avoided, and a better road secured, but in two places bridges would be required and he asked an appropriation of $75 for lumber to build the bridges.

On motion of Supervisor WOODS, the request was granted.

Supervisor RUSSELL said P. Bannon, who was running the ferry on K street, was present, and had submitted to him a proposition for fixing rates of toll. He thought the rates were too high, and moved instead that he be allowed to collect: For a man and horse, 10 cents; horse and wagon, 20 cents; two horses and wagon, 25 cents; four horses and wagon, 40 cents; each additional animal, 10 cents; foot passengers to go free; and that Bannon be required to pay for a license $80.

Supervisor HITE asked if that would not interfere with the proposed bridges.

Supervisor RUSSELL replied that the man must take his chances of that. He was informed that he had been charging much higher rates--half a dollar for a foot passenger, and from a dollar and a half to three dollars for a team. He has made money enough to well afford to pay for his license and take the chance of the bridge being built or the slough dried up.

The motion was agreed to.

Adjourned till ten o'clock to-morrow morning. . . .

RELIEF MEASURES IN MARYSVILLE.--Marysville Appeal of Dec. 18th says of the damage by flood in that city:

After patient waiting for parties who have been damaged by the late flood to ascertain their loss, and ascertaining from the parties themselves so far as has been practicable, the amount of their damage, we have arrived at what may be considered as a correct sum total of the loss of property within the city limits from the effects of the late flood, and have fixed it at $39,150.

The Relief Committee, we understand, have been about among the poor, and have found some families who have needed relief, but the number is not large, and the present destitution can be readily alleviated. Yesterday two cases of blankets and bed comforts were received from the Howard Association of Sacramento, to whom they had been forwarded by Heynemann, Pick & Co., of San Francisco, for the relief of the needy . The Committee concluded that they might, as well be kept, though it would not have been necessary to send for them, but they can be at once distributed where needed, and the funds raised be otherwise appropriated. The amount raised by subscription had reached $1,120 last night, all of the subscriptions being voluntary, or unsolicited

SECOND FLOOD IN TRINITY.--The Trinity Journal of December 14th, has a long detail of losses by a second flood in Trinity. The damage done to property is immense, but cannot be arrived at satisfactorily. The Journal says:

It becomes our painful duty to chronicle still another flood in Trinity river--the greatest ever known, even by the Indians, for half a century. It is impossible as yet to estimate the damages, or to learn the exact number of lives that have been swept into eternity by the maddened waters. A sickness of heart seizes us as we pen this article. Several of our acquaintances and friends, in their attempts to save property and brave the perils of the flood to deliver news, have perished. The river, in places where it was confined, raised seventy feet above low water mark; in other places where it was wide the banks caved and carried away well cultivated ranches. It became an ocean, spreading from mountain to mountain--sweeping in its furious and resistless current farm houses, miners' cabins, mills, men, women and children; in very truth all that was animate and inanimate. All that the flood of last week spared, this one swept away. Every single mining improvement on the river for one hundred miles has been destroyed, and more than one half the bar and river miners are utterly ruined. Not a single ranch on the river bank has escaped damage, and many have been entirely swept away, or ruined by the deposit of sand and tailings.

VERY KIND.--The Marysville Express says:

As it is, we presume there will be no objection to the Capital remaining at Sacramento, and that no serious effort will be made to have it removed to another locality, if the people of Sacramento will take proper and energetic steps to secure the city from the encroachments of the rivers in future. . . .

[drawing of a piano] GEO. GREINER BEGS TO

inform the public that, finding it impossible to repair all the Pianos injured by the late flood by himself alone, he has made arrangements with Mr. J. ZECH, the celebrated Piano manufacturer of San Francisco, in order to insure a quick and cheap renovation.
Parties desirous of getting their Pianos repaired in a speedy and thorough manner, are requested to leave orders at GEO. GREINER'S Rooms, 117 J street (up stairs), as soon as possible.
Mr. ZECH remains for a few days in the city, and will examine damaged Pianos with Mr. GREINER.
d19-3t . . .

p. 6

[For the Union. ]

MESSRS. EDITORS: The late destructive flood will be long remembered by the people of Sacramento. The excitement and consternation attending that " muddy flow of waters;" the bewildered appearance of those who beheld their hard-earned homes washed away; the vast sheet of water, covered with floating timber, costly furniture, and thousands of various articles constructed by the hands of men, and, it might be said, by the hands of the "fair sex," too--all hurried to destruction. All this, and much more, will often recur to the beholders of that sad event. How sudden was the flow of water through the doors and windows of houses! How many persons during the flood struggled through water up to necks, who had heretofore never entered it over ancle [sic] deep. How many dashing dandies and belles disregarded mud, water and etiquette? How frequent was the expression "'Tis awful!" exclaimed? and how many strangers, too, were made familiar friends, on short acquaintance, by their noble daring, assistance and sympathy? Who ever thought before that the "hooped angels" of creation could appear so cheerful and display so much fortitude in the midst of mud, water and danger? Yes, it is the persuasive smiles and sympathetic graces of lovely woman that impart to obdurate man courage and goodness of heart. Truly it may be said the recent "rush of waters" has rushed out the good and the bad feelings of men.

The late inundation of Sacramento will be the means of giving her a better foundation than she ever had before. She will surely survive this flood; there are too many millions of money invested here to be permitted to become a total loss. Money and a little common sense will give her lasting beauty and prosperity. The flood has desolated the homes of the poor in our midst; let the humane, then, new display their humanity; let it be remembered that doing good to our fellow-men is doing good to ourselves and to our final Judge. Reader, have you suffered by the great flood? If so--
"Bear thee up bravely,
Strong heart and true,
Meet thy woes bravely,
Strive with them too;
Let them not win from thee
A tear of regret--
Such were a sin for thee,
Hope for good yet"

Sacramento, December 16, 1861. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3348, 20 December 1861, p. 2


. . .

The steamer Pacific has arrived at San Francisco from the North, with news that Oregon has been visited by a most disastrous flood, which has swept away whole towns and destroyed many human lives. Heavy warm rains melted the snow on the mountains, as in this State, and the waters rose to a hight before unknown by any of the present inhabitants of the country. Washington Territory has also been severely visited by floods. The waters were still at a high stage when the Pacific left. . . .

The Odd Fellows at San Francisco have contributed liberally to the aid of their Sacramento brethren who are in distress by reason of the flood.

The Board of Supervisors, at their session yesterday, adopted a resolution, expressive of the heartfelt thanks of the people of Sacramento, for the generous aid extended, by the people of San Francisco and Stockton, to the sufferers by the late inundation.

Resolutions adopted by the Howard Benevolent Association, in reference to the future distribution of relief, will be found elsewhere; also a report of the citizens' meeting held last evening. . . .

A BUSINESS PLEDGE.--The following wholesale cigar and tobacco houses in San Francisco have agreed, in consideration of the general depression in business caused by the late floods, that they will not commence actions against any of their customers, except for the benefit of all making the agreement: Weil & Co., Falkenstein & Co., Eppinger & Co., B. C. Horn & Co., Wm. Langerman, J. Frank & Co., A. S. Rosenbaum & Co., J. B. Romero & Co., L. & E. Wertheimer, N. Mayblum; St. Losky, Levy & Co., John A. Drinkhouse & Co., L. Levinson. . . . .


The movements and plans of the Board of Swamp Land Commissioners, so far as they are connected with reclaiming the district of swamp and overflowed land lying between this city and the Mokelumne river, are of interest to the people of Sacramento. The system which the Commissioners have adopted under the law divides the State into a certain number of districts, in most of which engineers have been employed to ascertain the number of acres to be reclaimed, to define the natural boundaries of the district, point out the line and hight of levee needed, and report an estimate of cost. After this estimate is submitted, if it is found that the cost will fall within the number of acres sold at a dollar per acre, the Board, if it approve the plan submitted, advertises for bids to do the work. Not over the dollars an acre for which the land sold can be expended for reclamation purposes in any district. If a district cannot be reclaimed for the dollar per acre, it must remain unreclaimed, unless the amount which is lacking is made up by the people living in the district.

The engineer of District No. 2, which is located below Sutterville, is B. F. Leet, who has submitted his report to the Board. His calculations are based upon building a levee from Sutterville down the Sacramento, and by strengthening the levee at Sutterville. This estimate is founded upon the assumption that the levees above and around Sacramento are ample to keep the water from encroaching from the American river. Since the late overflow, it is likely the boundaries of District No. 2 may be so changed as to include the American river east of Thirty-first street as it is demonstrated by the late floods that District No. 2 can never be reclaimed unless protected from overflow by the American river. To the President of the Board we are indebted for an abstract of the report of engineer Leet from which we copy as follows

According to the County Surveyor's report in the Surveyor General's office, the district contains 41,790 acres of swamp land; of which 8,385 acres are claimed by the United States--leaving 33,403 acres undisputed, which, at $1 per acre, would give $33,403 for the reclamation of the district.

The cost of engineering and other incidental expenses up to date, is $2,404.37.

The length of levee necessary for the complete reclamation of the district will be 37 35-100 miles.

The cost of examination, survey, levels, estimates and other incidentals up to date, has been a little less than $65 per mile (of levee), or seven cents and two mills ($0 7.02; per acre.

The legal sum for reclamation is $33,408. The cost of reclamation (including the cost of engineering to date) will be $32,345.43; which, when deducted from the whole sum, leaves for future incidentals $1,057.57.

Had not the late flood intervened, the contracts for leveeing this district would probably have been let by the middle of February. The surveys are so divided that every man owning land along the river may take the contract for leveeing his own land.

It will be seen that the length of the line of levee proposed is 37 35-100 miles, running down the Sacramento to a certain point; thence easterly across Snodgrass' slough, to a high point on the Mokelumne or Cosumnes. The reason why the people of Sacramento are interested in the building of this levee on the Sacramento is this: If a firm and strong levee, two to three feet above the highest water ever known, is built down the Sacramento to the Georgiana slough, Sacramento can never be troubled with back water from that river. It would relieve our citizens of all necessity for rebuilding the R street levee, as there would be no water to back up into the city. But to build such a levee along the Sacramento and across to the Cosumnes, without a levee on the American river above Thirty-first street, would be placing the people in District No. 2 very much in the position of Sacramento after the water was forced into the city. This would be surrounded by a levee which would resist the passage of the water until the whole country was submerged deep enough to drown stock and float houses. A levee from the Sacramento to the high land at Sutterville would not protect them, for the moment the water of the American forced its way through or over the levee, the people of this city in self-defense would he compelled to cut any levee built at or near Sutterville. It follows, therefore, that District No. 2 can never be protected against high water, unless the American river north and east of this city is made secure by a levee which will set at defiance floods several feet higher than any experienced since the country was settled by Americans. The people living in District No. 2 appear, then, to be as much interested in the levee on the American as are those of Sacramento. Their safety is to be secured by the levee on the river east of Thirty-first street. The estimate for building a levee 37 35-100 miles in length is $32,345.43. The sum in the treasury, subject to draft for the work, is $33,403.00; if the District is extended to the American river, the fund will be insufficient, unless made up in the District by subscription. There is, therefore, but little hope of obtaining any immediate aid from the Swamp and Overflowed Land fund, except, as before remarked, indirectly by the building of a good and sufficient levee along the Sacramento river. Such a levee will materially aid the city, because it would relieve it of all danger from back water. The people of the city should, as they will, protect themselves against another overflow from the American, and in doing so they will necessarily protect the people in District No. 2. If the people living in that District, or the Board of Land Commissioners are able to assist them in the good work, it will be gratefully received. But with or without aid, the work must be done, and from the movements of the Citizens' Committee we may safely say will be done. . . .


Agitation of the Sunday Law Question--Odd Fellows' Relief Fund.

. . . Five Odd Fellows' Lodges have contributed $721 to the Sacramento Relief Fund. Two Lodges have yet to report. . . .

Arrival from the North--Terrible Flood in Oregon--Whole Towns Swept Away--Distressing Particulars--New Mines, etc.

The steamer Pacific has arrived from the North; she was detained by heavy weather. . . .

There has been a terrible flood in Willamette Valley. The most important mills in Oregon have been destroyed, together with a vast amount of grain; in consequence of which there is a material advance in the price of flour. The flood commenced on the 1st of December, and reached its highest point on the 6th. It then gradually subsided until the 10th, when it rose again three feet in a few hours. Two new wharves at Portland were carried away. The lower portion of the town was under water. The saw mills lost 2,000,000 feet of logs. The water had been four feet deep in Miner street, Oregon City. All the houses in Linn City were carried away. Houses were seen going over the falls during two or three nights, with lights still burning in them. All the houses at Champoeg were washed away; some of the inhabitants took refuge in the tops of trees. The steamer Onward rescued forty persons on the 5th of December. The great breakwater at Oregon City is destroyed, necessitating a land portage of one mile. The roads in every direction are impassable for vehicles. Every town on the Willamette has suffered terribly, and ths [sic] loss of life must be very great. Many families were rescued from the roofs of houses and barns that had floated off. A small side-wheel steamer, under steam, went over the falls on the 5th. Eugene City and Corvallis were reported to have disappeared. As the latter is located on high ground, the report is questioned. The flood was higher than ever known since the settlement of Oregon, though it is said a similar one was once witnessed by Canadian trappers. The rain had been continuous and warm, melting the snow on the cascades. At latest account the flood was still up. All the bridges in Yamhill county are gone. Many farmers have lost all their cattle.

There had been high water in Washington Territory. The bridge between Steilacoom and Olympia was carried away. . . .

AID TO SACRAMENTO SUFFERERS.--All day long yesterday the ladies continued in their good work of cutting and sewing for the people of Sacramento rendered destitute in consequence of the recent flood. Most of the remaining garments were shipped to that city on last evening's boat. The residue will go forward to-day. The citizens of the Capital, through the press, have already acknowledged with gratitude the timely aid rendered them by the very liberal donations of money and clothing already received. And we doubt not the ladies will come in for their share of thanks so richly deserved, for contributing so handsomely to the wants of the needy in our sister city,--Alta, Nov. 18th. [sic]

We have already made mention of the benevolent zeal of the ladies of the Bay City, and intend, as soon as the officers of the Howard Association can furnish us with a list, to publish the names of all who have so nobly resposded to the calls for aid to the sufferers by the flood. We have several times applied for the list, but the humane labors of all connected with the Association have so engrossed their time, that they have been unable as yet to furnish it. We hope to publish the whole very soon.

REMOVING THE CAPITAL.--The Placerville Republican thus comments on the proposition of a few narrow minded journals for removing the State Capital:

For our part, and in behalf of the people of this county, who would scorn to take advantage of a sister city's distress, we earnestly protest against this cry of removing the Capital from Sacramento. If Sacramento were not the best place for the Capital no generous man would seek to add to the distress of a people already struggling under a fearful burden by taking another prop from under their falling fortunes. The people of Sacramento are as liberal and public spirited as any community in the State. Fire and flood cannot paralyze their energy, Their answer to every appeal for a public benefit has ever been prompt and liberal; their charities have been as numerous as the suffering that called for their exercise.

This flood, the highest ever known in the State, will in all probability never again be repeated. The Government buildings have not been injured by it to any extent, and with the construction of new levees the danger of further inundation will be effectually provided against hereafter. To revive the project of removing the Capital now is cruel and unnecessary . . .


The meeting of citizens, called to consider the subject of the removal of the railroad to the northern part of the city, re-assambled at the County Court room at seven o'clock last evening. The Court room was compactly crowded and the meeting was quite animated.

Dr. HARVEY HOUGHTON called the meeting to order, saying that he considered that he was only chosen temporary Chairman at the last meeting which adjourned to that evening, and supposed the President of the Board of Supervisors or Chairman of the Citizens' Committee would be here to-night. However, somebody must preside, and perhaps he might as well. The objects of the meeting were he understood to appoint a Committee of citizens to confer with the authorities of the Railroad Company in reference to the removal of the railroad to the northern part of the city, and such other objects as might properly be suggested. This work, if it could be consummated, would be very desirable. A levee must be made that will effectually protect the city for all time to come, and he felt that if it was neccessary to give half his property for that purpose, the remaining half would be worth more than the whole without it. Eight millions of property here must be protected. The Railroad Company had, doubtless, violated its charter. One question would be, how much, if anything, would the city give to aid in putting the railroad on the north side? He waited for any proposition.

B. C. WHITING said while the wealthy property holders were deliberating, and waiting for one another, he would try to make some practical suggestions. He had called on J Mora Moss, President of the railroad, in San Francisco, had a long talk with him on this subject, and found he was favorable to the idea of removing the railroad to the northern part of the city, starting in near the Water Works, and bearing around in the vicinity of Agricultural Park so as to run passenger cars there during the Fairs. That was an argument which would touch even a soulless corporation. But Moss thought it would cost a pile of money, and seemed to think it was important to propitiate Robinson, who knew all about Sacramento and the interests of the railroad, and in whom the stockholders had confidence. He (Whiting) thought the citizens would subscribe liberally for the purpose, and perhaps the Legislature would appropriate something, but condemned the peevish threat of Robinson to take the railroad to Sutterville. That was like the boy that threatened, if his mother did not let him have his way, he would go and catch the measles. But it was too late now to find fault with the railroad, since the horse was stolen; let them look out for the future.

Judge H. O. BEATTY desired also to make some practical suggestions. All agreed that the safety of the city required a strong and high levee along the American river. How should it be built? His opinion was that it would do no good to have the railroad there, for the railroad's interests were not the city's interests. They would not want a high grade nor a broad levee, and a better plan would be a broad levee and a good wagon road on the top of it. A railroad resting on timbers would not settle a levee as much as heavy wagons on a road, especially one constantly traveled. Make it four feet higher than this last flood and it would never be overflowed. Double the quantity of water in the American would not raise it four feet, because it would have to flow over miles and miles of broad plains. On I street the levee need not be raised over two feet. He would make it thirty feet wide at the surface, and the work could be done for forty to sixty thousand dollars. The present levee was built clumsily, too high in some places and too low in others. In some places on Thirty-first street it was overflowed at its natural hight, and in others it had been cut down by roads crossing it. He estimated that a levee on the American, such as he proposed, would requlre 120,000 or 180,000 additional cubic yards of earth, which would cost at this season some fifty cents per yard, but at a proper season not more than twenty or thirty cents. The railroad would not want its track so high. He would not waste money on the Thirty-first and R street levees, but as they were already built, and could be repaired for from $7,000 to $10,000, he said repair them, just to guard against the possibility of accidents from gopher holes or otherwise. That brought him to the R street levee, where the railroad was bound to come into the city, and where it could come in cheaper than anywhere else.

A VOICE--Oh, you are a railroad man [Hisses.]

Judge BEATTY said he was not a railroad man and had no interest in it. He charged the railroad with having destroyed the city. [Applause] It had done the mischief, and if they could make it help repair the mischief let them do so. [Applause.]

VOICE--They won't do a thing. [Confusion.]

Judge BEATTY said they could require the railroad to have an open trestle work from the Point of Poverty Ridge to the junction of the levee.

VOICE--They did it once--Oh!

Judge BEATTY replied that they didn't. They had a narrow place open there, and he exerted his influence and got the Mayor to promise to veto the bill unless they agreed to open it all the way. He wanted to make them do it now; then repair the R street levee, filling it in solid to protect against the possibility of back water, and have a wagon road below the railroad to strengthen it. He would have the railroad raise the R street levee a few inches.

J. A. DUFFY--Do you honestly think, Judge, that the Railroad Company will do anything?

Judge BEATTY honestly thought the city had the means to compel them. The city ought to sue the railroad for the damage done, unless it would act. In his opinion, as a lawyer, the railroad was liable for all the damage done. [Great applause, and a fusilade of questions. A Voice--That would swamp them.] He could not answer forty questions at once, but if the railroad was obstinate, he was for suing the railroad. [More applause, and calls for Dr. Morse.] That was all be proposed to say.

Dr. J. F. MORSE rose in response to calls, and remonstrated against what seemed to be a disposition to treat gentlemen with discourteous interruptions. He agreed emphatically and almost entirely with Judge Beatty, having come independently to pretty much the same conclusions. He spoke of the heavy responsibility resting on the Railroad Company for the great calamity which had befallen the city, and the terrible amount of suffering it had brought on hundreds of families. Had the flood come at dead of night hundreds of lives would have been sacrificed, and all, as he saw it stated in a San Francisco paper by a writer who apparently sought to vindicate the railroad, because filling in with earth was estimated to be $100 cheaper than trestle work. That was the contemptible consideration which had wrought all this ruin and suffering. [Applause.] And yet, with a flippancy that would excite the disgust of a popinjay, the threat was made, that unless they had their own way, they would go to Sutterville. ["Good bye," "Let 'em go."'] But he agreed to Judge Beatty's plan, because the railroad could be held responsible for its misdeeds, and he would do no act which could be construed into condonance. He would not touch it with a forty foot pole. They had been not only ungrateful, but absolutely oppressive. All sorts of favors had been heaped upon them, and yet they had adopted a rule, he was informed, by which citizens of Sacramento were compelled to pay $3 a ton for the transportation of granite, while citizens of San Francisco paid only half as much. Let them stop at Brighton, or go to Sutterville if they wanted to, and let them rebuild their road and go to earning money to repay the damages they had caused. Let the city build and maintain its own levee, and let the railroad go where it pleased.

CHARLES CROCKER said all the overflows had come from the American river, and that was the point to which they had to turn their attention. He, too, agreed with Judge Beatty, and was opposed to having any partnership with the railroad. They wanted the levee under their own control, so that if it should prove to be necessary to raise it higher at any time, they could do it without consulting the adverse interests of any railroad. They had been trying too long to get other people to do something for them, and now let them go to work and build their own levee, and build it strong, broad and high. He was willing to put his hand in his pockets as deep as any man, according to his means, and have the thing done as as [sic] it should be, but he wanted nothing to do with the Railroad. Mr. Robinson had endeavored to explain to him that the gap in the R street levee was not sufficient, and the city would have been flooded just the same if the trestle work had remained [VOICE--Lies like h--] but he did not believe it. He believed if it had been kept open there would have been but little water--perhaps three or four feet--in the lowest streets, Yet he did not war upon railroads. He said give them all the facilities possible, but do not go into partnership with them in the levee business. He would not give them a red cent, but would not put anything in the way of their going down R street to the river, where they must go. [Hisses.]

Supervisor HANSBROW--Are you in favor of the railroad keeping the whole city front as it always has? ["That's It!" "Pitch In!"]

Mr. CROCKER replied that his experience was that everywhere railroads did connect with navigation, and they ought to be allowed to. ["Nol No!" and confusion.]

Supervisor HANSBROW--Did you ever see one fronting a whole city?

Mr. CROCKER replied that that was not the question here; the question was whether the city should go into partnership with the railroad in building a levee along the northern side of the city. The city could and should do it alone; eight millions of dollars would protect itself. The Committee had raised a little over $50,000 already, with a fair prospect of making it $60,000, and if that was not enough they could get more. The right spirit was aroused.

B. C. WHITING deprecated these wholesale denunciations of the railroad; they would do no good in a meeting like that, better leave these legal questions to be argued by paid attorneys in the Courts. When the present levee was built, many men were made paupers by taking their lands without compensation. ["That's so"] Had they considered where all these thousands of cubic yards of earth were to come from? They wanted it high and broad--oh, yes--but that took money and vast amounts of earth, and acres of hard gravel on the top, if the levee was to be good for anything. A railroad could bring the material cheaper than any body else, and it was bad policy to denounce the railroad, and make inflammatory speeches about it and its legal liabllity, when they might want to make arrangements with it. Let them agree upon the best plan, and then go to work like men.

Supervisor HANSBROW explained that the object of his asking a question of Mr. Crocker was to get an expression of this meeting, and especially the working class, in regard to the ordinance passed by the Board of Supervisors that day to exclude the railroad below Sixth street. If the meeting was of the same opinion as Mr. Crocker, he would be in favor of repealing that ordinance. He considered the railroad on Front street as one of the greatest nuisances. [Applause ] It had kept truckmen and hackmen out of their employment, and he had opposed the monopoly. He wanted an expression, though he did not think it would be proper for him to participate in the meeting.

J. H. WARWICK said opinions seemed to be pretty much all one way, and he was sorry to differ with distinguished and honorable gentlemen, but he was in favor of making the railroad build the levee. That was the policy of the city of Chicago when she made a railroad company build a breakwater to protect the front of that city, Gentlemen had magnified the difficulties. Sixty feet to a mile was not a difficult grade, but to run the railroad on a high levee they would not require more than a grade of six or eight feet, and on I street the road would only terminate at the height of the I street levee, not high enough to require ladders. He agreed with Hansbrow that the railroad, on Front street was a nuisance. His experience was that railroads were seldom or never allowed to run to terminate at a water side, and he instanced the Hudson River Railroad, in New York, and the railroads terminating in Boston. . [Voices in the crowd instance a score of others amid confusion and mirth.] This Winter the Placerville railroad would apply for a franchise, and he thought it would be a good plan to let the two tracks come in parallel, but fifty feet apart. Then they could fix the grade high enough and have two splendid levees, and fill in between them hereafter if necessary.

ANDY BLACK said there had been much talk, but he hadn't heard a word yet to benefit the city. He was opposed to the railroad, but the Supervisors of Sacramento county were to blame for this flood, [Applause ] As our agents, they didn't look after our interest, and keep the railroad from filling in, and now they passed an ordinance to protect us after our property is destroyed. In his opinion, they were a set of poor, miserable old grannies. He could refer to old Mayors and Councilmen like B. B. Redding, Mr. Dyer, Lorenzo Hamilton and Jas. R. Hardenbergh who would do more for the city in a day than all of these old grannies would in twenty years. [Laughter.] Then they had everything right; now it was all wrong, and he called upon Mr. Warwick as Representative elect--and he barred poltics in this public meeting--to go for repealing the Consolidation Act, so as to have men at the fore who would be looking for something besides their mileage and per diem.

A VOICE--What did you fellows vote 'em in for?

A BLACK.--I will tell yeu; It was ignorance, that is the reason [laughter]; but there is a day of reckoning coming.

C. CROCKER suggested that Mayor Hardenbergh was not the man that allowed the company to dam up the levee.

A. BLACK continued in the same strain at some length, amid applause and laughter.

Supervisor HITE was called for, and gave his views as to the proper mode of constructing levees, etc.

Supervisor HANSBROW said, after the remarks of A. Black he deemed it necessary to explain to the meeting that the gap in the railroad was stopped up long before the organization of the present set of old grannies.

Judge BEATTY gave his estimate of the plan suggested by him more in detail. The distance from Burns' slough, above Smith's Garden, was 6.000 yards, or about three miles and two-thirds, and he made it that to raise a levee as it should be, and make it thirty feet broad on top, would take 120.000 or 180,000 cubic feet.

C. CROCKER moved that it be declared the sense of this meeting that the city build its own levee on the north side without copartnership with the Railroad Company.

B. O. HAMILTON made some remarks about the proper mode of guarding levees and taking care in the rainy season that all necessary repairs were made. Plenty of gravel, etc., could be obtained from the bed of the American river in Summer as cheaply as if it were brought in by railroad.

Judge BEATTY moved to modify Mr. Crocker's motion so as to instruct the Citizens Committee to go on and construct the northern levee without waiting for negotiations with anybody.

Mr. CROCKER accepted the modification, and the motion was carried, with only a weak dissenting voice.

J. H. WARWICK moved that this meeting indorse the action of the Board of Supervisors to-day, in repealing the privilege of the Railroad Company to go below Sixth street. Adopted enthusiastically.

D. W. WELTY--I move that it be the sense of this meeting that the Consolidation Bill be repealed.

Dr. MORSE and C. CROCKER objected that the meeting was not called for such a purpose.

FRANK HEREFORD suggested a modification that the meeting declare in favor of amending the Consolidation Bill, so far as to dissolve the connection between the city and the county.

Mr. WELTY accepted the amendment, and the motion as amended was carried by a large vote.

E. P. PECK announced that Burns' slough would be passable to-day. [Applause and laughter.]

J. H. WARWICK--I move that the thanks of the citizens of Sacramento, represented in this meeting, be tendered to the citizens of San Francisco and Stockton, for the noble and generous manner in which they have respended to our necessities in these hours of our misfortune and disaster. Carried unanimously, amid great applause.

The meeting then adjourned.


At a meeting of the active members of the Association, held Dec. 19th, the following resolutions were adopted:

Resolved, That the sessions of the Investigating Committee in Agricultural Hall be discontinued, and the register of grants issued by them be transferred to the Distributing Committee or the Stewards of the Society, under their supervision.

Resolved, That no more certificates or grants for relief be filled by the Distributing Committee or the Stewards, unless the same be signed by some one of the undersigned thirty active members of the Society; such certificate to state specifically the kind and amount of articles recommended to be furnished; that the signer has personally investigated the case, and found the applicant worthy; and whether the application be an original one, or in addition to one previously relieved; provided, that any three members present at the place and time of distribution consenting, any recommendation may be modified or enlarged.

Resolved, That all persons knowing or hearing of families or individuals in destitution or distress on account of the recent flood, are urgently requested to make the same known to some one of the foregoing named members of the Society.
R. T. BROWN, Secretary.

George W. Mowe, Front st,; L. A. Booth, J st; James P. Robinson, Front st.; John McNeill, cor J and 7th; J. K. Selden, K. between 2d and 3d; N. A. H. Ball, Agricultural Hall; John H. Carroll, Front at; Charles Robin, J, between 6th and 7th; W. P. Coleman; H. W. Harkness, K, between 2d and 3d; Joseph W. Winans, J, cor 3d, Gecrge I Lytle, K, corner 4th; Samuel Cross, K, between 6th and 7th; T. M. Lindley, J, corner 7th; P. H. Russell, J, between 7th and 8th; Theo. Milliken, J, between 6th and 7th; F. A. Gibbs, 7th, between I and J; Joseph M. Frey, K, corner 4th; Richard Dale, J, between 6th and 7th; Edgar Mills, J, between 2d and 3d; N. Greene Curtis, 6th, between I and J; R. T. Brown, J, between 3d and 4th; D. O. Mills, J, between 3d and 4th; O. D. Lambard, I, between 1st and 2d; A. M. Hayden, at Wells, Fargo & Co; Rev; W. H. Hill, 7th, between G and H; Dr. J. F. Montgomery, corner J and 7th; A. G. Richardson, at Wells, Fargo & Co.; Lew B. Harris, Ridge; N. L. Drew, 8d, between N and O. . . .

PROTECTION FROM OVERFLOW.--The Nevada Transcript has the following:

The Legislature of the State will assemble in a few days, either at Sacramento or some dryer spot. No more important subject can possibly be presented to the two Houses than the condition of the valleys of the State subject to overflow. We are decidedly of the opinion that the leveeing of the valuable lands of the State should be made a question of State policy. The Legislature can do no wiser act than to make an appropriation for the purpose of a scientific survey of these lands and to procure a report from some competent authority upon the best mode of protecting them against future ravages.

THE SACRAMENTO VALLEY RAILROAD.--The Placerville Republican has the following:

The Sacramento Valley Railroad, through whose parsimony and negligence the inundation of Sacramento occurred, in consequence of their filling up their road bed with gravel, in place of building trestle work, as the terms of their charter demanded, have not--although the heaviest tax payers of the city--subscribed a dollar toward the fund for repairing the levees. It is said that a number of lawsuits will be commenced against them by parties who have suffered damage from the flood. . . .

Attention, Families

had their store washed out! can furnish as dry GROCERIES as ever. Goods delivered EVERYWHERE. If our wagon cannot reach you a boat will!
d20-1n3dp corner J and Ninth streets. . . .

p. 3


POLICE COURT.--. . . The case of B. Cohn, charged with assault and battery on Henry Treichler, was tried by a jury. The testimony proved that a quarrel arose from an attempt of the prosecuting witness and others to drain the water from their premises. Cohn thought his own property endangered thereby, and struck Treichler on the head with a shovel. The jury returned a verdict of guilty. The case of Samuel M. Slidell, charged with grand larceny, in stealing $1,100 belonging to W. Belzteal, was taken up for examination. W. H. Weeks, L. S. Foote and M. C. Tilden appeared as counsel for the prosecution, and J. C. Goods for the defense. After a partial investigation of the case, the Court took a recess, and reassembled at two o'clock, P. M. A large number of witnesses were examined. W. Belzteal resides between this city and Sutterville. According to his testimony he had had the money buried under an out shed, in a salt sack. He had not seen it for some time, and about the time of the flood, when he concluded to remove it, he found it gone. On informing Slidell, who had resided with him for some time, of the fact, and showing him where it had been buried, the latter stated that that was where his money had been buried, and if he had not removed it, it would have been lost also. Slidell then showed witness a yeast-powder can, containing several hundred dollars of gold coin--$20 pieces, stained and marked as were those of the witness when he saw them last. He had seen the defendant have gold coin in his possession on a former occasion, but of smaller size than those designated. The defense proved good character, and also introduced testimony to show where the defendant had received from Friend & Terry and others, for labor, a greater sum than the $350 found in his possession when arrested. The case was argued by W. H Weeks for the prosecution, and J. C. Goods for the defense, and taken under advisement by the Court.

THE NIGHT OF DANGER.--Reference has been made on one or two occasions to the efforts made by the residents at and near Rabel's Tannery, on the night before the late flood, to prevent the waters of the American from breaking through the levee and flooding the city. The facts are as follows: The steady rain of Sunday afternoon, and the rise in the river, caused them to keep out a guard all night to give the alarm if danger should approach. At about two o'clock on Monday morning it seemed probable that the levee would give way, and all hands were called from their beds. Frank Rabel, W. C. Hopping, T. R. Stewart and Thos. O'Brien, with all their hired men--about a dozen, all told--were busily employed from that hour until morning. In repeated instances the water started over the embankment, and would, of course, in a few minutes, have become ungovernable. The men had provided and filled sacks with earth, by which means the water was checked. In very many cases the water would start in streams through gopher holes. These were stopped by wrapping canvas around stakes and driving them in the holes. The struggle between the workmen and the torrent until morning was an exciting one, and for a long time of doubtful result. Had the workmen failed, we should have had the flood in the night instead of the daytime. We should have had a direct torrent through the heart of the city instead of a circuitous and weakened current of back water. Instead of soiled clothes, and injured property, and pecuniary loss, we should undoubtedly have had great loss of life in our midst, and the death of friends and relatives to bewail. The disaster was light compared with what it might have been.

THE NEW LEVEES.--There is undoubtedly a right and a wrong way of constructing a levee. It is asserted, with a great deal of reason, that our old levees on the river bank have not been properly built, as they present an abrupt front to the water. The result is, that where the bank commences to work away, the water causes the earth to cave very readily, and the work of destruction is soon completed. Such has been the action of the water on the levee at Rabel's tannery, and at the weak point below R street. By setting the levee back from the water a rod or two, and presenting a gradual slope, it is contended that any advantages will be secured. The surface becomes hardened, and resists the action of the water, and the force of the water is broken by the angle. On a sloping embankment another result is secured. The freshets deposit annually large quantities of dirt, which may be used for strengthening, widening, elevating and repairing the levees. Ranchmen of forethought and energy, in Yolo county, have for years, in this manner, secured annually hundreds of loads of earth, for elevating the ground on which their buildings are located. If there is anything to be lost or gained by the specific arrangement or particular slope of the levee, the matter should be well considered before the new improvements progress too far.

SAVED BY A DOG.--On the day of the flood, James Kyle, a carpenter residing on P street, between Ninth and Tenth streets, found his wife and children when he reached them, on the roof of the house, to which point they had been driven to preserve their lives. They were gotten off with great difficulty. At one time a child two years old fell into the water and passed out of reach. The favorite dog "Nip " caught the child and held it above water until the father was enabled to get to it. Subsequently the foundations of the house, a one story brick, gave way, and the building fell to a mass of ruins.

DRAINAGE.--At half past five o'clock last evening the water was let into the main sewer which has just been constructed across Seventh street, at the alley between K and L streets. The water-way is about two feet by two and a half feet in the clear. It is thought by B. F. Leet, who has charge of the work of drainage in that part of the town, that by to-morrow night the water north of J Street and between Seventh and Tenth streets, will be drained off two or three feet below its present surface.

MORE AID FROM SAN FRANCISCO.--The General Relief Committee of the Order of Odd Fellows of this city received yesterday from San Francisco the sum of $350 for the benefit of sufferers by the late flood. Of this amount $100 came from California Lodge, No. 1; $150 from Bay City Lodge, No. --, and $100 from Harmony Lodge, #13. It is gratefully received and will be duly appropriated. . . .

LET THERE BE LIGHT.--There are many points in the city at which the sidewalks are out of order. Excavations are made, ditches are dug, etc., etc., which are exceedingly dangerous in the night to pedestrians. Can not provision be made by the Board of Supervisors for lighting them up temporarily, until repairs are completed?

SAFETY OF THE CITY.--The collections of the Committee who have it in charge to procure subscriptions for the purpose of protecting the city, had collected, up to last evening, a sum somewhat exceeding $50,000. The names of the subscribers will be published in a few days.

RAILROAD REPAIRS.--A portion of a lot of heavy timber, twelve by twelve inches, and forty or fifty feet long, was removed yesterday afternoon from Front street, near L, to the railroad near Brighton. It will be used for repairing railroad at the eastern breach.

LISLE'S BRIDGE.--Workmen were engaged yesterday at the levee on First street in taking apart the sections of Lisle's bridge which had floated down the American river and lodged near the Water Works. The timbers are being hauled back to the bridge to be used in its reconstruction. . . .

UNTIL TO-DAY.--The Board of Supervisors will receive until 12 o'clock today, sealed proposals for building bridges at J and K streets, near Sutter's Fort.

THE COST.--It is estimated that the levee improvement at Rabel's Tandery [sic], now in progress of construction, will cost about $4,000.


TUESDAY, December 19, 1861.

The Board met at half past ten o'clock A. M., President Shattuck in the chair, and all the members present. . . .

A. D. RIGHTMIRE presented his vouchers of expenses incurred in connection with his contract for building a bulkhead at Rabel's tannery. The total amount expended was $1,302.25. [?]

Supervisor GRANGER offered a resolution that the contract be, and the same is hereby cancelled and declared null and void, and that his bond be delivered to him. Adopted unanimously.

Supervisor GRANGER said they ought to take measures immediately for reimbursing Mr. Rightmire. He supposed the best way would be to give him city scrip equal to the value in cash.

A. D. RIGHTMIRE said be had been trying to find out what the city scrip was worth, and could not find anybody who was willing to take it now at any price.

Supervisor HANSBROW said be understood there were partes who would take the scrip at twenty five per cent, but he was opposed to having this Board set any such price on it. He would prefer the appointment of a Committee to negotiate or raise the money in some manner. He thought the Citizens' Committee might advance it upon proper representations.

Supervisor GRANGER moved that the President of the Board act as a Committee to lay the matter before the Citizens' Committee. The motion was amended so as to require the Finance Committee, together with the President, to confer with the Citizens' Committee on the subject, and then adopted.

Supervisor RUSSELL moved that the action previously taken by the Board, authorizing the construction of Hardenbergh's Sewer, from the St. George Hotel to the slough, be rescinded. Carried. . . .

Supervisor HANSBROW introduced the following, which was adopted unanimously:

Whereas, the city of Sacramento has again been visited by a most destructive flood, which has caused much suffering in our midst, and which calls earnestly for relief from all who might have it in their power, and whereas, the citizens of San Francisco and Stockton have most nobly, and unsolicited on our part, come to our relief in this, our time of need, by contributions in money, clothing and food, with a liberalty never before equalled and in consequence of which much suffering has been averted; therefore,

Resolved, That this Board, as the representative of the people of Sacramento do return to them their heartfelt thanks, and we feel and acknowledge ourselves under lasting obligations, which we fear it will never be in our power to repay. We can only pray that God will prosper the communities who have performed such noble works of charity. . . .

Supervisor HANSBROW said he was informed by the Chief Engineer that two cisterns had been entirely destroyed by the flood, and another badly damaged, He therefore moved that the Chief Engineer be instructed to make such repairs as may be necessary on all the cisterns throughout the city. Adopted.

Supervisor HANSBROW introduced the following:

An Ordinance relating to the Privileges of the Sacramento Valley Railroad.

The Board of Supervisors of the city and county of Sacramento do order and ordain as follows:

Section 1. So much of any ordinance or ordinances heretofore passed by the late Mayor and Common Council of the city of Sacramento, or by the Board of Supervisors of the city and county of Sacramento, as grant to the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company the privilege of bringing their road west of Sixth street, or using any street or part of any street west of Sixth street for railroad purposes, are hereby repealed.

Sec. 2. The Sacramento Valley Railroad Company is hereby notified to forthwith remove their road from Front Street, the Sacramento river levee, and all that part of R street west of Sixth street.

Sec. 3. The Clerk of this Board shall deliver a certified copy of this ordinance to the proper officer or officers of the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company.

Sec. 4. This ordinance shall take effect and be in force from and after its passage.

Supervisor HANSBROW said he understood there was some objection to putting the ordinance on its passage to-day, but he could see no reason for delay.

Supervisor GRANGER said he should vote against suspending the rules for that purpose, because there was to be a citizens' meeting to-night on the subject of removing the railroad, and he preferred to wait for an expression of opinion from them.

The ordinance was laid over for the present.

Supervisor HITE moved that the time for receiving bids for the brldges on K and J streets be extended until to-morrow (Friday) at twelve o'clock, and that the Clerk advertise accordingly. Carried.

Supervisor HANSBROW asked if the country members could be here to-morrow to vote on the ordinance introduced by him relative to the privileges of the Sacramento Valley Railroad,

Supervisor DICKERSON replied that he would be here.

Supervisor WOODS said he could not be here, and he was sorry to see the city members of this Board so weak minded. Here was a plain duty for them to perform, and they ought not to wait to have the people act for them. When he saw such an exhibition he thought it was no wonder that the people rose en masse and appointed Committees.

Supervisor RUSSELL said the ordinance did not go far enough to suit him. He would prefer that they should should [sic] not allow the railroad to come into the city at all in that direction.

Supervisor GRANGER said the Board had asked for the calling of the citizens' meeting on this very subject, and it would be discourteous and unjust to take action before that meeting had expressed its views.

Supervisor HANSBROW said the meeting was called only to consider whether the railroad by negotiation or otherwise should be compelled to come into the northern part of the city. This ordinance had nothing to do with it; it only took away the privilege heretofore granted, to go to the river. It was a measure called for by truckmen, lumbermen, merchants and men in all kinds of business, except perhaps hotel keepers. He was willing to take that responsibility, although he was not willing to take the responsibility of saying the railroad should come into the northern part of the city or not at all, which might have the effect of driving the railroad to Sutterville. It was wrong, however, to allow the railroad to monopolize the whole city front.

Supervisor Russell moved to suspend the rules so as to place the ordinance on its final passage.

Supervisor GRANGER opposed the motion, insisting that this ordinance covered a part of the subject to come before the citizens' meeting.

Supervisor DICKERSON said the people who sent him to the Board clothed him with certain responsibility and if he was not capable of exercising it, the people would find it out in good time and relieve him. While he was in that Board, however, he would exercise that responsibility without trying to shift it off on the shoulders of the citizens. He called upon Supervisors Granger and Hansbrow to do the same, at least until some Vigilance Committee should come into that Board and clean them out.

Supervisor HANSBROW gave warning that there was danger in procrastination. The plan of the railroad company would be to get permission to construct a temporary trestle work to Front street, and if they once got that privilege, they would never give it up

Supervisor DICKERSON said Mr. Robinson had never appeared openly before the Board, but was going around one Committee and another trying to get an underhand influence.

Supervisor HITE said there was no doubt that the Railroad Company had violated its contract with the city, and the offense of stopping up the slough was one of the smallest. They had shut off a large class of men who make a living by draying, etc., for the Company had no right to run its freight and passenger cars below Sixth street. The railroad had habitually overcharged the city, and the city need expect no favors at their hands. The people demanded that this privilege should be rescinded, and they ought to do it while they had the power.

Supervisor GRANGER said he would vote for the ordinance after the Citizens' meeting, unless the citizens instructed him to the contrary.

The rules were suspended by a vote of 7 to 1, Supervisor Granger voting no, and the ordinance was then passed by the same vote.

Supervisor HITE called up the ordinance introduced by him yesterday regarding the city drainage.

On motion of Supervisor WOODS the ordinance was amended by striking out so much as relates to imprisonment as a penalty for its violation.

The ordinance was then passed by unanimous vote. . . .

Adjourned till twelve o'clock M. to-morrow.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3349, 21 December 1861, p. 1



Politics Still Rage--Office-Seeking Rampant--Crime Diminishing, and Order in Prospective.

CARSON CITY, Dec. 14, 1861.

After the late terrific storms, which touched us lightly compared with California, the weather has been as bland as Spring. The snow is all gone, except on the higher mountains, and the roads are almost everywhere again in good condition. Business of all kinds is moderately good, having recovered from the depression caused by the recent bad weather. There is a considerable amount of building going on in this place, as also at Chinatown.

p. 2


. . .
Six thousand four hundred and ninety-five dollars was added yesterday, by subscription, to the Citizens' Safety Fund. The Sacramento Valley Railroad Company subscribed $5,000. The total amount of subscriptions is, thus far, about $57,000.

RAILROAD MATTERS.--According to the terms of the call which was issued Wednesday, the meeting Thursday night was to take into consideration the expediency of getting the railroad to change its track from the south to the north side of the city. The Board of Supervisors passed an ordinance, Thursday, to prohibit the Railroad Company from laying down their track west of Sixth street, and very adroitly managed to get the meeting of that night to indorse its action. This was not the object of the meeting, for it was called before the ordinance was passed. The Board had a legal right to give notice to the Company to take up the track west of Sixth street, and if not done in six months to order it taken up at the expense of the Company. But it possesses no authority to prohibit them from relaying their track and using it for six months. In this matter the Railroad Company possess legal rights of which they cannot be deprived, and one of them is the right to relay the track on R street to the Sacramento river. After six months the position of the Company may be changed.

But the fact that we consider the Railroad mainly responsible for the disaster which has overtaken Sacramento, does not change our opinion of its legal rights, and of the absolute necessity of permitting it to run to the river for the delivery of down freight. Its occupancy of so much of the city front is another matter. In that direction its privileges have been extended until they encroach seriously upon the public convenience. Fair play, though, the road is entitled to, and notwithstanding its alleged shortcomings, can rightfully ask a hearing and a just verdict. . . .

MAN DROWNED IN COLUSA.--An elderly man, named Tarlton, was drowned on Sunday, the 8th December, on the ranch of R. J. Walsh, in Colusa county. The river was rising rapidly, and it became necessary for all hands to turn out in order to save the cattle on the ranch by driving them back from the river. About a thousand head were collected, and with considerable difficulty were driven through the water to dry land. While assisting in driving them, Tarlton's horse got into a hole and the rider got out of the saddle, but subsequently regained his feet, standing in several feet of water. In this position several of his companions started to his relief, but he again lost his foothold and disappeared from sight. Tariton had resided with Walsh for several years. He was a native of Kentucky.

THE SAN FRANCISCO ODD FELLOWS.--Our San Francisco dispatch yesterday mentioned the fact that five Odd Fellows' Lodges in that city had contributed $721 for the relief of Sacramento sufferers by the flood, and that two other Lodges had yet to report. The names of the Lodges. and the amounts contributed are as follows: Yerba Buens Lodge, $171: Bay City Lodge, $150; California Lodge, $150; San Francisco Lodge, $150; Harmony Lodge, $100. Templar and Magnolia Lodges have yet to report. The above amounts, says the Bulletin, were subscribed simply as an Odd Fellows' offering. As individual members of society and members of business firms, most of the Odd Fellows had previously contributed according to their means with liberality.

THE HENNESS ROAD.--A traveler, lately over the Henness road, says the mud is troublesome. The bridge at the Truckee was swept away, so that there is now no means of crossing except in small boats and swimming horses.


The meeting of citizens Thursday night voted unanimously for building a strong levee on the American river, in preference to repairing the Thirty-first and R street levees. It was a wise decision. It was also determined not to wait for negotiations with the Railroad Company. This, too, was judicious, for, were the company ever so willing to remove their line to the north side, it would be impossible for them to do so in time to be of any service in protecting the city. At some future time it is likely that an arrangement may be made with the Sacramento Valley Railroad, the Placerville, or the Central Pacific, to enter the city on the North side, and along or near the levee on the American. The road could then be used to elevate, strengthen and protect the levee. But whenever a railroad does come into the city on the North side, it should approach the Sacramento North of I street, and, if possible, on such a line as would secure the filling up of Sutter Lake. For railroad purposes the water lot in the lake may may be made very valuable, at a cost which would be reasonable to the companies. If there were a half dozen railroads coming into the city, good policy would dictate that all their depots should be located on the ground now covered by Sutter Lake. By the aid of cars and steam that lake can easily be filled so as to furnish as desirable lots as are to be found in the city.

We have no faith in the ability of the city to force the Railroad Company to move its line; the authorities may offer advantages to the company which appeal so strongly to its interests as to induce it to move its line. In our opinion, this is the only kind of force which can be successfully applied. As was shown yesterday, if the Board of Swamp Land Commissioners cause a levee to be built along the east bank of the Sacramento for some thirty miles, pretty much all danger from back water will be removed. With the banishment of this danger disappears the urgent necessity for rebuilding the R street levee. It could only be of service in the event of a break or an overtopping of the levee on the American. Should such an event again follow, the lower portion of the city might be partially inundated by back water, though this could hardly occur if the Thirty-first street levee is repaired, as the water would discharge itself through the slough at Sutterville as rapidly as it would be likely to flow in through a break in the levee on the American. However, the question of repairing the cross levees can be determined at our leisure after the main levee on the American is constructed.

At the meeting, Judge Beatty presented a rough estimate of the probable cost of building a levee from Burns' slough to I street, thirty feet wide on the top, with a base in proportion, at $60,000. But this estimate was based on the price of fifty cents per cubic yard for removing earth, when, in reality, it will cost less than half that sum. The high figure of fifty cents per cubic yard was named because the work has to be performed in the Winter. But the only reasons why the work will cost more in Winter than in the Spring are the short days and the liability to be interrupted by rain. The ground is in a more favorable condition for building a levee than it would be in the Summer. In fact, along the American river the soil is generally sandy, and could not be in a better condition for work and pack than at present. It will therefore not cost over twenty cents per cubic yard to construct the American river levee--but the number of yards is more than estimated by Judge Beatty. This would reduce the aggregate cost for such a levee as the Judge describes to about $30,000. Such a calculation leaves a handsome sum for raising and strengthening the levee on the Sacramento from the Gas Works to Y street, at which point Swamp Land District No. 2 commences. If a contract is let for reclaiming that district, the line of levee will begin at the southern limit of the city, and would include the present crevasse in the levee below the Halfway House.

As the Citizens' Committee are in possession of ample funds, it is to be hoped it will determine upon building the levee at least seven feet above the old one. This may be considered extravagant, but were it ten feet higher it would be so much the better. The people of this city are admonished by the late freshet, that they know but little as to the high water mark in this valley. The late terrible flood in Oregon, which swept away whole towns, and drowned stock by the thousands demonstrated to the people of that State that their ideas of high water were greatly below the one Nature marks for herself once in a quarter, half, or a full century. No such flood has been known there since the State was settled by Americans. From the history of floods in Europe and Asia, we learn that once in the life of a generation--sometimes only once in a century--valleys have been flooded to such an extent as to overwhelm towns, villages, farm houses, stock, and in many instances, drowning people by hundreds. In a valley like the Sacramento, which drains such an immense water shed on each side that shed, too, composed of mountains covered every Winter with deep snow--circumstances may combine once in a quarter or half century to precipitate into its rivers a mass of water which will cause the water in them to rise ten feet higher than the oldest inhabitant had ever seen it. In other valleys in the world such visitations have been experienced, and hence, we argue that it is the part of wisdom for the present generation to provide for resisting water from five to ten feet higher than it ever has been seen by those now living in the Sacramento Valley. In 1853, when it could have been done without inconvenience, we urged the city authorities to put the grade of all our streets at the line of high water. We also urged the raising of the levees a foot a year, until they were a number of feet higher than anybody deemed necessary. We again urge those who have control of the matter to put the levees up to a line which most persons will pronounce extravagant. The levee on the American river cannot be raised too high. The higher and broader, the greater will be the confidence in the value of property inside of the city. Better build it five feet too high than five inches too low. It must be further considered, that the Swamp Land Commissioners will shortly advertise for proposals to build a levee on the north side of the American, from some point on Norris' ranch to its mouth. This will render it necessary to raise the levee on the south several feet higher than if the water were left free to spread over the country towards Marysville. Whatever may be the hight of that levee, the one to be built by the city should be raised several feet higher, as a measure of precaution. We reiterate the opinion that the levee should be raised several feet higher than most persons deem necessary.


The Money Market--Court Proceedings--Forgery--Man Missing--False Alarm--Accident to the Chrysopolis--Losses by the Flood In Oregon.

SAN FRANCISCO, Dec. 20th. . . .

The brig Galveston, from Coose Bay, reports severe gales on the Northern coast. . . .

Some of the losses by the flood in Oregon are summed up as follows: Harbaugh & Steizel, boom of logs, $5,000; Hull & Mader's wharf, $7,000; Oregon City and Linn City, $200,000; breakwater at Linn City, $50,000; one hundred thousand bushels of wheat at Albany. Flour was held at $7@8. The cargo of the Samuel Merritt, shipped for San Francisco, was taken out to be sold in Portland. Thousands of boxes of apples were lost. The inhabitants of many towns are entirely destitute of subsistence.

LEVEE IN MARYSVILLE.--The Express says "some of our prominent men of business have in contemplation the building of a levee in this city, for the purpose of protecting property down on First street and the lower part of F. The portions of Marysville contiguous to the locality where the proposed levee is to run are low ground, and are liable to inundations when other portions of the city are many feet above high water mark."

THE FLOODS EXTENDING OVER THE NORTH.--It appears that heavy rains had fallen in all parts of Oregon and Washington Territory. The Nisqually bridge was swept sway by a flood on the morning of December 4th, and in consequence the communication between Steilacoom and Olympia was temporarily interrupted. Full accounts, however, have not yet reached us of the damage sustained.

THE FLOOD IN OREGON.--Speaking of the late flood in Oregon, a mention of which was made in the UNION yesterday, the Portland Advertiser of December 12th says:

Hopes were entertained for a day or so, that the river would soon be in a condition for punctual navigation, and that the flood would swage, but not yet. On Tuesday night the river rose at this point, about two feet, and at Milwaukee, some three and a half feet. The current was very swift. During the day it rose several inches.

The Oregonian adds:

We have been without mails from the South for three days, and as many more will pass before we can expect them. A large portion of the active capital of Oregon has perished in this flood. The people of this valley will be in a state of suffering from the loss of property and mills; and a long time will pass before the losses and destruction by this flood will be repaired.

A WORD FROM THE INTERIOR.--The Dutch Flat Enquirer, in remarking upon the sad fortune of hundreds who have been toiling for years to build for themselves a homestead, and been suddenly thrown back upon the worid [sic] houseless and homeless, says:

Ere the cry of sorrow had gone forth, the voice of sympathy was heard ministering words of hope and consolation. The substantial response of the true-hearted citizens of the "Bay City" to their brethren of the ."City of the Plains," in this their hour of affliction and misfortune, is an act of generosity unparalleled in the history of our nation. While we acknowledge this act of magnificence, and offer our tribute of respect for the deed, we should feel ourselves wanting in common charity did we not speak our sentiments in condemnation against the few who, seeking advantage from this misfortune, are venting their ire and baseness against the Capital of our State. Is this a time for crimination against a people bowed by adversity? What man possessing an atom of a heart or a spark of manly feeling would utter a sentiment bearing in its signification a thought of wounding men steeped in misfortune? Such men, if men they may be called, should be hunted from among us or held up to the scorn of mankmd, that they might be seen and shunned.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS.--Our public school houses have been closed for school purposes since the day of the flood, and will not be reopened until after the holidays.

SNAGS IN THE COLUMBIA.--The steamer Pacific, while crossing the bar on her last outward trip, struck a breaker, which stove in a considerable portion of her bulwarks; and in coming up the river yesterday morning, she came in contact with a very large snag, which had lodged in the river a mile and a half from this city, breaking all the buckets out of the starboard wheel, and carrying away a considerable portion of her upper deck work. Men were engaged yesterday is repairing her, and she will be able to sail this evening.--Oregonian, Dec 11th.

p. 3


CITY DRAINAGE.--The question of the practicability of draining the city is likely to be at once practically and thoroughly tested. A large collection of water has stood on the north side of J street and east of Seventh, in the lower portions of the ground since the day of the flood, without any means of escape. T. M. Lindley, for the purpose of reducing the drainage proposition to practice, commenced the work of constructing a water main or sewer across Seventh street, and through a portion of the alley between K and L streets. This main is about two feet six inches wide, and the same in hight, and is constructed of one, two and three inch redwood plank. It is sunk to a point which gives a fall of eight inches to the block to the base of the railroad embankment at R street. It carries off the water from the block between Seventh and Eighth and K and L streets. By a drain dug across K street to a corresponding depth, the block on the north side of K is also drained by it. This block is connected with the area north of J street above referred to, by a deep drain dug in Eighth street, within the past few days. A. C. Sweetser has had charge of the Eighth street work, but the whole is done under the supervision of B. F. Leet as engineer. The water has not yet been let into the Eighth street canal, but will be to-day, and we shall have a practical demonstration of the extent to which the upper portion of the city may be drained at its present grade by the plan adopted. When the levees are completed and a permanent grade adopted, a system of sewerage can also be adopted which will greatly relieve the northern portion of the city.

POLICE COURT.--The first case called in the Police Court yesterday, was that of Caleb White, charged with assault and battery on H. Dyer. The difficulty occurred in Center township, the parties having quarreled about drift timber on the American river, at Sacramento Bar. After hearing the testimony, the Court discharged the defendant. . . .

FROM RICHLAND.--We learn from a resident of Richland, the new town on the Sacramento, twenty-five miles south of the city, that the town is entirely under water. The only chance of reaching the city, except by the river, is to go by boats across the tules on the east to Georgetown, on the lower Stockton road. The most of the houses of ranchmen on the bank of the river are out of water, but nearly all the land a few rods from the river is flooded. Our informant thinks the agricultural interests in that portion of the county are nearly ruined for the present season. Large numbers of fruit trees are under water, and will, it is feared, be destroyed, as the water cannot be disposed of, except as the river falls.

SCHOONER SACRAMENTO.--The keel and ribs of the new schooner Sacramento, which is being built by Frank Kosta, on the Sacramento, a half mile below the foot of R street, has been in imminent danger, during the past ten days, of being carried away by the high stage of the water. The river has fallen so far now that all immediate danger is past, and the owner is making arrangements to recommence work upon her as soon as possible. The Sacramento, when finished, will be the first schooner ever built at this place. She will carry about eighty-five tons of freight. . . .

THE LEVEE WORK.--The work at Rabel's tannery and Burns' slough is progressing encouragingly. The new building at the slough has been completed, and about eighty men are now fed and lodged there. These men are at work at the embankment, and have entirely shut off the current of water from the channel of the slough. This must result in the removal of the water which divides the city from the section of the county to the east. . . .

STEAM PUMP.--The steam engine formerly in use at the soap factory near the fort, has been brought into the city, and was yesterday fitted up at Protection Engine house with a pump. It is designed to set it to work to pump out the cellar of the engine house, after which it will be ready for service wherever its services are most needed.

THE CITIZENS' SUBSCRIPTION.--The amount subscribed yesterday for the fund which is being raised to be used by the Citizens' Safety Committee was $6,495. This makes a total of about $57,000. Among the subscriptions yesterday was that of the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company for $5,000. . . .

THE RIVER.--The Sacramento river is still falling, but quite slowly. During yesterday the gauge indicated a hight of twenty feet above low water mark, the entire fall during the past week being two feet.

DISCHARGED.--In the oase of Samuel M. Slidell, examined on Thursday, on a charge of grand larceny in stealing $1,100, and taken under advisement, Judge Gilmer yesterday rendered a decision discharging the defendant.

STILL OPEN.--Bids for the construction of bridges on J and K streets, near the Fort, will be received at the office of the Clerk of the Board of Supervisors until twelve o'clock today. . . .



FRIDAY, Dec 20, 1861

The Board met at half-past twelve o'clock; the President in the chair, and all the members present except Supervisors Wood and Hall. . . .

G. W. Colby submitted a proposition for building a bridge across the Burns Slough on J street. He proposes to build a very fine bridge, with a span of not less than fifty feet, eighteen feet wide, with two tracks, and have it finished in fifteen days for $2,400 in cash. He also proposes to build a strong single track bridge, sixty feet long--single track of three-inch plank on the level of the street, that would last till it should rot down unless carried away by the flood, for $500 cash.

R. F. Leet submitted a proposition for building a bridge at the same point. He proposes a handsome single track bridge with hand rails, one hundred and five feet long, for $11 per lineal foot in cash from tolls, with two per cent per month interest after thirty days, or $55 per foot in city scrip.

Both proposals were accompanied by plans and specifications. Proposals had been invited also, for a bridge on K street, but none were submitted, as it was supposed there was no chance of building more than one of the bridges this Winter.

Mr. Colby said there had been six or seven bridges on J and K streets in all, carried away by the water, but if the slough was to be secured so that there would be no danger of a flood, a cheap bridge would answer every purpose, and would be better for teams, because it would be on a level with the street. He built the first bridge, and received about $3,500 for it, and the last one, he was informed by the President, cost $1,500. He would not be willing to build the bridge for $500 for anything short of cash, because if it was made a toll brldge, unless there were more rains to prevent, teams would avoid the toll bridge by taking other streets.

The PRESIDENT said he had talked with some of the Citizens Committee, and they seemed to favor the idea of helping in this matter. No doubt the Finance Committee would meet with the Citizens' Committee to-morrow and see what could be done.

Supervisor GRANGER suggested that further time be allowed to receive proposals to take the pay either in tolls or from the Contingent Fund.

Supervisor HITE moved that the Committee be allowed till to-morrow to confer with the parties and make a contract, subject to the approval of the Board, in the meantime allowing other parties to bring in bids if they desired to.

Supervisor GRANGER said there was no other way of paying than from the tolls, and he thought in that way the bridges would pay for themselves in sixty days, but they must adopt some plan to avoid paying the money into the Treasury.

Supervisor HITE said he was assured by the Treasurer that he would not retain from this money fifty-five per cent for the Interest Fund as in the case of other receipts.

Supervisor GRANGER said some one might enjoin the Treasurer and compel him to do it.

The PRESIDENT suggested that the money could be paid to the Finance Committee and not go in the Treasury at all.

Supervisor RUSSELL asked if the slough could not be filled up cheaper, and avoid a bridge there.

Supervisor GRANGER replied that it was necessary to keep the slough open to prevent an overflow. If they closed it they would be as much blamed as the Railroad Company had been.

The PRESIDENT--I will state that Burns' slough is stopped.

The motion of Supervisor HITE postponing the matter till to-morrow and inviting new proposals meanwhile, was carried. . . . .

Supervisor HITE offered a resolution requesting the Committee on Streets to have the same lighted up from the 21st inst. till the first of April next.

Supervisor GRANGER moved, as a substitute, that the Committee contract with the Gas Company to light the street lamps the same as last year.

Supervisor HITE accepted the amendment.

The PRESIDENT desired to add a lamp, to be put up at the corner of Eighth and K streets, believing it would be no more than just, since four lights were maintained in Slater's Addition.

Supervisor GRANGER's substitute was adopted.

Supervisor HITE offered a resolution that the Committee on Police [?] and Levee appoint a competent engineer to make a survey for a levee on the American river, from a high point of land below Patterson's, and report the kind of levee required and the cost. In offering the resolution, he said he had been unjustly accused of wanting a hand in expending the money raised for a levee, but in spite of that accusation he had his sworn duty to perform, and must go as far as he could to perform it. He considered that this work was necessary to be done outside of the limits of the city.

Supervisors HANSBROW and GRANGER opposed the resolution as an interference with and a direct reflection upon the Citizens' Committee, who had been intrusted with the duty and responsibility of securing the city against future floods.

The resolution was rejected.

Adjourned till tomorrow at twelve M . . . .

RIVERS CHANGING THEIR BEDS.--The fashion of California rivers, in changing their beds, is illustrated by the following, from the Grass Valley National, in the case of Bear river:

We understand that Bear river, during the late storm, became so completely filled up with gravel that it was forced out of the old channel, at a point a mile or two above Johnson's crossing, and formed an entire new bed for a distance of some six or seven miles, coming into its old channel again near Kempton's crossing. The river now passes Johnson's fully half a mile to the south of the old bridge, which, were it now standing, would span a bed of gravel some twelve or fifteen feet deep. The new channel has been cut directly through a range of fine ranches, and the destruction of property in consequence must be very heavy. We understand that immense tracts of the finest agricultural lands, along the river, have been completely destroyed by the immense amount of gravel deposited upon them by the overflow.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3350, 23 December 1861, p. 2


. . .

The Board of Supervisors, at their meeting Saturday, took some energetic action in regard to the railroad, as will be seen by the report of their proceedings. They direct, by ordinance, the removal of all railroad property from First street and the river, and from so much of the R street levee as lies west of Sixth street.

A CANAL.--The Bee of Saturday contained an article by a correspondent, advocating as a means of protection to the city a canal from the American to the Sacramento--commencing near Smith's garden, and running in a straight line back of the city, to the Sacramento river. A large canal to act as a waste way would, doubtless, relieve the American in a time of flood of a large portion of its surplus water. But a canal, if one is deemed necessary, is a work to be done after the levee is completed. In our judgment no canal will be needed if the levee on the American is make as broad and as high as it should be. Let that levee be built from seven to ten feet higher than what we call high water mark, and a canal would be a useless work. On the river Po, in Italy, the levee is, in some districts, thirty feet high. On that river levees were built in the time of the Romans. So much has the bed of the river risen since the levee system was adopted that the people of large districts of country live in houses which are located actually below the bed of the river. The bed of the American is rapidly filling and rising--but many a year will have passed before the people of this city will find themselves living in houses, the foundations of which are below the bed of the American.

THE RAIN which was so gently but steadily falling yesterday and last night, as well as the night before, admonishes the gentlemen who have control of the work on the levee, that they might have employed a hundred or two more men the past week to advantage. Such work ought to be pushed day and night, and Sunday, for it is emphatically a work of necessity. Should the river rise again it will take desperately energetic work to prevent it from breaking through again at Burns' slough. In that event, the water might back up slightly in the lower portion of the city, but not enough to cause any great injury.

SLUICING.--If the mud and slush on J and K streets would pay three cents to the pan, it would be sluiced off in about three days by gold seekers. There is no gold in it, but it would soon be sluiced off if men could make three dollars a day for doing it. We believe it practicable to relieve J and K streets of mud by the process of sluicing. By selecting a low point in a cross street, or a lot the owner wants filled, making and properly setting sluice boxes, and then throw into them the water from one or more hydrants, we do not see why the mud in the streets might not be speedily removed, and at a very small cost, by this mining process.


Fatal Accident--Races--Death of a Volunteer--Later from Oregon.

SAN FRANCISCO, December 22d.

. . .

18th. The Overland Mail started on the 17th for California, but it would hardly get tqrough. [sic]

The loss in Oregon City by the flood is $170,000. . . .

LATE FROM WASHOE.--From the Territorial Enterprise of Dec. 18th we extract the following: . . .

The road company have an immense force engaged in repairing the road from Silver City to Dayton. It is thought the work will be completed by Friday night.

During the recent storm the Carson river was the highest it was ever known to be. The water has fallen to about its usual mark. . . .

p. 3


HOUSE-RAISING APPARATUS.--The greater portion of the hydraulic house-raising apparatus of Edward Fell arrived in the city on Saturday and yesterday mornings, on the steamers Nevada and Sacramento, from San Francisco. The remainder will come up within a day or two. It is expected that a number of our brick buildings will be raised by this machinery within the next three or four months. A hydraulic pump is used capable of a pressure of twenty thousand pounds to the square inch, though this extreme pressure is of course never employed. In raising a building, cast iron cylinders are used on which the piston is forced up by the introduction of water beneath, forced in by the pump above referred to. These cylinders are made of three inch cast iron, the chamber and piston being five inches in diameter. The play of the piston is eighteen inches. The set of cylinders consists of twenty-seven in all, though all are but seldom used under any one building. The earth is removed from the foundation of the building to be raised, a portion at a time, and the cylinders are adjusted under the walls on a solid foundation of plank if necessary. By this means the entire building is brought to rest on them. All are then connected with the pump by means of tubes, and water is forced in beneath the piston of each. The building goes up gradually with the pressure of the pump, and is of course carefully supported in its place by such timbers as are necessary. The piston rises but eighteen inches, but any hight desired in addition is gained by the use of additional wedges or blocks. When the building has attained the right position, the underpinning walls are built and the cylinders are removed one by one, leaving the building to rest on its new foundation walls. The entire apparatus consists of the pump and cylinders spoken of, several hundred jack-ssrews, connecting pipes of all sizes and forms, iron wedges, iron plates and cords of wooden blocks and planking of all sizes, shapes and descriptions. It is the same as has been used by Gordon & Stein and G. H. Hossefross, of San Francisco, and is the invention of Stein and a Frenchman, who co-operated with him in its original construction. The present proprietor is confident that he can raise any building in the city with it, provided the owner can "raise the wind" to pay him for his work.

THE WEATHER AND LEVEES.--After a clear and pleasant day on Saturday, a light rain set in at about eleven o'clock P. M., which continued at intervals through the night. The quantity of water which fell in this vicinity was inconsiderable. The rain is said to have been heavier in the mountains. During the greater portion of yesterday the rain continued without increase as to quantity. Last evening appearances indicated a heaver rain through the night. In this connection, the state of the rivers and the condition of the levee improvements are not without interest. The Sacramento has fallen three feet from the highest point of the season--twenty-two feet above low water mark. The American at the Tannery is eight or nine feet lower than at the time of the flood. The new embankments at Burns' slough and the Tannery are advancing as rapidly as practicable, but will require several days of energetic work to prepare them for a rise in the river. The weak point on the Sacramento below R street has not been touched. If the river continues to fall, it is all right; if it rises much, the place is dangerous. The crevasse above Sutterville has not been closed. The water has been running through it steadily, contributing to keep up the back water on the lower portion of the city. In case of a rise, it may prove troublesome to us. At Sutterville the water has been flowing through the levee for several days.

MORE NAMES.--The residents of the neighborhood of Sixth and N streets speak in grateful terms of the action of Captain Rogers, of the steamer Swan, who, on the morning of the flood, obtained boats and took the women and children of the vicinity on board the steamer, where they were all treated with the greatest consideration. They were furnished with food and lodging, and those who had no place to go to in the city were invited to remain on the boat during her trip to Marysville and back. We have also been requested to state that C. York and his wife, at South Park, on R street, extended generous aid to all in distress in their neighborhood; and also that a youg [sic] man named Hall, by swimming nearly a block at a critical moment, rescued from imminent danger the wife and children of John Black, who was himself exhausted from sickness and unable to get to their assistance.

THE FARMING INTEREST.--The farmers in the neighborhood of Sacramento are divided into two classes--the flooded and the unflooded. The first named class are laying on their oars--for as a general thing: they have substituted skiffs and scows for plows and harrows--waiting anxiously for the water to leave. With their volunteer crops destroyed, their fruit trees dying, their garden lands rendered useless for the present (perhaps for the season) they are unable to see exactly how they are to expend their labor to any advantage for the present. The unflooded class are more cheerful and busy. They are generally plowing and sowing with the hope and confidence that the busy seed time will be followed by a fruitful and remunerative harvest. . . .

RAILROAD MATTERS.--The Railroad Company has so far repaired the railroad east of Poverty Ridge as to be able to run the cars westward to the breach at Eighteenth street. At this point heavy timbers have been taken on to the cars and transported eastward for additional repairs. The passenger trains come no further west than the upper Stockton road, from which point passengers are brought by stages, by way of the fort, to the city.

RAIN.--At nine o'clock last evening there had fallen within the past twenty-four hours, as we learn from Dr. Logon, .460 of an inch of rain, making the entire amount of the present month 3.247 inches, and the total amount of the season 5.417. This is not an unusual quantity for the season, and is a small capital on which to get up so large a flood as we have been visited with. The fall in the mountains has of course been much heavier than in the valley. . . .

NOT NECESSARY.--In digging trenches across streets for purposes of drainage, it is not necessary to cut the planking of the street-crossings. The earth can be removed from beneath and still leave the planking remain for a bridge for foot-passengers. In several instances on J street the opposite course has been pursued.

THE RIVER.--At sunset last evening the river guage indicated nineteen feet of water in the Sacramento, above low watermark. This shows a fall of twelve inches within the past forty-eight hours, and a fall of three feet within the past ten days. . . .

YESTERDAY.--During yesterday some seventy-five workmen were employed at the levee enbankment at Burns' slough, on the American river. Work on the levee at the Tannery was suspended on account of its being Sunday. . . .


SATURDAY, Dec. 21, 1861.

The Board met at 12 o'clock, the President in the Chair, and Supervisors Granger, Hansbrow, Russell, Hite and Dickerson present. . . .

The subject of building bridges on J and K streets, across the slough, was taken up, and M. ESTEE [?] (for Benjamin & McWilliams), B. F. Leet, and G. M. Colby severally addressed the Board.

Benjamin & McWilliams proposed a structure costing only $400 in cash, which in their opinion would answer all the purposes of a bridge.

B. F. LEET said he had made his plan for a bridge on K street, where the bridge would need to be 114 feet long, and the roadway raised about a foot. If on J street a bridge only 50 feet long were needed it would cost by his proposition only $550, that was at $11 per lineal foot, but he had not examined it. He intended, when he proposed to do it for cash, to take it in tolls from the bridge. He would build the bridge and hold it for the tolls till enough had been collected to pay him, and it was immaterial whether he or the Board of Supervisors appointed the toll gatherer. Of course he would expect the Board to establish reasonable rates--say a bit for a single horse carriage, two bits for two horses, and so on; and he would also expect that the board would stop the ferry boats.

Supervisor HANSBROW asked what he would do in case teams should avoid the bridge by taking other routes which might be practicable.

Mr. LEET replied then he would hold on to the bridge till he did get his pay if it took sixty years. He had not so much of the milk of human kindness as to build the bridge for nothing. But he did not think there was any risk. At the rate the ferry had gone on, the bridge would pay for itself in four days.

G. W. COLBY said he had made his plans and proposition for J street, and had only casually examined the site on K street. He thought the kind of bridge proposed by Mr.Leet, with bents, would not be secure from floods, but he would build a bridge with bents, or a span of twenty feet in the center, for.$1,000, to be eighty or one hundred feet long, he making the filling necessary. He would make it twelve feet wide and cover it with three inch planks, the timbers for the bents and bridge to be not less that twelve inches square, and the braces for the span not less than eight inches square, with side railing four feet high. He would take his pay from tolls collected, all payments to be made within three months, or if they saw fit to make it a free bridge, he would take city indebtedness for the balance unpaid, calling the bridge one hundred feet, at $50 per foot.

Supervisor GRANGER moved that a Committee of three city members be appointed to examine the locations and the various plans proposed, and report on Monday which proposition they recommend the city to adopt. He would prefer that Supervisor Hite should be Chairman of the Committee, and suggested that in the meantime Mr. Colby submit his proposition in writing. If in the opinion of the Committee that $400 structure would answer the purpose, he would favor that plan, and at all events he thought they would not want a bridge at more than one point.

The motion prevailed, and Supervisors Hlte, Granger and Russell were appointed the Committee. . . .

Supervisor HANSBROW said he had a further ordinance to propose in regard to the Sacramento Valley Railroad. He found that the action of the Board was heartily approved by citizens, as far as that action had gone, but it was very much feared that the Board would reconsider its action in the premises, as corporations of that kind were supposed to exert great influence. He therefore introduced

An Ordinance supplemental to an Ordinance concerning the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company.

Section 1. The Sacramento Valley Railroad Company is hereby required, within ten days from the passage of this Ordinance, to take up and remove the rails of their road from Front street, from the Sacramento levee, and from that part of the R street levee lying west of Sixth street; and to remove all buildings, tanks, and each and every obstruction owned or claimed by them from Front street, and each and every other street or levee upon which any such tank, building or other obstruction may be situated.

Sec. 2. The Chief of Police is hereby directed to enforce so much of this ordinance as requires the removal of obstructions from the public streets and levees, and the District Attorney shall take the necessary legal steps for the removal of the rails, etc., provided said company shall not voluntarily comply with the provisions of this ordinance.

The ordinance was read a first and second time.

Supervisor HANSBROW said it was claimed by some that the Railroad Company were entitled to a longer notice before action of this kind could be taken. He admitted that such would be the case had they complied entirely with the terms of their contract, but they had not complied with any of these terms, and hence the city was under no obligations to them. The ordinance of 1853 expressly provided that if they violated the terms of their contract, the privileges granted might be immediately revoked. By that ordinance they were required to bridge all sloughs and ditches, and leave unimpeded the course of running waters, etc., none of which they had complied with. The language of the ordinance was, "If said company fail or neglect to comply with the provisions and requirements of this ordinance, or fail to comply with any of its provisions, then all the provisions of this ordinance shall become void and of no effeot." Consequently there was no obligation to give them six months notice, or to pay for the removal of the tracks and other improvements.

The rules were suspended, and the ordinance passed--ayes 5; noes 0.

Supervisor HANSBROW said, in order to show that the Board meant to stand by its action on this subject, he offered the following:

WHEREAS, The action of this Board with reference to the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company in the passage of an ordinance restricting them from running their cars into the city any further west than Sixth street did, at a public meeting of the citizens, meet with their cordial and hearty approval; therefore

Resolved, That this Board will in the future use all the honorable means in their power to sustain their action in the passage of the said ordinance, and will, if necessary, sustain their action before the Courts; and that we will not abandon what we now conceive to be our right--that is, the right to enforce compliance with the terms of the aforesaid ordinance until the Courts shall decide that we have interfered with any vested rights which the said Sacramento Valley Railroad may have had.

The resolution was adopted unanimously,

Supervisor RUSSELL, said it had been, he thought, very sagaciously suggested by Mr. Stowe, that very little of the railroad track was now remaining between Sixth and Thirty-first streets, and if the Board desired to repeal the ordinance allowing them to come into the city west of Thirty-first street, it might be cheaper to do so now than to wait till the track should be relaid, and then perhaps have to pay for it.

Supervisor HANSBROW said it was only proposed now to exclude the railroad west of Sixth street,

Supervisor GRANGER suggested that it might be well to repeal the ordinance regulating the road from Thirty-first to Sixth streets, and enact a new one. He was satisfied that the original space left between Poverty Ridge and the levee would not have been sufficiant to let all the water off [?], and that the city would have been flooded to some extent even if it had not been filled up. They ought now to begin, as the lawyers said, de novo, that was anew, and pass an ordinance requiring as one of the conditions of allowing the road to come to Sixth street, that they should build trestle work, and keep it open all the way between the points designated. He presumed the Board would take such action. . . .

Adjourned till eleven o'clock A.M., on Monday.

KNIGHT'S LANDING.--According to the News, this place, which was surrounded by water, but stood above the rushing element calm and serene, is among the most favored spots in the land. The News says:

Knight's Landing is at present a point of considerable importance--being the only high land on the Sacramento river accessible from the interior between Benicia and Red Bluff. . . .


The Knight's Landing News, referring to the proposition of a few interested parties to remove the State Capital, says:

We have seen it urged by some of the interior papers, that since Sacramento has been flooded out and that beautiful city made to look desolate for a short time by her misfortunes, that the Capital should be removed to some point not subject to overflows--probably to San Francisco. Now, aside from the meanness of these suggestions plying injury and ingratitude on unavoidable misfortune, we are, and ever shall be, opposed to a removal of the Capital. Sacramento is, and always will be, the most central and most accessible city in the State, and the State has laid out large sums of money to build a State House, which is now considerably advanced, for the accommodation of the Legislature and State officers; and the citizens of Sacramento have, at the same time, been liberal to a fault, in providing, without charge, the finest site in the city to erect it on; and of all the arguments which have heretofore been used in favor of Sacramento as the Capital, none of them have lost their weight, but have as much force now as they ever had, the flood to the contrary notwithstanding. We look upon the city's misfortunes as only temporary. We have seen her survive and prosper under far worse calamities than this, and we feel sure, from the character of her citizens for perseverance and energy, that in the end this--her present misfortune--will prove a lasting advantage to the city. She will now know what she must do to avoid another occurrence like this; and they will do it, and will place high and permanent embankments around the city, which, in connection with a higher grade to the streets, will forever insure them against another overflow, and in the end do a great good by the means of a great evil. We admit this lesson was a dear one; but dear bought wisdom is good wisdom, and can be relied on in this instance in making Sacramento a greater, more permanent and lasting city than she could possibly have been had it not occurred.

The Amador Ledger adds:

That Sacramento is the most desirable location in the State for the Capital, has certainly become apparent to every person who is not so exceedingly selfish as to desire this institution for his next door neighbor, and has sufficient philanthrophy to induce him to consult the general convenience in the smallest degree. It is utter folly to attempt to induce the people to believe that there exists a necessity for the removal of the Capital, because a flood, the like of which the "oldest inhabitant," upon testing his recollection to the utmost, fails to remember, has for the time proved too much for the provisions made for protection, and which everybody deemed amply sufficient. They have too much confidence in the enterprise and liberality of Sacramentans to fear the occurrence of a similar calamity.

The Butte Record remarks:

Since the late flood, which proved so disastrous to the city of Sacramento, a disposition is manifested in certain quarters to renew the question of a removal of the State Capital to some place less subject to inundation. We had confidently hoped that that subject would not again be brought before the people of California. We believe that a large majority of the people of the State are satisfied with the present location and are opposed to being subjected to increased taxation and debt by its removal. Sacramento is certainly the most central and accessible place that could be selected, and, as we have the foundation already commenced there for a commodious Capitol building, it would be folly to seek some less convenient place and commence anew. Notwithstanding the terrible inundation, Sacramento is not yet a city of the past, and not likely to be very soon. With proper protection it may never again be flooded as in the past. The members of the incoming Legislature will have more important matters than the Capital removal claiming their attention, and we trust that any proposition tending to such an object will not be tolerated by them a single hour. Let the Capital remain where it now is.

The Calaveras Chronicle has the following:

We have seen in some papers innendoes thrown out to the effect that the State Capital should be removed from Sacramento on account of its liability to be flooded during the Winter months. One of the best signs of a State's prosperity is the rapid growth of its cities, and we should all be willing to contribute our share towards the support of our principal towns. The Capitol buildings have been already commenced in Sacramento, and at the present time, while the city is exerting itself to the fullest extent of its ability towards remedying the difficulties which have nearly overwhelmed it, the country should offer at least its sympathy, and not add anything to their misfortunes. The Capital should not be removed from Sacramento, and the State should make some appropriation to aid in rendering the city proof against a like calamity in the future.

REPORTED DROWNED.--A report has been prevalent in town for a few days past, that the wife of Watt Perdue, and also her mother, Mrs. Frank Cannon, were drowned during the recent flood. We believe they were living near the Butte mountains. and had their residence swept away by the flood. We are unable to trace the report, or to gain any reliable information in regard to the matter.--Butte Record.

THE FRESHET IN SOUTHERN OREGON.--The Oregon Sentinel of December 7th says:

From all directions reports reach us of the great destruction of property in bridges, ferry boats, mills, fences, etc., occasioned by the late flood, unparalleled in the history of the country. On Sunday morning last, the water was at its highest point. We note the losses as reported to us:

North--all the bridges on Butte creek have been swept away, and the bridge and saw mill at the mouth of Evans creek have also been lost. On Rogue river, Hunter's ferry boat has gone down stream; also, Pelton's boat, near Table Rock.

South--a number of bridges are gone between this place and Yreka. The Yreka ditch has been damaged to such an extent that it will require $20,000 to put it in repair. The bridge over Shasta river is gone, and the race course was entirely submerged. The middle abutment of Klamath bridge has been moved down three feet.

Well's mills, on Applegate, has been so seriously damaged as not to admit of repair. The bridge is gone.

THE LATE STORM IN PLUMAS.--The Standard of December 14th has the following:

We were visited during the latter part of last week by one of the heaviest rain storms ever experienced in this region, which continued for five days and nights without intermission. The waters of Spanish creek overflowed its banks, transmogrifying our valley into a temporary lake, flooding cellars, etc., to the pecuniary injury of numerous of our fellow citizens. Numerous bridges in our valley were swept away by the freshet, and for several days communication was entirely cut off from the surrounding country.

The late freshet was very severe at Nelson Point, having carried away the bridge which spanned Feather river, together with the Nelson creek bridge, the toll house, a new house recently erected by White, as well injuring Captain Cunningham's store to some extent. At the time of Church's visit it was impossible to reach the Point owing to the high stage of water and the turbid character of the river, rendering it exceedingly dangerous to attempt its passage in a boat. . . .

p. 4

. . .

PROBABLY DROWNED.--George Kramer, who recently shot J. B. Lowe in a quarrel about land near Knight's Landing, is supposed to have been lost in the late flood. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3351, 24 December 1861, p. 2


. . .

The heavy rain of yesterday and the day before caused a considerable rise in the American river, which continued at a late hour last night. At nine o'clock the rain was still falling here and at Placerville, Folsom, and at other places. The American broke through at Burns' slough again at about six o'clock last evening, but as its water can easily flow to the Sacramento, no fear need be apprehended of a repetition of the recent inundation unless the Sacramento should rise with a rapidity far exceeding its wont.

BURNS' SLOUGH.--A second rise in the American river came too soon for the men engaged in building the levee in Burns' slough. The water came up yesterday so fast as to overflow the new part and carry it away. This will probably increase the water in the southern portion of the city somewhat, though not to any serious extent. The work of the last few days at that point has, of course, been lost; but better luck next time will be the motto of the Committee. The same thing happened in 1853. The first work done on that slough, and the one at the Tivoli House, was destroyed by a sudden rise in the river, and it had to be done the second time. Had the weather remained pleasant a week longer, everything would have been made secure by the Committee. It is to be regretted that a force could not have been sent on Saturday to the crevasse between here and Sutterville, as there has been no water passing through it for the past two days, and therefore it might easily have been closed. . . .

LATE FROM WASHOE.--We find the annexed items of intelligence in the Territorial Enterprise of Dec. 20th: . . .

We understand that good prospects are obtained in Gold Canon, near Johntown. The gold is fonnd in crevices of the bed rock, and seems to have been deposited by the tailings swept down the stream by the recent freshet.

The water in the Carson river has subsided to about its usual mark, and the workmen are busy repairing the dams and bridges which were swept away by the flood. . . .


The Board of Supervisors appear to have determined to punish the Railroad for the late flood. The members, since the flood, pretend to have found out that the Company has forfeited its right of way into the city, because it failed to build trestle work and bridges on the line east of Sixteenth street. Why did not this wide awake Board discover that fact before the city was flooded? Had they attended to their duties they would have had the embankment in the slough removed, and trestle work substituted. There was much more truth than poetry in the plain talk of A. Black at the meeting last week. He asserted that the Board of Supervisors were responsible for the disaster which had overtaken the city, because the members did not compel the Railroad Company to open the embankment at the slough, east of the end of R street. Now, he said, they were keen to make the Railroad Company perform its duty, after "we had all been drowned out." They were for locking the door after the horse was stolen. The action of the Board against the railroad partakes very much of the lock the door after the horse is stolen, character. The members seem to be actuated by a spirit of revenge. The Board possessed the right to give the Company notice to take up their track west of Sixth street, but it did not possess the power to pass an ordinance ordering the Company to take up its track on the levee and on Front street within ten days, and if it failed, ordering the police to take it up. No ordinance can be legally passed upon the assumption that the Company has forfeited its legal rights. Whether it has or has not is a fact which must be settled in a Court of justice, until the Court decides that the Company has forfeited the privileges granted it, the ordinances passed by the Board are not worth the paper upon which they are written. Adopting ordinances under such circumstances tends to bring the authority of the Board into contempt before the people. Such hasty action upon a matter of so much importance is particularly to be condemned. Impulsive legislation generally proves unwise. The rights of the railroad are no more forfeited now than they were twelve months ago, and the fierce action of the Board in the premises is the severest condemnation of the failure to act of past Boards which could be published. The present course of the Board is likely to involve the city in an expensive law suit, and that, too, without accomplishing the object the members have in view.


SAN JOSE, December 19, 1861.

H. O. BEATTY.--DEAR SIR: I have read with satisfaction your communications in reference to the city defenses of Sacramento; and beg leave to make to you a few suggestions of my own.

You are aware that I was in the City Council in 1853, when the R street levee was constructed and the old levee repaired. The R street levee vas constructed with a view to a double defense of the city. I had long observed that the bank of the river below R street was yearly caving in, and saw from the natural shape of the ground that it would be most difficult to construct there a permanent work. We also knew that the levee above Thirty-first street might break. I always doubted the strength of the levee near the Tivoli House. In constructing the east line of levee from about opposite the fort to the same distance above, the dirt for he embankment was, contrary to my judgment, taken from the outside; thus forming a channel for the water; and as the formation was sand, this channel would necessarily be enlarged and the embankment fall in. Where a line of levee, of any considerable hight, faces running water, it should very gradually decline on the side next the current. This will prevent its washing away. I am satisfied, from reflection and experience, that to keep up permanent levees will require an annual expenditure of some $5,000. The levee should be annually repaired and increased in strength and hight. The safety of Sacramento requires eternal vigilance and steady system. In filling in the head of the slough, there should be double sheet piling of redwood lumber, and earth on both sides of the piling. Between the rows of piling there should be sheet iron, zinc, or tin, so as to prevent the gophers from gnawing through the piling. An embankment of this kind, made high enough, will certainly stand. The main error heretofore committed at that point has been in not making the embankment high enough.

From all I can learn, the Consolidation Act has failed, and I suppose will be abandoned. But in abandoning that Act, will you fall back upon a system that has also failed? If so, what will be gained but a litttle [sic] variety in failure?

The redemption of the city, and its future stability, requires a steady, practical system. The system must first be practical, and then pursued for years, in order to attain success. If you have a charter creating officers of only one year's duration, can this be done? I think not. There can be no steady pursuit of any determinate system when your officers are always green, and always under the apprehension of being shortly turned out. Such officers are either indifferent to public opinion, or so fearful of it, that they grant everything that everybody asks, and hence, grant a ruinous privilege to A, and another to B. Has not this been the case heretofore?

But you not only require a steady pursuit of the same system for years to come, but you must reduce your city expenditures to the lowest practical standard. To accomplish both these purposes, you must give your officers long terms, moderate cash salaries and hold them to a rigid accountability. If you will then select good men you must succeed. An officer can well afford to serve for a much less annual salary, when he is in for a long term that when he fills a short one. To put a man in office for a short term, with an almost certainty that he will not be again elected, it will require most of his salary to pay his electioneering expenses, and, if honest, in the end he is the loser in a pecuniary point of view.

Your new charter should give your Mayor a long term and ample power, and he should be made responsible for the [actions of?] subordinate agents under him [where he has to?] exercise his powers to correct abuses. He should be subject to removal for incompetency as well as for willful misconduct. If you will make your salaries moderate you will then be able to pay them punctually. There are many good and competent men that are willing to fill offices with moderate salaries, because they are not fortune-seekers, and are willing to accept office for a plain support and the opportunity of doing good. Extravagant salaries fill offices with mercenary men as a general rule. There should be nothing speculative in salaries because there is no risk of failure. The chance of great gain should always go with the chance of great loss.

The government of a city, as a general rule, requires almost as much talent as that of a State under our theory. I think I may speak from some little experience, and I must say it is about as difficult to fill well the office of Mayor of such a city as San Francisco for example, as to perform the duties of Governor of a State. The government of Sacramento city is about as difficult as that of San Francisco, though the former city is of less extent. This arises from the local position of Sacramento requiring a system of levees to be kept up.

It occurs to me that your new charter should give the city the power to acquire the right of property in the line of levee outside the city limits, and the charter should impose adequate penalties for injury to that line of levee and prescribe the manner in which they could be inforced. Your City Council should not be too large. A few members will do more work than many, and do it better. The Mayor should have a negative upon all acts of the Council unless passed by a majority of three fourths. You must take a new start in your city government and infuse into it more conservative elements, or you will still fail as heretofore. Any sound practical mind could take charge of the affairs of the city, and in a few years have her placed in a safe and elevated position. You must give ample powers to your city authorities, You must also place them in a position where they can exercise their own sound judgment.

There is no cause to despair of the future of the city. Let her maintain her honor to the last, pay the interest upon her bonds punctually, and if she must at last fail, let her sink into the grave with her honor unsullied.

Yours truly, PETER H. BURNETT.


Rise of the American River at Folsom-Rain in the Interior.

FOLSOM, December 23--6 P. M.

The American river has raised at the rate of one foot per hour, and stands within seven feet of the greatest hight, and is still rising.

9 P. M.--It is raining hard at Folsom, Placerville, Strawberry and Coloma.

p. 3


THE STORM AND THE LEVEES.--In consequence of the prevalence of the storm during yesterday, and the unfinished condition of the levees at various points, our city was kept throughout the day in a feverish state of excitement. The rain of Sunday continued with but little intermission, though moderate in degree, during the night. Anxiety was of course felt in the morning concerning the stage of the rivers, and the chances of protecting the city from a second inundation. The Sacramento had fallen some three inches during the night, and at half past seven o'clock there were no signs of a rise in the American at its mouth. Soon after eight o'clock the American commenced to swell, and at eleven o'clock information arrived from Rabel's tannery to the effect that it had risen seven feet in three hours. Simultaneously with this report, telegraphic information was received from Folsom that the river at that point was as high as on the occasion of the late flood. Soon afterward it was rumored that the levee at the tannery had given way, and subsequently at Smith's Garden, then at Burns' slough, and that the water at these points respectively was coming rapidly into the city. The truth of the matter was, that the American was not, at any time, at Folsom, at Barns' slough or at Rabel's tannery, so high by several feet as it was on the 9th of December; neither was there any break in the levee at any point during the day. At the tannery the rise was sudden and rapid in the forenoon. In the afternoon the water rose at the rate of about six inches to the hour. At three o'clock in the afternoon it was not so high by four feet as during the former flood. Some twenty-five men, under the control of W. Turton, were kept at work at this point during the day. They were engaged chiefly in completing the new embankment, though some attention was given to strengthening the old levee. At Burns' slough, about one hundred and fifty men and twenty five teams with wagons were kept at work throughout the day. The members of the Committee of Safety were there the most of the time. All efforts of men and teams were directed to the construction of a permanent embankment across the slough the entire length being about 150 feet. The constant rain impeded greatly the progress of the work. The earth was difficult to handle. The men became wet and chilled by the rain, and early in the day a portion of them abandoned their work, and the remainder were induced to continue only by being offered double pay. During the day an embankment some eight feet high was built, but the water rose so rapidly as to keep within from six to twelve inches of the top. Gunny sacks were used wherever they could be to advantage. At dark a large number of lanterns were procured and preparations were made to work all night. All efforts, however, were unavailing, and at about six o'clock the new embankment broke, and in a few minutes was swept away. The labor of the last two days was destroyed in less than an hour.

A SECOND INUNDATION.--At about half past six o'clock last evening the bells of Young America and Protection fire companies were rung, and the fact soon became known that the alarm did not indicate fire, but flood. Soon after six o'clock, while the workmen were still at work, the new embankment at Burns' slough had given way, and several horsemen brought speedy word to the city of the occurrence. At the suggestion of members of the Committee of Safety, Eli Mayo came in with a request to the parties at the above named engine houses to ring their bells. The city was at once alive with excitement. Many rumors were soon in circulation as to the locality, extent and effects of the openings in the levee. Men by hundreds were out with lanterns to determine for themselves the extent and character of the danger. Many of them were unable to find anything unsound, and returned to their homes impressed with the idea that a groundless alarm had been sounded. Some three hundred and fifty persons--men, women and children--repaired to the Pavilion, and were received and taken care of during the sight. It was quite difficult to ascertain through the evening the quantity of water flowing from the American river at the break, the exact course it was likely to take, or the probable effect upon the city. At about nine o'clock the bell of Protection Engine Company and that of St. Rose Church were both rung. At that hour the water was coming in from the east, both north and south of I street, and had reached Twentieth street. Its effect had not baen felt at the southern portion of the city, at Fifth and Sixth streets. As our report closes, at half-past ten o'clock, it is difficult to say how far the water will extend. It is generally believed that the eastern and southern portion of the city will be flooded, but that the central and business portion will escape. Up to our latest advices the levees at the tannery were still standing, and it was thought they would maintain their position unless the river should rise considerably through the eight. According to telegraphic information received last evening from Folsom, the American river was not so high as two weeks ago by seven feet. It was still raining at that place, and also at Placerville, Strawberry and Coloma at nine o'clock in the evening. The rain continued in this city at intervals throughout the evening. On one occasion the stars made their appearance through openings in the clouds, but they soon disappeared. At eleven o'clock last night the water had reached Tenth and L streets, and stood at that point about a foot deep. . . .

THE RAIN.--At nine o'clock last evening the quantity of rain which had fallen during the past twenty four hours, as reported by Dr. Logan, was 1.200 inches. The wind was still in the southwest.

THE SACRAMENTO.--The Sacramento rose during yesterday about ten inches--standing at sundown at 19 feet 8 inches above low water mark. . . .

THE SLOUGH.--The rise of the water in Sutter slough, yesterday, was about eighteen inches. . . .


MONDAY. Dec. 23 1861.

The Board met at one o'clock P. M.--two hours later than the time fixed at the last adjournment. President Shattuck, and Supervisors Granger, Hite, Russell and Dickerson, were present. . . .

A communiction was received from G. W. Colby proposing to oblige himself to build a bridge across Burns' slough, on J street, ninety-six feet long and twelve feet in width, in accordance with an accompanying plan, for $10 per lineal foot, payable in tolls to be collected at rates not more than fifty per cert less than the present charges on the ferry running at that point. If at any time the Board thought proper to dispense with tolls, he would accept payment for the balance in city indebtedness at $40 per foot. The dimensions of timbers, planks, etc., are minutely specified. The floor of the bridge is to be ten feet above the present hight of water in the slough. For a double track bridge, eighteen feet wide in the clear, he would add fifty per cent. to the above prices. On K street he would build a bridge one hundred and twelve feet long at the same rates.

Supervisor Hite said the Committee had visited the place this morning, and examined the structure propceed [sic] to be sold to the city by Benjamin and McWilliams, and the Committee had decided to let the ferries remain, and build no bridges at present, but require the parties running ferries there to procure licenses. There were three ferries, two of which had no license

Supervisor GRANGER said he understood the Committee to be in favor of allowing Benjamin & McWilliams to continue their ferry, at the rates fixed for the ferry on K street, on their paying thirty dollars for the license, and with Supervisor Hite's consent he would make that a part of the report. It would be difficult to build a bridge there now, but easy enough at a proper season, and whenever a bridge should be built there it ought to be much larger than the one proposed. Experience showed that if the slough was not stopped up the water would require a passage way of at least one hundred feet.

Supervisor RUSSELL said there was a proposition on the part of McWilliams & Benjamin to give up their structure at the end of thirty days, and he would move the acceptance of that proposition.

Mr. McWILLIAMS, by leave of the Board, said their proposition was to keep J street in as good repair as at present for thirty days from date, and at the end of that period, Jan. 23, 1862--to turn their boat over to the city in as good condition as at present.

The report of the Committee granting a ferry license to McWilliams & Benjamin for thirty days, on payment of $30, was adopted, and the proposition to turn the property over to the city at the end of that time was accepted.

The PRESIDENT called attention to the claim of A. D. Rightmire, for expenses incurred on his contract to build a bulkhead at Rebel's tannery, and said Rightmire had been compelled to hire money with which to do the work, at two per cent, per month. He was now paying that rate of interest on $3,500, and could not return a part of it until he paid the whole, and the Board ought to take action immediately.

Supervisor HITE said he had a resolution to offer on that subject, and submitted a resolution that the sum of $4,009 be appropriated to A. D. Rightmire, payable out of the City Contingent Fund, for cash paid cut for lumber, etc., provided that if within twenty-four hours the Citizens' Committee shall pay him the sum of $1,002.25 in cash, he shall fully release the city from the claim.

The resolution was adopted.

Supervisor RUSSELL said the Committee appointed to confer with the Citizens' Committee on this subject had not yet been able to meet with a quorum of that Committee, but they hoped to give them a chance to redeem the city's credit, by paing [?] this $1,000 in order to save $4,000. He had no doubt that this was a legitimate subject for the Committee's expenditure, yet they might construe their authority differently. If there were time, he would like to get an expression of the citizens on this subject, as the Citizens' Committee seemed to regard such an expression necessary.

Supervisor HITE said be would like to have Mr. Rightmire make a statement to the Board, under oath, to show the necessity for this action.

The PRESIDENT objected that that would look like child's play, as Mr. Rightmire had previously made his statement to the Board, and the matter was now disposed of.

Supervisor HITE said he wanted the public to understand why they were compelled to vote so large a sum. The public might think the city paper worth more in the market.

Supervisor RUSSELL said he thought it would be well to call on Mr. Rightmire to make a statement; it was only to show that twenty-five per cent, was all that the scrip could be sold for.

Mr. RIGHTMIRE said he had not the slightest objection, and was sworn by the President.

Supervisor HITE asked if he had canvassed the market to ascertain the value of city indebtedness.

Mr. RIGHTMIRE replied that he had seen all the men that he knew of who dealt in scrip, and could find but one man who would take it at any price, and he said he would take it at twenty-five per cent.

The PRESIDENT expressed an earnest hope that the Finance Committee would use their best efforts to induce the citizens to pay this money. He thought it was clearly their business to pay it, as they had taken the contract out of the hands of the Board.

Supervisor RUSSELL reported from the Finance Committee in favor of paying the bill of A. D. Rightmire for $4,009, according to the resolution. The report was approved.

The monthly report of the Finance Committee was read and approved, including the Rightmire claim of $4,009. . . .

Supervisor RUSSELL moved that the parties asking aid for the Howard Benevolent Society be allowed to withdraw their application. Carried.

Patrick Bannon appeared before the Board, asking for a change and slight increase in the rates of toll established at his ferry across the slough, at the present rates were very inconvenient and troublesome in making change.

On motion of Supevisor RUSSELL,.the rates were fixed, tor [sic] one or two horse wagons twenty five cents, and twenty-flve cents additional for each additional span--footmen free.

The bond of Mr. Bannon, $1,000, was approved.

Supervisor HITE said he was just now informed that the water was coming into the city rapidly from the American river, and he would like to have an alarm given.

Mr. Bannon said that must be an error. He had seen one of the Committee, who had just returned from the slough, and he was informed that there was no break.

Supervisor DICKERSON called attention to the condition of the levee below the city, and said there never could be a better time for repairing it than now.

The PRESIDENT said that whole matter was now in the hands of the so called Vigilance Committee.

Supervisor GRANGER said he was ready to act if any one could tell what could be done.

Supervisor DICKERSON said the only thing to do was to go to work and repair it.

Supervisor GRANGER submitted the following ordinance, which was read a first and second time:

An Ordinance concerning the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company.

The Board of Supervisors of the city and county of Sacramento, do hereby order and ordain as follows:

Section 1. The Sacramento Valley Railroad Company having violated, and failed, neglected and refused to comply with the terms and conditions upon which it was granted the right of way with and through the city, all ordinances and parts of ordinances passed by the late Mayer and Common Council of the city of Sacramento, or by the Board of Supervisors of the city and county of Sacramento, granting the said Sacramento Valley Railroad Company the right of way into the city, or the privilege to construct and lay down railway tracks within the city, or granting it any rights, franchises, privileges or immunities within the city limits, are hereby repealed.

Sec. 2. The right of way is hereby granted to said Sacramento Valley Railroad Company to make and maintain the necessary embankments, and to construct and lay down railway tracks thereon, on and along the line of R street, from the eastern limits of the city to a point one hundred and fifty feet east of the east bank of Sutter Fort slough; and from thence to construct and maintain said railway tracks upon open and unobstructed trestle work, without any embankment or filling in of any kind or nature whatsoever, to a point one hundred and fifty feet west of the west bank of said slough; and from thence to make and maintain the necessary embankment for such railway track on and along said R street to the east line of Sixth street; and said Company is also hereby authorized to lay down one or more tracks, with all the necessary turnouts, such tracks and switches upon the aforesaid portion of R street, on a road bed constructed in the manner aforesaid, and also upon any street or alley between L and R, and Sixth and Tenth streets, which may be selected by said Company as necessary to obtain sufficient curvature for the purpose of communicating with and running their locomotives and cars to their depot, which said depot may be erected at any point within said limits; and said Company may at its option use either horse or steam power on said road; and said Company is also authorized to use so much of the R street levee as lies east of Sixth street; provided, however, that nothing herein shall authorize said Company to cut away any portion of said R street levee, or in any manner to reduce its hight or width from the hight and width set forth for said levee on the plans and specifications thereof on file in the City and County Surveyor's office; and provided, further, that said Company shall not acquire any rights under this ordinance untll it shall have graded Sixth street and each of the streets crossing the R street levee east of Sixth street, in the manner prescribed in "Ordinance No. 62--an ordinance relating to the grade of streets crossing the R street levee," approved November 12, 1859, and shall also have constructed on the north side of said levee, at the bottom of the ditch, and under and through each of said street crossings, a stone culvert, or wooden sewer made of three inch redwood plank, with a clear opening of at least twelve square feet of drainage; and provided further, That nothing in this ordinance contained shall be taken or construed to authorize the erection of any cistern, water tank, or building, or the placing or maintaining of any obstruction whatever, excepting only the necessary rails on either of the streets or alleys of the city, and excepting only that said company may erect the necessary water tanks and cisterns on the R street levee, provided the same are at least fifty feet from the nearest line of any cross street; and provided further, That the tracks, turnouts, side tracks, turn tables and switches shall be so constructed as to leave free from obstruction, and so that they may be conveniently used for the passage of vehicles, animals and pedestrians, the streets and alleys used by said company; and provided further, That if said company shall at any time remove its principal office from this city, or if it shall construct or connect with any railway track terminating outside of the city, but in Sacramento county, within one mile of the Sacramento river, and if said company shall fail, neglect or refuse to comply with each and every of the terms of [sic] conditions of the ordinance, then every right, privilege, immunity and franchise granted by this ordinance shall cease and determine, and said company, its successors and assigns, shall remove their track or tracks, together with the appurtenances, from the city limits.

Supervisor RUSSELL offered an amendment inserting a provision that the ordinance shall be void, etc, if the Rallroad Company shall at any time make a distinction in the price of freight or passage between citizens of Sacramento and other persons by any regulation in regard to transhipment, through tickets or otherwise.

The PRESIDENT said that suited his views exactly, but it struck him that the Board of Supervisors had no right to regulate the price of freight or passage on the railroad.

Supervisor GRANGER was also of opinion that it would be a dead letter. If they could insert it in a contract with the Company they might hold them to it, but he questioned very much whether they could fix the prices by ordinance.

The PRESIDENT said he had been very credibly informed that the Railroad Company had been in the habit of charging about double the rates of freight to Scramento that they charged to other places.

Supervisor RUSSELL said he only offered the amendment to have it discussed, and with no view of passing it as a part of the ordinance

The amendment having been discussed was withdrawn.

Supervisor GRANGER moved to suspend the rules in order to put the ordinance on its final passage.

Supervisor RUSSELL said they had not yet had time to consider it fully, and he thought they had better lay it over.

The PRESIDENT said he would have no objection to passing it now if there were any necessity for immediate action, but there were only four members of the Board present, and hs thought it had better be postponed.

Supervisor GRANGER said his objection to postponement was that the introduction of the ordinance would afford an excuse to the company in the interim to proceed and fill up a portion of the space proposed by the ordinance to be kept open. Unless they could have another meeting within two or three days, with a chance of getting a fuller attendance of members, he should press the motion to suspend the rules now. His object was to inform the company upon what terms they could be permitted to come into the city. They had violated every ordinance, and he now proposed to begin anew with them.

The PRESIDENT said he was sorry to see half a dozen ordinances on this same subject, when the whole matter might have been disposed of in one. .

On motion of Supervisor RUSSELL, the Board adjourned until to-morrow (Tuesday) at twelve o'clock M.

PERILS ON THE MOUNTAINS.--A correspondent of the Tuolumne Courier, writing from Aurora under date of Nov. 25th, relates the following hard experience:

I left Mono on the 20th, and was overtaken by a violent snow storm, which continued for twenty-four hours; thank God I succeeded in getting through alive, and am around as usual. But first of Mono: The annual snow storm of Mono commenced on the night of the 10th, and with but slight intermission continued up to the 13th. The snow fell to the depth of from two to three feet. On the night of the 13th, the large building known as Hate & Hughes' saloon, from the pressure of snow upon the roof, gave way and came down with a terrible crash, burying in the ruins Bob Lowdon and Isaac Sherman, who were sleeping upon the tables near the room. Sherman was not very seriously hurt, but Lowdon was much bruised, and perhaps inwardly injured. It is a most remarkable circumstance that they escaped with their lives. The billiard table was forced through the floor, and in fact every part of the furniture and contents demolished. Lowdon is cared for by Downey and wife, and his friends may rest assured that nothing will be left undone which will tend to ameliorate his unfortunate condition, and as soon as the weather will permit an effort will be made to bring him to this place. On the 19th the weather was beautiful, and not the slightest appearance of a storm; in company with Joseph Pettigrew (formerly of Sonora), I left Mono for Aurora. After reaching the Half Way House (fifteen miles) we felt able to go on, and thinking we would have moonlight we might get through in the night. We had an animal packed, and got along very well for a few miles, but in less than an hour we were overtaken by a snow storm, which gradually increasad in violence until it blew a perfect hurricane. How long we struggled through the snow drifts I cannot say, but we since know that we reached a point within seven or eight miles of Aurora, when the wind suddenly changed and blew directly in our faces. It now became a matter of life or death with us, and we struggled on manfully for a short distance, but becoming perfectly exhausted, no longer could we push our way through. Here we lost the road, and fearing that any further effort would subject us to being frozen to death--sick at heartand perfectly exhausted, feeling we were lost forever--we turned in all directions , and looked shelter, but there was none--not a tree, not a shrub, no, not even the oft-cursed sage bush appeared, to cheer us in this terrible hour.

Oar last hope was in our blankets, and finding a sage bush, we tied our animal, threw them down and covered up as best we could. By this means we managed to keep from freezing until day dawned upon us, Notwithstanding the storm still raged with increasing violence, daylight was a truly welcome visitor. Benumbed and almost helpless, we crawled out from under the snow, and leaving six pair of blankets, saddle-bags with clothing, carpet sack, boots, etc., managed to untie our poor animal, which stood before us almost literally covered with ice and snow. We knew we were off the road, and for two hours we labored incessantly to find some trace of it, and after wandering for that length of time through snow from four to five feet deep, we reached a point overlooking the valley below, where we discovered the road, and in another hour we knew where we were--some six miles from Aurora. Here we found some willows, and vainly endeavored to kindle a fire. Again we took the road, which was up the mountain for over two mile, I in front leading the animal and breaking the road, while my companion was fast freezing and suffering the most excruciating pains. Occasionally I would assist him upon the animal, but the frequent snow drifts we would encounter would compel him to alight. Thus, foot by foot, we slowly worked our way up the long hill.

Upon reaching the summit we were within a mile of Esmeralda, but had a terrible task before us. I felt exhausted, and insisted upon being allowed to lay down for half an hour, but fortunately Pettigrew felt better and I suddenly appeared to gain strength. His hands having been badly frozen now felt more comfortable, and it became him in turn to place me upon the animal. I could only keep the saddle, however, for but one or two minutes at a time, it being impossible to ride through the snowdrifts, in this way we rode, walked and crawled until we reached the first occupied cabin in Esmeralda (one mile and a half from Aurora), which proved to be that of Kile, who, assisted by his kind hearted lady, God bless her, procured us a cup of tea and furnished us with snow and snow water, in which we continued to bathe our frozen hands and feet for over three hours. Pettigrew was unable to proceed any further last night, but I, after enjoying a good supper with our generous host and hostess, wended my way down to Aurora. I have been fortunate enough to escape with comparatively little injury, but poor Pettigrew's hands are dreadfully frozen, notwithstanding the remedies employed to save them.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3352, 25 December 1861, p. 1

. . .

[For the Union]

Supervisor DICKERSON called attention to the condition of the levee below the city, and said there never could be a better time for repairing it than now.
The PRESIDENT said that whole matter was now in the hands of the so-called Vigilance Committee.
Supervisor GRANGER said he was ready to act if any one could tell what could be done.
Supervisor DICKERSON said the only thing to do was to go to work and repair it.--Union, Dec. 24th.

MESSRS. EDITORS: If the so-called Vigilance Committee" alluded to by the distinguished President was organized for the ends that Vigilance Committees sometimes are, the honorable gentleman might find it inconvenient to make satisfactory answers to such questions as they would without doubt propose. When their authorized officer would demand from Mr. Shattuck why he suffered the Summer months to be spent in frivolous or worse debate which should have been devoted to that species of legislation that would have averted the terrible calamity just befallen us, which has changed hundreds of happy homes into loathsome wildernesses and has driven thousands to seek protection from the combined charity of the people of this city and San Francisco, we apprehend that Shattuck's sneer at the "so called Vigilance Committee" would give place to a very different expression. The Board of Supervisors, with Shattuck as Captain General, are responsible for the misfortunes we are now suffering from. They were warned and cautioned a thousand times of the danger the city was in from the imperfect condition of the levees, but disregarding every admonition and every solicitation, they obstinately refused to do the only thing they seemed capable of--vote the people's own money for their protection. Summer passes away, Autumn follows in its train, and when Winter comes and the front of Heaven is pregnant with fearful threatenings, the sapient Board conclude a contract for our protection, the performance of which is to commence on the 12th of December--mid winter--the people know the rest. The 9th of December came with all its horrors. It can now be traced in the faces of many stout men and fair women. The toils of years were in one hour destroyed--the hopes of years in one moment blasted; and now when the generous and charitable come forward to seek to secure to their unfortunate fellow citizens the little that is left, the author of all our troubles alludes to them with a sneer, for which and for his ignorance alone he is celebrated, as the "so called Vigilance Committee." There is no Vigilance Committee in Sacramento. None to punish malfeasance in office, or mete out prompt and immediate justice to those who wilfully trample on the rights of others, but there is a Committee here who have sworn in the bitterest tears of agony and distress that they will henceforward protect themselves against ignorance and cupidity, and that they will call to a severe account those who are more immediately responsible for their present grievances. How they shall do so or when, the President of the Board of Supervisors will hereafter learn.

THE STORM AT MARYSVILLE.--The Marysvilla Appeal of December 24th, gives some particulars of the effects of the second great storm at that place. It says:

So much rain here and above Marysville, caused the Yuba to rise slowly all day Sunday, and at a late hour last night the stream was thought to have raised about twelve feet since Saturday night, and was still rising. The Feather, usually several hours behind the Yuba in rising, had not commenced rising any, at last accounts; consequently the Yuba was running with a swift current, not being set back by the Feather, but the slough has been set back from the Yuba, and was running over its banks at its lowest points, just above the Third street bridge, flooding all that thoroughfare below E street, and making an island of Williams' flouring mill. As long as the Feather does not rise, there is not the least danger to be apprehended from the Yuba at this point, although the telegraphic items elsewhere indicate a rising on the upper branches. But the stream has to rise a long way to be near the high water mark of the last flood. Preparations were made last night to repel the advances of any freshet by embankments made along Commercial alley, in the rear of Van Muller & Co.'s store, and many families from the country come into town for safety last night, and several families on the west side of the slough, drowned out by the last flood, left their habitations again for fear they might be obliged to leave in the night. Across the Yuba, opposite town, the water is making a clean sweep across the spit of land between the Yuba and Feather. . . .

p. 2


. . .

We are advised that the principal streams north and northeast of Sacramento rose considerable yesterday from the heavy rains, but the effect was not marked on the waters of the Sacramento and American. The former rose only about ten inches for the last twenty-four hours, and the latter fell about one foot. In that portion of the city which was submerged yesterday morning by the crevasse at Burns' slough on the night previous, the water gradually subsided during the day. Last night it was generally believed that all danger had passed, though some were fearful that a further rise of the Sacramento might back the waters of the American over the levee at Rabel's tannery. This could hardly be the case, as we were informed last night at the Telegraph office that the American river at Folsom had fallen six feet from the mark of the previous night.

A man whose name is supposed to be William H. Tymanor, or Tyman, was drowned yesterday while attempting to go on board the Nevada.

THE RIGHTMIRE CONTRACT.--A few days since, the Supervisors entered into a contract with A. D. Rightmire to build a breakwater at Rabel's tannery. The season was so far advanced that we doubted the policy of entering into a contract to do the work. The better plan, we conceived, would be for the Levee Committee to have it done by the piece and by the day. But that Committee thought proper to let the work on contract to Rightmire for $17,000 in scrip, or $7,500 in cash, he giving bond and security to complete it in a given number of days. The river rose in about a week after the contract was signed, the floods came and rendered it impossible for Rightmire to do the work as required by the terms of his contract. The rise of water also showed a change in the current of the river, which rendered the piling and planking at the tannery unnecessary. Rightmire would be liable on his bond if the work was not completed as per contract, and the common sense course for the Board would have been to say to him, we will release you from your contract and bond if you desire it. But the Board did not want the contract complied with, and the parties proposed a compromise. One was finally agreed upon, under which the Board agree to pay Rightmire his expenses, and the loss he estimates will be experienced in disposing of the lumber bought. Rightmire's bill was $1,002.25--cash, to pay which, the Board audit a claim in his favor for $4,009 as a debt against the city. This was a nice transaction.

The Board first agree to pay $17,000 in city indebtedness for a job for which the contractor was willing to take $7,500, and then, to get relieved from this contract, the members agree that the city, at some future day, shall pay $4,009 for that which could now be satisfied for $1,002.25. This $4,009 the city is to pay for the blunders of her authorities--or to be released from a contract of their making, which the contractor could not perform, and which he would have been compelled to ask to be rescinded in order to save his bondsmen. Supervisor Hansbrow yesterday protested against the action of the Board, and by a kind of common consent the transaction is to rest on the table, upon a motion to reconsider, until the next regular meeting. So outrageous did the transaction look yesterday, that Supervisor Russell proposed to pay one hundred dollars of the claim out of his private funds. If paid at all it should be by subscription, as the action proposed by the Board is unquestionably contrary to the provisions of the law, and would be held null and void by the Courts.

CHRISTMAS.--. . . Although duly mindful of the requirements of the day, the people of Sacramento do not feel like entering upon its observance with their olden spirit, weighed down as they are by the heavy affliction of the flood, but they are ready to extend a kindly greeting to those who are more favorably situated, and heartily wish them, one and all, a "Merry Christmas."

STAGE ACCIDENT.--As the Oroville stage was leaving Marysville, Monday morning, December 23rd, and attempting to cross the slough, the vehicle was capsized and a Chinese passenger drowned. The stage was lost. . . .


Since the occurrence of the flood, over two weeks ago, what have the city authorities done for the protection or relief of the people of the city? They have, we believe, employed the chain gang in doing a few small jobs, but beyond that have the members of the Board of Supervisors taken a single step to defend the city or to put it in a condition to be inhabited with any degree of satisfaction by those accustomed to the ordinary comforts of civilized life? So far as we know, the Supervisors have not so much as furnished plank to build bridges over the ditches through J and K streets, dug by individuals to relieve their houses and lots of water. Not an effort has been made by them to repair the streetaso [sic] as to render them passable east of Tenth street for loaded wagons. Not a sewer has been made or a ditch cut to aid in relieving the city of water, by order of the Board of Supervisors. The levees and their repairs are turned over to the Committee of citizens. Not even a contract for a bridge over the slough, the builder to take his pay in tolls, has been let, though seventeen days have passed since the flood. A ferry or two have been licensed, but ferries are a poor substitute for bridges. One of the parties granted a license agrees to keep J street in as good condition as it now is; it is now nearly impassable for loaded wagons. Both J and K need a good deal of work from Tenth street to the slough, and if tolls are to be paid for crossing it, the toll gatherers should be bound to put both those streets into good order for the season. There has been no work of consequence done on them since 1853, and as the Board of Supervisors act as if they were helpless in the matter, the members ought certainly to see that those who collect the tolls should do the work necessary to place them in a reasonably good condition for traveling. There is hay enough in the city ruined by the flood, if hauled upon those streets, to fill the holes and deep cuts made by loaded wagons. Unless something is done in the way of repairing them, they will soon become impassable.

The Board may plead in excuse for not doing anything for the relief of the city the absence of money in the treasury and the total destruction of the city's credit. True, cash is wanting, but in an exigency like the present our city authorities ought to possess financial ability and personal character sufficient to enable them to raise the money so absolutely needed for self protection.

In 1852 the fire swept out of existence three-fourths of the capital in the city; a few days subsequent the ruins were engulphed in the waters of the American, and for a time it looked as if the fate of Sacramento was sealed. The credit of the city was then about as low as it could sink. On the credit of the corporation the Mayor could not purchase plank to cover a half dozen bridges destroyed by the fire. But the authorities, on their personal credit and the pledge that the money should be returned by a special tax, borrowed $20,000, and commenced work vigorously to place the city again in a living condition. It was a desperate struggle, but the authorities succeeded. The city is now millions richer than she was at that time, but the authorities were unable to get credit or to borrow a few thousands upon a pledge of future reimbursement through the taxing power. They left for private citizens to do what should have been performed by those in authority. It was the conviction in the public mind that the Board of Supervisors was not equal to the occasion, which mainly caused the people at first to turn to the Interest and Sinking Fund for relief. But if the credit of the city is down almost to the freezing point, who, besides the present and past Boards of Supervisors, are responsible for the miserable condition of the city finances? The Board has been year after year auditing claims against the city funds, when the members knew there was not a dollar to pay them. This practice has continued until claims on the Contingent Fund are estimated by the Board itself as only worth twenty-five cents on the dollar. In settling with the Controller for work which was to have been done at Rabel's tannery, but which cannot now be done, and ought not to be if it could, the Board allow him in city indebtedness $4,009, for a claim for which he would accept in cash $1,002.25. Such financial operations would soon beggar the richest city on the globe.

It must, however, be admitted that the Board of Supervisors has been very earnestly engaged for several days during its late regular session--not in adopting measures for the relief of a people prostrated by the flood, but in the passage of ordinances aimed at the Sacramento Valley Railroad, which are certain to involve the city in expensive litigation with the company without gaining a single step towards the end the members had in view. Had the Board proceeded legally it might have initiated proceedings which would have resulted probably in forcing the company to take up its tracks on Front street, and to build its freight and passenger depot on Sixth street. But as every move it made was of questionable legality, the result must be a lawsuit in which the city will prove the sufferer. There is, however, some consolation to be gathered from the reflection that these acts of folly and imbecility on the part of the Board will strengthen the public mind in the conviction of the absolute necessity of repealing so much of the Consolidation bill as unites the city and county. . . .


A few days more of reasonably favorable weather would have enabled the Citizens' Committee to so far complete the work at Burns' slough as to have placed the levee beyond the reach of the water in any ordinary flood. It would in a couple of days have been in a position to defy the water when no higher than it was Monday and the night following. But the Committee only had about five days to work in; they pushed it along energetically, but when the river rose so suddenly they lacked a couple of feet of being high enough to keep the water from flowing over the new portion of the levee, and carrying away in a few minutes the results of the labor of the men employed. The work done at Rabel's tannery is likely to prove equal to any future emergency. The release of so many men at Burns' slough, will enable the Committee to complete the work at the tannery, in a substantial manner. The Committee will be left free to deal with the levee from Thirty-first street to the Sacramento, and down that river to Y street.

There is a point between Sixth and Seventh streets, on the slough, which has been weakened by Chinamen digging places on the inside to set their washing apparatus, and also by the encroachments of others on the outside. This point ought to be strengthened materially and immediately. The levee on the Sacramento below R street ought also to be attended to. It is not safe as it stands. A new levee should be raised back of the old one. Below that to Y street the levee needs raising and its width increased. There has been little work expended on that levee since it was built, in 1850; it has settled and been worn down by travel until it is probably from a foot to eighteen inches lower than it was when built. No further work can be done at Burns' slough until the river falls several feet; but in the meantime work may be performed on the line of levee between that point and Thirty-first street.

After the water broke over on Monday evening it followed the old line of slough down to the Thirty-first street levee, near the eastern termination of F, G and H streets, where the previous flood effected a serious breach in the levee. A road crossed it at this point, and the water crossed first on the road and subsequently cut the levee away on each side, so as make quite a crevasse. It was through this a portion of the water from the slough made its way Monday night north of J street, and as this street is raised to nearly the elevation of the levees, it was forced to extend itself west into the city as far as Eighth street before it could find an opening for crossing J and K streets. The effect was to partially submerge that portion of the city lying immediately north of J street and east of Seventh. There ought to be a large canal dug through J and K, east of Fourteenth street, so as to permit water north of J to pass off south towards the R street levee. As only a small portion of the water flowing through at the head of Burns' slough comes in at the break near F street, if the Committee would put a few men to work there they would soon stop the water and relieve all that portion of the city north of J and east of Seventh. There is another break a little south of M street, which discharges a considerable water into the southern section of the city, which might easily be so far closed as to relieve the city of water from that source. While the slough remains open at the head, the particular breaks in the Thirty-first street levee, which admit water into the city, might advantageously be closed so far as to shut out the water which comes into the city from these openings. . . .


Identified--The Savings and Loan Bank Panic--Rough Weather on the Pacific Coast--Broderick Will Case.

SAN FRANCISCO, Dec 24th. . . .

Frederick Jerome, a boatman, found the body of an infant in the water at North Point, to-day. . . .

Vessels from the Northern coast report rough weather. The bark Nellie Merrill went ashore on Agment reef, but got off and came into port leaking badly. Vessels outward bound had to put back in consequence of the weather. . . .

It is still raining here.

FURTHER FLOOD IN SOUTHERN OREGON.--The Jacksonville Sentinel of Dec. 14th gives some particulars of an additional flood with which the people of Southern Oregon have been visited:

On last Sunday we were visited with a much more destructive flood than that of the previous week. On the night of Friday, Dec. 6th, a heavy rain set in, and continued to pour down heavily almost without intermission until Sunday morning. This body of water pouring into the channels which were yet full from the flood of the preceding week, was too great for the ordinary bounds of the streams, and in consequence it spread over a considerable portion of the valley. The lower portion of our own town was submerged from the waters of Jackson creek, and the valley was converted into a group of numberless small islands and lakes. Jacksonville and the immediate vicinity has sustained no material damage, but from other portions of the county we learn that the losses have been very severe.

It is said that Neal's Canon, beyond Ashland, through which a stream of water was running, on Sunday, became clogged by accumulated drift logs, and backed up an immense body of water. Under the heavy pressure the dam gave way, and the water rushed with irresistible velocity down the valley, carrying everything before it. By this torrent we understand that William Taylor lost his outhouses, grain, etc. We have not particulars as to the full extent of damage, but the loss must be heavy. The farmers along Bear river have suffered. One gentleman who owns a farm on that stream, tells us that on Sunday he stood by for a while and watched his properly, in fences, float off at the rate of about one hundred dollars per hour. He lost a number of horses and several thousand rails, and without doubt, many others have been equally unfortunate.

There have probably been many heavy losses that we are unable to record, owing to the interruption of communication, even from portions of our own county. With the miners, the damages they have suffered will be more than repaired by the supply of water, which is indispensably requisite to their profitable labor. It is to be hoped that the mines may pay well enough to leave a margin of profit to the community over all losses

The Rogue river bridge, which had weathered the first storm, was not able to withstand the latter. Its loss, up to the present time has effectually blocked communication north of us. We think it safe to say that there is scarcely a bridge left in its position over a single stream in the county. . . .

THE FLOOD NORTH AND NORTHEAST.--Dispatches to the Marysville Appeal give the folloving [sic] intelligence under date of December 23d:

At Downieville the river has not raised much since noon, and it is not so high as was the last flood.

At Foster's Bar, on the North Yuba, and at Freeman's, on the Middle Yuba, the water is up to the highest mark, and still rising. The South Yuba, at four o'clock, was up to the highest point, and rising fast.

Deer creek, which runs through Nevada City, is full as high as it was at the late storm, and rising rapidly.

It continues to rain hard in Downieville, Forest City, Camptonville, San Juan and Nevada.

CHICO, Dec. 23--9 P. M.
Chico creek is not quite so high as it was at the last flood, but other creeks in the vicinity are higher. At five o'clock the Sacramento river was rising a foot an hour.

RED BLUFFS, Dec. 23--9 P. M.
The Sacramento river is as high as it was last year, and still rising. . . .

NORTHERN SIERRA.--The La Porte Messenger of December 2lst has the following:

We stated last week that $2,000 would not cover the loss sustained by the owners of the Rabbit creek flume by the freshet, but we are informed by Underhill that, upon prospecting the gravel in the bed of the flume, it has given evidence of richness sufficient to guarantee the belief that it will clean up enough richer in the Spring to compensate for all damage done the works. The vast amount of gravel which washed through the channel during the rise moved a great deal of gold, preparing a rich deposit for future harvest.

At Howland Flat, the Union Company, after working about fifty hands ten or twelve days, cleaned up over $25,000! with the prospect of finishing up the washing with about $6,000 more. The Down East Company, working ten men, clean up weekly, and average about $600 a week through the season. All the claims are said to be doing well at Howland. . . .

p. 3


CHRISTMAS.--In consequence of the late flood and continued rains, our citizens have made but little preparation for the celebration of Christmas compared with that of former years. Nevertheless, and although clouds may overhang us physically, and perhaps throw a shadow over our spirits, we shall generally, it is to be hoped, spend the day in a becoming manner, making it to ourselves and to each other a day of joy and gladness. . . .

THE INUNDATION.--Although considerable anxiety and alarm was felt by our citizens on account of the breaking of the levee at Burns' slough on Monday night, it proved to be not much of a night for floods after all. The current swept down the slough past the Fort and Poverty Ridge with great velocity, and as the slough filled up, made an advance to the west upon the city. The American was not so high by three or four feet as it was on the memorable morning of the 9tth of December, and consequently the progress of the water was much less rapid and less destructive than on that day. On account of the dilapidated condition of the Thirty-first street levee, the water seemed to progress along the whole eastern line with about equal rapidity, coming in north as well as south of J street simultaneously. By morning, the most of the city east of Twelfth and south of L streets was inundated. I, J and K streets, west of 11th and 12th, and L west of 17th, together with the cross streets, were not reached by the water. Business, therefore, was but little disturbed, and there was no damage of consequence done to goods and merchandise. The openings through the R street levee rendered the fall of the water easy, and throughout the day a lively current poured through to the south. The water commenced to recede from the city before noon, and continued to lower slowly until night. The level of the water at its highest point was about four and a half feet below that of December 9th.

DROWNED.--At a quarter before two o'clock yesterday afternoon, an unknown man, while going aboard the steamer Nevada, fell into the river and was drowned. As he stepped upon the plank, one end of it slipped from the boat, which was rocking considerably at the time, and both man and plank fell. He came to the surface, and struggled against the current, but was carried several rods down stream. Three boats started to his relief, but failed to reach him. The body sunk, and has not been recovered. A carpet sack which he held in his hand was picked up, and was sent to the office of Coroner Reeves. It contained a black cloth dress coat, a white shirt, two pairs socks, a Testament, neckerchief, razor, etc., etc. On the edge of the leaves of the Testament were the letters W. H. T. On a fly leaf was the name "William Hughes Tyman," or something near it. On the collar of the shirt the name "Noble--75" was stamped in ink with type. The socks were apparently knit by hand, were of wool, and were marked with the letters W. H., and numbers 1, 2. etc., marked with a needle. The articles above referred to will remain at the rooms of the Coroner for identification.

THE RIVERS AND LEVEES.--The Sacramento river had risen at sunset last evening ten inches within the preceding twenty-four hours, and stood twenty-one feet six inches above low water mark, the entire rise of the past three days being thirty inches. The rise continued until afternoon, when the river seemed to come to a stand. The American river commenced to fall early in the morning, and lowered some twelve or fifteen inches. In the afternoon it appeared to be kept at the same point by back water from the Sacramento. The levees, except those points at Burns' slough, and westward to the Tivoli, which gave way the night before stood firm through the day. After dark last evening, however, J. O'Brien came in from the tannery and stated that should the American raise six inches higher the levee at that point, old and new, would surely give way, and the stream would come directly into the city. A few men were sent out by the Committee of Safety. In a late dispatch from Folsom, last evening, it is stated that the American river had fallen six feet since morning. . . .

THE WEATHER.--There were some indications yesterday morning of the breaking up of the cloudy canopy above us, but the southeasterly wind worked hard for more rain, and more rain came. It continued through the greater portion of the day. At about dusk the wind shifted to the west, the clouds disappeared, the stars presented a beautiful appearance, the atmosphere became quite cool, and at eleven o'clock everything looked and felt like clear weather. . . .

CARRIED AWAY.--The flood of water which swept through Burns' slough on Monday night, when the embankment gave way, carried off both the ferry boat and the temporary bridge at the Fort. On this account, and from the fact that J and K streets were badly washed, there was little or no travel in that direction yesterday. . . .

THE PAVILION.--Some four hundred persons lodged at the Pavilion on Monday night. Five or six hundred persons were fed there yesterday and about two hundred were accommodated there last night. . . .


TUESDAY, Dec. 24, 1861.

The Board met at fifteen minutes before one o'clock, the President and Supervisors Granger, Hite, Hansbrow and Dlckerson in attendance . . .

The ordinance concerning the Sacramento Valley Railroad, introduced yesterday by Supervisor Granger, was taken up.

Supervisor HANSBROW offered an amendment in section two--striking out "L" and interesting [sic] "O"--so as to authorize the company to lay down tracks, etc , "upon any street or alley between O and R and Sixth and Tenth streets which may be selected by said company, etc. This, he said, would give them the range of twelve blocks, which he thought was quite sufficient.

The amendment was adopted.

Supervisor GRANGER moved that the ordinance be placed on its final passage.

Supervisor HITE said he was rather inclined to oppose this ordinance. He could not see the necessity of giving the company a right of way at the present time, and the Board had already passed two ordinances in regard to the railroad, which ought to be enough for the present. He thought it was the prevailing wish of the people to change the location of the railroad so as to come in on the north side of the city, and perhaps if they waited, propositions on that subject, would come from the Railroad Company. The Board had already forbidden their going west of fifth street, and he was not in favor of their coming in on the R street levee at all. The people in his section of the city would prefer to have no levee there at all.

Supervisor GRANGER said he wanted the ordinance passed to-day, because if it were delayed, the Railroad Company would have a good excuse in the future to fill in the Sutter Slough, not having been notified of any adverse expression of the Board. If eventually the railroad came in on the north side, it would only be brought about by negotiation and contract with the city, and that could not be matured and the work done in less than twelve months. In the meantime where was the railroad to come? There would be no ordinance to prevent the filling in of the slough, and once it was filled up, even if the company went on the north side, either the city would be compelled to remove the filling, or sue the Railroad Company to compel than to do it. He had no doubt that the company would fill it up, at least so as to leave only the sixty feet opening required by the old ordinance, which experience had shown was not a sufficient passage-way for the water. It was in consequence of the pressure at that narrow place that the late flood broke through on J street. Now was the time for the Board to say on what terms it would allow the railroad to run into the city to Sixth street, and he was surprised that Supervisor Hite should oppose it, as he had been particularly anxious to have something done to prevent future disasters. It was true that they had passed an ordinance to compel the company to take up their track west of Sixth street, but this had no relation to that subject, and he was not aware that they had passed more than one ordinance in relation to the Railroad Company. If this proposed ordinance required litigation, and the city could not sustain herself, then let them know it, for the city would be required to build much higher levees.

Supervisor HITE repeated that his objection was that he did not want the railroad to come in on R street at all. The road was gone now, and the Board could restrain them from rebuilding it until they made arrangements to come in on the north side. He did not see any advantage in requiring that one hundred and fifty feet of trestle work, for there were at least two other places in the slough that would need to be enlarged by the city. He believed the company had forfeited all their rights, and he was for holding them back until proper arrangements were made.

Supervisor HANSBROW said this ordinance was drawn in accordance with the old one, and he thought with Supervisor Granger, that whatever was done should be done now. The Board could go no farther after the passage of this ordinance, and if then the railroad could, in defiance of their wishes, run where the company thought proper, at least thielr duty would be done. If the UNION of this morning was good authority, as it generally was, although it missed the mark sometimes, when they had a right to repeal the ordinance allowing the road to be constructed from Sixth street out, or, in other words, to deter it from entering the city. Therefore if the judgment of the UNION was correct, the passage of an ordinance of this kind was requisite and necessary.

Supervisor HITE said the old ordinance provided for removing the track by giving notice and paying the expense of taking it up, and also in case of violation of contract on the part of the railroad. In the latter case, the Board could at any time declare the ordinance granting the right of way rescinded up to Twelfth street, he believed; and did not know but it extended to the city limits. That could be done without notice, and that was the right which he desired to exercise at this time.

Supervisor DICKERSON said this was a matter which the city delegation ought to decide for themselves, and therefore he did not wish to interfere, although it was as important subject.

The PRESIDENT suggested that the matter lie over till a fuller meeting could be had.

Supervisor GRANGER said he was satisfied, and so was the President that nine-tenths of the people demanded just such an ordinance, but he did not think the people desired to require the railroad to terminate outside of the city, for that would be no advantage either to the city or the traveling public. [Here Supervisor Russell came in and took his seat] He (Granger) thought Supervisor Hite was yesterday in favor of this ordinance, but to-day having read a piece of criticism which appeared in the UNION the gentleman seemed to have become frightened.

Supervisor HITE said he had not read the UNION of that day yet

Supervisor GRANGER said he knew what the citizens wanted as well as the editors of the UNION did, and mingled with them quite as much, and he knew there was one united expression in favor of this measure. If the Railroad Company were permitted to rebuild this embankment now, and afterwards required to remove it, they would say it was a hardship and the Board ought to have apprised them of its intentions so as to save the expense, To shut the railroad out to Thirty-first street would increase the cost of transportation; if it cost six bits to cart to Sixth street it would probably cost twice as much to Thirty-first street, and that would be a disadvantage to the city. The damage to the city by the Railroad filling up the slough was not less than a million and a half of dollars, and now it was only proposed to specify the length of the trestle work to replace that filling. It was charged that this Board of Supervisors should have prevented that filling, but he was happy to say that it all occurred under the old city organization, which also passed every ordinance giving rights and privileges to the railroad, and upon them rested the responsibility. But now, when by a visitation of the elements they had discovered the evil, they proposed to do all they could to remedy it. Still he was deposed to deal liberally, and not exclude the railroad to Thirty-first street, and they would be the better disposed to negotiate to come in on the north side. If the depot were located on Thirty-first street it would require half an hour more time for citizens to catch the train, so that it would be a loss of time and increased expense to them as well as to the traveling public generally.

Supervisor HITE said he would vote for the ordinance although he still thought it would be better to exclude the railroad entirely in that direction. If there had been no railroad the late flood would have been no more disastrous than the one to-day, for all that saved the city to-day was the water flowing off as fast as it came in through the various breaks in the levee. But Supervisor Granger's argument about the additional cost of transportation to Thirty-first street was the worst one that he could use. If it was an advantage to remove the railroad terminus to Sixth street, it would be a still greater advantage to move it to Twelfth street, or even further. He believed the road ought to come still nearer to the river, if it could come in a proper place, but he would never consent to allow the railroad to turn a wheel on Front street

Supervisor GRANGER said there was another argument in favor of having the terminus on Sixth street. The Sacramento merchants now had to pay cartage, while those in the interior having their goods transhipped by railroad paid none, thus placing the Sacramentans at a disadvantage. Besides, the railroad on Front street was a great inconvenience. He thought it was only a reasonable protection of our own citizens to place the terminus at Sixth street. They owed no sympathy to the railroad, which, instead of showing gratitude for past favors, had charged Sacramento twice as much for freight as San Francisco. It was no advantage to a city to have a railroad pass through it, and Folsom had grown up at the expense of Sacramento by being the terminus of the railroad.

The ordinance was passed--yes Supervisors Granger, Russell, Hassbrow, Hite, Dickerson--5; noes, 0.

On motion of Sapervisor Dickerson, the Clerk was directed to deliver a copy of the ordinance to the agent of the railroad. . . .

Supervisor HANSBROW asked leave to express his opinion in regard to the legislation of the Board yesterday concerning A. D. Rightmire's claim. He did not impugn the motives of any member, yet he looked upon that act as one of the worst pieces of legislation ever enacted by the Board. He would have been present yesterday, but after waiting an hour and five minutes past the time fixed for the meeting, he was obliged to leave to meet an engagement, and consequently did not attend. But in the meantime he conversed with Rightmire, and assured him that he never could consent to such an enormous reduction as 75 per cent, on the city scrip. He admitted the justice of Rightmire's claim, but he really thought the Board had not considered the consequences of its action. He was particularly surprised that the proposition should have come from a member who had preached nothing but economy; yet it was upon that gentleman's proposition that the Board voted to pay $4,009 of money to be paid by the taxpayers, in order to pay a bill of $1,002. The idea was absurd and preposterous, and had already created great commotion. People had asked him what in the name of heaven they were doing. Were they going to compel the city to repudiate? Such a thing was never before done as the city fixing the value of its own scrip at 25 cents on the dollar. He did not wish to injnre Mr. Rightmire, but he protected [sic] against the action, especially at this crisis, when the taxpayers were almost on the verge of destruction. It was enough to drive the city to repudiation, and he did not see how they could avoid it. He was sorry Supervisor Hite had shown himself so inconsistent in this matter, and for his part, he would hereafter refuse to expend a dollar of the City Contingent Fund unless in a case of absolute necessity. He believed if the Board would reconslder its action, they could negotiate in some way to obtain the money for Mr. Rightmire. He would be willing to pay the interest on his whole loan for a month if necessary, rather than take such a step.

Supervisor RUSSELL moved to reconsider the action of the Board on Mr. Rightmire's bill, and said he would be one of ten citizens to advance the money on the claim.

Supervisor HITE said be believed Supervisor Hansbrow had withheld his name from original contract with Mr. Rightmire. This People's Committee had taken that whole matter out of the hands of the Board, and informed them officially that the work was not needed, and they could save great expense to the city by rescinding the contract. The Board agreed with Mr. Righmire to do so, paying him in cash for his expenditures on the contract. The whole Board, Supervisor Hansbrow included, pledged their word to that agreement. But they had no money, and it appeared that the city indebtedness was worth only two bits on the dollar. Whose fault was that--the fault of the Board or of the tax payers? They had presumed that the Citizens' Committee would pay the money, but they would take no action on the subject, and there was no other way in which to redeem their plighted faith than to give Mr. Rightmire the city indebtedness at the price it would fetch. Still, he doubtless would be willing to take the money and give up the scrip, and if anybody had been so ingenious as to devise another plan he would be happy to hear it.

Supervisor HANSBROW explained that he withheld his name from the original contract in order to be consistent, as he had opposed it from the beginning. He proposed that Mr. R. be allowed a bill for one month's interest on the whole amount borrowed by him, and in that time he thought they could raise the money. The interest would only amount to $80 or $90, and if there was no law for it the Board had at all events accomplished the same thing heretofore without law.

The PRESIDENT said he and Supervisors Granger and Russell had had a talk with several members of the Citizens' Committee, but could not make such impression on them.

Supervisor DICKERSON said as this matter had been referred to as unprecedented he would ask if there was not a similar case last summer when it was stated that it would cost $25 cash to raise an old hulk, and the Board allowed for doing the work a bill of $100.

Supervisor HANSBROW insisted that that was not a parallel case; it was absolutely necessary to cut down that hulk in order to insure the safety of millions of property and hundreds of lives.

A. D. RIGHTMIRE said he would like to make a statement, and in the first place, would ask under what law and with what face he could come before this Board, or before the Auditor, and ask to be allowed a bill for interest? There was not a shadow or scintilla of law for it.

Supervisor HANSBROW now said it was just as legal as to take $4,000 to pay a bill of $1,000.

A. D. RIGHTMIRE said he had taken it upon himself to consult with Figg, Harris and Knox, of the Citizens' Committee, and they told him they did not consider that the Committee had anything to do with this matter. He saw no other way to raise the money, even if they put it off six months, and they must bear in mind that in the meantime he was the only party that had to stand the risk.

Supervisor HANSBROW said he would pay his pro rata of the interest for one month rather than have the Board commit such an act of legislation.

Supervisor RUSSELL said he would do the same.

Supervisor HANSBROW said in spite of the question of legality they had been compelled to allow similar accounts to parties from time to time, in order to do justice. They were beginning to learn that the Consolidation bill would not work.

Supervisor RUSSELL said the only hope of extrication from the dilemma laid in raising this money outside. He was willing to advance towards it more than he could well spare, until he could be reimbursed by the city, and he would be one of the five city members to pay the interest for a month also.

Supervisor HITE said he was sorry that great financier did not make his appearance yesterday. He was not acting on the square in coming in at this late hour, in order to make capital out of this thing. Why was he not there yesterday to redeem his word as he should and might have been. He (Hite,) was for retrenchment and economy, but he was also for dealing honestly and justly. If the credit of the city was bad it was not their fault, and it was less the fault of the Consolidation bill than of the taxpayers.

Supervisor GRANGER said the press and the public had demanded the work at Rabel's tannery, and went on to give a detailed account of the contract with Rightmire. Even if they paid him the $4,000, the city would save $14,000 on the contract by the aid of the elements, and that he regarded as pretty good financiering. If by this Act they were fixing the value of the city paper, they were compelled to do so by the force of circumstances. He would pay his share of the interest, however, If Rightmire would consent to postpone the matter at least till next month. This Board had not created city indebtedness unnecessarily.

Supervisor HANSBROW said the only force of circumstances which compelled the Board to take this course was the representations of two or three sharpers who dealt in scrip. Were these men to be allowed to determine the value of the city paper? It was their sworn duty to regard the city paper as worth dollar for dollar and act accordingly, and not be guided by men who lived by taking advantage of the necessities of others.

Supervisor GRANGER asked if Mr. Rightmire would pledge himself to keep his paper till next meeting, the members guaranteeing the interest.

A. D. RIGHTMIRE.--I will, provided you will allow the matter to remain as it is

Supervisor GRANGER said that would satisfy him. The Board might act as if it considered the paper worth dollar for dollar; but they could not compel men to buy it at that rate, because the buyer had a right to make at least half of the bargain. He regarded the prohibition of .the.Consolidation Act, against creating indebtedness beyond the annual revenue, as a failure and said the people demanded its repeal. The fault was with the taxpayers, for the delinquent tax list for the last five years had exceeded $50,000, and it was notorious that some of the wealthiest citizens had not paid a dollar of tax since 1857. Yet they had been obliged to keep up the city government, and the police organization, or allow the city to be overrun by assassins and highwaymen. The old city government had run the city in debt purchasing fire engines, Worthington pumps and so on, and this Board had not created over $40,000.00 [?] indebtedness. If the delinquent taxes were paid, there would be money in the treasury to-day. The people used to pay four per cent taxes without grumbling, but now the rate was much less, and even including the special taxes, the people of Sacramento paid less taxes than those of El Dorado and some other counties.

Supervisor HITE moved that the whole subject be postponed till the first meeting in January, and remain as it now stands before the Board until that time. Carried.

The Board then adjourned until two o'clock, P. M.., on Monday, January 6, 1862.

THE FLOOD AT CRESCENT CITY AND SMITH RIVER VALLEY.--The Jacksonville Sentinel, of December 14th thus refers to the effects of the late storm in the vicinity of Crescent City and Smith river:

Snow fell on the mountains to the depth of five feet, which went off with a warm rain; being flood tide, Smith river rose to such a hight that its banks gave way and a large body of water run through the farms of Gilson and Cabel and emptied into the lagoon back of Crescent City. At that place a small stream called Elk creek empties into the ocean, on either side of which are a number of buildings. The water from Smith river caused the lagoon to run over into Elk Creek and increase it to that extent that the buildings referred to were swept away. On Front street, drift wood, most of which was hewn timber, supposed to have come from Humboldt and Trinidad, was piled up ten feet high; this, together with tapping the lagoon so that it could run into the ocean, which labor was performed by the Indians, the city was saved, although the water is said to have been three feet deep in the buildings on that street. The wharf sustained considerable damage; one-third of it was carried away in the middle, a large stick of timber was thrown with great force by the waters over the wharf and entered the warehouse of Dugan & Wall. The opinion prevails that the steamer Columbia is lost, as a variety of goods have floated ashore, some of which were marked "Snyder," Klamath Reservation. In the valley the loss has been far greater. A Mr. White lost his wife and two children; they had been taken from his house by the Indians in a canoe, which capsized. Smith was saved by clinging to a log, where he remained all night and was taken off by Indians. He lost his farm buildings and stock. Frank Gay, at the ferry, lost rope and windlass, but saved his boat and his house by lashing them to a rock. Gilson and Gay, with their families, were four hours on a rock which stood three feet out of the water; even this place was very insecure, as driftwood threatened to sweep them off. Gilson lost all his property. Cornelius G. White was at Gilson's house with his family when the water reached it they went to the barn, from which they were rescued by Indians. Cabel lost his farm, but saved his family by taking them to the Redwoods. The farms of Lockwood and Mrs. Benjamin were covered with water; the house of the latter was swept away. Otto, at Bradford's Ford, lost his house. Buel lost fencing and seventy five head of cattle. Both fisheries were swept away. Mathias Smith lost farm and stock, including two hundred head of fat hogs ready for butchering; he was sick at the time, but was saved by being taken out through the roof of his house. At Fort Dick, on the lagoon, Yoman lost all of his fencing. John White lost his house, fencing, etc. Hale lost his ranch, house, barn, etc., and was taken out of the second story of his house while afloat. The Indians had to leave their camp, which was on an island at the mouth of Smith river. Hall lost his saw mill; one of his employes was on a stump twenty-four hours, and when the current subsided swam ashore. A man by the name of Humboldt, and another whose name our informant did not learn, were drowned while attempting to go from the Bald Hills to Crescent City. Taken all together, the destruction of property in Smith Valley has been fearful. All of the bridges on the Crescent City road, and two on the pack trail belonging to Gasquette, have been swept away, with the exception of the one across Sucker Creek. Lewis will rebuild his bridge immediately. . . .

EXPENSIVE.--ln consequence of the impassable condition of J and K streets to the fort yesterday, and the absence of the ferry boat at that point, passengers from Folsom were compelled to come to the city from the present terminus of the railroad in boats. The price charged by boatmen varied from two to four dollars per passenger.

POSTPONED.--The funeral of O. V. Chapman, which was to have taken place at two o'clock yesterday, was postponed until further notice, in consequence of the difficulty of reaching the cemetery through the high water.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3353, 26 December 1861, p. 2


. . .

Notwithstanding the uncomfortable stage of the water in portions of the city, our people observed Christmas day much after the usual fashion, and, in the evening, some of those who are called by the New Yorkers "the governing classes" were especially merry.

The Sacramento river remained at a hight of about twenty-two feet above low water mark yesterday, after eleven o'clock, up to which time it had been rising. The American fell considerably during the day. The water in the lower part of the city has probably done but little more harm than to inconvenience the residents of that region in the matter of traveling. . . .

THE SECOND FRESHET IN MARYSVILLE.--The Appeal, of December 25th, thus refers to the second freshet which visited Marysville:

The second freshet of the season set in night before last with a right smart chance of a rise in the Feather, which soon brought the rising Yuba over all of the low ground below E street and across the slough up as far as Fourth street, filling the lower stories of numerous small buildings, and coming up on a level within four or five feet of the last flood mark by daylight yesterday morning. But by the middle of the forenoon it had commenced to fall, and at a late hour last night had gone down so far as to preclude the possibility of any serious overflow occurring at this stage of the flood. From above we learn that the Yuba is falling at Downieville, San Juan, and other places; and at Oroville the Feather had fallen several feet up to last night. As the fall in the Feather at this place is still inconsiderable, the Yuba does not go down rapidly, and it will be a day or two before the streams regain their usual channel and hight. . . .

THE FEATHER AT OROVILLE.--A dispatch to the Marysville Express, dated December 24th, says:

The river here has fallen five feet in the last twenty-four hours. It was at its hight about 11 o'clock last evening. No accidents have occurred in this vicinity from this flood, so far as heard from, except the drowning of a span of horses belonging to John S. Morris, in a slough near the Prairie House. The man driving the team saved himself by swimming. He had crossed the same place but a few minutes before. . . .

MAN DROWNED.--Thomas Campano, a Portuguese who has lately lived on the Hale place, Mad river, while attempting to cross Little river, Humboldt county, lately, at its mouth, was drowned. He was fording the stream, leading his horse, when the force of the current carried his feet from under him, and he was swept into the ocean.

ROADS.--An up country stage driver informs the Marysville Express that the roads in the mountains are in pretty fair condition, much better than one would suppose judging from the late severe storms. The roads across the plains leading from Marysville are much worse than those higher up the country. . . .

KILLED BY A LAND SLIDE.--One John Smith was killed by a land slide at Cold Canon, Sierra county, December 8th. . . .


We publish a letter to-day from John Kirk, who built most of the levees about the city, in which he expresses the opinion that the cross levees ought to be repaired, in order to effectually protect the city. But he concedes that the first work to be done is to repair and strengthen the levee on the American river. It was Kirk who built the levee at the head of Burns' slough, in the Winter of 1853, and it was effectually done, though left a little too low. He expresses the opinion, in which we fully concur, that the best material for building a levee is earth, firmly packed. An earthwork embankment, broad enough and high enough, will turn the water of any river in the world. The material is abundant on the American, and all that is required is to put it in place, and build high and broad. And, by the way, while building a levee outside the city, the Citizens' Committee may save future trouble by obtaining from the owners of the land along the river a grant of the right of way, and the right to use all the earth deemed necessary in building the levee.

The condition of things has changed materially since 1853, a fact which Kirk seems to have overlooked. A necessity existed then for the R street levee to protect the city against back water. The banks of the Sacramento were then without levees from Sutterville down. During a rise in the river, the water flowed freely over its banks into the lakes below Suttervilie, and from them backed into the city. Since that time, private enterprise has so far leveed the river as to keep the water out for some ten miles, and consequently the water has not, since 1853, backed into Sacramento. The Swamp Land Commissioners will shortly let a contract for leveeing the Sacramento to Georgiana slough, which will effectually protect Sacramento from back water, provided the American is shut out by a secure levee. Under such a state of things the R street levee would seem useless, except it is deemed advisable to repair it as a kind of double security. It is conceded that the Thirty-first street levee, in the event of the water breaking over from the American river, would turn the water so as to let it pass harmlessly by the city. Had the breaks in that levee been closed, the water which broke over Monday last at the Burns slough would have gone by without so much as notifying our citizens of its presence. The late flood demonstrated that had the railroad embankment been out of the way the water in the first would never have entered Sacramento to cause any damage. But the levee on the American ought to be made so broad, firm and high as to bid defiance to the waters of the American if they were to rise from seven to ten feet beyond the highest water mark known to the oldest inhabitants. It is our duty to make provisions for resisting floods which may rise a number of feet above the line made by the flood of the ninth of this month. Our theory is, that the water may rise in this valley much higher than any American has ever seen it, and that it is our duty as citizens of Sacramento to build levees accordingly. The experience of Americans here extends back but a few years, and it is impossible for them to have learned from experience the real high water line in this valley. . . .


PLACERVILLE, December 24, 1861.

DEAR SIR: Your favor of the 19th inst. came duly to hand. In reply, I would state that I consider the R and Thirty-first street levees of great importance. They should be rebuilt. By keeping them up the water coming from the Cosumnes river and the Sacramento would be stopped should breaks occur in the present levee below R street.

I remember that in 1853 the back water in the city came from the Cosumnes instead of the Sacramento river, as people generally supposed.

I would further advise that the levee on the American river be enlarged, following the present line from Seventh street to Burns' slough, and then continued to the high land. It would not be necessary to extend the line any further than the slough, were it not for the railroad embankment; that prevents the water from passing out towards Sutterville. I think there should be an opening in the railroad embankment, if for no other purpose than the surface drainage, but I doubt whether the city controls enough of it to give sufficient space for the overflow of the American; hence the necessity of prolonging the levee on the river above Burns' slough.

So far as the embankment in the slough is concerned, nothing more is required or can be better than good earth. I see no use for timber only to make a coffer dam to keep the water out while the bank is being built.

Yours truly, JOHN KIRK . . . .

p. 3


CHRISTMAS.--ln spite of the aqueous perils which environ our city, old Santa Claus, alias St. Nicholas, visited us on Christmas Eve with his usual liberality toward all the gocd children, and by unanimous consent the children were all considered good for the occasion. . . .

THE SACRAMENTO.--The Sacramento river continued to rise during Tuesday night, and by eleven o'clock yesterday forenoon it attained the hight of twenty-two feet three inches, making due allowance for the swell of the water in striking the guage. At this point it stood, with no perceptible change, until sundown. This is three inches higher water than we have had before during the present season; six inches higher than last season, and within three inches of the highest point ever attained since the settlement of the country. In the flood of '52 and '58, the water rose to twenty-two feet six inches. The river is therefore higher now than it has been for the past eight years. The opinion has frequently been expressed that the present city gauge is not reliable, that it is set too low and does not accord with the high water of early times, etc. A leaning sycamore tree on the bank of the river was marked in '53 by George Rowland when the water was at its highest point. When the water yesterday lacked three inches of reaching twenty-two feet six inches on the gauge, it also lacked three inches of reaching the notch on the sycamore. There can be but little doubt that twenty-two feet six inches on the gauge is the high water mark of the past. The present rise in the river results chiefly from the waters of the Feather and Yubas. After a decline for a few days it may again come up from the rains of the Northern part of the State.

DINNER FOR THE PRISONERS.--County Warden Harris made up his mind, several days ago, that his family of about fifty prisoners, rain or shine, flood or no flood, flush times or hard times, should on yesterday enjoy a Christmas dinner. . . .

WATER IN THE CITY.--The water in the flooded portion of the city south of L street continued to recede during Tuesday night and yesterday, and had fallen about two feet by sundown last evening. It was the opinion of many, however, that for an hour before sundown it had commenced to rise. If such was the case, the result must have been produced by back water, as the supply from the American is constantly diminishing. On the north side of J street the water is higher by about a foot than on the south side. The street has been cut at Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth streets, and probably at several other points, and lively streams are pouring through these openings. The crevasse at Burns' slough still throws one or two streams into the city through the Thirty-first street levee north of J street and several south of that point. A slight fall in the rivers will render the stoppage of these openings practicable. The water finds vent and runs freely through the openings in the R street levee towards Sutterville.

THE EIGHT STREET SEWER.--It is generally conceded by residents on the north side of J street that the Eighth street sewer, recently cut from near I to the alley north of K street, worked very successfully during the last flood. There was no other outlet for the water from that portion of the city west of Twelfth street, and it would have risen considerably higher than it did had there been no drain dug through Eighth street. Many of those who are benefitted by it are talking of constructing a substantial brick culvert in the trench before it is closed up. The experiments at drainage now being tried, ought to prove of permanent benefit to our citizens, and wherever the sewers work successfully they should be substantially constructed, so as to avoid the necessity of reopening them at another time. A. C. Sweetzer, who has had the superintendence of the one above referred to, believes it to be practicable to make a thorough job of it by funds raised by private subscription.

THE WEATHER.--We were favored yesterday with a clear sky, a bright sun, and a cool northwestern breeze. The agreeable change from the weather of the past three weeks was experienced by all our citizens, whose cheerful faces bespoke their gratification at the prospect of no more rain or flood and a diminution of the mud in our streets. The sky remained unclouded through the evening, and all signs seem to indicate that we shall have fine weather in which to work to provide against future disaster.

AT WORK.--E. P. Figg, of the Committee of Safety, with a detachment of workmen, was engaged yesterday afternoon at the levee below R street, in strengthening the weak point against the encroachments of the river. Gunny sacks were filled and used wherever necessity seemed to require. This point, although continually yielding to the action of the eddy, has withstood its power much more successfully than seemed probable a few weeks ago.

NOT DESTROYED.--We are informed that the new embankment at Burns' slough is not so badly injured as was at first supposed. The water first entered the slough over the natural ground around the new levee, and in that way formed a back-water protection which rendered the current less destructive than it would otherwise have been. It is thought that $300 will repair all damage done at that point.

EMBARCADERO.--The corner of Sixth and M streets--the Pavilion sidewalk--has become recently a regular embarcadero, between which and all ports in the flooded districts our city flotilla come and go, according to the demands of the traveling public. Ranchmen from several miles south of the city, who come up in boats, seem also to have selected it as their landing place.

THIEVES.--Continual complaint is made by residents of the lower portion of the city that their houses are frequently entered and pillaged of everything which can be carried off. Chief Watson should establish a marine police, whose exclusive duty it should be to cruise for pirates, and overhaul and bring into port every suspicious craft whose papers are not entirely satisfactory.

NOTHING FURTHER.--No information has been received by the Coroner or anyone in the city regarding the man who was drowned from the steamer Nevada on Tuesday last.

THE AMERICAN.--The American river commenced falling on Tuesday afternoon, and has been declining ever since. The entire fall up to last evening at and above the Tannery, was about three feet. As the tributaries above have done their worst, we have, of course, but little to fear in the way of overflow until the next storm. W. Turton and about a dozen men were on duty yesterday, watching and strengthening the old levee and adding to the hight of the new one.

RESCUED.--At an early hour yesterday morning William Webster discovered a dun colored horse in deep water, entrapped in a fence corner near the crevesse above Sutterville. The animal had evidently been in that position over night, and was nearly perished. He was released and handed over to the care of a neighboring ranchman.

CATHOLIC CHURCH.--The congregation of St. Rose Church occupied the Assembly chamber yeaterday morning for religious services, in consequence of the weak condition of the floor of the Church.

TRUNK FOUND.--A trunk well filled with clothing was found at Sutterville on the occasion of the late flood by W. Sherbourn for which an owner is wanted. A letter found in it is addressed to M. C. Rieff, Sacramento City. . . .

NO FERRY YET.--There had not up to last evening been any ferry boat set in motion at the Fort. Passengers and mail matter from Folsom were brought into the city by small boats. . . .

SEMBLINS says that notwithstanding the common belief, the water didn't seem to him as high on the 9th as in '53, when he paid 75 cents an inch for it.--Sierra Democrat. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3355, 28 December 1861, p. 1


. . .

SACRAMENTO AND THE FLOOD.--The Christian Advocate has the following reflections on our flood:

The city wears an extremely dreary appearance; while the dejected countenances we meet at every turn inform us too surely of anxious and apprehensive feelings. There is, however, in the people of Sacramento a vast amuont of recuperative energy too great and active to be withered by fire or strangled by flood; while too much honor, reputation and property are at stake to think of moving the site of the town, however desirable such a course might be. The city occupies a position where money may be made, and there some men will build, live and transact business, if the town be a Venice, with canals for streets and boats for drays.

As to the Capitol question there seems to be quite a unanimous opinion that this is the best site, and that here it should remain. With a week or two of fair weather and the presence of the Legislature the city would assume its wonted briskness and beauty; feelings of despondency would give way to cheerful smiles and pleasant hopes; dread and despair would move away as clouds after a storm before an exhilerating western breeze and all be joyous as a May morning. . . .

p. 2


The Sacramento last night, at sunset, reached a higher point than was ever before experienced, viz: 22 feet 7 inches above low water mark, one inch higher that at any former period. The river remained at about that hight. The American also remained about stationary last night, although at Folsom it had fallen during the day some six feet. It is evident that the Sacramento, being so high, has locked up the American at its mouth. The present cold nights will now, doubtless, cause these rivers to recede. In the lower part of the city there was some increase of water yesterday, owing to the high state of the Sacramento and American.

No Overland mail was received in this city yesterday. We learn that communication to Folsom and Placerville has been much obstructed by the flood. Last night, as a boat party was coming towards the city, near Poverty Ridge, the boat was upset in the current, and the letter bag of Wells, Fargo & Co. lost. No lives were lost. . . .

THE FLOOD SOUTH.--The Stockton Republican of December 25th says:

The storm which has been raging for two or three days has seldom been equaled in this vicinity. Yesterday the rain fell in torrents much of the day, and the southeast gale prevailed until the middle of the afternoon, when the wind shifted to the northwest, and in the evening there was a show of clear sky. A tremendous quantity of rain has fallen. There is no danger to the city, the few defenses which protect it not being affected by the waters. The Calaveras has overflowed its banks in several places. Yesterday morning the driver of the Mokelumne Hill stage, after getting two miles beyond the Fifteen Mile House, could see nothing but a large body of water in his road, and accordingly put up his horses, and did not attempt to go further. The water was up to the stringers of Frost & Leach's bridge when last heard from. Mormon Slough will come down "booming" this morning.

The Independent adds:

The Sonora stages were alone in reaching us yesterday at the usual hour. The Murphy's stage, which left this city in the morning, reached the Fifteen Mile House, beyond which it was impossible to proceed in consequence of the overflow of the country. The stages from Mokelumne Hill due yesterday, had not arrived up to a late hour last evening--probably detained by high water.

A dispatch from Stockton, dated December 26th, has the following:

It commenced raining very hard in this city about nine o'clock this morning, and still continues. The water is very high. Near town the country is overflowed for many milles, but no material damage or loss of life. The water is pouring over the causeway which crosses the slough on Hunter street. It will be cut away, as it is backing water upon the gardens. The bulkhead on Mormon slough is safe. No land is overflowed on the ordinary level of the city.

The steamer Christina arrived yesterday from Turner's Ferry, on the San Joaquin river, and reports that the water rose at that point on Tuesday night some six feet, and was still on the increase. In some places it had found its way over the banks, and was threatening damage to the ranches. The current in the river was great, and the large quantity of saw logs and drift wood which came floating down the stream was an indication that the watter [sic] in the upper river and its tributares had experienced a sudden rise. The current yesterday carried down the river the floating bath house belonging to Oliva. We are entirely cut off from stage communication.

OUR CHINESE RESIDENTS.--This portion of the resident population of Sacramento have been highly favored during the late floods. Living on I street, which has the highest grade of any in the city, they have altogether escaped the affliction which has generally visited our citizens, and it may indeed be said they have been as "happy as clams at high water." They owe their protection from the overflow to the excellence of that portion of the northern levee on which they generally reside, and undoubtedly feel a proper degree of gratitude in connection with this fact. Among this population are many rich merchants, who possess the ability to contribute something handsome to the fund which is being used for their protection as well as for that of others. We have heard it suggested that these people might fell [sic] slighted by reason of the Subscription Committee not calling on them for a contribution. We trust that the Committee will take this matter into consideration, and give our Celestial brethren an opportunity to exhibit their generosity in the premises.

THE LATE STORM.--We learn that the late storm was pretty general in its visitation. Those portions of the State which escaped a flood previously have now felt the influence of copious rains, and their streams and rivers are swollen. The present rainy season will be a marked one in the history of the State. . . .

FINANCIAL FOLLY OF SACRAMENTO.--It is not strange that the imbecility manifested by our Board of Supervisors in their management of the affairs of this city should attract attention abroad. Their general legislation, and especially that in reference to the Rightmire contract, is thus referred to in the Bulletin:

Sacramento is suffering more for the want of a good municipal government than for the lack of such levees as will protect the city from overflow. A tolerably efficient Board of Supervisors would never have permitted the railroad company to dam up the only outlet for water when the American river is high, and with this precaution there need have been no overflow to this day. Yet while this very outlet was obstructed, the Supervisors were stopping rat holes in the American river levee, showing that they anticipated an inundation from that side, and never reflected where the water would seek an outlet when it came into the city. This short-sightedness can possibly be excused on the ground of stupidity but how can we find any reason that would influence honest men, no matter how stupid, to indorse such a transaction as the following paragraph from the UNION discloses?

[Here follows a brief article from the UNION, specifying the manner in which the Board allowed Rightmire a disproportionate amount of scrip for what he had no legal right to claim:]

The outrageous recklessness of the Sacramento Supervisors in this transaction will further appear, when it is stated that, in the first instance, the contract with Rightmire was illegal and void under plain provisions of the City Charter. The Supervisors have no more power to run Sacramento in debt than has D. O. Mills, or any other private firm. The City Charter is copied from the San Francisco Consolidation Act, which, as everybody knows, prohibits entering into any contract binding the corporation, until the money is provided to pay for the expenses of carrying out the contract. Any contract made without means already provided to complete it, is expressly declared to be void by the charter itself. Now the Sacramento Board of Supervisors audit a "void" claim for $1,000, and issue $4,000 of "void" scrip to pay it. This is running up a city debt with a looseness that has no parallel in California. Indeed, it is running credit "into the ground"--to that point where it runs out entirely, and ceases to retain tangibility. Debts thus contracted are no debts at all, and the evidences of them cease to be negotiable among men fit to do business precisely as forged notes are dealt in by none but fools or knaves. Yet we are told that there is floating about Sacramento some hundreds of thousands of dollars of these "void" evidences of indebtedness, and that but for them, no one there would ever have thought of repudiating the debts which the city legally owes her creditors in good faith, who are without fault. These startling facts should arouse the permanent citizens of Sacramento to the necessity of putting forth effort to secure a permanently honest city government; and while they are volunteering so freely from their private resources towards building levees, it will do them good to consider this main question.

There has been no good reason for Sacramento city to go in debt one dollar since the adoption of the new charter in 1858, even were there any legal authority for so doing. Abundant taxes have been paid to defray the expenses of an efficient local government. Had D. O. Mills, James Anthony, or any one among several hundred men of means and business capacity in Sacramento been elected "the whole city government," during the past three years, and paid $50,000 per annum for current expenses, the city would not have gone in debt under such an administration, would not have talked of repudiation, and the public peace and quiet would have been admirable in comparison with the state of things that has prevailed under the "bummer rule," under which the Police Court alone costs the city some $20,000 per annum [?] more than the fines imposed.

THE HENNESS PASS.--Marysville Appeal says:

The. Henness Pass route is obstructed near the summit by fallen trees and an excessive amount of mud. Beyond Maple's the road is good. Since the Truckee bridge was swept away, that stream is crossed by a ferry. There is but little snow on the route.

KIDNAPPING A CHILD.--The Stockton Independent of December 25th gives some particulars of a kidnapping case in that city:

A painful case of kidnapping occurred yesterday, in this city, the circumstances attending which are substantially as follows: One Maxon, his wife and child, emigrated to this State a few months since, and on the journey hither Maxon acted towards his wife in a manner arbitrary and unbecoming, until she declined to live with him, and they separated, Mrs. Maxon assuming the custody of the child. On reaching Sacramento the mother applied to the Courts for the sole control over and possession of the child, and it being shown that the husband was an unfit person to have custody, the Court, through Judge Robinson, placed it in the charge of the mother, who recently came to this city and took up her residence on Flora street. Yesterday, the father visited his daughter, as he had on several occasions done before, and no one being present save the mother and her sister, he seized the child and ran from the house, followed by the mother, begging him to give back her child, and weeping bitterly on finding she was powerless to prevent him from carrying it away. He was joined by another man shortly after leaving the house, and the two proceeded in a westerly direction, through Park street to the bank of the slough, where a small boat was in waiting to receive them, into which they hastily entered and made off down the river. Their destination is unknown, but is supposed to be Sacramento. A warrent for the arrest of Maxon was placed in the hands of the Marshal, and that officer left the city yesterday in search of the kidnapper. We are informed that on a previous occasion, Maxon made an ineffectual attempt to accomplish the object in which he yesterday succeeded. If caught, as we trust he may be, he will probably have the opportunity of serving a term in San Quentin.

THE LATE STORM NORTH.--The Marysville Appeal of December 27th, referring to the late storm, says:

Rain commenced to fall heavily yesterday forenoon and continued, without a moment's intermission, during the entire day and up to a late hour last night. We have probably had no rainfall this season in which so much water fell in the same length of time as in the twelve hours ending at twelve o'clock last night. No perceptible change was observable, of course, in the condition of the streams at that time last night, but if the rains should continue for a day or two longer at the same rate of falling, we should have another touch of deluge which may be a freshet No. 3, which may a kind Providence forbid.

The Express says;

The Yuba commenced falling on Wedneaday night, and during the time fell about one foot. Notwithstanding the heavy rain of yesterday, undoubtedly the heaviest of the season, the Yuba continued to fall gradually, and late at night was still falling.

A dispatch dated at Red Bluff, December 26th, has the annexed particulars of the storm at that point:

Yesterday was a very pleasant day. This morning about three o'clock it commenced raining and has rained almost incessantly all day, and since dark the rain has poured down in torrents. The creeks are all up very high and the Sacramento river rising fast. No stage from below this place since yesterday morning and none from above since Tuesday night. It has never been known to have rained harder than now. The creeks and sloughs between here and Shasta are all full, and Cottonwood river is higher than it has been before this year. A team in attempting to cross the Cottonwood yesterday was drowned; the driver escaped. . . .


Suicides--Conviction--Mike Branigan [?] Hunted--Vessels at Panama


. . .

The rains have done much damage in this city. The wall of a brick building corner of Dupont and Post streets fell yesterday. . . .

[For the Union.]


MESSRS. EDITORS: As the action of the Supervisors in allowing Rightmire $4,009 for the purpose of making the amount allowed equal $1,002.25 in cash at the current market rates of audited claims on the Contingent Fund, having caused considerable discussion both in the papers and on the street, I, without expressing any opinion on the equity of the case, call your attention to the fact that the law is fixed, and that any discussion about it is a perfect waste of breath or pens and ink. The question has been adjudicated by our highest tribunal, and the exact case occurs in Foster vs. Coleman (10 Cal., 278), on an appeal from Los Angeles county. The facts shown by the record in that case are that in 1856 the Assessor presented a claim for 165 days' service, at the established rate of $10 per day, making a total of $1,650, which claim the Supervisors allowed as follows: "Ordered, that the sum of $4,125 be paid out of the fund for current expenses, to equal $1,650 in cash, at the rate of 40 cents per dollar," and that in conformity with said order the Auditor draw his warrant in favor of Coleman (the Assessor) for said sum of $4,125, which warrant was presented to the Treasurer and indorsed and registered in the same manner as other warrants not paid for want of funds. The case came up on an application made by Foster, a taxpayer, for an injunction prohibiting the Treasurer from paying the warrant, and for an order that Coleman deliver it up to be canceled, both of which orders the lower Court made and Coleman appealed. The opinion of the Supreme Court was delivered by Justice Field, Baldwin and Terry concurring, and the Court says:

"The only question for determination respects the validity of the order of the Board of Supervisors. It appears that the market or cash value of county warrants, was only forty per cent, of the nominal amount and that the object of the action of the Board was to give Coleman that which was, at the time, an equivalent for cash. The object did not justify the action. The effect of the order was to create a debt or liability on the part of the county, and this the Supervisors were not empowered to do for any purpose except as provided by law. Their action was entirely without authority, and altogether indefensible. Judgment affirmed. The demand of plaintiff for his services can be again presented to the Board, and upon its allowance, a warrant for its true amount be ordered."

You will see that this is conclusive, and that however much Mr. Rightmire may suffer from the fact, the claim as at present allowed is totally worthless--not good even for the original $1,000 unless it is withdrawn and presented again.

THE RIGHTMIRE CLAIM.--This claim, as provided for by the Board of Supervisors, is effectually disposed of, as appears by a communication from a legal source in another place. The claim for $4,009 is clearly illegal, as appears by the decision of the Supreme Court in 10 Cal., 278.

[lodge symbol] I.O.O.F.--At a Special Meeting of the General Relief Committee, held at Odd Fellows' Hall, Sacramento, on Sunday, 22d instant, the following resolutions were adopted:
Whereas the timely aid extended by our sister Lodges of San Francisco and Stockton having enabled us to enlarge our sphere of action, thereby relieving many cases of distress and suffering throughout the city; therefore be it
Resolved, That the thanks of the Committee and the Order in general are hereby tendered to those Lodges who so kindly rendered assistance in our hour of gloom and adversity.
Resolved, That the prompt and ready action in forwarding relief cannot be too highly estimated; and, we trust, if ever occasion should arise, that we shall be found totally prompt and ready to repay the debt thus contracted on behalf of suffering humanity.
Resolved. That the foregoing resolutions be published in the San Francisco, Stockton, and Sacramento papers and that a copy duly attested be forwurded to the different Lodges. SAMUEL YOUNG, Secretary.
N B--Morning Call, San Francisco, and Stockton Independent will please copy. d28-1*

p. 2


. . .

POLICE COURT--. . . Thomas Smith said he did not know whether he was guilty of stealing $20 in coin, a belt and & pair of boots from Wm. Barnett or not, as he "was very drunk at the time, yer honor." His Honor informed him that he ought to be the best judge--which was not certainly placing a very high estimate on his own judicial ability and fitness. Barnett, the complainant, testified that he was a little tight the second day after the flood, and laid down and went to sleep. When he laid down his belt was around him, his money was in his pocket, and his boots, that he paid $7 for in Carson City, Nevada Territory, were on his feet. When he got up he was denuded of his belt, plundered of his money, and stripped of his boots. He next met the belt and the boots around the body and on the feet of Tom Smith, whom be did not recollect of having ever before set eyes on: the money he had not yet discovered. Smith was adjudged guilty, and is to be sentenced to-day. Barney Riley's trial for stealing a rowboat worth $30, the property of J. S. Ellison, was put off till Tuesday next to await the arrival of the Matilda Heron with a load of coal and an important witness for defense. . . .

THE TANNERY.--The rumor was kept afloat at various times and various ways yesterday that the levees--old and new--at Rabel's tannery had yielded to the waters of the American river--that the workmen had been compelled to abandon them, and that a torrent of water was coming rapidly into the city, etc., etc. Such stories were, of course, unfounded. The levees were closely watched during Thursday night. The American began to rise rapidly at three o'clock, A. M.., yesterday morning. W. Turpin with about a dozen men worked steadily during the whole of yesterday. The water continued to rise until about three o'clock, P. M., and rose about four feet. It remained stationary from that hour until sundown. The remnant of the old levee was strengthened by gunny sacks to the best advantage. The current of the river was, as usual at that point, very strong, and told with effect upon the remaining portion of the embankment. Portions of earth kept caving and falling continually, thus increasing the chances of the water breaking over and coming in contact with the new levee. The assaults of the current were, however, resisted until night, but it was doubtful whether it could be kept at bay until morning. If the old levee should wash away, the result of the direct action of the water at its highest stage on the new levee is somewhat doubtful. It was designed, however, by those who had the work in charge, if it should become necessary, to let the water gradually into the space between the two levees, and thus form a basin of still water to protect the new work. If the water should fall in the night, as seemed highly probable, there would be no necessity for such a course. At eight o'clock last evening the American at Folsom had fallen six feet, and was falling at the rate of one foot per hour, as we are informed by telegraph.

BOATS UPSET.--At about eight o'clock last evening a boat containing two boatmen and six passengers, was upset near Poverty Ridge. Among the party were Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express messenger, the Overland Stage agent, and two telegraph operators. All the passengers had just arrived by the cars from Folsom, and were on their way to the city. The letter bag of Wells, Fargo & Co. was lost, and has not since been recovered. The unfortunate navigaors were picked up by a boatman known by the name of "Red," and were safely landed at the Pavilion. Their luck was very like that of a party of pressmen who went out on a boating excursion on Christmas evening. There were seven in the company, and their boat was large enough to hold but three. The remaining four concluded to borrow a boat, which they did without consulting the owner, and put out upon the waters as cheerfully as though they had his consent for the use of it. They unfortunately failed to inspect it as to sea-worthiness. After the two boats became separated, and when in twelve feet of water--by measurement the next day--the bottom of the boat very suddenly gave out, and the water as suddenly came in. The four excursionists in a moment found themselves with very little idea of their latitude or longitude, or the soundings beneath them. They were all picked up within ten minutes, and are extremely anxious that the owner of the boat, should he ever recover it, shall make the bottom more secure before they have occasion to borrow it again.

THE HIGHEST WATER ON RECORD.--The water in the Sacramento river at sunset last evening stood twenty-two feet seven inches above low water mark, having risen ten inches during the past twenty-four hours. This is one inch higher than the highest mark of '58, or than the river has ever attained since the settlement of the State by Americans. We desire, in this connection, to call attention to the fact that the levee on the American east of the Tivoli is washed away in many places and the waters are flowing uninterruptedly through, and the crevasse two miles below the city is still open and a torrent is pouring through, and yet the business portion of the city is entirely free from inundation. Even with the present grade of J, K and L streets, while the passage of the waters is uninterrupted, we are not flooded by the highest water ever attained by the Sacramento. Will not a slight elevation of the grade of our streets place us out of the reach of danger, provided the water is not dammed up to our detriment?

WASHING AWAY.--The Sacramento levee, between P and R streets, commenced to wash away in many places yesterday. The earth was entirely removed by the action of the water from the river side of many of the large cottonweed trees growing at that point. Unless something is done to support them, they will probably be blown over and destroyed. There is, of course, no immediate danger to be apprehended from the levee at this point, but it will require the attention of the Committee of Safety after the water falls.

SUNDAY NOTICE.--The Rev. Mr. Banton will preach to-morrow morning at a quarter before eleven o'clock, and likewise in the evening, at seven o'clock, unless there should be a violent storm. . . .

INJURY TO THE RAILROAD.--The freshet of yesterday morning made another break in the railroad at Brighton of about two hundred feet. The cars were prevented on that account from coming so near the city as usual. A portion of mail matter was detained beyond that point last evening. Preparations were made yesterday for repairing the road as speedily as possible. . . . .

FUNERAL TO-DAY.--The funeral of O. V. Chapman will take place at half-past twelve o'clock today from the rooms of J. W. Reeves, on Fourth street. Those who attend it will be conveyed from the Pavilion to the City Cemetery by boats, as there is no other way of reaching that point.

WATER IN THE CITY.--The water in the lower portion of the city commenced to rise early yesterday morning, and by sunset had risen two feet. As the American ceased to rise at about three o clock P. M., yesterday, the city will probably be considerably relieved by this morning. . . .

THE POUND-MASTER.--After the first of the year Pound-master Mayo designs to remove his impounding establishment to dry land--the present locality being under water. He will then take charge of all stray cattle on his range.

NO SERVICE.--There will be no services in the Baptist Church next Sabbath, Dec. 29th, as another week will be required to finish the repairs. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3356, 30 December 1861, p. 1

THE LATE FLOOD. We find that the late rains in certain localities in the interior have been more disastrous in their effects than the former floods. We compile the following accounts from our exchanges.

SAN JOAQUIN.--Stockton Republican, of Dec. 27th, says:

Yesterday was ushered in by a howling southeast gale, which continues as we are writing this. At ten o'clock yesterday morning the rain commenced falling, and during the day and evening an enormous amount fell. The storm yesterday was the severest which has been experienced in this city for a long time. The gale made bad work with everything that could be damaged by.the wind. Awnings have been destroyed, and signs, fences and trees blown down by the score. The worst piece of mischief which we have noticed is the unroofing of the southwest portion of the City Hall, about one-fourth of the tinning having disappeared. Alderman Sargent engaged a party of sailors, who procured canvas, with which, with the aid of boards, the roof, a very sham-built affair, was covered temporarily, though some damage will be caused by the water. The water is very high in the sloughs in the city, and one or two foot bridges have been carried away. No land which is of the ordinary level of the city has been overflowed. Those whose premises inclose portions of sloughs have a plentiful supply of water upon their lots, though their houses are all set upon the level of the city, and are safe. The south half of Mayor Holden's premises were overflowed on Wednesday night, and he had a time of it in getting out his Cheshires and Suffolks to a place of safety. Hart's premises, which are similarly situated, are also overflowed, but his large new brick house is safe, or was at last accounts. He had to swim his horses from the stable to the high land. The grounds of the Seminary, partially in a slough, are overflowed, and the southern fence is down. Hart attributes the presence of most of the water upon his place to the existence of the causeway on Hunter street, which operates as a dam across the Oak street slough and backs the water upon him. The causeway has a culvert, but not one-fiftieth part large enough to let through the water. A passage three feet wide and deep was cut through the causeway yesterday, but it is doubtful if this will lower the water above sufficiently. The earth of the causeway is so clayey and tough that the great body of water will not sluice the cut any larger. The water commenced pouring over the causeway on Wednesday evening, and continued until the cut was made. The place was a regular water fall, some three feet high and a hundred feet in length. The water first reached the city early Wednesday afternoon, though warning had been given that it was coming, and ever since the water has been rushing down from the country with great violence.

The Stockton Independent of the same date remarks:

The stage from Sonora, due on Wednesday, arrived in this city at one o'clock yesterday, having been detained over night at the Twenty-six Mile House. McCombs, the driver, informs us that the principal place of detention is at Simmons' slough, which is running bank full and still rising. A small bridge above Doak's has been washed away. The slough at the Five Mile House, is in very bad condition for the passage of teams. The stage which left this city for Sonora, was swamped in this slough, by reason of which it failed to connect with the down stage, otherwise the stage due on Wednesday would have reached here in the usual time. The water in the Stanislaus, at Knight's Ferry, is reported to have risen on Tuesday night eight feet.

The Mariposa stage arrived at half-past seven o'clock last evening, making the trip through from the Tuolumne since morning. We learn that the water at Loving's Bridge rose on Tuesday night to within four inches of the planking. At Dry creek the water was too deep to render stage crossing in any degree safe. The passengers were ferried across in boats, while the horses swam the stream, making a change of stages on the opposite bank.

We learn that the Mokelumne on Tuesday night was six inches higher than in the Winter of 1852. The bridge at Woodbridge was saved from damage by some considerable exertion, the water having risen nearly to the stringers.

The following dispatch to the Bulletin, dated at Stockton December 28th, 2:30 p. m., gives a later and still more discouraging account of the flood in Stockton:

The alarm bells were rung most of last night. The water was unprecedentedly high. The city generally has been overflowed. Several blocks on low ground have been flooded in the business portion, owing to imperfect drainage. A few stores have been flooded on the south side of Main street. A great many dwelling houses are flooded, and families have had to seek other quarters. The water is now fast running out of the city.

The main body of the water came from the Calaveras river. The country for miles around presents one vast sheet of water.

SONOMA,--Of the rains in Sonoma county and in the vicinity of Petaluma, the Journal of Dec. 27th speaks as fellows:

An acquaintance of ours who has just returned from a trip through the upper and western portion of this county, represents the damage done to property, roads, etc., and the loss of stock, by the late flood, as immense. In many sections the roads are completely washed away; the course of the creeks and streams materially changed; farms overflowed, and in some instances covered many inches with wash dirt; fences destroyed, etc. According to his description, large numbers of cattle, hogs, etc., were drowned. On the Santa Rosa creek he noticed several head of young cattle hanging in the branches of the trees, high and dry from any ordinary flood. Near Cloverdale we are told the river cut a new channel, leaving the mill of Caldwell & Co. in a bad fix.

EL DORADO.--The Placerville Democrat, of December 28th, says of the late storm in its locality:

Another severe storm has visited us, doing a great deal of damage to bridges, flumes, ditches, roads, etc. On Thursday night the rain fell heavily and the wind blew furiously all night. On that night Hangtown creek was higher than ever before. The extent of the damage we have been unable to ascertain. An immense amount of rain has fallen this month, and it seems reluctant to "dry up."

A correspondent writing from Georgetown, December 26th, says:

A severe storm is raging here and all through the mountains up this way. Trees are blown down and other damage done. The heaviest rain of the season fell this afternoon, and is falling in great quantity at this time (nine o'clock P. M.)

NAPA.--The Napa Reporter, of December 28th, has the following:

During the last week we have had an almost incessant pour from the clouds, and with a slight increase of rain we may expect another flood of Napa City. Cornwell's Addition has become "boatable;" but the damage is slight, and limited to that part of town. From the upper part of the valley we learn that the late flood left but little chance for harm.

BUTTE.--The Record of Dec. 28th says:

Feather river was swollen by the recent rains to within six feet of the former freshet. All crossing was suspended at the ferries for two days; but no great damage was done, that we have been able to learn. The creeks and sloughs have been higher than before, but not enough so to do further damage. All communication with Marysville was stopped for two days; and staging to Tehama was not resumed until Thursday morning. The bridge over Dry creek, on the road to Lynchburg, was swept away, and the Celestials, who were working on the banks of all the streams in the vicinity, left on double quick for high ground. The great mass of Chinese have never seen a flood in Calfornia, and they do not comprehend it very well. They are afraid of water in large quantities, and no "shabbe big water come in night and washee away cabin, Chinaman and everything Chinaman catchee in Californy." The Indians appear to be highly pleased at the discomfiture of the Celestials; there appears to be no affinity between them.

NEVADA.--The Democrat of Dec. 27th adds:

After a moderately pleasant day on Christmas, giving hopes that the storm was over, the rain set in again early, Thursday morning and continued to fall steadily until about nine o'clock this morning. During the most of the time it was raining very hard, and a high wind prevailed last night. The quantity of water that fell at this place in the course of twenty-four hours, ending yesterday morning, was four inches, and nearly twelve inches has fallen since twelve o'clock Saturday night This morning the water in Deer creek was within a foot of the highest mark attained on the 9th instant, and as large quantities of tailings have been washed out of the bed, the volume of water in the creek must have been greater this morning than at any previous time this Winter (the South Yuba was also very high this morning, but we have heard of no damage of consequence. The sun came out about two o'clock this afternoon, and there is now a prospect of pleasant weather.

TRINITY AND HUMBOLDT.--We find the following in the Journal of December 31st [?]:

From Denny, Humboldt, mailman who arrived last Sunday for the first time in over three weeks, we learn that not only the new bridge over the Trinity at Hoop Valley is gone, but the wire suspension bridge built across the Klamath river three miles below Weitchpeck, last summer, by Martin, was carried away. This bridge was put up by A. S. Halladie & Co. of San Francisco; was 500 feet long and 98 feet above the river. It cost some $8,000.

At the mouth of Trinity river, John Fennessy's house, stock of goods and everything else was swept away; and at Big Bar, on the Klamath, the trading post, and other property of Wm. Shelton shared the same fate. No tidings have reached us from Orleans Bar, but the general impression is that the town must have been destroyed.

To give our readers some idea of the immense body of water accumulated below the confluence of Trinity and Klamath rivers, we state on the authority of Capt. Cecil of Klamath, that at the wire suspension bridge above mentioned the water rose one hundred and forty feet!

Everything is swept clean on Trinity river, and the damage is immense.

p. 2


. . .

The water fell yesterday in the portion of the city which was submerged about eight or ten inches. The American has fallen several feet since our last issue and the Sacramento about four inches. The latter river, it is well known, rises and falls slowly. The business portion of our city is and has been since the last flood free from water.

We are without telegraphic intelligence from any quarter this morning, the wires being generally out of order.

According to an account elsewhere, our neighboring city of Stockton suffered severely by the late storm.

THE WORK TO BE DONE.--We do not suppose it necessary to remind the Citizens' Committee of the importance of even one hour in the work before them. Not a minute should be permitted to pass, after the water at Burns' slough falls so much as to render it possible for the water to be stopped, before the work is begun. It was delayed too long before. The flood came on Monday, the 9th, and work was not begun at the slough until the next week Wednesday, ten days after the high water. A beginning three days earlier would have insured the levee at the slough against the last two floods. It should be made secure before the next high water, and in order to do that, a large force will be necessary. At Rabel's tannery the new levee would be strengthened by a lining of brush, weighted down with a few bags of sand, or with dirt thrown on to it with shovels. The Committee is also aware that there are other points in the levee between Burns' slough and Thirty-first street which need work the moment the water will admit. We would also suggest to the Committee that it may do a great deal towards improving the appearance of the city, as well as add materially to the comfort and convenience of citizens and strangers, by the expenditure of a few hundred dollars on streets and sidewalks where owners have too little public spirit to improve the latter. The ditches cut acros the several streets should be made permanent drains, lined with brick or .redwood plank, and thoroughly bridged. The streets of J and K ought to be repaired from Front to the Fort, and ferries established or bridges built, so as to insure people a passage to and from the city. The board of Supervisors licensed two ferries at the slough, but neither of them were in operation Friday and Saturday when they were most needed. The flat at one was reported sunk; the rope of the other was under water, and all attempts to make trips across the slough given up. Had proper arrangements been made, both of these ferries could have been operated during the high water.

The Board of Supervisors have neither money nor credit to do anything for the improvement of the city. For what has been done so far, the people are indebted to the liberality and enterprise of private individuals. If the Committee will now take up the work where individuals have left it, the members can, for a very little money and a few days sunshine, put the business portion of the city in a neater and better condition than it was in for about half of last Winter. In view of coming events, we are confident that such a movement on the part of the Committee; will meet the approbation of a large majority of the people of Sacramento. . . .

From the rapidity of the current at the Fort on Friday and Saturday, across the east end of the city, and through the break in the R street levee, a man could hardly arrive at any other conclusion, than that there must be from eight to ten feet fall between the Fort and Sutterville. The water at the Fort ran with such force as to render it difficult to cross the stream in a boat. To swim it on a horse would have been a desperate undertaking. . . .

THE LATE STORM IN SAN FRANCISCO.--The San Francisco Herald says:

The storm of Thursday night was a very severe one for this locality, several of the oldest inhabitants averring that they "had never seen the like before." The wind blew very hard during the entire evening, increasing to a gale towards midnight. We learn that a house, the property of a poor family, near the corner of Mason and Chesnut streets, was blown down, and that five new cottages, nearly completed, on Douglas Place, near Beale and Harrison streets, were demolished. In various parts of the city damage was done to awnings, signs, etc. Houses in airy localities, which withstood the gale, were rocked like cradles by its violence. The houses in Douglas Place were undermined by the water. A portion of Third street is stated to have been submerged. . . .

THE STATE CAPITAL.--The Solano Herald thus remarks upon the proposition of a few parties to remove the State Capital:

Since the occurrence of the great calamity which has recently overwhelmed the Capital City, carrying want and ruin to so many of her poorer citizens, entailing heavy losses at present and immense expenses in the future upon her capitalists; and trouble and inconvenience upon all, it has been contended, by interested parties and parties inimical to the present location of the State Capital, that the Legislature should at once provide for its removal; and the claims of various localities to the honor of being the seat of government have, it seems to us, been urged with more zeal than wisdom, and with a heartless cupidity more consonant with the maxims of savage life than with the teachings of civilization.

The principal reasons urged for its removal, so far as we have heard, are that it is subject to overflow, and that Sacramento is so hopelessly in debt as to be utterly unable to build a levee of sufficient dimensions to prevent the recurrence of the late disaster, the possibility of whose construction has been seriously doubted. The expense to which the State must be subjected in order to protect its property in that city, is urged as a reason for removing the Capital, and we suppose, abandoning the State property there to the protection of a people whose inability to protect themselves forms the stock in trade of these removal agitators. We do not perceive the force of these arguments. When we reflect that it would require a volume of water at least ten times as great as that which recently overwhelmed the city, to produce a rise of one foot above the point it then reached, the magnitude and consequent expense of the work would not seem so very formidable but that even Sacramento, debt ridden and almost bankrupt as she is. might undertake its accomplishment with a fair prospect of success. But we would not leave the work entirely to Sacramento. If there were fifteen thousand inhabitants of any other part of the State suffering to the same extent as those in Sacramento, we do not believe that an appropriation for their relief would be objected to; and we can see no reason why the fifteen thousand inhabitants of Sacramento should not receive as much consideration as a like number in any portion of the State. Besides, the relief most needed by them will, if granted, do much toward placing the property of the State in a condition of security, and thus obviate all objections to the present location of the Capital.

There is another objection to a removal which does not seem to have been considered by those who are opposed to the expense of retaining the Capital at Sacramento. The State, last Winter, made a contract with the city of Sacramento, by which the State agreed to build a State House in that city on certain well defined conditions. On the part of the city those conditions have been complied with, and at great expense; and if any one is so simple as to suppose that the State can escape the performance of its part of the contrast at an expense less than double the cost of a perfectly secure levee around Sacramento, he must be simple indeed. And it would soon become apparent that the expense entailed by removing the Capital from Sacramento would scarcely exceed that of locating it anywhere else; for, with the act of perfidy before them which some would have the State commit, no city could be found to contribute a dollar for the purchase of grounds or the erection of buildings, and the State would have to bear the entire expense. So far then as economy is concerned, it would be exceedingly unwise to change the present location of the Capital.

BOAT FOUND. - PICKED UP IN the Sacramento river about six weeks ago, during the first rise, a flat-bottom skiff, painted lead color. The owner can reclaim his boat by applying at the PACIFIC MARKET, paying charges, etc., d30-3t*

p. 3


. . .

POLICE COURT.--On Saturday Judge Gilmer sentenced Thomas Smith to serve one hundred and eighty days in the chain-gang, for stealing William Barnett's boots off his feet and $20 in money out of his pockets. . . . Richard Fox and M. Callahan were convicted by a jury of four of assault and battery on W. Reed, but a motion for a new trial is expected to be made this morning. W. Reed is also charged with assault and battery on Fox and Callahan, and his trial was postponed until to-day. The difficulty between these parties grew out of a dispute about a boat.

FUNERAL OF O. V. CHAPMAN.--The funeral of O. V. Chapman took place yesterday afternoon. A large number of the members of the Masonic fraternity resembled at their Hall, and proceeded to Sixth and M streets, at which point the remains of the deceased were placed in a boat for transportation to the City Cemetery. About fifty-five members of the above named organization followed the remains to the Cemetery--the whole forming a procession of nine boats, presenting an unusual and extraordinary spectacle. The train passed down Sixth street to the railroad, through the opening in the embankment at that point, and thence in a direct line to the Cemetery. The funeral service was pronounced by the Rev. W. H. Hill.

LIBRARY REPORT.--From the monthly report of the Librarian of the Sacramento Library Association, we find the following information: . . . It will be observed that the number of books drawn has fallen somewhat below the average. This should not, however, excite surprise, when the confusion and disarrangement consequent upon the overflow is taken into consideration.

EACH IN TURN.--Our neighbors at Washington and those of Slater's Addition, who escaped inundation entirely when the main portion of the city suffered the most on the 9th of the month, have met with their share of misfortune in that respect within the past few days. The high water of the Sacramento is finding its level among them to their great inconvenience and loss. . . .

THE RIVER.--The Sacramento river at sunset last evening had fallen some four inches from its highest mark, and stood at 22 feet 3 inches above low water mark. "Slow and sure," is an old saying. If the fall of the Sacramento is as "sure" as it is "slow," we have a dead thing of it in the course of time. The American river has fallen so far as to be docile and harmless. . . .

ROOF BLOWN OFF.--During the gale by which our city was visited on Thursday night, a portion of the roof of the grand stand at Agricultural Park was blown off. Nearly one-fourth of the entire roof was carried away, giving the edifice as it stands a very dilapidated appearance. . . .

ARRESTS.--. . . Richard King and John Maboney were also arrested by Taylor and Cody for petty larceny in stealing a boat, the property of M. Vance.

FUNERAL FROM THE HOSPITAL.--The funeral of Napoleon Lanouette, who died at the Hospital several days ago, took place yesterday afternoon. The remains of the deceased were conveyed to the City Cemetery in a boat.

RUNNING AGAIN.--The ferryboat at the slough at Sutter's Fort commenced running on Saturday afternoon. Footmen, horsemen and teams pass in and out K street. Several openings across J street require to be bridged. . . .

SERIOUS ACCIDENT.--The annexed particulars of a sad accident are given by the Knight's Landing News of Dec. 28th:

On Thursday night last, during the storm, W. G. Seely, the proprietor of the Union Hotel, proceeded with a lantern to the top of the hotel building to clean the spouts of obstructions, which prevented the water from running off from the roof. The rain and wind put the lantern out, and in attempting to descend he missed the ladder. He held on for some time by the fire wall and called for help, but before assistance could be rendered he lost his hold and fell to the platform below--a distance of thirty-six feet. His leg and ankle are supposed to be broken, but he appears to have received no internal injuries.

A SAN FRANCISCO LANDLORD.--The following card is published in San Francisco:

To all those fleeing from the floods of Sacramento and Stockton, the proprietor of the Niantic Hotel would respectfully state, that his house will be open and free for them for one week. H. H. PARKELL, Proprietor.
SAN FRANCISCO, December 28th

P. S.--We are told that "giving to the poor is lending to the Lord." This has been verified in my case. In 1850, when I had just arrived in the country, I contributed my last $50, through the (then) editor of the Alta, to the sufferers on the Plains, and never have had occasion to regret it. H. H. P. . . . .

THE RAIN.--lt commenced raining with great severity at nine o'clock today, in this city, and the storm continues unabated. At San Rafael the rain commenced at half past eight A. M., and at Petaluma at nine A. M., with great force. The tide to-day is unusually strong, and there is every indication that the rain is general.--San Francisco Alta, Dec. 26th. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3357, 31 December 1861, p. 2


. . .

The waters of the Sacramento at sunset last evening were about the same hight as they were twenty-four hours previous. The rains yesterday and on Sunday night had raised the American somewhat, and Sutter slough last evening was about an inch higher than on the day before. No fear was entertained that the late rains in the interior would cause any dangerous flood at this time. . . .

The telegraphic wires were down last night in every news direction, and we were left without communication with the outward world.

THE LATE FLOOD IN AMADOR.--The late rains did considerable injury in Amador county. The Jackson Ledger of Dec. 28th says:

A storm of equal severity with the one which visited us during the last week is never remembered to have occurred in this section, by white people. Without intermission, the avalanche of water poured from the heavens for about thirty-six hours, swelling every little rivulet to a torrent, which bore along in its resistless course houses, fences, bridges--and overflowed ranches and gardens. Many of our citizens have suffered severely. The waters of the Middle Fork of Jackson creek broke over its banks above Palmer's livery stable, and ran in a perfect torrent down Water to the junction of Broadway street to a depth of three or four feet.

The Young America saloon was for a time in great danger of being carried away, in consequence of the foot bridge crossing Jackson creek, near the residence of White, being swept away and lodged against it. Everything of a movable nature was carried out of the building. The damage will amount to $300 or $400.

The North Fork overflowed the upper end of Main street, causing a panic and stampede among the celestials who inhabit that part of town--the waters visiting their dwellings and sweeping over floors to which water had heretofore been a stranger.

The Mokelumne river was yesterday at an unprecedented hight--nearly reaching the stable that stands at the south end of the bridge.

A portion of the dugway on the Mokelumne Hill road was washed away near Butte City, as also the bridge at the quartz mill where the old road used to cross the gulch.

THE LATE RAIN IN PLACER.--On Saturday night, December 21st, the late storm commenced in Auburn, and continued until the following Tuesday. The temporary trail bridge at Mineral Bar was carried away. Thursday afternoon the storm commenced again, the rain falling heavily. The Herald of December 28th says:

The storm was the most violent of any experienced this Winter. Auburn ravine reached a higher mark than during the first flood, and all the tributary ravines were very high. The turnpike was again flooded, but not seriously injured. The American river rose very fast, but did not come within five feet of its previous high mark at Oregon Bar, below the junction. From this we conclude that upon the head waters of the American forks snow, and not rain fell. . . .

THE STORM AT GRASS VALLEY.--The late storm was quite severe at this place. The National of December 24th says:

Another severe rain storm commenced about twelve o'clock on Sunday morning, and has continued without intermission to the present time, five o'clock p. m. on Tuesday. Up to sundown of Sunday 4.16 inches fell, and 2 50 from that time till sundown on Monday. Since that time, up to the hour of our going to press, today, five o'clock P. M., but .60 of an inch have fallen. The storm however is still continuing, and there is a prospect of more rain to-morrow than we have had to-day. Thus far 7.26 inches has fallen during the present against 14 01 which fell in about the same time during the last storm.

THE LATE STORM IN DOWNIEVILLE.--The Sierra Democrat of December 28th thus speaks of the late rains in its vicinity:

The river is up again, and likely to be for some time. The foot bridge at Jersey still holds. The other freshet took out so many obstructions that the same volume would not now rise so high over the banks. If these latter rains had fallen on as much snow as laid on the mountains before the recent flood, the water would now be higher than then. All this week the ruin has been falling, with but very few and short intermissions. . . .

SUPPOSED SUICIDE.--A man, named O. G. Dunham, who has been in the Sierra County Hospital, and had one side of his body paralyzed, is supposed to have jumped into the river at Downieville and drowned. He was a native of Vermont.

DROWNED IN PLUMAS.--Thomas Dawson, an old citizen of Quincy, Plumas county, was drowned near that town recently while returning to his home. The deceased left a young wife.

THE COSUMNES.--The water rose so high on the Cosumnes a few days since as to surround the old adobe house at Grimshaw's ranch. This is said to be quite unusual, even in high water times.

THIRTY-FIRST STREET LEVEE.--Judge H. O. Beatty, who has examined the Thirty-first street levee, thinks it can be so far repaired as to fill the breaks from L to E street for about five hundred dollars. This would shut the water out of the city north of L street, and leave that portion of the city comparatively dry. It would be well for the Committee to look at this matter, and have it done right away, if the river is too high to begin work at Burns' slough. It would be gaining quite an important point to so repair that levee as to exclude the water running out of the river at the slough from entering the city north of L street. But as early as possible work should be commenced at the slough, and continued day and night until the levee at that point is placed in a condition to resist higher water than that which came over it on the 9th instant.

SIDEWALKS AND STREETS.--We reiterate the suggestion that the Citizens' Committee ought this week to give some attention and money to putting the streets and sidewalks to and from Capitol in a good condition for walking upon. We hardly suppose that any property owner will object to putting down a sidewalk opposite his lot or lots before the Legislature convenes. First impressions go a long way, and our property owners ought to consider that they are vitally interested in having the city present as favorable and inviting an appearance as possible under the surrounding circumstances.

THE LATE STORM IN CALAVERAS.--The Chronicle of December 28th says:

The storm of this week has been far more severe, in this county, than the one which resulted so disastrously for Sacramento. The rain commenced falling on Sunday morning, and for three days it seemed almost as if the windows of Heaven were literally opened. The branches of the Calaveras were higher than during the memorable flood of '52. Bridges have been carried away from several streams, and the swollen torrent rushed along through gulches and ravines, carrying before it everything that obstructed its course; we have heard of several accidents, but no losses of life. In attempting to cross a stream, a horseman was carried down the river for some distance, but finally reached the shore from which he started without suffering any inconvenience but a thorough wetting. Some gentlemen attempted to go from San Andreas to Calaveritas, but were compelled to return, being unable to get over Willow creek. We learn that the Calaveras overflowed its bank, and that the city of Stockton and the surrounding country was inundated. The Mokelumne was not as high as during the rain of last week. The bridge at Sandy Bar was carried away. We have not heard of any other damage on the Mokelumne.

THE FRESHET IN PLUMAS.--All the bridges in Indian Valley with the exception of one, the bridges across the East Branch at Twelve Mile Bar, as well as numerous minor ones, were carried away, by the late freshet.

p. 3


POLICE COURT.--The police business of yesterday was disposed of by Judge Gilmer as follows: The case of W. Reed, charged with assault and battery on R. Fox and B. Callahan, was dismissed. Fox and Callahan, previously convicted of assault and battery on Reed, were fined $10 each. . . . The case of John Mahoney and John King, charged with the larceny of a boat belonging to R. H. Vance, worth $25, was partially examined, and continued for further testimony until to-day. Vance proved the boat to be his. It had been missing about two weeks, when it was found in the possession of the defendants. Their statements as to how they came in possession of it were contradictory. The testimony on this point was also conflicting. . . .

SIDEWALKS.--Our attention has been called to the bad condition of the sidewalks at several points near the Capitol. The lot at the northeast corner of Seventh and I streets, belonging to Dr. Pearis, has no sidewalk on either front. That on the south side of I near Sixth is also in bad condition. At a point on the east side of Seventh between I and J, and also between J and K streets repairs are badly needed. The Legislature will assemble in a few days--Monday next,--and for many reasons these repairs ought to be completed before that time. If owners neglect the work the authorities ought to attend to it as is provided by ordinance.

BOAT UPSET.--At about noon yesterday a small boat containing two men, a woman and a child, was swamped by the waves produced by the Gov. Dana on her way from Marysville. The accident occurred opposite Mike Bryte's ranch, three miles above the city. The parties in the boat were all saved by clinging to the beat and to the willows along the shore, near which the accident occurred. They were rescued by Joseph Gray, Andrew Conlin and Nicholas Short, with the aid of a small boat, by which they were taken one at a time to shore. As the steamer did not halt, it is presumed that her officers did not witness the accident.

THE RIVERS.--There had been but little change at sunset last evening in the Sacramento river during the past twenty-four hours. The gauge still indicated twenty-two feet three inches of water. The American river at the tannery commenced to rise about noon yesterday and rose moderately throughout the afternoon. The slough near the Gas Works rose about an inch during the latter portion of the day. . . .

COMPANY A.--Company A, Captain Joseph Smith, of the Fifth Regiment, was brought to the city yesterday from Sutterville, by the steamer Gov. Dana, and was transferred to the steamer Antelope, for San Francisco, a few minutes before her departure. The company numbered seventy-eight men. Considerable delay was caused in transferring the men from one boat to the other, on account of the prevalence at the time of a heavy rain and terrific gale of wind.

FURNISH THE LUMBER.--Overseers Long and Dreman, with the chain gang, are engaged in constructing street crossings wherever the material is furnished by property owners. Furnish the lumber, and let the streets be again made passable to pedestrians.

WAITING FOR GOOD ROADS.--A large number of teams are detained on the Auburn road; between that road and this, waiting for roads and weather by which they can travel. . . .

RAIN.--Our city was visited yesterday, by way of variety, with a violent storm of some two or three hours duration. The rain which fell, we learn from Dr. Logan, amounted to 0.400 of an inch. This amount, added to 0.350 which fell during Sunday night, makes 0.750, or three-fourths of an inch during the past twenty-four hours. We have had about nine inches of rain during the month of December. . . .

GREAT EXPECTATIONS.--lf the almanacs tell the truth we shall have a new moon at about 9 o'clock this morning. The hopes of many of our citizens for clear weather hang upon its horns. . . .

p. 4

NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN that the undersigned will apply to the honorable Board of Supervisors of Sacramento City and County, on the 27th day of January next, or as soon thereafter as the application can be heard, for a license to keep a Ferry across the American river, at the old Hereford & Lisle Ferry.
December 26, 1861, [d27 80t] R.A. PEARIS, . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3358, 1 January 1862, p. 1

RECORD OF EVENTS IN THE CITY. Below will be found a brief mention of noteworthy events which have occurred in this city during the year. Sacramento has suffered extensively, both by flood and fire, during the year, but her citizens still retain the energy and self-reliance which have hitherto been found sufficient to combat more disastrous calamities than they have experienced in 1861. . . .

March 14--. . . Work commenced on the sewer from the St George Hotel to the I street levee. . . .
March 27--Very high stage of water in the American and Sacramento rivers, and great alarm felt lest an inundation of the city should follow. Swift's bridge at the mouth of the American was swept away. Body of A. J. Baer found in the Sacramento river, below Washington. A Coroner's jury found a verdict of suicide.
March 28--Water from Sutter Lake forced its way into the American river, across First street. Lisle's bridge partially swept away by the freshet. . . .
April 7--The Sacramento levee at the foot of R street was washed seriously by an eddy, and caused a good. deal of excitement. The work of strengthening it was commenced at three and concluded at nine o'clock P. M.. At midnight another alarm was given, and fears were entertained that the levee would be broken through before morning. . . .
April 8--At one o'clock in the morning a train of cars left for Folsom for cobble stone with which to repair the levee at the foot of R street; sixteen loads were brought and used during the day. The work was continued through the night.
April 9--. . . During a portion of the day the Sacramento river stood at twenty-one feet and nine inches above low water mark. . . .
April 11--The waters of the Sacramento continued to range at twenty-one feet and six inches, and upwards, above low water mark, although so long a time had elapsed since the fall of any rain here that the street sprinklers were brought into requisition to lay the dust.
April 17--. . . Fifty thousand feet of Puget Sound lumber arrived for Lisle's bridge. . . . Yesterday and to-day twenty car loads of cobble stones were thrown into the crevasse at the levee below R street.. . .
April 23--Ordinance passed forbidding the pumping of water from cellars until the Sacramento river shall have fallen to a point eighteen feet above low water mark. . . .
May 23--The Supervisors entered into a contract to have the water in the lower part of the city which had oozed through the levees, pumped out. . . .
May 31--The work of pumping out the water from the lower part of the city was commenced by Supervisor Hansbrow. . . .
July 17--A free bridge across the American river constructed by Bannon, Johnson and others was thrown open to travel. . . .
Oct. 22--The Board of Supervisors determined to build a bulkhead at Rabel's tannery. . . .



. . .

Nearly every material interest in the State suffered, to an extent unprecedented, by great freshets which, during the month of December, swept off houses, immense numbers of cattle, farming and mining utensils, and other property. In many of the cities and villages, inundations have destroyed heavy stocks of merchandise, and driven hundreds of families from their dwellings to seek refuge elsewhere. . . .

The following is a record of some of the noteworthy occurrences and facts of the year: . . .
March 29 [sic]--Great freshets in the rivers in the northern portion of the State, causing much damage to property.
March 28--. . . Stage travel greatly interrupted in consequence of the destruction of bridges by the freshets. . . .
Nov 12--Heavy rains throughout the State. Equipments at Camp Alert were all afloat. . . .
Nov 17--Tremendous storm of snow in the mountains and rain in the valleys.
Nov 18--No Overland mail received in consequence of the interruptions by storm in mountains. . . .
Dec 6--Northern California visited by the most terrlble rain storm ever experienced by American inhabitants.
Dec 7--The effect of the storm very disastrous in the carrying away of bridges and other property, and the obstruction of telegraphic and road communication.
Dec 9--Great inundations throughout the State, causing a fearful destruction of property. The waters of the Sacramento, Feather, Yuba, American, and other streams, reached a hight unknown before. Sacramento City was all under water but the levees.
Dec 11--The high waters slowly receding; communication both by telegraph and stage almost entirely destroyed within the Slate. Great sums of money raised in San Francisco for the relief of sufferers by the flood in the interior. . . .
Dec 13--Telegraphic communication with the East reopened. . . .
Dec 21--The Sacramento Board of Supervisors passed an ordinance ordering the removal of the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company's tracks and other property from the river banks and from R street between Sixth street and the river.
Dec 23--Another rising of the American, Yuba, Feather.and Sacramento rivers, caused by heavy rains. . . .
Dec 26--The most terrible storm of wind and rain ever experienced in Northern California by Americans.
Dec 27--. . . Travel much impeded by the high stage of water in all the principal rivers.

p. 3

. . . The receipts of the city from the levee are derived from a toll of. . .

This amount, judiciously expended, ought to be enough, if the city levees were once well built, to keep them in tolerably good repair. The falling off in the month of December is attributable to the general stagnation of business caused by the recent disastrous overflows. . . .

FLOODS IN SANTA CLARA COUNTY.--The San Jose Tribune of December 27th, says:

The stage for the steamer at Alviso could not pass the bridges over the Guadaloupe this morning, in consequence of the rise in the river. The stream has overflowed its banks, and the water is up to the fence of the Convent Notre Dame. The stages were compelled to go to Alviso by the new turnpike road. We also learn that the Coyote is very high, and that the stages for Gilroy, San Juan, Watsonville and Santa Cruz did not leave this morning, being apprehensive that they could not make the trip in consequence of the rise in the streams. . . .

p. 4


. . . The late flood naturally disarranged business to some extent, and caused to be destroyed or mislaid, many papers in the possession of person who have generally furnished us some matter for our New Year's paper. We found it difficult, too, at times, while all were so busily engaged in repairing damages and rearranging business, to interest in the matter those who could alone furnish the desired information. . . .

HIGH FLOODS.--A communication in the San Jose Tribune expresses the opinion that the flood of Dec. 9th in Sacramento was caused mainly by the bursting of clouds in the mountains, and contains the following statement:

I met Col. Williams at Sacramento. He was there urging some war claims he had against the Government upon the attention of the Legislature. In conversation with him in regard to the overflow of '49, he stated to me positively that he had seen the water at that place (the embarcadero it was formerly called) ten feet higher than the top of the levee in front of the city. He further observed that, if I doubted the fact, he would walk with me to the slough and show me the marks on the trees that would convince me. I had no reason to doubt the old gentleman's word, and therefore did not accept the invitation.

We have seen similar marks in waters all over the State, but they are unreliable in determining the hight of a flood. Trees, unless they are large and strong, are borne down by the force of the waters, and when they right themselves again, exhibit on their trunks, and sometimes in their tops, marks of the flood, such as dead leaves and other floating matter. We have witnessed these indications often in the interior, and were deceived by them as to the height of rivers, until a long residence in the locality and a severe experience with floods gave us more reliable intelligence. . . .

THE BRANNAN RANCH.--lt is stated that the losses of stock on the Brannan ranch, on Feather river, will not exceed ten thousand dollars. Most of the sheep drowned were of ordinary breeds. Some six thousand were driven to the high lands and saved. . . .


. . . No immediate or peculiar calamity should be permitted to obscure the fact that our reasons for rejoicing during the past twelve months have been more numerous and potential than our excuses for despondency. . . .

This strengthening of the ties of allegiance to a form of government which furnishes the best guarantees of peace, liberty, security and prosperity, should afford ample atonement for any mere local disaster. . . .

Sacramento, though so recently and so seriously visited, has no justification for spending a gloomy New Year's day, or for cherishing unkindly memories of 1861. Previous to the advent of the December floods, the city had cause to be thankful for her progress in wealth, business and permanent population. Her position as the second city in the State, was rendered more than ever secure. Those who had faith in the bright future of the capital before the rising waters devastated her streets, cannot lose confidence in the recuperative power of a people whose energies have been frequently tested and approved, nor yet lose sight of the natural conditions which render a metropolis located precisely where Sacramento stands a necessity of the State. No; let the Old Year carry with him in his flight all thought of grieving over the effects of the flood, and the advent of the New Year bring us cheerful confidence in our destiny, while nerving us to prompt and thorough-going action, in order to restore what has been lost and to secure safeguards against a repetition of the calamity . . .

CONVICT LABOR.--The San Francisco Journal has published several sensible articles on the condition of Sacramento and the levee question. It thinks convict labor might be successfully employed. In a late number it says:

In an article in this paper on Saturday, we indicated how, at a comparatively trifling expense, the State can extend to Sacramento the aid which she so much needs, assistance without which, we may add, she may be blotted out from the list of the fair cities of our State--assistance which magnanimity and interest alike command us to extend. The employment of the convict labor of the State in this way, while it will confer such important benefits upon the country by securing it against the destructive inundations to which it is now subject, commends itself to favorable consideration for several other reasons. First, it relieves a most important class of our fellow citizens from a competition alike odious and impolitic--a competition degrading to our mechanical industry, and which no pecuniary consideration can ever make tolerable. But as suggested in the pamphlet to which we have before referred, the employment of these outcasts upon the works alluded to can be extended to the reclamation of the swamp and overflowed lands, and by a judicious system of compensation for their labor, made an effective means of their ultimate reformation. Levees, canals, and in places stone walls will be indispensable to the reclamation of these lands, and the protection of the country from inundation, and there is already a fund of about $300,000 applicable to the required works, and which will be ample for the procurement of all the machinery, tools and materials required beyond what will be cheerfully furnished by the cities and counties immediately interested in the works. At least, so much as has been derived from the particular districts upon which the work is to he done can be thus devoted. The prisoners can be incited to faithful labor by a provision for the accumulation of a fund, by setting apart a reasonable proportion of the proceeds of the sales of the reclaimed lands, from which the discharged convict, at his release, shall receive his proportion, either in land or money, thus giving him a small capital at his re-entrance into the world, and freeing him from the temptation which destitution opens for entering upon a new career of crime. We are satisfied that legislative wisdom can eliminate a system which has merely been hinted at in these papers, by which incalculable good will result, not only to the people of the river counties, but to the State at large, and we urge its consideration upon public attention. . . .

THE STORM IN SAN JUAN.--The late storm in San Juan was very severe, and prostrated fences and trees, and did damage generally to local improvements.

GOT AGROUND.--A few days since, the steamer Bragdon, in passing from Stockton to San Francisco during the late gale, was blown on the bank of the slough about six miles from Stockton, and remained there without injury until hauled off by the Helen Hensley. . . .

p. 5


POLICE COURT.--. . .In the case of John Mahoney and John King, two boys, tried on a charge of stealing a boat on Monday, and held under advisement, the defendants were discharged, with good advice from the Court.

THE LEVEE NEAR SUTTERVILLE.--ln addition to the main crevasse, near Sutterville, through which an immense quantity of water passes hourly, we are informed by citizens of that locality that about three-quarters of a mile of the levee is in a very precarious condition. The water is running over it in several places some six or eight inches deep, wearing away the bank, gradually it is true, but surely. In many other places the bank is caving by the action of the water, and is gone for a distance of one half or two-thirds the width of the levee. Those who have seen these weak places say that if they can be supplied with a few bales of hay, a few pickets, and a few gunny sacks, they could stop the depredation of the waters, but that if there is no remedy applied soon the levee for the distance named will have to be entirely rebuilt.

SINGULAR.--On Monday afternoon a footman, on approaching the city, near Burns' slough, met with a man who was riding a horse and leading two others, both saddled. As a severe rain prevailed at the time, he obtained permission to ride one of the horses. The owner, or ostensible owner rode so rapidly into the city that the borrower was unable to keep pace with him, and was afterward unable to find him. The horse was taken to the station house and placed in charge of Chief of Police Watson. His owner has not yet been heard from. The horse is a large white animal, and has the letter N branded on the left hip.

BOAT BUILDING.--The most active and universal business now going on in the city appears to be that of boat building. All who have hammer, saw, nails and lumber, employ their time in this line of mechanism. There is, of course, an endless variety of models produced. Had Noah postponed his experiment at ark building until 1861, and laid the keel in Sacramento he could have obtained many a new idea in that line which was never dreamed of in the olden time. Whether he would ever thereby have reached Mount Ararat is another question. . . .

FREIGHT BOAT.--A large flat boat, ten feet wide and thirty feet long, was built yesterday at M and Second streets, by J. B. Newland. The builder launched the craft last evening in the water on M street. He designs to use it in carrying freight from the business portion of the city to the present railroad terminus at Poverty Ridge. When the boat is no longer of use in this line it will be taken to Georgiana slough to be used as a ferry boat.

THE RIVERS.--The water in the Sacramento at sunset last evening stood twenty-two feet seven inches above low water mark, having risen four inches within the past twenty-four hours. This is the high mark of Friday, December 27th. The American river declined slowly during the afternoon. The water in the lower portion of the city raised about eight inches during Monday night, and partially receded during yesterday afternoon.

AT WORK.--The Committee of Safety had a number of men employed on the northern levee yesterday, wherever work could be done to advantage between Rabel's tannery and Burns' slough. In consequence of the rains of Monday and Monday night, and of the continued high water, it is impossible to work at present except at a few points. As soon as practicable, a much larger force will be employed. . . .

NOT THEIR WORK.--The Committee of Safety give notice that they do not consider it their business to make or repair street crossings or sidewalks, dig drains, construct sewers, or bridges, or remove nuisances. Their whole business as a Committee they consider to be to protect the city from inundation. Application of all descriptions have been made to them for the performance of such work as is above referred to. . . .

GOOD WORK.--An excellent sidewalk was yesterday partially constructed in front of the lot belonging to Pearis & Wilcoxson, at the northeast corner of Seventh and I streets. Lumber has also been provided for similarly improving other property in the same vicinity. Such promptness is worthy the imitation of other property owners, as its effect must be advantageous to all. . . .

YOLO.--The water continues to rise higher and spread further in Yolo county daily. Many ranches, which have never been known to be flooded before, are now under water. Several houses belonging to ranchmen, which were thought to be entirely safe, have been set afloat and turned over by the action of the water.

THE WEATHER.--After the rainy night and cloudy morning, the wind veered around from the southeast to the northwest yesterday forenoon. The clouds disappeared, the atmosphere became cool and bracing, and the general hope was inspired that the rains were over for the present. Quien sabe? . . .

THE FLOOD IN SAN FRANCISCO.--Our neighbors in San Francisco have not altogether escaped the consequences of the storms. The Bulletin of December 30th says:

The wind blew heavily again last night from the southeast, but we have learned of no damage to shipping except in one instance. The bow hawser of the ship War Hawk, lying at Vallejo street wharf, cut through into her bows some distance. The planking must have been rotten. The bay was calm again this morning and the skies blue, but the rain fell toward noon in great quantity. The tide, too, happened to be higher--the oldest inhabitant says--than ever known before. These two causes have flooded many of the cellars of our down town houses. On California street this is especially the case, as the torrents rushing down the hill are met and held back by the high tide. This back-water is thus forced through the adjacent cellar walls. The damage is not very great, as perishable goods are not kept to any great extent in these cellars. The whole of the southern portion of the city and county watered by Mission creek is also flooded by the high tide, and no small damage will result to gardens of that neighborhood, and large lakes have been formed in other low lands by the rain.

The Alta adds:

Early this morning the rain set in with renewed violence, and up to one o'clock this afternoon has fallen heavily and without intermission. An immense amount of water has fallen, many of the streets and cellars down town being flooded. At eleven o'clock the water in the bay rose to an unparalleled hight. It came up to the caps of the wharves. The great rise was caused by a very high tide, coming at the same time with a wind from the west preventing the escape of the water through the Golden Gate, and a flood in the streams tributary to the bay. Fortunately there was no wind from the north or south, for a heavy blow sweeping the bay lengthwise would have thrown the waves over the wharves and done great damage to the property along the water front. The tide will be higher to-morrow, the day after, and the next day, than it has been today, but probably the other influences will not concur to raise the bay so high as it was this morning. The roads leading out of town are exceedingly muddy, and in the adjacent counties almost impassable.

REMOVAL OF THE CAPITAL.--On this subject the San Francisco Spirit of the Times says:

We think the Sacramento papers have attached too much importance to what a few irresponsible persons have said touching a removal of the Capital. So far as San Francisco is concerned, no such an idea has ever been entertained or even hinted at, much less putting in force any machinery, political or otherwise, looking towards such an undertaking. That the people of San Francisco desire the Capital to remain where it legitimately belongs, was made manifest in the prompt manner in which they responded to the appeal for relief from Sacramento. The people of San Francisco do not wish the Capital located in their city, and have not signified such a wish; and if there be any who speak contrary to such a view, professing to represent San Francisco in the premises, they do so without the slightest right or authority. The Capital of the State is at Sacramento, belongs there, and must remain there, and even if it should be necessary to adjourn the Legislature to some other place for the present, still Sacramento is the Capital of the State, and some provision should be made by the Legislature about convening to find means to protect the property of the State. It savors of a dishonorable act, to us, to even discuss the removal or probability of a removal of the Capital from Sacramento, for the reason that she is temporarily in difficulty; but as San Francisco naturally seems to be the locality aimed at in the Capital removal articles, we deem it but an act of justice and a part of our duty as a journalist to disclaim that she desires such a change. Should the matter of permanent removal come up before the next Legislature, we hazard the opinion that the vote of every member from the city and county of San Francisco will be against it, and rightly so. We entertain a hope, however, that instead of discussing the removal of the Capital from where it belongs, the feasibility of protecting it for the future will be one of the prominent measures of the session. The people of California will not sanction the removal of the Capital from Sacramento. . . .

CROWDING EXTRAORDINARY.--The Mountain Messenger says they have got a wooden building up at La Porte, built of seasoned lumber during he past Summer, between two brick buildings. It was fitted into the opening so tight that the swelling, caused by the recent wet weather, is crowding the two outside bricks to such an extent as to endanger the safety of one of them. The "devil" of the Messenger office suggests the application of a bottle of Sherman's Rheumatic Liniment to take down the swelling. . . .

THE FLOOD IN STOCKTON.--Referring to this topic, the San Joaquin Republican of December 28th says:

The sun came out brightly yesterday, and the latter part of the day was in strange contrast with the boisterous day before. It is now settled, if it were not before, that Stockton cannot be seriously overflowed. The water fell quite low yesterday in the sloughs. The cutting away of the Hunter street causeway nuisance drained the four lots upon which the water was backed, completely, though they are partially in the sloughs. The water in Mormon Slough rose two feet yesterday afternoon, and at two o'clock this morning was nearly full, and rising rapidly.

All the sloughs traversing the city were high at two o'clock and rising. Several houses situated on low ground near the slough, at the back of the Stockton Bakery Hotel, were surrounded with water. At half past one o'clock the alarm bell was rung, and in a few minutes a hundred or more persons were on their way to Mormon Slough, which was supposed to have overflowed its banks or broken over the bulkhead. The slough was found to be nearly bank full, but the bulkhead safe and sound.

The overflow comes from the Calaveras. Miners' avenue, between Hunter and California streets, was all under. The water was a foot deep in Supervisor Severy's garden. Col. Connor's bulkhead is partially is [sic] under water, and the foot bridge was likely to break at half past two this morning. The slough at Hart's and Shoaff's was bank full. The water was within half a foot of reaching Hunter street bridge, and was rising at the rate of six inches an hour. Probably not a dozen lots in town are overflowed.

A dispatch to the Alta from E. S. Holden, dated Stockton, December 29th, P. M., says: " Stockton is free from water--damage yesterday, five hundred dollars.". . .

[drawing of dancing couple] IN CONSEQUENCE OF THE
unsettled state of the weather, the INAUGURATION BALL will be POSTPONED until further notice. JOHN H. CARROLL,
ja1-8t Chairman Executive Committee. . . .

p. 8


Nov 11--. . . Considerable quantity of rain fell--first of the season. . . .
Nov 17--The city was visited by a lively shower of hail, accompanied and succeeded by heavy rain.
Nov 18--The Board of Supervsors rejected the only bid for constructing a bulkhead at Rabel's tannery. . . .
Nov 29--. . . The Board of Supervisors agreed to contract with A. D. Rightmire for a bulkhead at Rabel's tannery. . . .
Dec 9--By a sudden rise of the American river, consequent upon recent heavy rains, the levees were broken, and the entire city, with the exception of the remaining levees, was submerged. About forty houses were swept away by the flood, and an immense amount of property, estimated at about a million and a half, destroyed. One man was drowned by driving his team into a cistern, the cover of which had floated off. It is not known that any other lives were lost. During the night the flood subsided, leaving L street and all that portion north of it free, but the remaining portions of the city have been covered with water to a greater or less extent, at intervals, to the present day. Liberal subscriptions in aid of the sufferers were received from San Francisco.
Dec 11--A citizens' meeting and a Committee chosen to prepare a plan of action in regard to the inundation and the condition of the levee, and report on the following day.
Dec 12--At the citizens' meeting, the Committee reported a plan for rebuilding and repairing the levees by transferring the Sinking and Interest Fund to a special Levee Fund for that purpose. The Board of Supervisors had a special meeting called for that parpose, and passed an ordinance making the transfer as desired.
Dec 13--On account of various legal and other difficulties in the way, the project of appropriating the Sinking and Interest Fund was abandoned, and a Committee of citizens was appointed to raise money for that purpose, the money to be expended by another Citizens' Commitee. Nearly $60,000 were raised, and the work was prosecuted with a good degree of vigor. The Howard Benevolent Society exerted its energies to relieve the suffering poor, establishing a depot at the Pavilion for shelter, food and clothing, and a hospital in another locality for the sick . . .
Dec 16--The laborers at the new Capitol building resumed work, having been driven away by the flood.
Dec 17--The Board of Supervisors voted to cancel the permission given the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company to run their cars on the R street levee west of Sixth street and on Front street. . . .
Dec 19--A Citizens' meeting, called to consider the subject of the removal of the railroad to the northern part of the city, voted to instruct the Citizens' Committee to go on with the levees without regard to the railroad; . . .
Dec 23--The American river again broke through at at [sic] Burns' slough, the location of the first break, sweeping away much of the new levee built by the Citizens' Committee, and flowing through the southern part of the city. The Board of Supervisors passed an ordinance repealing former ordinances granting the right of way to the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company, and enacting that said company may construct a track into the city as far as Sixth street, by building trestle work a distance of 150 feet each side of the slough.
Dec 24--A man supposed to be William H. Tyman, was drowned in attempting to go on board the steamer Nevada. The Sacramento had risen twenty-two feet six inches above low water mark.
Dec 25--Notwithstanding the uncomfortable stage of the water, Christmas day was observed with a good degree of hilarity.
Dec. 27--The Sacramento river at sunset was twenty-two feet seven inches above low water mark, being one inch higher than ever before known since the country was settled by Americans. By the upsetting of a boat near Poverty Ridge, two boatmen and six passengers were ducked, and Wells, Fargo & Co.'s letter bag was lost.
Dec 29--. . . Nearly one-fourth of the roof of the grand stand at Agricultural Park was blown off by gale.


SIXTH STREET CHURCH--. . . The basement of the church has been much injured by the late flood, imposing additional expense upon this society. . . .

H STREET M. E. CHURCH--. . . Up to the time of the great flood the church had been prospering finely for three months. The congregation had increased so that the average attendance was more than that given, and the Sunday School was rapidly advancing in numbers and interest. The condition of the city has affected both these; but as the property has not been materially injured by the flood, and the church is now in comfortable condition, increased prosperity is confidently hoped for. . . .


SACRAMENTO VALLEY RAILROAD.--. . . The business of the road has been prosperous during the year, up to the time of the December flood, which destroyed a portion of the railroad embankment within the city. Repairs are rapidly progressing. . . .

Altitude at the top of the Levee, in front of the City, 54 Feet 5 Inches. Hight of lower surface of Mercury, 52 Feet 5 Inches above Low Tide at San Francisco--with remarks.

[a number of observations, including:]
Quantity of rain and fog
JANUARY. - 2.668
FEB'Y. - 2.920
MARCH. - 3.320
APRIL. - 0.475
MAY. - 0.590
JUNE. - 0.135
JULY. - 0.000
AUGUST. - 0.000
SEPT. - 0.000
OCTOBER. - 0.000
NOV. - 2.170
DEC. - 8.687
ANNUAL MEAN. - 23.201
AVERAGE. - 18.019

. . .

Arranged according to the Classification recommended by the American Medical Association; with remarks,

. . .
From External Causes:
. . .
Drowned - 4
January -1
April - 1
July - 1
December -1

Male - 4

1 to 10 years - 1
20 to 30 years - 1
50 to 60 years - 2

California and Pacific States - 1
Atlantic States of N. America - 1
F'gn Countries - 2

. . .


There are in the city a number of Societies, having various praiseworthy objects in view.

THE HOWARD BENEVOLENT ASSOCIATION, organized December 28, 1857, relieves the sick, poor and destitute, regardless of nativity. creed or color. Its officers are as follows: President, George W. Mowe; Treasurer, T. M. Lindley; Secretary, R. T. Brown; Directors, P. H. Russell, C. Robin. John McNeill. John H. Carroll, William H. Hill and N. A. H. Ball; Steward, George P. Warner. The confidence which is universally entertained in the efficiency and integrity of this organization is well attested by the fact that the generous people of San Francisco made it their agent to receive and disburse donations to the amount of more than $30,000 for the relief of the suffering in Sacramento and the surrounding country, caused by the inundation of December 9, 1861. The labors of the officers have been so arduous during the past month that it has been impossible to obtain any statistics in regard to their transactions for the year. . . .


Abstract of the Meteorology and Necrology of Sacramento, with remarks.

[table omitted]

REMARKS.--Clouds and rains and storms, attended with unprecedented floods, have characterized the month, and rendered it exceptional in many respects. The persistence of the inclement weather, chronicled in our November report, continued to prevail unill the 7th, when an almost tropical rain set in, and in the space of thirty-six hours over 2-1/2 inches of water fell at Sacramento. In consequence of this sudden accession of water which, according to our advices, was in the proportion of about one here to six in the mountains, the American river rose very rapidly, and would doubtless soon have run off at its debouchement into the Sacramento (then only twenty feet above low water mark,) had not the unseasonable spell of warm weather melted the snow from the mountains at the same time. From the latter source the waters came rushing down the sides of the mountains like an avalanche, carrying away dams and aqueducts, and deluging, in a very brief time, the foot hills, as well as the valleys lying far below. The levee on the American soon yielded to the sudden pressure, at Burns' slough, and the natural outlet having been closed by the railroad embankment, the cumulated mass of water soon found its level in our streets, and at 12 M. the whole city was submerged, with the exception of Front and I streets. At the former point the water attained within sixteen inches of the top, at. 10 P. M., when it had reached its maximum elevation. As soon as it found a vent through the embankment at the south of the city, the water subsided rapidly, and on the morning of the 10th the main streets were freed from the destructive element. From this period the weather continued variable and unsettled until the 22d, when a second term of heavy rains commenced, and consequently the lower portions of the city were again inundated. On Christmas the sun broke from its cloudy confines, but the wind changed again by night to the rainy quarter, and the following day the most copious precipitation on record was experienced as regards the proportion of quantity to time. During the space of 13 hours a warm rain poured down in torrents, accompanied at intervals by a high wind from the S. E. During this period the minimum of the barometer was recorded as above. The water which fell measured 2.440 inches, and the American responded rapidly again, flooding the lower portions of the city, which had been partially relieved. As the Sacramento had at this time attained the highest stage on record. viz: 22 feet 6 inches above zero, the American had no other outlet except through the southeastern portion of the city. That the entire city was not again submerged is proof practical that there is a much greater fall in the Sacramento below the city than is generally conceded by engineers, and that the first extraordinary flood is altogether attributable to the error of not leaving open a passage for the escape of the water in the event of a crevasse such as we have just experienced.

The exceptional characteristics of the month are found in the unusually high range of temperature, the great proportion of cloudy, foggy and rainy days, and the large amount of precipitation, amounting to nearly one-half of our average annual supply. There is generally a period of intermission between the early and the latter rains, and doubtless it is now at hand, as we have already received much more than half of the annual quantity. Considering all the circumstances, then, meteorological and physical, just mentioned, in connection with our past experience, we may confidently predict that the business portions of the city cannot become inundated again this season. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3359, 3 January 1862, p. 1

. . .

SWEPT AWAY.--The bridge over the Mokelumne, at Woodbridge, was swept away on Friday night, December 27th, the sudden rise in the river having taken it off bodily. It then [?] lodged against the bank a few miles miles below Woodbrldge. . . .

p. 2

TRAVELING IN THE INTERIOR.--Travel from Auburn to Nevada and Marysville is much interrupted at present by high water in the sloughs. . . .

p. 4


. . .

The wires of the telegraph between this point and San Francisco being down, we are without our usual dispatch from the latter city. . . .

The waters of the Sacramento are falling, but very slowly. The Committee of Safety resumed operations yesterday morning, and a number of men were employed in repairing the levee along the American river. . . .

FLOODS IN THE MOUNTAINS.--Persons who come [?] down from the mountains of Tuolumne and Calaveras, December 30th, inform the Stcckton Independent that the late floods which have overflowed the Calaveras and Mokelumne were quite destructive throughout the mines. The small streams in Calaveras have all been out of their banks. Flumes, mining claims on the bars [?], fences, gardens and orchards have been swept away, or ruined by deposits of sand and water. About Murphy's much damage has been sustained by the claimants along the bed rock traces [?] which penetrates the flat; and scarcely a locality has escaped without serious loss. The roads are nearly impassable. Numbers of the small bridges are gone, and slides from the hills are frequently encountered.

In Tuolumne, according to the Columbia Courier, the destruction of property has been equally as wide spread, and work in the mines was almost universally suspended last Saturday. The Main Gulch flume burst on Thursday night, completely deluging all the claims in Columbia gulch. The Water Company's flume was injured to the extent of $5,000. The telegraph wires were disordered in all directions, and no news came in either by mail or telegraph. The buildings at Osborn's Ferry were surrounded by water from two to four feet deep. The end of the ferry rope had given way, and the river transit had become entirely suspended. The bridges, including Loving's, were still standing, though constantly threatened with being swept away by the rise. The rain had fallen [?] with a steadiness and severity never before witnessed in that part of the country. . . .

OUR WANT OF CITY AUTHORITIES.--Theoretically, we have city authorities, but practically, we are without any city government. The Consolidation Bill professes to furnish the people with a Board of Supervisors, and a President, who, by virtue of his office, is Superintendent of Streets and Levees. The salary attached to the office has been three thousand dollars. This was allowed the President as a compensation for giving his time and labor to the public in presiding over the deliberations of the Board, and in superintending streets and levees.

This is the theory, but in practice for the past two years the city has been without a Superintendent of Streets and Levees. President Shattuck, so far as we are advised, has taken upon himself very little more trouble about the streets and levees than any other citizen. They have been left pretty much to their own care--except what little has been bestowed upon them by the overseers of the chain gang.

The Board of Supervisors itself has pursued very much the same course in relation to city matters as its President. The most it has done for the city is included in allowing accounts and contracting debts contrary to the spirit and letter of the law. So great is the floating debt thus created against the City Contingent Fund, that the Board itself estimate warrants on that Fund as worth only twenty-five cents on the dollar. The credit of the city has been run down by successive Boards until it is below zero. So worthless is city scrip that we question whether there is a lumber merchant in Sacramento who would sell the authorities five hundred dollars' worth of lumber for even two thousand dollars in warrants. This condition of things seems to have been fully appreciated by the Board at its late session. Notwithstanding the city had been completely inundated, millions of property destroyed, sidewalks swept away, crossings floated off and Sacramento left a wreck of her former self, the Board of Supervisors met, held a session of several days and adjourned without making a single effort to assist in placing the city in as advantageous and comfortable a condition as circumstances would admit. The Board did not even purchase plank to build bridges over the ditches cut by individuals to drain different portions of the city. The Board literally has done nothing for the people in their distress. Of what benefit are such city authorities? Would not the people be much better off to-day if the members of the Board and the President were to resign and let the city be placed by them under a provisional government? One of the earliest acts of the Legislature should be to pass an Act that will give to Sacramento an efficient city government. . . .


In 1857, Philip A. Roach, of San Francisco, published a pamphlet on the "State Prison System of California." His main object seemed to be to demonstrate the impolicy [sic] and injustice to the mechanics of the State of the contract system as applied to State Prison labor. He argued at length against the practice of contracting State Prison labor so as to have it come in competition with the labor of the mechanics of the State, and suggested that the labor of State convicts might be advantageously employed in building levees on the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. When engaged in that kind of labor, he argued, the convicts would be employed so as not to interfere with the laboring men of the State. In his pamphlet, Mr. Roach said:

If the labor of the prisoners were under the control or the State, as it ought to be, various works of great importance might be undertaken. For instance the improvement of the navigation of the rivers leading to the Capitol of the state might be at once commenced. Sacramento and Marysville, each in just proportion for such an object, would probably furnish their quota of provisions and guards for the maintenance and safety of the convict, with hulks for their lodgment; and it is doubtful whether more would escape at any time from the wooden walls, than do now from San Quentin, with its brick ones. Then let the people of Stockton, who desire to improve the navigation to their town, enjoy the same privilege--its people guaranteeing to take charge of the prisoners, and in the event of their escape, to offer, as the people of Sacramento would, a reward for their apprehension, even twofold greater than is now required by the lease under which their services are held. And the people of San Jose, and perhaps of San Francisco, might profit by the same labor. As there are many hundreds in the institution, the Legislature might appoint a Committee, consisting of the Governor, Secretary of State, Controller, Treasurer and Surveror [sic] General, to apportion the number that each locality ought to have; and the Sheriffs of the different counties, where the labors were to be performed, might be authorized by the Board of Supervisors of their respective counties to appoint proper deputies to assist the State authorities to safely guard the prisoners.

After the improvement of the rivers shall have been accomplished, or the public roads opened, let the Surveyor General set apart, of the swamp and overflowed lands, so many acres for the support of the Insane Asylum, so many for the State Hospital, so many for Orphan Asylums in the State, to be divided among the different denominations; so much for the Public Schools, and then, under proper officers of the State, let the prisoners work to reclaim them. While their labor thus employed would not come in competition with that of the mechanic, it would add immensely to the wealth of the State. If each convict reclaimed per day but sufficient to pay for his maintainance, the State would be a gainer; but with the engineering talent we have among us, the construction of large canals would drain millions of acres, and then would be serviceable for the purposes of navigation. Millions of the most productive lands could then be offered at low prices and in reasonable quantities to the actual settler, and their value applied to reduce the indebtedness of the State, the interest of which is gnawing at our vitals. The articles that could be raised on this land--tobacco, rice, sugar and cotton--are those which we now import at a greatly enhanced cost, as we are so distant from the countries of production, and would interfere but little with our usual agricultural crops. There is another point to be considered. The Commonwealth reaping the benefit of the labor of her erring children, could do something for their reformation. Of every hundred acres reclaimed, let a small percentage be dedicated to a common fund, to be divided, at the expiration of the sentence, among those who had labored in the lands. In this manner the convict would have an inducement to be industrious, and in proportion as he had toiled, might have something with which, on the expiration of his term, to commence the world. For many years to come the swamp and overflowed lands will give employmeet to this special labor, and would certainly prevent, if so directed, the ruin which now threatens our people engaged in mechanical pursuits. The State of California, with a seacoast nearly as great as that of the "old thirteen," must certainly have within it some article on which this labor can be directed, without coming into close and unwise competition with that of our people. As it is now, the cost of the punishment of crime falls upon those who labor in industrial pursuits. Our Constitution has one merit. The State credit cannot be loaned directly or indirectly to banks or corporations; nor can evidences of State indebtedness be issued as a circulating medium; nor can mortgages on property be issued in the form of bank notes. And therefore, as against capital, no laws have been framed in any way to lessen its earnings; nor ought any to be enacted. So in regard to labor, the same freedom ought to be permitted, and no private individual be allowed to have the control of five hundred men for his own purposes, even as the punishment of crime. Think of it! Five hundred destinies--leases of life--controlled within the limits of one man's discretion, under the law of California! Now make a contrast. Give one man to use, within the limits of his discretion, five millions of the State funds. How the tax-payers would howl! Why should those living by the labor of their hands be silent?

In a communication addressed to the UNION, Mr. Roach suggests that the convict labor of the State may be profitably employed in building levees around Sacramento to protect both the city and State property. The plan suggested is practicable for building permanent levees and raising those erected this Winter, but convict labor could not be made available for the present exigencies of Sacramento. A certain amount of work must be done as soon as the weather will permit. The slough at Burns' farm must be closed so as to insure the city against water from that source. But the work of widening, raising and strengthening the levees around the city will be prosecuted for years, and in this work convict labor can be made available. It is in contemplation to build a levee thirty feet on top, with a base of sixty feet, raising it several feet above the highest point the water has ever been known to reach. This will be a work of time, and may be accomplished by convict labor. It will probably be several years before it will be completed. It is conceded that, in addition to the money collected recently, it will be necessary to raise annually, by a levee tax, a sum sufficient to keep it in repair, and add to its strength and hight. The conviction is general, that a new system must be adopted--that we must have a Board of Levee Commissioners to superintend our levee matters, and that they must be furnished with funds to place the levees beyond all contingencies. The late floods have satisfied all that there is no obstacle in the way of building a levee on the American river which will bid defiance to the turbulent floods of that mountain torrent. All our flood disasters have been produced by that river, and were it so effectually leveed as to insure the exclusion of the water of that river, the people of this city would consider it secure for all time against inundation. That such a levee can be built, there is no room for doubt. The fact will be demonstrated most fully, if the Citizens' Committee can be favored with ten days of favorable weather. They have made two efforts since the late rise to begin work, but found it impossible from the stage of water at Burns' slough, and the soft condition of the earth, to do so. They will commence to-morrow morning, wind and weather permitting. In the future it is likely that a horse railroad track may be laid on the line for the purpose of moving earth from points where it can be obtained to raise the line to the desired grade. After the Sacramento river falls an immense amount of material will be rendered available in the large bar formed by the American river above the bridge. There is material enough in that bar to build all the levees needed, raise all our streets to the level of I street, and that, too, without producing, perceptible reduction in the size of the bar. In calling our attention to the pamphlet written in 1857, the existence of which we had forgotten, Mr. Roach addressed us the following letter:

SAN FRANCISCO, December 30, 1861.
EDITORS UNION:--Seeking my way to the Senate chamber on the day of the flood in 1852, I fell from the levee and narrowly escaped a watery grave. From frequent conversations with old residents, I feared that the disasters of 1849 and 1852 might recur. Herewith is forwarded you a pamphlet issued in February, 1857, to break up the "Levee System of Prison Labor," and to point out how the convicts could be employed without detriment to mechanics, and with advantage to the Commonwealth. The passages marked may prove suggestive. Let the State devote the convict labor to levee the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. That labor costs the State, under any circumstances, so much, and it is bad policy to make it productive by competition with individuals, when vast interests of State can be promoted by it.

In the Swamp and Overflowed Land Fund there is a large balance which could be legitimately used to assist the convict labor, in addition to yearly appropriations, in leveeing and at the time time reclaiming the overflowed lands. That fund was overborrowed; but speculative heads may at some future time find pretexts to divert it again, perhaps, with total loss.

Let the State devote all its uncontracted labor to the object mentioned, and with proper engineering talent, the work of five or six hundred men would, in five or ten years--and what matters the time for such an object--make Sacramento and Stockton ports at which clipper ships could anchor. In any event, the inundated cities should be assisted by the State, and one of the best resources in its power is the labor of its convicts.

With willows from the banks of your unruly rivers, bowlders and fragments of granite from Folsom, the services of several hundred prisoners would enable you to erect a barrier such as would resist the stormy billows of a Zuyder-zee or the penetrating water of an Amstel.

Amsterdam, Brest, Cherbourg, etc., are ports where fleets can ride; and dike, levee and dredging machine have conquered them from the ocean.

The objections to the Mississippi levee system would not occur here. The Sacramento and San Joaquin are short rivers compared with the Father of Waters, and our bay and its outlet bear such a relation to them in area that the rapidity of the currents would not be increased.

These lines are written hastily, but with the hope of helping a city whose disasters are so contrastlve to our own. As San Francisco, however, has risen like a phenlx from her ashes, may Sacramento rise Venus-like--invigorated by her bath.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HINTS TO SACRAMENTANS.--The San Francisco Call recommends to the people of Sacramento some attention to the following facts:

The water of the Mississippi used to wash away the banks and levees of the town of La Crosse, Wisconsin, in spite of all the people could do. Finally they cut immense quantities of willow rods, which they bound tightly in bundles, like bundles of grain. These bundles, at low water, were piled up compactly on the banks of the river, sloping inward, with earth scattered upon them; the result was that long ere the season was over the willows sprouted and took root, so that they became thoroughly entwined together and fastened to the soil beneath in such a manner that all subsequent floods have proven powerless to disturb them. It is necessary to watch the willows and cut them down occasionally, so as to keep them from growing out into the stream and causing bars to form. As this system has worked well on trial, it would be a good idea for the Sacramentans to resort to it for the purpose of rendering secure beyoad a doubt the weaker portions of their levees--those portions from which danger is always apprehended in case of a flood. They have abundant material for the purpose close by them, and to use it properly would cost but a small sum comparatively.

THE ROADS SOUTH.--Stockton Independent of December 30th says:

The Columbia and Sonora stage arrived in this city at half past nine o'clock last evening. We are informed that the rain in the mountains was very heavy all of yesterday. The road between this city and the Twenty six Mile House is almost impassable, the stages going over the entire distance upon the "dead drag," with hubs buried in the mud. At Kelley's, the floor of the stable was covered with two feet of water, and the country beyond flooded so as to put a stop to all kinds of travel. The bridge over the Tuolumne, usually crossed by the Stockton and Mariposa stages, has been partly carried away.

THE CALAVERAS.--It is stated that this river a day or two since was two feet higher than at the period of the former flood.


The Weather in the Interior.

Six feet of snow fell on the Summit during the late storm. Sleighing is excellent in this vicinity. The roads are very muddy, and in a horrible condition below. The wind is blowing very hard.

NEVADA, Jan. 2d.
It has been raining to-day. Weather windy and cold.

OROVILLE, Jan. 2d.
Thunder storm here to-night--wind and rain. . . .

THE FOOD [sic] ON THE MERCED.--There has been a severe overflow from the Merced river, which carried away Murray's and Nelson's bridges, above Snelling's. A dam erected at great expense by Messrs. Flint, Peabody & Co. of San Francisco, had also been swept, away, causing an amount of damage impossible to estimate. . . .

p. 5


FERRIES LICENSED.--Two ferries were licensed by the Board of Supervisors to run across the slough where J and K streets strike it, but during the high water neither of them was in operation. This fact proved that the owners of the boats did not understand their business very well, or had neglected to make the necessary preparations for high water. One ferry started Tuesday, and has had all it could do since. Yesterday and the day before wagons were compelled to wait in some instances for hours before they could be set over. K street, over which all the travel passes, is in a wretched condition. Between the holes cut by water and those made by wheels, it is nearly impassable for a loaded wagon. Individuals were engaged yesterday in hauling ruined hay into some of the most dangerous, and it answered a first rate purpose for filling them up. There is a large quantity of damaged hay lying around in the city which, if hauled into K and J streets and unloaded in the holes cut in those streets, could be made very serviceable. The business men of the city will find their interests promoted by giving a little of their attention to those streets

THE LEVEE NEAR R STREET.--The levee on the Sacramento river near R street is washing away quite rapidly at several points. On Wednesday the bank commenced to cave opposite the large scales constructed by the Railroad Company several months ago for weighing cars and cargoes of cobbles, granite, etc. Up to last evening a gap had been made about thirty feet long, and eight feet wide at the deepest portion. The earth beneath the railroad track had been carried off, and the foundation of the scale, which coat $3,000, was threatened. J. P. Robinson had employed during the afternoon some fifteen or sixteen men, endeavoring to combat the action of the water. A sheet of canvas was sunk by means of an iron rail, and a large number of gunny sacks filled with earth were deposited in the gap. The levee is wearing away with almost equal rapidity, and much more danger to the city, at a point below the old break of last year. There are also several places between Q and R which need attention from the Committee of Safety.

SUPPOSED TO BE DROWNED.--Patrick O'Donnell, of the River House, corner of P and Front streets, has been missing since Wednesday evening under circumstances which render it probable that he has been drowned. He was the owner of the wood barge St. Louis, which lay moored at the levee, a short distance from the house. At about ten o'clock on Wednes-evening, Captain Fairchild of Truworthy's barge, passed the St. Louis, and observed O'Donnell sitting, without his hat, on the plank connecting the barge with the levee. Fairfield asked if he needed assistance to get on board. O'Donnell replied that he did not. He appeared to have been drinking. He has not been seen since. His hat was found yesterday morning on the barge. He leaves a wife and children at his late residence. . . .

STREET CROSSINGS.--As there will be a necessity for constant communication--through Committees and otherwise--between the Capitol at Seventh and I streets and the residence of the Governor at Eighth and N streeets [sic], it is suggested that the street crossings between the two points should be attended to at once. Eighth street is said to be not navigable to pedestrians at the present time. It is further suggested that there is a large amount of street crossing lumber, carried away by the late floods, which might be recovered by the proper authorities, wherever found, and again employed for the same purpose, wherever needed. . . .

WORK ON THE LEVEE.--A large number of workmen were employed yesterday by the Committee of Safety at various points on the American river between Rebel's tannery and Burns' slough. With the wind and sun of yesterday the ground dried rapidly. The American is yet too high to justify any attempt to close up the slough.

CLOSING OUT.--The Howard Benevolent Society closed their hotel at the Pavilion, for want of patronage, last night. We learn that they have relieved, according to their various necessities, about five thousand men, women and children since the first flood, and yet have $2,000 or $3,000 remaining. Their hospital on Fourth street will probably be closed to-day. . . .

THE LINCOLN ROAD.--During the late freshets several bridges on the Folsom and Lincoln Railroad were swept away. They are so far repaired, we are informed, that the cars will today resame their regular trips. . . .

STUBBORN.--The Sacramento river still stands at about twenty-two feet three inches above low water mark. The water in the lower part of the city is receding rather more rapidly.

DROWNED.--Edward Lubbeck, a hand on the sloop C. W. Gunnell, Capt. Croft, was drowned several days ago some eight miles below the city. He was carried overboard in a gale. . . .

MOKELUMNE CITY.--This place, on the Mokelumne river, is about 6 to 8 feet under water. A ball, which was to come off there lately, was postponed. . . .

p. 8

THE STOCKTON FLOOD.--The Stockton papers claim that there was no great flood there after all. The Independent of December 30th says:

Owing to the absence of any system of sewerage several stores on the south side of Main street, between Center and El Dorado streets, were covered several inches on the floors with water. These stores (as in every instance in which water entered the houses) are from two to three feet below the grade of the city, as established by the Common Council. In several of the stores to which the water found its way the floors were below the level of the sidewalk' Of course, any ordinary fall of rain would enter buildings thus erected but for the protection the sidewalks afford. The cellars for the most part were submerged, including the basement of Agricultural Hall. The late extraordinary rise of water has served to warn our citizens to keep open the natural outlets--the sloughs--and prevent them from being improved in any manner which may impede the flow of water through them during the Winter. This done, and we may rest in perfect security against the consequence of an overflow; otherwise, we may anticipate a recurrence of the events of Friday night, with effects more disastrous than the mere washing out of the sewers, as was the case in this instance. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3360, 4 January 1862, p. 1


GREAT SALT LAKE CITY, Dec. 22, 1861.
With profound regret we learn of the sad calamity that has befallen Sacramento and the river towns--destruction of property and the loss of life. [Our correspondent has probably received some exaggerated account in regard to the latter particular.--Eds. UNION] No human power can ever replace the spark of existence and restore to desolate homes and afflicted hearts those who have fallen victims to so terrible a visitation; but, that apart, none doubt that in a few short years the invincible energy and untiring perseverance of your Western men will suffice to deface from sad memory the present calamity, save in its confirmatory contribution to that philosophy that trusts nothing to the elements, and sees a world of wisdom in that sage exhortation, "Say your prayers, but keep your powder dry." . . .

p. 2


. . .

In consequence of the wires being out of order, we were unable to obtain, last evening, dispatches from the East or from San Francisco. . . .

While we are enjoying clear and cool weather, the rivers continue about stationary. Workmen were employed yesterday in making repairs along the Sacramento below R street, and along the American above the Tannery. . . .

THE STATE CAPITAL.--We have heard it suggusted [sic] that an opinion prevails in some quarters of the State that the condition of our town is worse than it really is, and that locomotion to and from our principle [sic] places of business is difficult. This is a great mistake. The side.walks in our business streets, and from our principal hotels and boarding houses to the State Capitol, are mainly in an excellent condition, much better than they usually are in the wet season of the year. Since the flood there have been many improvements in this respect, and there are few towns in the State where travelers can at this time pass from point to point more comfortably. It is true that in the lower part of the city residents suffer inconvenience from water, but the main streets are free from water and traversed as usual and at ease by men, women and children. . . .

RAIN STATISTICS.--During the year 1860, 7.86 inches of rain fell at San Francisco. In 1861, 18.64 inches fell--nearly double the quantity of rain that we had the previous year. The rainy days of the wet season of 1861 were:

    November. December 10th. ....... 0.27 1st 0.05 12th......... 0.74 3d 0.07 13th 0.29 6th . 1.02 14th 0.05 7th 0.29 15th.......... 0.08 8th.......... 1.65 16th.. ....... 0.39 9th 0.18 17ih 0.22 l6th 0.01 19th 0.56 22d 0.03 26th. 0.48 23d 1.06 27th 0.60 24th 0.56 29th. 0.08 26th . 2.02 30th 0.34 27ih 0.23 28th 0.17 29th... 0.70 30th 1.25 3lst, up to 9 A. M 0.25 In November 4.10 In December 9.54 ----- Total for the season 18.64
--S. F. Bulletin.

GOOD FROM THE FLOODS.--There is never any great injury without some corresponding benefit. The Placerville Republican cites a case in point. It says:

The cleaning out of many ravines and canons in the mines, where tailings had accumulated, left their deposits of gravel which prospect richly, and can be easily worked. The freshets also, by removing the accumulations of many washings, have increased the amount of grade for sluices, and facilitated the working of claims heretofore unprofitable for want of sufficient "fall," as the miners express it.

SNOW IN WASHOE.--The Territorial Enterprise of Deoember 25th says:

The snow lay to the depth of two or three inches in Virginia City yesterday morning. It did not extend below Silver City, having rained there the entire night. The wind drifted the snow fearfully yesterday, almost blinding those who were compelled to face it. Last evening the sky became clear, and the weather was very cold. The water in Carson river yesterday morning was four inches higher than during the late rise. . . .

THE LATE GALE IN SAN FRANCISCO.--During the late severe gale, several vessels dragged from their anchorage toward the ocean. It was feared that the schooner Bartlett Allen would be driven out to sea, but she was rescued in time.

p. 3


POLICE COURT.--. . . Heinrich Frey and Rosina his wife were tried for assault and battery on a round-faced damsel named Anna McGee. The case arose from a quarrel about a floating fence, and was chiefly remarkable for the adamantine character of some of the testimony. Anna testified positively that Frey struck her two or or three times in the face and called her vile names, and a lad named Crowley fully corroborated her story. On the other hand, a German living with Frey, and an elderly female, who spoke of Anna as "dirty company," swore point blank that Anna was the aggressor, threatening to knock Frey's Dutch brains out, while that Teuton only used very mild language indeed, considering the circumstances. On hearing this testimony Anaa [sic], in blank amazement, opened her mouth and eyes so that they looked for a moment like three large O's set in a trianguhr position (°.°). It happened, however, that Judge Gilmer had himself seen the marks of the blows on the maiden's face on the day of the assault, and as this was a piece of corroboratory evidence on which he could rely, he pronounced Frey guilty. As to Mrs. Frey, there was no evidence that she committed any overt act of hostility except that of the elderly female, who said "she made Anna run by saying she did not want her there," so Mrs Frey was discharged. . . .

RELIGIOUS.--. . . The Rev. W. H. Hill will officiate and preach in Grace Church, morning and evening. The Sunday School will meet as usual after the morning service. Subject of the morning discourse, "things Done and to be Done on Account of the Recent Floods." The public--especially all interested in the operations of the Howard Benevolent Association are invited to attend. The annual collection in aid of the funds of that Association will be made on this occasion.

CONDITION OF THE CITY.--All that portion of the city lying north of L street is now as free from the watery element as it has ever been at this season of the year. The lower portion of the city is covered with water, but that is no inconvenience to strangers, who could not, if no water were there, find hotel accommodations. All the business streets, and those upon which are located the hotels, are in as good condition as they have hitherto been at the opening of the session of the Legislature. New crossings have been constructed wherever they were most needed, and the members of the Legislature will find that the signs of the flood consist principally of improved sidewalks and crossings in those portions of the town usually traveled by them. . . . .

GOOD EXAMPLE.--Harmon & Co. and C. S. Coffin have removed the mud from the front of their stores on J street, between Third and Fourth, and thereby set an example worthy of imitation. By hauling away about six inches of softened mud from the surface, they come to the hard, gravel bottom. If other merchants along J street should do likewise, the street could be made to present as dry and hard a surface as in Summer time.

WOODLAND.--The name of Yolo City, located in Yolo county, sixteen miles from Sacramento, has been changed to "Woodland." A Post Office has been established at that point. The town is out of water and is in a flourishing condition. Complaints are made by its citizens that the contractors do not promptly carry the mail from this city, as they are in duty bound.

NOT HEARD FROM.--Nothing has been heard concerning Captain O'Donnell, who is presumed to have been drowned on Wednesday night, from the wood barge St. Louis. His wife states that he left the house a short time before midnight, against her earnest remonstrance. She has no doubt that he has met with a watery grave.

LEVEE REPAIRS.--E. P. Figg, of the Committee of Safety, with about a dozen men, was engaged during yesterday in repairing the levee below R street. Some two hundred and fifty gunny sacks were filled and placed along the bank, protected by brush sunk beneath them. Some eighty men were employed on the American river repairing the levee at that point. . . . .

COOL DAY.--We were favored yesterday with cool weather, and a bracing northwest breeze--the tendency of which, if continued, must be to dry up our streets, and lower the water in the rivers. . . . .

ABOUT THE SAME.--The Sacramento river maintains its hight with no perceptible change, ranging at twenty-two feet three inches above low water mark.

NEW SIDEWALK NEEDED.--A new sidewalk is badly needed on both parts of Haworth's lot, at the northeast corner of Fourth and J streets. . . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3361, 6 January 1862, p. 1

[p. 1 filmed twice, first is cut off at bottom and fades to black in lower right corner, 2nd OK]

. . .

FREE BRIDGE.--The citizens of San Joaquin and Calaveras counties living on the Stockton road propose to make a new road from the place known as "Jimmy's Bridge," crossing Shower's ranch and connecting with the Fanning road by the way of Cady's ranch and the North American. The Chronicle says:

The bridge over the main stream will be about sixty feet; one of the sloughs will require a shorter bridge--this will cut off all the sloughs which now interrupt travel, and the road can be used without any inconvenience from floods or high water. Toll bridges on the Stockton road have become a crying evil to all teamsters. The toll from Stockton to Mokelumne Hill or San Andreas will average about $2.50 per week, which, in a single year, will amount to $130 on a heavy team; this tax on freight will all be avoided by the building of a free bridge. The citizens living on the road are determined to put the road through. . . .

p. 2


. . .

A timely discourse, entitled "Lessons of the Great Disaster of 1861," delivered at Grace Church, in this city, yesterday, by Rev. W. H. Hill, appears in our present issue, and will doubtless receive, as it deserves, a thoughtful perusal.

Sacramento was visited by another heavy fall of rain yesterday, which had a tendency to check the fall of the rivers. A dispatch from Placerville leads us to infer that cold weather, followed by rain and snow, has prevailed in that region. At Strawberry, on Saturday, the mercury fell to sixteen degrees below zero. We are informed that there was a regular New England snow storm at Marysville yesterday. There has been also a heavy fall of snow in Carson Valley."

ACCIDENT TO THE STEAMER GOVERNOR DANA.--The steamboat Governor Dana, on her trip to Marysville on Saturday evening, struck on a bar at the foot of E street, Marysville, just below the Yuba bridge, and swinging around, ran into the sycamores on the river bank below. The steamer's smoke stack was knocked off, but no further damage was done.

AGROUND.--The steamer Autocrat grounded recently on the bank of the Stanislaus river, a few miles above its outlet; having been forced there by the late flood, it being difficult to ascertain the direct channel. . . .

CENTRAL RAILROAD.--This road is in running order between Folsom and Lincoln, all damages by the late flood having been repaired, not in a temporary, but in a substantial and permanent manner. The traveling public, undoubtedly, feel anxious to see some progress made in repair, upon the road from this city to Folsom.


Rain at Placerville - Snow and Cold Weather in the Mountains

PLACERVILLE, Jan. 5--8 P. M.
It has been raining here all day, and turned to snowing to-night. It is snowing hard at Strawberry and in Carson Valley. It was very cold here yesterday, the ground being frozen hard. At Strawberry the thermometer stood at sixteen degrees below zero


The Directors, on behalf or the members, and on this occasion in behalf of the citizens of Sacramento and vicinity, in submitting their monthly statement, express the most sincere and grateful thanks to all who have aided our suffering and destitute poor by their timely and munificent donations. But for such substantial aid the distress and misery would have been fearful, and the means of the Association totally inadequate to have relieved it for one week.

Probably in the history of the United States, there is not a parallel to the situation of our community on the morning of the 10th of December. Situated in a saucer, the rim formed by our levees, and the saucer filled with water; clothing, bedding, etc., saturated; and for the five succeeding days a thick fog enveloping the place, precluding the possibility of the mass of people from procuring a change of dry clothes. The demand for shoes, hose and clothing was universal, and so pressing that it taxed the energy of all to relieve the pressure.

On the morning of the 9th of December, by order of the President, four boats were sent to take families to the Pavilion, and preparations made for their accommodation. Four hundred women and children were provided with blankets, and all fed by seven P. M., and the Hall was thronged all night by men and women seeking refuge and shelter. The Pavilion was twice nearly cleared, when the second and third floods forced the families again to return, so that there has been an average of two hundred and fifty persons kept and comfortably provided from the 9th of December to the morning of the 3d of January, when it was finally closed.

Seventy-five families have been provided with new homes in the northern portion of the city--theirs being still submerged and a month's rent paid in advance, provisions, fuel, etc., provided, so that, to a large extent, they will be hereafter self-supporting. An average of five hundred persons daily were fed at the Pavilion during the period of our occupancy.

On the 15th December, a Hospital was opened on Fourth, between I and J, where the sick families were kept, and the whole supervised by Drs. Harkness, Montgomery and Frey. This was closed--families having been provided for by us--on the 4th instant

On the 28th of December a pest house was procured and fitted for patients, and on the 4th instant handed over to the City and County authorities.

The Association have kept boats employed in aiding the poor to recover their effects from buildings partially under water, and will continue its aid in this manner.

In the distribution of the freshet of money and articles so liberally supplied to relieve the freshet of wants, the Association, in pursuance of its constitutional requirements, has not known either creed, nativity, color or sex, but supplied all who were destitute and without available means of support.

The imposition to be expected we are satisfied has been but a small percentage, and all cases known will be published in our next monthly statement, if in the meantime restitution is not made.

Our relief has been extended to all sufferers in a circuit of twenty miles of the city, whose cases were known, or applications made by or for them.

Many of the reliefs have been to those suffering under the severest affliction from disease, which, were it proper to recite, would be heartrending and appalling.

Every member of the Association but one--who resigned upon the first call to duty--responded to the call of the President with alacrity, and the labors though onerous have been faithfully performed.

The ladies of the city who were able from their exemption from loss, have rendered us most efficient aid, and scores of philanthropic citizens have devoted their time and efforts in furtherance of our object.

We estimate the losses in this city alone to be at a low figure, $700,000, which does not include the losses from disruption of business or deferred payments of debts.

We estimate the losses within a circuit of twenty miles of the city at $200,000--principally stock, fences and agricultural implements.

There are upwards of sixty houses destroyed, so that they are unfit for future occupation.

We have granted upwards of 1,500 dispensations, and relieved 5,000 persons.

The entire medical fraternity of the city have responded to our calls and treated at least 150 patients

The California Steam Navigation Company, the Railroad Company, the proprietors of all the stage lines, the Telegraph Company, and Wells, Fargo & Co., have each in their several departments responded to all our calls, and rendered gratuitous services.

The Treasurer's statement is as follows:

    Balance on hand December 1, 1861 $998.29 Private Donations, Sacramento .... $405.00 Capt. Littleton,Sacramento 10.00 Gov. J G. Downey, Sacramento 100.00 Wm. H. Beatty, Sacramento . . . 10.00 California Steam Nav. Co., Sacrat'o 1,000 00 W. R Spencer, Sacramento 10.00 Moses Hyman, Sacramento 5.95 Thos. H. Williams, Sacramento 25.00 Rev. W. H. Hill, initiation fee 5.00 Dr. J. F. Montgomery, initiation fee 5.00 J. L Seiden, initiation fee . . . 5.00 ---------- $1,580.95 Nat. Rennie and others, Folsom 179 00 Sundry persons, San Jose 211.00 Peter H. Burnett, San Jose 100.00 Citizens of Stockton 568.50 Lewis Sober, Mokelumne Hill 50.00 Rev. J. E. Taylor, Presbyterian Church, Columbia 35.00 Rev. Dr. Peck (from a friend in Martinez).... 5.00 Unknown party, San Francisco 5.00 Unknown party, San Francisco .... 30.00 Edward Hull, San Francisco..... 50.00 F. MacCrellish & Co , San Francisco. 100.00 San Francisco Bulletin Co 100.00 J. C. Beideman. San Francisco 100 00 H. W. Stein & Co., San Francisco. . . 25 00 J. B. Roberts, San Francisco ... 100.00 J. Y. Hickock & Co. San Francisco.. 100 00 R. D. W. Davis & Co., San Francisco. 100.00 Barry & Patten and others, San Francisco 42 50 P. B. Cornwall and others, San Francisco. 300 00 Mrs. W. S. Mesick, San Francisco. . . 10 00 Attaches Custom House, San Francisco........ 309 00 Citizens' Meeting--by A. M. Winn, San Francisco. ..... 232.50 Citizens' Meeting--by A. M. Winn, San Francisco. . 89.30 Charles F. Lott, San Francisco. . .. .. 250.00 Weils, Fargo & Co., San Francisco. . 1,000.00 Parrott & Co., San Francisco ... 500.00 Pacific Mail Steamship Company, San Francisco . . . 1,000.00 B. Davidson & May, San Francisco.. 500.00 P. Sather, San Francisco 500.00 Tallant & Wilde. San Francisco ..... 500.00 Alsop & Co , San Francisco . . . .... . . 500.00 Banks & Davis, San Francisco 500.00 Kellogg, Heuston & Co., San Francisco................. 200.00 L. Maynard, San Francisco . ...... 200 00 Reynolds, Reis & Co., San Francisco. 100 00 Henry Hentsch. San Francisco..... 200.00 Pioche & Bayesque, San Francisco.. 200.00 Barron & Co., San Francisco 500.00 Wm B. Johnston. San Francisco . . 50.00 J. Mora Moss, San Francisco ..... 500.00 John Sims & Co., San Francisco 250.00 Liverpool and London Ins. Co., San Francisco........ ....:......... 100.00 San Francisco Lodge No. 3, I.O.O.F. 100.00 Roberts Morrison and others, San F. 55.00 J. Mora Moss--second subscription, San Francisco 100.00 Metropolitan Theater, San Franc'o. 114.25 Unitarian Church--by Rev. T. S. King, San Francisco 317 25 Yerba Buena Lodge, I.O.O.F San Francisco..... ........ 171.00 Rose Cooper and others, San Fran.. 48.00 D. Norcross, San Francisco 25.00 Children of Trinity Mission Sunday School,Ssn Francisco 15.50 Jerome Rice, at Sacramento. ...... 5.00 Donohoe, Ralstcn A Co. and Castle & Kette, Committee, San Francisco 10,395.60 [minus 1,148.50 = , assume add'n error] 20,589.90 ---------- Total.. [plus 1,148.50 =] $24,317.64 EXPENDITURES. Paid bills audited Dec. 3 $ 324.99 Paid rents for families, boaatmen, drayages, nurses [?], Hospital and Pest House expenses, cooks, etc. 2,050.00 Drygoods, blankets, etc . . . 8,322.58 Provisions...... 3,047.91 Clothing. 1,719.73 Boots and shoes. 1,878.98 Wood.... 723.00 Mattresses and furniture. 1,276.19 Drugs and medicines 63.42 Hardware, stores, etc. 624.90 Sundries 225.42 Amount returned Ladies' Protection and Relief Society. San Francisco, portion of amount subscribed by M Brumagim 250.00 $20,507.12 ---------- Balance, Jan. 6, 1862 ..... $3,810.52
We have on hand clothing, provisions and wood, valued at $750, and there are bills not yet presented of equal amount.

We have endeavored to procure the subscription list from the Committee in San Francisco, who collected and forwarded the large sum of $10,395.60, but it has not yet come to hand. Soon as received we will give fall credit to the parties. In addition to the sums of money, large and valuable contributions have been received of clothing, both new and old, in all of the value of $5,800--from the following persons, viz:

Frank Baker, San Francisco, dry goods.
Roberts, Morrison & Co.., San Francisco, boots and shoes.
Lazard Freres & Co , San Francisco, dry goods.
Jennings & Brewster, San Francisco, clothing.
L. & M. Sachs, San Francisco, clothing.
M. Heller & Bro., San Francisco, dry goods.
Hardy & Rutenburg, San Francisco, dry goods.
Badger & Lindenberger, San Francisco, clothing.
L. B. Benchley, San Francisco, comforters.
Mrs. Alvan Flanders, San Francisco, cases children's clothing.
Murphy, Grant & Co., San Francisco, dry goods.
Mission Woolen Mills, San Francisco, blankets.
J. Seligman & Co., San Francisco, clothing.
M. Guerin, San Francisco, shoes.
J. B. & Co., No. 400 Sacramento street, San Francisco, dry goods.
B. Hamburger, San Francisco, dry goods.
Samuel A. Woods, San Francisco, boots and shoes.
F. Henderson, San Francisco, dry goods.
Mrs. Beck, Lee and others. San Francisco, clothing.
Jansen, Bond & Co , San Francisco, dry goods.
Wilson & Stevens, San Francisco, cases provisions.
Metropolitan Market, San Francisco, provisions.
Old California, San Francisco, clothing.
Amelia Moss, San Francisco, clothing
Heyneman, Peck A Co., San Francisco, comforters.
Scholle Bros., San Francisco, clothing.
Goodman, Hamburger & King, San Francisco. [sic]
Hecht Bros., San Francisco, clothing.
Rosenstock & Price, San Francisco, shoes,
Mrs. A. J. Nesbitt, San Francisco, clothing.
Jones & Dixon, San Francisco, women's skirts.
Mrs. J. H. Holt, San Francisco, clothing.
Simon & Dinkelspiel, San Francisco, clothing.
J. M. Strobridge, San Francisco, clothing.
H. M. Newhall & Co., San Francisco, clothing.
S. Herman, San Francisco, clothing.
Levi Strauss, San Francisco, clothing.
Hobart & Co., San Francisco, shoes.
Goldstein, Ryan & Co., San Francisco, dry goods.
R. Meyer & Co., San Francisco.
Insane Asylum--from matron--Stockton, clothing.
Citizens of Stockton, merchandise.
Miss Mary Atkins, Benicia, clothing.
Heuston Hasting & Co., Sacramento, clothing.
Charles Crocker, Sacramento, shoes.
A. Dennery & Co., Sacramento, crockery.
Booth & Co.. Sacramento, Provisions.
Wheeler & Wilson, of San Francisco, sent two sewing machines with workmen and material, which rendered us efficient aid for several days.
The Commander of the Navy Yard tendered 300 rations for fifty days.
I. S. Van Winkle, of Sacramento, allowed us to use the second floor of his new brick house, on Fourth street, for a hospital, free of expense.

There were a number of cases and packages received the donors of which we do not know. If any have been omitted in the foregoing enumeration, it has been from inadvertence, and we will be pleased to make mention of all.

While our thanks are due and most heartily given to all who have assisted us and made the Association the almoner of their bounty, yet to the people--the noble, ardent, and self-sacrificing men and women of San Francisco, our most fervent thanks are tendered, and the record here presented will be a lasting memorial of their fraternal affection and readiness to aid any and all who are in distress.

Our extraordinary labors are over, yet for two months to come we shall be obliged to make large expenditures for provisions and fuel for many poor families, whose means of support are crippled and at any moment may be entirely cut off. The Association is fully equal to the emergencies of any character that may arise, and desires that all citizens will enroll themselves as monthly subscribers of one dollar, and whatever other aid may be needed we will call upon our own citizens, without fear of the result. Donations can be left at the stores of the Secretary or Treasurer, and subscribers can leave their names and residence with the Steward at the Depot, corner of Sixth and I streets.

On behalf of the Association.
GEO. W. MOWE, President.
R. T. BROWN, Secretary.
SACRAMENTO, Jan. 6, 1862. . . .

p. 3


THE LEGISLATURE.--The Legislature of California will commence its thirteenth session at the State House in this city at twelve o'clock M. to-day. Nearly all the members have arrived in town, and, accompanying them, the usual army of newspaper correspondents and reporters, office seekers, lobbyites and hangerson. These fill the hotels and boarding houses, and, thronging in all the public places, give to our city an appearance of more than usual bustle and animation. Of course the usual amount of caucussing, planning, wire-pulling and scheming of all sorts has happened, the results of which, so far as any results have been attained, are noticed elsewhere. Members from abroad are agreeably disappointed as to the condition in which they find the city. In some instances they had been led to think that the whole city was still submerged by the recent floods, and that boats weuld be necessary to enable them to reach the hotels and to traverse the streets; but they find instead that the streets in all that part of the city which their business will require them to visit are in about as good condition as they ever are in Sacramento, or any other city, in California at this season of the year. There is reported to be a movement, probably having a speculative origin, to attempt to bring about a temporary removal of the Capital or the Legislature to San Francisco, but we do not apprehend that such an attempt will be countenanced by sensible men in either branch. The general impression last evening was, that neither House would permanently organize to-day, but would adjourn early to give all sides an opportunity for caucussing.

RAIN AND SNOW.--There was a heavy fall of rain yesterday, commencing about ten o'clock in the morning, and continuing without much interruption till late last evening. At first the rain was mingled for a few minutes with a very respectable flurry of snow, the large flakes sailing slowly downwards like a cloud of geese feathers, but melting as soon as they struck the moist earth. A snow storm in Sacramento is a spectacle very rarely witnessed. From Dr. Logan's rain gauge we learn that from ten o'clock A. M. yesterday to two o'clock P. M., .67 of an inch had fallen; from two to nine P. M. the fall was 1.12. Total fall in eleven hours, 1.79, and no signs of abatement. . . .

THE RIVER.--Sacramento river continued to fall very slowly on Saturday, but during the day yesterday it remained about at a stand, an inch or two less than twenty-two feet above low water mark. It is not likely to recede further while the present heavy rain continues. The water sets back from the Sacramento so that it is difficult to determine the exact condition of the American river, but if, as accounts indicate, there has been a fall of snow instead of rain in the mountains and foot hills, an immediate rise in that turbulent stream need not be apprehended.

THE MOON.--It was predicted that the last change of the moon would bring with it a favorable change in the weather, and so it did; but unfortunately it did not stay changed. Those who have faith in the moon will, however, derive some comfort from the fact that another change is at hand. The moon "quarters" at thirty-seven minutes past two P. M. to-morrow, at which time, if not before, we hope Jupiter Pluvius will see fit to retire, and allow Sacramento to "dry up." . . .

OVERBOARD.--A woman and child fell into the slough, near the Gas Works, on Saturday afternoon, and were rescued from drowning by a gentleman who happened to be passing. We did not learn the names of the parties. . . .


EDITORS UNION: I was examining the late work of our Committee of Safety at this point yesterday. They are undoubtedly doing everything that they think is needful in the premises, and are making a good outside levee. But while looking at the operations there, it occurred to me that a greater service could be rendered and the city much better protected if the waters of the river could be led to take a direct west course through the willows, a short distance above, instead of attempting to fight its whole force at the tannery, where it is disposed to cut into the bank. It would not require much digging to lead it off above, and the force of the current would do the rest. But if this is decided impracticable, or the right of way can. not be obtained from Norris except at great cost, then I would suggest that willows be planted thickly on the line of the levee facing the river, and the levee or levees there be sown with alfalfa, whose roots will strike down deeply and strengthen the earth embankment. I would suggest that the sooner this is done the better, in order to take advantage of an early growth. The Committee can do this in a short time, as the labor of two or three men only will be required a portion of one day.

COOL WEATHER IN SAN FRANCISCO.--In San Francisco, January 4th, thin ice was discovered. The thermometer was down to 32 degrees. . . .


EDITORS UNION: I had expected that, among the many cases of good levees which have been referred to in your journal, the celebrated "dyke" of Colt, the pistol manufacturer, would have been mentioned; but it seems left to me to call your attention to it. The circumstances which led to its erection are like those which led to the erection of the levees around Sacramento. Colt owned a large tract of land known in New England as the "Connecticut Meadows," which was subject to annual inundation. Around his land he built a levee which has always succeeded in keeping the waters out from the tract inclosed. So confident of its effectiveness was the proprietor, that he has built his immense factories, twenty or thirty splendid dwellings, and all the outhouses of his palatial mansion, on ground which seldom escaped the Spring freshets, relying for protection on his artificial breastwork. My object is to tell you how it is made so secure. The work is built much higher than there is any danger of the river's ever rising. In its narrower part two or three carriages can pass abreast, while it is generally much wider. It is mostly clay, covered with a thick stratum of gravel; steep on the inside, sloping down to the river on the outside. The means taken to prevent washing away are what I wish to notice particularly. While the dyke was building, a European gardener was on the way to Connecticut with a great many thousands of French willow cuttings, which were merely stuck into the gravel on the outside bank. They sprouted and grew rapidly, so that the year after their planting the crop of cuttings, made into baskets, paid all the expenses of transportation and original purchase. And I honestly believe that since these willows were planted, the proceeds from the manufacture of baskets from annual cuttings, has amounted to half the cost of the embankment. Colt's willows are of the choicest variety for baskets, besides being the best kind for their protective use, on account of the density with which they grow, and their long, deep roots. If your levee building Committee should consider this worth notice, and the plan of Colonel Colt worthy of imitation, I have no doubt, from his characteristic generosity, that he would present a sufficient number of cuttings to your city if he knew what a benefit they would be.
MARYSVILLE, January 3d.

THE FLOOD IN SUISUN.--Solano Herald, referring to the late flood in Suisun City, says:

Since Friday of last week, the country round about Suisun and Fairfield has been covered with water, causing considerable damage and much annoyance in the way of washing down fences and depositing mud on the fields, and rendering the roads well nigh impassable. On account of the floors settling, parts of Jackson's warehouse were flooded to the depth of one layer of sacked grain, the other warehouses narrowly escaping similar injury. We hear of several cases of stock perishing in the vicinity, large numbers suffering from their location in the tules.

THREE MEN DROWNED.--On the 27th of December, three men were crossing the West Branch of Feather river in a boat, which was capsized and all were drowned. Their names are--John Edgerton, of Cavan county, Ireland, John F. Lamson, of Bangor, Maine, and a Kanaka, From the best information we can gather, says the Butte Record, the Kanaka was crossing the other men in a boat which he kept near the lower natural bridge, when it got swamped and they were all lost.

BRIDGE GONE.--The bridge over the South Fork of the Mokelumne was carried away by the late flood in Calaveras. . . .

p. 4



Preached in Grace Church, Sacramento, January 5, 1862, after the disastrous overflow in that city in December, 1861.


TEXT--Ecclesiastes vii. 14; and Galatians vi. 2: "In the day of adversity, consider." " Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ."

This is emphatically the time for consideration--for reflection on the past; examination of the present; amendment for shortcomings; repentance for sin, and wise resolves for the future. The close of the old, and the beginning of a new year would call to all this, under any circumstances. And had nothing uncommon occurred, I should have felt it to be my duty, as we enter upon the scenes and vicissitudes of another year, to call upon you, seriously to consider your ways, and inquire, "Is it well?" Solemn indeed is it to listen to the knell of the dying year--to feel that its record of good and bad is made up for the final judgment; and to enter upon the rolling months of a new year, not knowing but what it may be written of us, as it was of millions a twelvemonth since. "This year thou shalt die." And if to die--what then? Aye, what then ? Will not, must not both pastor and people ask that question with earnestness and anxiety? God grant to you and to me an answer of peace. And if this be a duty--the necessary work of the wise man at the close and beginning of every year--what shall we say of the present time? Truly has "the day of adversity" come upon us as individuals and as a community, and who is there that does not feel compelled to pause and consider. The hopes and expectations and accumulations of years gone in an instant! Death in its most terrible form escaped in numberless cases, almost as by miracle! Suffering and distress so appalling that words cannot describe! Burdens too heavy for enfeebled shoulders to bear, and the strong summoned to support the weak, by a call to which none might turn a deaf ear, lest He, whose Omniscient Eye watched over all, should say to the faithless servant: "Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these my brethren, ye did it not to me: Depart ye cursed." Aye, ye know well, my hearers, what has been the record of the past three weeks. Some of you have felt the iron entering into your own soul--none, I trust, turned a deaf ear to the appeals of the needy and the suffering.

I ask you, to-day, to stop awhile and consider all these things; what you have seen; what done; what left undone; what you have yet to do. I could not call your attention to these topics sooner. I felt that when hundreds and thousands of my fellow beings were suffering for the necessaries of life, and a duty was thrown on me as a Christian minister and one of the almoners of the bounties of others--(God bless the liberal souls who remembered us in our distress and helped us wipe away the tears from so many eyes!)--see that their aching hearts were relieved, their crying wants supplied, that I had no time to turn aside from such scenes, to write essays on Providences in general, in my study, or utter commonplace sentences of condolence and sympathy. I felt that the poor creatures needed something more than words to insure that they were "warmed and filled" in this hour of their poverty and distress. It was to me a time when it was the incumbent duty of all to make practical that test of true religion which the Apostle gives: "Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, to visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world." For all that has been done, let the praise and glory be given to Him who opened the hearts of His earthly stewards, teaching them the glorious truth that it "was more blessed to give than to receive."

But we have a breathing spell at last. We may now sit down and rest awhile, and discuss plans and work--past and future. And to-day it is my duty and privilege to help, so far as in my power, your thoughts and good resolves towards the right direction. We will invoke the aid of him, "without whom nothing is strong and nothing holy;" for if He guides, we will be sure to walk in the right path and do all things for the best.

We first ask--What was seen during and after the late great and disastrous flood? I answer--as has probably been true of every great and fearful calamity--the development of both extremes of human nature, the bad and the good. And of both, we may say, as the prophet did of the figs he saw in vision: "The good were very good; and the naughty, very naughty and bad." I could believe in the doctrine of "total depravity," methinks, as I was compelled to witness such developments of the wicked heart as have been brought to my notice. Would that the mark of Cain could be affixed to the brow of all such--that henceforth they might be avoided by all good men and true, as the prudent would avoid the most loathsome of diseases. And sometimes, methought, the devils must have blushed as they saw their own depravity outdone by beings who called themselves men. I refer to those--not few in number, I am sorry to say--who could see and hear drowning men, women and children appealing for relief, but would not go to them until exorbitant sums of money were prepaid. Such ill-gotten gains will burn the pockets and souls of the extortioners, and though men may never know who they were, God will remember their unrighteous and unholy work; and fearful will be the recompense; for, though often long delayed, His judgments are sure, and he is fearful in His wrath. Pass on, then, ye miserable imitations of men. We will only say of yon, further: "Room for the Leper; room!" Akin to these--though not so far gone in depravity--are those who have laid, and in some instances consummated plans to impose upon the Relief Committees of the city. We have seen persons sacrificing a lifetime's reputation for honesty and truth to get a morsel, as it were, of the food and clothing designed, as they knew well, only for the distressed and the worthy. Let these, too, pass. We want no black list of their names published. We leave them, too, to the righteous judgment of Him who is angry with those who rob the widow and the orphan for gain. We feel sad that such people live in our midst. Let us try to forget them and their evil deeds.

We gladly turn to a more pleasing theme--the good things that were seen. Noble souls were in our midst, and they were not few in number. Faithful were they in their good deeds, and hundreds owe their lives to men whose very names they know not, but which are written on a scroll, nobler and more lasting than all the records of earth. The good Lord bless them, one and all, and give them one hundred fold in this world, and in that to come life everlasting. The same we say, too, of those--not few in number, too, either--who opened their houses to the destitute and suffering, and fed, lodged and clothed them, without hope or expectation of fee or reward, except in the approval of a good conscience. And here let me express the thanks of an overflowing heart to those noble people of our commercial metropolis, who gave of their means until the pitiful cries of the destitute were hushed, and the most exacting could say, "It is enough." If we forget them for this, let the right hand forget its cunning--the voice in silence die.

While summing up the things that were seen, let me say, as one to whom most thereof was brought home with most vivid distinctness, that the suffering was most appalling, the distress beyond expression. I could detail instances that would thrill your hearts, by the most tame of descriptions, but I will not begin that work, lest I know not when and where to stop. Much of this, too, and that, if possible, the keenest and greatest, kept itself in the background till sought out by benevolent souls or was forced out by the sternest necessity. We hope that we have found out all, and to the extent of our means, relieved the suffering brought to our notice, May it never be our lot to see the like again, either here or elsewhere.

What has been done? Much, we trust, of which no earthly statistics can be kept or given. True charity ceases to be such when it degenerates into boasting. Let all this, then, be excluded as we try to say a few words as to what has been done, and the principles which have guided the action of those who were the intrusted almoners of the bounty of our fellow citizens, and especially of that which flowed in so copious a stream from our brethren in San Francisco. I shall speak more especially of the Howard Benevolent Association, for of its doings I know well. I would by no means be understood as excluding others. I well know that many hundreds of generous souls were indefatigable in searching out and relieving the necessities of the suffering. And indeed there was work enough for all. I know of some individuals, whose names I would gladly publish to the world, but it would be a pain and not a pleasure to them were I to do so. I will only say to such the better, more precious words of Him who saw all and remembers all: "God is not unrighteous, that He will forget your labor that proceedeth of Love; which Love ye have showed for His name's sake, who have ministered unto the saints and yet do minister." Some, and perhaps all, of the religions societies in our city worked well and faithfully in helping their suffering poor. So did the other benevolent societies that are an ornament to our city. I heard, and may say I know of acts done by the Freemasons, the Odd Fellows and the Hebrew Benevolent Society that were not only in the highest degree creditable to them, but shamed the laggardness of professing Christians, who ought, like the Master they have vowed to serve, to be foremost in "doing good." Many an aching heart was cheered; many a desolate home restored; many an impoverished larder and wardrobe replenished by these Good Samaritans, who did their work in secret, but will be rewarded openly.

Having thus contributed my feeble mite of praise to all these, you will pardon me if I now direct your attention to the Association first named and its work. Many of you have seen a little of that work. Some have perhaps heard charges of favoritism--imputations of error--and alleged instances of imposture. As to the first, let me, testifying as one who knows of what he speaks, enter a most unqualified denial. I know what I have done, and I believe, too, that I can speak as positively for those with whom I have acted. We have neither known, nor sought to know, what was a man's or woman's religion, or whether they professed any at all--nor what was their color or race, or condition in life--nor whether old or recent residents of the State or city. The one only question sought to be rightfully determined, was, "Are you in distress? do you need, or will you receive relief at our hands?" and then we endeavored to grant all that was in our power, erring, if at all, on the charitable side, and to do it in the most delicate manner possible, not censuring, but appreciating and humoring (if you please) the scruples and reluctancy of the most fastidious. Not a question was asked, or intended to be asked, save what was necessary to guard against imposture, and the recommendation of any reputable citizen was sufficient to open wide the doors of our distributing depot. I say this most, broadly and unequivocally, because I know what was done, and how it was done, and because I desire to repel at once and fully all imputations of favoritism. To the extent of our ability we desired and endeavored to say to all, substantially, and not in words merely, "Be ye warmed, and be ye filled."

That errors were committed, and that some things might have been done better and wiser than they were, is cheerfully admitted. Perfection belongs not to man. We only believe (pardon the egotism, if it be such) that no other men in our city could, in the peculiarly trying circumstances under which we were compelled to act, and that promptly, too, have made fewer mistakes. Had the complainant been in our place, I know he would have wondered that no more blunders were made. We only ask to be acquitted of intentional wrong, and that acquittal belongs to all. Much, too, has been said of impostures on our bounty. It could not be helped. Nearly all the blame we have received grew out of our wish and intent to detect these attempts of the lazy and the worthless, that we might have the more to give to those who were in need. We know that we were imposed upon, but to a much less extent than has been said and believed. Many of the stories brought to our notice were investigated, and the alleged imposture was found to be none at all. I feel satisfied that I am far within bounds when I declare my belief that the impostures upon us were less than ten per cent of the applications, and to me the only wonder is that they were not threefold that amount. Granting, then, all the deductions that may be made from all these sources, we know that since the ninth of December--the day of the flood--we have relieved, and liberally, too, the suffering destitution and wants of at least six hundred families. Very few of these had less than three members--the mass had more than five, and many of them eight or ten. There were the old, the middle-aged, the youth and the infant; the sick and the infirm, for which a hospital was established, cared for gratuitously by the three medical members of our Association. And here let me say, that all our city physicians deserve special mention for their generous and gratuitous services to all the sufferers by the flood. A large number of the families relieved by us had lost their all. They were supplied with a temporary home at the Pavilion, and when the waters subsided, were put again into as neat and well furnished houses as our means would permit. A few ungrateful ones have marred the general thankfulness, but as a whole, the hearty "God bless you" of those persons ready to perish, has more than repaid for all that was done. Of the thousands of dollars that all this has cost, and which must yet be expended, I cannot speak with precision. I only know that it must be reckoned by tens of thousands, and that for the mass we are indebted to the people of San Francisco, though liberal contributions have come from many other places, for which we express many thanks. Due acknowledgment for all will soon be given. So much have we done. May God pardon all errors, and own all that has been done well and with good intent. We ask no praise. Give the honor and the glory where all belong--to Him who opened these generous hearts to come so nobly and so seasonably to our relief.

We turn for a moment from the past and present to speak of and for the future. What is yet to be done? I answer, much every way. The text selected from the writings of St. Paul preaches to us its own sermon; and needs no explanation or enlargement. "Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfill the laws of Christ." Our work is far from being done. As individuals, we have and shall have very much to do--in lending the helping hand to the suffering poor, as their cases are brought to our notice; in severing the worthy from the unworthy, and seeing that the former suffer not for the ill deserts of the latter. All can take part in this work, for it may be done with a slender and even an empty purse as well, if not to so great an extent as with a full one. The kind word of sympathy--a few hours work with the needle--an errand done for the helpless--a good word spoken for the deserving, to those who have an abundance and to spare--all, I repeat, can do this work, and all should. Thus will they lift heavy burdens from the shoulders of the weak--fulfill the law of Christ--for He will say to such, "Inasmuch as ye did it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye did it unto me; Come ye blessed." Let all, then, give attention to those things while the pressing need exists. It will do all good. "He that watereth others, shall be watered himself." It will teach you, my hearers, how many blessings you have, of which your fellows are deprived, and you will cease ever so disposed to murmur at your lot. It will lighten your own cares and burdens, for the prayers and blessings of the relieved will give you strength.

The Association of which I have spoken so freely to-day, and in behalf of which a special effort is now made, has a great work to do in the future, as it has had in the past. They have many a destitute family on hand that must be cared for till brighter days dawn upon them. Work is also thrown upon them from which others shrink, for fear of contagion. We, as an Association, for I speak for them, have taken that duty, disagreeable as it is, upon ourselves, though legitimately it belongs to others and not to us, and by the help of God, we will endeavor that no one shall suffer for food, nursing or medical care. We then ask you, and all, to strengthen our hands; to give us your confidence, your sympathy, your material things--for this work costs money, and our pockets are neither large enough, nor deep enough to meet the demand. Let then your contributions be as becomes the work to be done; your own ability; your appropriate thank offering for the mercies whereby God hath made you to differ from another. We offer you the best of all investments and security--work of Him who is Truth itself: "He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto the Lord; and look, what he layeth out, it shall be paid him again;" [sic, missing "] Blessed is the man that provideth for the sick and needy; the Lord shall deliver him in the time of trouble." "Let every man then do accordingly as he is disposed in his heart, not grudgingly, or of necessity; for God loveth a cheerful giver."

As CITIZENS, interested in the prosperity of our city, you have much to do. Prophets of good and of evil are amongst us, and time alone will determine who are the true and who the false. The depression and sadness we need not wonder at, for thousands can truthfully say, "Is there not a cause?" Yet it will not hurt any one, but do good to all, to be hopeful and look on the bright side. For one, I believe our city will recover and more than recover the lost ground--that the scenes of desolation now to be witnessed will soon disappear, and this be again a city of flowers and shrubbery; of fruits and of CHEERFUL HOMES. The very calamity from which we have suffered, and which men would not believe possible till it came upon us, has taught our authorities wisdom that they will not soon forget. Our guards against floods will now be made sufficient--at least as much so as human foresight and labor can do it. The pitiful scramble for the emoluments of office will, for a while at least, give place to the higher law of self-preservation. Let all, then, be cheerful and look forward to brighter days. Severe is the lesson we have been taught. Let us show that we have learned and profited by its teachings like men--like Californians, of whom it has heretofore been justly said, that they rise the more buoyant and determined from the pressure of the heaviest calamities. So let it be with you, my fellow-citizens. A cheerful countenance, and a determination to make the best of adverse things, is a capital in bank, of itself, from which all may draw. "Bear ye one another's burdens," by cheerfulness and encouragements, and do not increase theirs and your own by despondency and anticipations of coming evil. Your mercies and blessings yet far outweigh your losses, and God can and will more than make all these last good to you. Only trust to him. "He is His own interpreter, and He will make it plain;" for

"Behind a frowning Providence He hides a smiling face."

One other thought and your attention will be relieved. I have just alluded thereto, and I would have you ever keep it foremost in your minds. There are effects and second causes, which are things of sight and suffering, and hence they very naturally absorb attention and comment and action. But in all things--in adversity as well as in prosperity--there is a first great and moving cause. God still wills and governs. His Providence is not only general, in controlling the mighty movements of the universe, but particular, now as ever, to the fall of the sparrow and the numbering of the hairs of the head. His hand has been in this our calamity. Why and wherefore is not for me to determine. Let there be deep searchings of heart on the part of all, to see if the answer does not readily suggest itself. Cause enough do the best of us give Him to punish us, and that severely. Did He but deal out to us the measure of our deserts, and as we treat our fellow men--alas! who could stand before Him, or answer for one of a thousand of our transgressions? Humble then yourselves before Him in this dark hour. Confess your sins unto Him and implore His pardon and forgiveness. Then will the black cloud begin to show its silver lining--the rainbow of peace again attest that the floods shall no more be upon the earth; and our Heavenly Father teach us so plainly that all this was for our good, that we will thank and love him the more. Learn, then, I pray you, this lesson of submission. Pray for grace to change afflictions into blesssings. Above all, learn by these disciplines of earth that here is not your home, but only a tarrying place for a brief while. "Set your affections on things above." Lay up your treasures in heaven, and then you will and can lose nothing. All the changes and chances of this mortal life shall only insure to you, through the mercies of Jesus Christ, an abundance of those glories and riches which never fade, for they are those of Heaven. Thus will your light afflictions, which are but for a moment, work out for you a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory."

God grant that so it may be with us all. Amen.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3362, 7 January 1862, p. 1


EDITORS UNION:--Seeing several communications lately in your valuable paper, in reference to the use of State prison labor, and the hope therein expressed that the coming Legislature and new State Administration would take the necessary steps to make such labor useful in repairing, widening and strengthening the levees in this city and vicinity generally, I have thought proper to inform you (being perfectly conversant with the subject), that Governor Downey, Lieutenant Governor Don Pablo de la Guerra, and Attorney General Williams, who compose the present Board of State Prison Directors, have placed it entirely out of the power of the new Administration or present Legislature to aid the city under any ordinary circumstances--by ordinary circumstances I am to be understood as saying that the natural increase would not give an aggregate for some time to come sufficiently great to leave at the disposal of the State any surplus, after supplying contractors, for the objects before mentioned. The average number of prisoners for the past year has been not far from 550; and I propose to show how utterly impossible it will be to obtain any benefit from that labor for so desirable a purpose as to make Sacramento impregnable from inroads of the waters of the Sacramento and American. A few figures, easily understood, will show what use Downey & Co. have made of the power vested in them, in the disposal of convict labor for the benefit of the mechanics and working men of California. His first contract was with Donald McClellan, proprietor of the Mission Woolen Mills, for one hundred men at 50 cents each per day for one year. That contract has been extended within a few days to a period of three years, upon the same terms. Mr. McClellan is making a clear daily profit of from $150 to $200, so it is easily seen he has a fine thing; but many a poor person suffers who is brought into competition with his work. The next contract was for sixteen months work of fifty men, at 50 cents per day, by E. T. Pease, in the coopering business, commencing July 1st, 1861. Thomas Ogg Shaw follows--one hundred men for five years from October 1st, 1861. He pays, for mechanics, 75 cents each per day, and for laborers, 50 cents per day. These men are to be employed in the manufacture of agricultural implements, blacksmithing and cabinet work. And now, last, but not least, follows ex-Lieutenant Governor Quinn and Colonel Ross, who, thinking the brick business would still pay when the best brick makers in the State could be hired for 50 cents a day, step in and contract for a hundred of them for the season of 1862, making the total number of prisoners contracted for three hundred and fifty. Add to this one hundred who are either sick, crippled or lazy and won't work, and one hundred more for waiters, cooks, butchers, bakers, room cleaners, and assistants generally, and we have a total of five hundred and fifty. It is, therefore, easily perceived that no aid can be looked for from that source, and any speculations upon the subject are idle and of no avail, owing to the far sighted policy of Downey & Co.
SACRAMENTO, January 3d, 1862. . . .

HIGH TIDES.--During the last week, says the Petaluma Journal of January 3d, the creek has been higher than at any other time since the Winter of 1852.

p. 4


. . . At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors held yesterday, a resolution was adopted instructing its Chief of Police to remove forthwith the track, and all other obstructions belonging to the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company from all streets west of Sixth street. This is designed as an enforcement of ordinances recently adopted by the Board. . . .

Notwithstanding the heavy fall of rain on Sunday, our rivers remain about stationary. The weather continues chilly. The coast range and the foot hills of the Sierra are covered with anew. Much snow has fallen at Carson City, Red Bluff, Colusa aed other points. . . .

THE HOWARD BENEVOLENT ASSOCIATION.--The good work performed by this noble and praiseworthy Association, during the past month of disaster and trial, should entitle the members to the lasting gratitude of this community. The difficulties with which they had to contend, and the untiring energy they displayed, are but modestly indicated in the statement which appeared in our columns yesterday; they appear to be anxious to give due credit for generous exertion to everybody who, in any way, contributed to strengthen their hands--reserving no claim of merit for themselves. But, certainly, the almost constant labor, personal sacrifices, exposure, and judicious management of these philanthropic citizens will be fully acknowledged in Sacramento, while the individuals whose distress has been relieved will cherish the liveliest memories of their effective and kindly efforts. Although it is probable that the most trying and extraordinary work of the Association has been completed, it should not be forgotten that for two months to come large expenditures will be necessary in order to supply, with fuel and food, many poor families whose means of subsistence have been diminished or destroyed. Material aid is required, and a sufficient sum can be easily obtained by the simple enlargement of the list of monthly subscribers. No citizen could contribute one dollar a month to a more praiseworthy purpose. We owe it to ourselves, to Sacramento and to the administration of a noble charity, to sustain the "Howard" with all possible liberality.

In the monthly report of this Association, we have an estimate of the losses sustained by the city and adjacent country, in consequence of the deluge with which this region has been visited. The document says: "We estimate the losses in this city alone to be, at a low figure, $700,000, which does not include the losses from disruption of business or deferred payments of debts. We estimate the losses, within a circuit of twenty miles of the city, at $2,000,000--principally stock, fences and agricultural implements." We think it probable that these estimates will be found considerably under the actual figures. There are many cases of individual loss, concerning which no complaint has been made--instances of the destruction of household goods, etc., which the losers have not deemed worthy of mention at a time when others have been nearly ruined, and of which it was impossible for the members of the "Howard" to gain any information. For the rest, the report of the Association is a faithful record of a disaster that will always be a conspicuous event in the annals of the city--a story of cloud, gloom and distress, only relieved by those gleams of heroism, philanthropy and selfsacrifice which often render a season of adversity a blessing in disguise, and exalt our estimate of human nature.

SUPERVISORS VS. RAILROAD.--The Board of Supervisors appears determined to make itself ridiculous about the railroad. They yesterday passed a resolution ordering the Chief of Police to take up the track west of Sixth street. As the order of the Board is illegal, and as the Chief of Police is not an appointee of the Board, we presume he will decline to obey an order which renders him liable for doing an illegal act under a resolution of the Board, which would not protect him.

One of the widest crevasses made in the R street levee by the first flood was at Sixth street, and if the Chief of Police were to take up rails as ordered, he would be forced to begin west of that crevasse. The proceedings of the Board relative to the railroad are farcical. Not the first legal step has been taken in the premises, and as a consequence the Board will involve the city in a costly suit in which it will inevitably be beaten, and the Railroad Company will go on as if no such body as the Board of Supervisors ever existed. The Board seems to be using the railroad as a kind of shield. They would direct the attention of the people to something besides the fact that in all the disasters inflicted upon them by the floods, the Board of Supervisors--the city authorities--has not taken a single step towards relieving the people from the effects of the deluge through which they have passed. Such city authorities are worse than none. J street is now impassable for want of bridges across the drains cut to let the water pass from the north portion of the city. Why do not the members of the Board take such steps as are necessary to have those drains bridged? Better the Chief of Police to attend to that. So much has K street been traveled since the flood, that from Thirteenth to Sixteenth street it is not passable for wagons with loads. Three or four were mired between those points at the same time, yesterday. But none of these difficulties of getting in and out of the city seem to trouble the Board the members can see nothing but the railroad west of Sixth street. If the Board would make an effort to do something for the benefit of the city, we would take pleasure in recording the fact that the members had really made one effort for the relief of the city. . . .

KNIGHT'S LANDING.--The News of January 4th says:

The water of the Sacramento river was higher yesterday at this place than it has been since the memorable Winter of 1852-3. Although suffering no inconvenience from it yet, a foot more would submerge a great portion of the town. . . .

DROWNED.--At O'Donnell Flat, Sierra county, December 27th, Wm. Dongman was drowned. He fell from the foot log as he was attempting to cross the river. . . .

THE WEATHER.--Dispatches to the Bee, dated January 6th, contain the following intelligence:

CARSON CITY.--lt is snowing hard here, and the ground is covered to the depth of two feet; it is very cold.

PLACERVILLE.--It rained here all day yesterday and turned to snow last night; the ground covered this morning. It has been raining all day to-day, and the roads are in a very bad condition. The streams are not very full, the snow not melting in the mountains.

MARYSVILLE.--Very cold and a little cloudy. Can see the foothills, low down, covered with snow in all directions. It has not rained since half-past three o'clock this morning.

FOLSOM.--Raining lightly, but very cloudy. River rises slowly--rose about a foot to-day.

MARYSVILLE.--There was quite a severe snow storm at Marysville, January 5th. It continued for abcut half an hour. . . .


EDITORS UNION: "A Taxpayer" and "Publicola," in your issue of this date, have some interesting statements respecting Sacramento's protection. Publicola's ideas would not work well at Rabel's Tannery. For it is not the surface that is acted upon by the water, but a layer of sand underneath that wears away and causes the surface to cave. His proposition would work well provided the surface was the shifting material. About fifteen or eighteen hundred feet north from the tannery is the mouth of a slough, or an old river bed. That is overgrown with small trees and densely interwoven with vines. "A Taxpayer" proposes to open a way for the water to pass freely, and the river would likely make its own channel.

Many visits to that locality to examine the water's action have satisfied my mind that such is the proper course. The river would be shortened nearly two thousand feet, which would make the current much more rapid and effectual in making a channel. A narrow ditch would be of great service, and would not necessarily be more than about six feet deep, and most of the way less than that would be sufficient

Trees and brush sunk along the threatened bank next the Tannery would be the surest protection. You have advocated that course, and a correspondent relates that towns in Iowa have been protected in that way. They would be as effectual as anything, and much cheaper than rip rap.

The right of way across the bar can be appropriated by the Legislature by satisfying them that it is necessary.
SACRAMENTO, Jan. 6th. T. F. P.


EDITORS UNION: I am opposed to angling and winding levees. To illustrate my idea, I will state that we have to contend not against the water that runs within the natural embankment of the river (as that takes care of itself), but that portion of water that runs above, nearly the whole of which takes an independent course of the low channel of the river. For instance: at Burns' slough the bed of the river is near a half mile off from the mouth of the slough; but that portion of the element that we have to contend againat comes down from Brighton, sweeps over this intervening half mile, willows, brush and all, and strikes our levee (the People's Committee are now rebuilding) nearly if not at right angles.

Now, would it not he wiser in us to build a strong levee, commencing on the south side of the mouth of Burns' slough, running thence near if not altogether in a straight line to the river by Rabel's tannery or Thirty-first street, then cut away the old levee immediately east of this terminus for at least forty rods? So that as the water comes down from Brighton it would not be interrupted, but would pass along in a straight course into the natural channel of the river about Rabel's or Thirty-first street.

You may guide the element, but you cannot force it; or, it is more difficult to force the element to one or the other side than it is to guide it in its natural course. TAX PAYER. . . . .

p. 5


. . .

INSOLVENCY.--C. B. Linton filed on Saturday a petition in insolvency in the District Court. The petitioner states that in the Spring of 1855 he commenced dealing in grain, in this city, with a cash capital of $8,000. Continuing business for six months he lost $1,000. He then went into the grocery business with $7,000, and continuing for the term of eighteen months lost $4,000. He susequently invested his remaining capital in bees, at the rate of about $100 per hive, and also purchased on credit at the same rate to the extent of $2,000. He also established a store in Nevada county, by which he lost considerable by bad debts, etc. By the time the bees were ready for market they had depreciated in value at least seventy-five per cent. On the 9th of December, 1861, a large proportion of them were swept away by the flood. His remaining property has been attached by the Sheriff to satisfy claims on which suits have been commenced. His liabilities are given at $3,944.14, and assets at $450. . . .

SNOW ON THE MOUNTAINS.--It was a matter of general remark yesterday afternoon, that the mountains either side--the Sierras on the east and the Coast Range on the west--were covered with snow to the foot hills. The Coast Range has never been known, since the settlement of the country, to present such an appearance. Snow is frequently seen in Winter on the loftier peaks of the range, but never has so general a covering of white been observed before. The Red Bluff steamer which arrived yesterday brings word that the snow at that point fell eight inches deep, and verifies the report by a sample of the snow which fell upon her deck and was shoveled up in a solid mass for the pnrpose of preservation. At various points along the river the inhabitants were amusing themselves with sleds and sleighs of elaborate workmanship like many of our Sacramento boats. . . .

FAILED TO ARRIVE.--It was expected that Company F, Capt. A. W. Cullum, and Company H, Capt. J. M. Cass, of the Fourth Regiment, would have arrived at the railroad terminus, from Auburn, by the noon train from Folsom yesterday, to proceed to Camp Union. They failed to reach Folsom in time for the cars, and will therefore not reach this city until to-day. It was expected that they would travel from .Auburn to Folsom on foot, and the rains of Sunday probably caused their detention. The remainder of the regiment it is expected will be down within a few days, and soon after their arrival it is presumed that the Fifth Regiment will leave for San Francisco.

THE LEVEE WORK.--The Committee of Safety commenced work yesterday in repairing the openings in the Thirty-first street levee. Over one hundred men were employed at the three principal points north of J street by which the northern portion of the city had been flooded, and by night the repairs were completed, and the levee put in a condition which will, in the opinion of members of the Committee, preclude the possibility of any more water from that quarter. One or two other openings near L and M streets will be repaired to-day. It is the design of the Committee to resume work as soon as practicable on the American river, between the Tannery and Burns' slough.

RAILROAD LUMBER.--The barge Victoria, Captain Shaw, arrived at the foot of R street, on Sunday, with a cargo of 108 thousand feet of lumber from San Francisco, for the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company. This is probably the largest cargo of lumber ever brought to the city. It consists of 10 by 12, 12 by 12 and 12 by 14 inch pieces, varying in length from thirty-five to sixty feet. It is to be used in building trestle work in repairing the R street Railroad. . . .

STATU QUO.--Sacramento river, was not swollen to any perceptible extent, yesterday, by the rates of the day and night before. Strange as it may seem, the American river had not, at the tannery, risen one inch at sundown last evening. The mountains were visited with snow instead of rain, which fact, of course, explains the condition of the rivers.

RAIN.--The total amount of rain which fell during Sunday, Sunday night and yesterday forenoon was 2.690 inches. This storm was quite extraordinary, from the fact that a violent northwest wind prevailed throughout. We have seldom had rain from the northwest, and never so large a quantity.

HARD ROAD TO TRAVEL.--The only road by which teams can at present leave the city for the east or south, is by way of K street and the ferry at the fort. K street is in poor condition for traveling with even moderate loads. Yesterday at almost any hour from six to eight, stalled teams could have been seen on it, between Twelfth and Thirty-first streets.


MONDAY, January 6th, 1862.
The Board met at 2-1/2 o'clock P. M. Present-Shattuck, President; Granger, Hansbrow, Russell, Hite, Dlckerson, Hall and Waterman. . . .

Supervisor DICKERSON called attention to the importance of establishing a new ferry at L, M, or N streets, to accommodate the travel on the upper and lower Stockton roads. He was authorized to say that G. W. Colby was desirous of establishing such a ferry.

Supervisor RUSSELL. moved that a license be granted to Mr. Colby for this purpose, upon the payment of the license .fee of of $30.

Supervisor HANSBOW thought the grant might interfere with the ferries already licensed and injustice might be done to their owners.

After some farther discussion the subject was postponed until the next meeting.

An application was received from Mrs. Amanda C. Harris. L. B. Harris and R. A. Pearis, the owners of Lisle's bridge, across the American river at a point just below the old Hereford & Lisle ferry, for a temporary license for a ferry until they could repair the damage done to their bridge by the late flood. They had already established a ferry to accommodate travel, and thought they could complete their bridge within sixty or ninety days. The applicants were represented on this occasion by counsel.

Supervisor GRANGER favored the postponement of the consideration of the matter. There was a legal difficulty in the way which should be first adjusted. He understood that there was a ferry already established and no inconvenience could result to the publlc from the postponement. He moved that the consideration of the application be postponed until the 26th instant.

Mr. CROCKER, attorney for Samuel Norris, who is an applicant for a license to establish a permanent ferry at the same point, said that Norris did not wish to press the consideration of the question at this time. He suggested that the proper course for the Board to pursue, under the circumstances, would be postpone the subject until the 20th instant, when Norris' application would come before the Board.

The question recurring on Supervisor GRANGER's motion to postpone the subject until the 26th, the ayes and noes were called, with the following result:
Ayes--Granger, Russell and Dickerson--3.
Noes--Hansbrow, Hite, Waterman and Hall--4.

Supervisor HITE then moved to postpone the matter until the 20th instant, in accordance with the suggestion of Mr. Crocker.

Counsel for the opposing parties were permitted to argue the question.

Mr. WINANS, attorney for Harris & Pearis, contended that at this time neither party had a right to make application for a permanent ferry. His clients only wanted permission for a temporary ferry, which the statute, he thought, gave the Board ample authority to grant, without notice. The Board had nothing to do with any legal controversy between Norris and Harris & Pearis. Counsel asked that the temporary license be granted without delay.

Mr. CROCKER denied that the rights of the opposing parties were in litigation. That could not be the case, because Norris had not yet obtained a license. He contended that the statute did not permit the Board to grant ferry licenses without due notice, and said that justlce to the parties to this controversy demanded that the subject should be postponed until Norris' application came before the Board.

The motion to postpone the subject until the 20th instant was then unanimously adopted. . . .

Supervisor HITE submitted the following, which was adopted:

Resolved, That the committee on Roads. Bridges and Ferries are hereby authorized to advertise for proposals for the construction of bridges across Sutter Fort Slough, on J and K streets.

Supervisor HITE stated that the city was permitting a harvest to pass without reaping any benefit--ferries now paying a large profit to private parties. He knew that individuals were ready to build bridges upon terms favorable to the city.

Supervisor HANSBROW said that an impression had got abroad that there was no intention to enforce the ordinance passed at the last meeting in reference to the removal of the track and tanks of the Sacramento Valley Railroad on Front street. He thought that the ordinance should be promptly enforced in order to show that the Board was in earnest. He submitted the following, which was unanimously adopted:

Resolved, That the Chief of Police be insructed to proceed forthwith to remove the rails and all other obstructions made by the Sacramento Valley Railroad, from off all the streets and levees west of Sixth street, under direction of the Superintendent of Streets.

President SHATTUCK desired some instruction in reference to the manner of proceeding.

Supervisor HANSBROW said it was probable the work of removal would be enjoined by the railroad company. He did not anticipate any difficulty, but if any increase of force was rendered necessary thousands of citizens would be ready to assist in the enforcement of the ordinance. He wanted the Board to show the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company that it (the company) did not own the city of Sacramento. . . .

On motion, the Board then adjourned to meet at ten o'clock this morning. . . .


Coroner Reeves held an inquest, on Sunday afternoon, at Camp Union, over the body of a private belonging to Company K of the Fifth Regiment, named David Bradish. The deceased had been missing since Dec. 9th or 10th, about the time of the flood. The body was found below Sutterville on Sunday morning. In the afternoon, the Coroner, on hearing of the fact, repaired to the camp, and impanneled a jury composed of William K. Ellis, Washington W. Hyde, Charles Lawson, Daniel Folley, Samuel Puryear, and William Russell. There was but one witness examined:

George Dutton, sworn--I belong to Company K, Captain Tidball; I recognize the deceased now before the jury as being the body of David Bradish, a private of Company K, Captain Tidball; he left this camp on the morning of December 9th, and has not been seen since, to my knowledge, until the body was discovered yesterday below Sutterville and reported to the camp, and by order the body was removed to this place; deceased's age is about twenty-eight years; a native of Pennsylvania; is a single man and has a brother-in-law residing near Georgetown, in El Dorado county; I do not know how the deceased came to his death, but am of opinion that he was drowned in attempting to cross the breach in the levee between the Half-way House and Sutterville; there was no money or valuables found on deceased to my knowledge.

The jury returned a verdict to the effect that the name of deceased was "David Bradish; a native of Pennsyvania, aged twenty-eight years; and that he came to his death by being accidentally drowned on Tuesday, December 10th, 1861; and that deceased was a private in Company K, Captain Tidball, Fifth Regiment California Volunteers." . . .

BEAR RIVER DITCH.--This ditch suffered considerably by the late flood, so much so, that the supply of water has been entirely cut off. Men are engaged in repairing the injured places as fast as possible, and in a very short time the miners will receive their usual supply of that necessary article--water. The Gold Hill ditch, too, has suffered to a considerable extent, but will soon be in working order again.--Auburn Advocate. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3363, 8 January 1862, p1


TUESDAY, January 7, 1862.
The House was called to order by the Clerk, J. M. Anderson, at eleven o'clock. . . .

Mr. O'BRIEN offered a resolution that H. A. Lease be appointed temporary Sergeant-at-Arms.

Mr. WARWICK said he would prefer to nominate for that position one James Parker, otherwise known as "Billy the Boatman," a man who exhibited commendable bravery, and rendered efficient sarvice to the cause of humanity during the recent flood. It would be a well deserved compliment to that man, and he moved to amend the resolution by substituting the name of Parker for that of Lease.

Mr. O'BRIEN said it was only the usual courtesy to aliow the old officers to serve until their permanent successors should be chosen; but he did not regard it as of much consequence, and the House could take such action as it pleased on the subject.

The amendment proposed by Mr. Warwick was lost, and Mr. O'Brien's resolution was adopted. . . .

For Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms Mr. SEARS nominated Jeremiah Watts, of Nevada.

Mr. DENNIS nominated C. B. Fleming of Placer.

Mr. SAUL nominated J. Parker of Sacramento, and said that was the gentleman whom his colleague (Mr. Warwick) had so highly eulogized for his gallant conduct in saving lives during the recent flood in Sacramento.

Mr. WRIGHT nominated E. E. Turk of Yreka.

Mr. WATTS received 39 votes. Mr. Fleming 10, Mr. Parker 9, Mr. Turk 8; and Mr. Watts was declared elected. . . .

p. 2


. . .

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors, held yesterday morning, definite action was taken in regard to the Rightmire claim against the city. The bill was returned by the Auditor with objections, and the objections were sustained by the Board. Rightmire announced his intention to hold the members individually responsible for the amount be claimed. . . .

The Sacramento fell several inches yesterday. There is little or no change in the condition of the American. . . .


. . . A year subsequent to the signing of this contract, it had become so unpopular, and such horrible reports of the treatment of prisoners were made to the Legislature, that a bill was passed annulling the contract with Estell & Co., and instructing the Governor, John B. Weller, to proceed to San Quentin, and take possession of the prison and prisoners in the name of the State. He obeyed instructions, the contractors merely making such opposition as was necessary to save their legal rights. They subsequently succeeded in obtaining a judgment against the State for the full sum they would have been entitled to under the contract had they continued in possession of the prison and prisoners. The Courts decided that the Legislature could not annul a contract into which the State had regularly entered in that way, and the effect of the hasty and illegal proceedings of the members cost the State several hundred thousand dollars. Our Board of Supervisors may profit by this example in their action toward the Railroad Company. Legislative bodies cannot disturb by Act rights which have been vested in individuals or companies by previous contracts. . . . .

RAIN IN SANTA CLARA.--By the late rains Santa Clara Valley was almost deluged with water, and the roads were in such condition, January 6th, that the stages could not leave for San Francisco. It seems a public meeting was held at Santa Clara on Monday, December 30th, for the purpose of securing the State Capital for that town. The San Jose Mercury says it was a failure, but another meeting will shortly be called. . . .

p. 3


LIBRARY REPORT.--From the quarterly report of the Board of Directors of the Sacramento Library Association for the quarter ending January 6th, we obtain the following information concerning the affairs of the Association: . . . .". . . There was overdue, on the 1st instant, on account of monthly dues, the sum of $265 50, a major part of which would undoubtedly have been in the treasury, but for the adverse circumstances prevailing in our midst for the past four weeks. . . . Arrangements were perfected for a course of six lectures, by distinguished gentlemen of the State, and the course commenced under very favorable auspices, as most of you are aware, but from unforeseen and unavoidable causes a temporary interruption has occurred. It is designed to resume the original plan at the earliest possible period, and we confidently anticipate for the course a success fully equal to that of preceding years." . . .

THE FRONT STREET RAILROAD.--No action was taken yesterday towards carrying out the policy of the Board of Supervisors with reference to the Front street railroad. Chief of Police Watson did not deem it to be his duty to commence the work of taking up the track. After the Board adjourned, at about noon, considerable excitement prevailed on the street on account of a rumor that the Board had adjourned with the intention on the part of the members of commencing the work in person. No such move was made, however, and was probably not contemplated.

VALUABLE HORSE LOST.--On Monday afternoon a valuable horse belonging to Beck & Ackley, of Eighth and J streets, became mired down in a mud hole on Tenth street, between G and H. J. Kane, the drayman, attempted to drive through a pool of mud and water, as other vehicles had been passing through. The horse sunk down, and after making an effort or two to get out of the hole, seemed to have injured himself in some manner. All efforts to keep his head out of water were unsuccessful. He died in about three minutes after falling.

THE CHAIN GANG.--The chain gang, under charge of Overseer Long, was engaged yesterday in burying the carcases of dead cattle around the outskirts of the city. They succeded in bagging some thirty head of cows, horses, hogs, goats, etc. This morning they will commence the work of draining off the water standing on Third street on the north side of K, a point at which their services can be most advantageously employed.

REMOVAL OF STOCK.--The steamer Visalia brought up yesterday afternoon, from Duboise's ranch, nine miles below the city, on the Yolo side, some twenty head of horses. The high water rendered their removal necessary. The steamer Laura Ellen also brought down, for the same reason, a number of horses and mules from Tilton and McHugh's ranches, eight or nine miles above the city.

SNOW IN YOLO.--C. Heinrech, of Third and L streets, received a letter yesterday from his ranch in Yolo county, near the foot hills, thirty miles from the city, stating that the snow fell at that point twelve inches deep, and that it was still lying on the ground, having melted but little. There was six inches of snow twelve miles this side of Cache creek canon. . . .

THE WEATHER.--The appearance of the sky and condition of the atmosphere last evening, gave strong ground for the hope that we might be favored with a little rain before long by way of variety. We may, however, be disappointed.. Let nobody bet on it. . . .

FALLING.--The Sacramento river fell some four inches yesterday, standing at sunset at twenty-one feet eight inches above low water mark. . . .

HEAVY RAIN IN SAN FRANCISCO.--Four inches of rain fell in San Francisco, between twelve o'clock Saturday night, and nine o'clock Monday morning. This beats Sacramento altogether. . . .


TUESDAY, Jan. 7, 1862
The Board convened at 10 o'clock. Present--Shattuck, President, Granger, Dickerson, Russell, Hite, Hall, Hansbrow, Woods and Waterman. . . .

Supervisor HITE, from the Committee on Roads, Ferries and Bridges, stated that two individuals were prepared to take charge of the bridging, etc. of certain streets, and would have their plans and specifications ready to submit it to the Board on the following day. . . .

Supervisor GRANGER wanted information in regard to the proposed action of the Committee on Roads, Ferries and Bridges, as alluded to by Supervisor Hite.

Supervisor HITE explained that it was intended to let one individual build a bridge over Sutter's Fort slough, at J street, and another a bridge over the same slough at K street, the tolls being appropriated to pay for the bridges, and keep the streets approaching them in repair.

Supervisor WOODS was opposed to the plan of trusting private parties to keep the streets of the city in repair. . . .

Supervisor GRANGER inquired if anything further had been done in reference to the Rightmire bill.

Supervisor HANSBROW stated that he had called upon the Citizens' Committee and endeavored to persuade them to indorse the action of the Board in regard to the Rightmire claim, and use their efforts to "turn in" the amount the Board proposed to pay. Judge Smith and two other members of the Committee decidedly favored the proposition, but Mr. Lightner, another member, opposed such action upon general principles, and contended that the city was not bound to pay Rightmire anything.

Mr. Rightmire, being present, was asked if he desired to be heard. He said that he had waited until the time fixed by the Board, and was forced to trust to the magnanimity of the Supervisors; but be hoped that justice would be done to him.

The following communication, returning the Rightmire bill without approval, was received from the Auditor:

SACRAMENTO, Jan. 4, 1861, }
To the President and Board of Supervisors: The within bill is returned without approval. l am unable to find any law authorizing the payment of money out of the City treasury unless for value received; there is none expressed or implied in the within account, and in justice to the tax payers. who will have to pay this amount if allowed, I return the bill without my approval. Respectfully yours,
J. HOWELL, Auditor.

Supervisor HANSBROW moved that the objections of the Auditor be sustained.

Supervisor GRANGER did not see how the Board could sustain the objections of the Auditor. What did the public want? Certainly the improvement which Mr. Rightmire had contracted to construct had been demanded by the community, and the Board had only performed its duty in making the contract. Did the people desire that the Board should contract for improvements and then repudiate? He could never sanction such a course while he considered himself an honorable man.

Supervisor DICKERSON would not sustain the Auditor's objections. He thought the claim of Mr. Rightmire entirely fair and just, and one that ought to be settled without further delay. Supervisor Russell said that in seconding the motion to sustain the objections of the Auditor, he did not propose to repudiate. He wanted the obligation met in a different way, to wit: by obtaining a Special Act of the Legislature.

Supervisor HITE would not sustain the objections of the Auditor. He had given his word that Mr. Rightmire, who had taken a contract to do a necessary work when nobody else would take it, should be paid, and he considered himself honorably bound to vote for the claim. The People's Safety Committee was a Quixotic concern, which would probably undertake to turn the channel of the American river. The speaker would not be guided by their action.

Supervisor HANSBROW thought that Rightmire would get his money much sooner through an application to the Legislature than by any action of the Board. There was no doubt whatever of the illegality of the action of the Board, and hundreds of citizens were ready to obtain an injunction to prevent the payment of the bill.

On the question "Shall the objections of the Auditor be sustained?" the ayes and noes were called with the following result:
Ayes--Russell, Hansbrow, Woods, and Waterman--4.
Noes--Granger, Dickerson, Hite, Hall, and Shattuck, President--5.

As a two-thirds vote is required to overrule the action of the Auditor, the objections of that functionary were declared to be sustained.

President SHATTUCK stated that he had not pledged himself to sustain Rightmire, but he was positive that every member of the Board had done so, previous to Rightmire's going to San Francisco for bills and vouchers.

Supervisor WOODS explained that he was perfectly willing that Rightmire should be paid in a legal way, but he would not vote to pay four for one.

Supervisor HITE said that every day the Board paid four for one in the purchase of articles required.

Supervisor RUSSELL, as a member of the Committee on Finance, said that a considerable margin was allowed, but not quite four dollars for one. . . .

On motion of Supervisor DICKERSON, a license was granted to G. W. Colby for a ferry on L street.

Supervisor HITE called attention to the fact that the steamers passing the city were washing away the levee by maintaining an undue rate of speed.

Supervisor GRANGER said that the old ordinance regulating the rate of speed had not been effectual since consolidation.

Supervisor HITE gave notlce that he would introduce an ordinance to the same effect at the next meeting of the Board.

Mr. RIGHTMIRE now said that since the action of the Auditor in regard to his claim had been sustained, he would commence an action against every member of the Board. Every member had assumed the debt and made himself personally responsible. He would not act out of any feeling against the members, because he considered them all his friends and had a respect for them, but simply to protect himself.

Supervisor HITE thought that Mr. Rightmire would be perfectly justified in pursuing such a course, even if every Supervisor found himself in the calaboose.

Supervisor HANSBROW said that he believed every member had voted understandingly, and that no one was inclined to change his course under a threat. He thought the idea of making the members individually responsible for the debt was supremely ridiculous. Mr. Rightmire would doubtless change his purpose.

On motion, the Board adjourned to meet at ten o'clock this morning. . . .

RAIN AND SNOW SOUTH.--In Sonora, it rained all day on Friday, January 3d, and snowed hard all night.

NEVADA.--Ice formed in this town, January 2d and 3d, of the thickness of half an inch. . . .

THE ROADS IN THE INTERIOR.--S. A. Merritt arrived on Saturday evening, January 4th, from Mariposa. He was five days making the trip, the roads being in a horrible condition. Part of the journey he had to make behind an ox team; twice he had to hire a team, the stage communication having been stopped; and at another time he had to walk a considerable distance.--S. F. Herald.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3364, 9 January 1862, p. 1

. . .

LOGS LOST.--At the Albion river, Mendocino county, during the late freshet, the boom was carried away, and logs to the value of $30,000 were lost.

p. 2


Early last evening, while the wires of the Overland Telegraph were working, we were promised dispatches from the East. But the reception of private dispatches was continued until a late hour, and then we were informed that news could not be received. The heavy gale probably deranged the wires. At this particular juncture there is great anxiety to hear from the seat of war, as the culmination of the contest is believed to have arrived.

The telegraphic wires between this city and San Francisco were not in working order last evening. . . .

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors held yesterday, an ordinance was passed fixing the rate of speed for steamers passing the city. This is designed to prevent the washing away of the levees. The rate is fixed by the ordinance at five miles per hour. A resolution was adopted providing for the employment of counsel to bring the issue between the city and the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company before the legal tribunals. An ordinance was adopted fixing the grade of certain streets. This is substantially the same ordinance which was brought before the Board in November last by Supervisor Hite. A resolution, explaining that the ordinance was not intended to affect buildings already erected, except where three-fourths of the property owners in a block request it, was also passed. . . .

The rivers continued to fall yesterday, though it was rainy and unfavorable. At different points in the interior they have had chilly rains or snow. . . .


The Storm in the Interior

It has rained here at intervals all day and still continues, but it is not falling very fast tonight. It is very windy and cool.

OROVILLE, Jan. 8th.
It has rained hard here all day, and the rain continues unabated.

CHICO, Jan. 8th.
It has been raining hard here all day, and continues at the same rate. The streams are all rising rapidly. .

It has been raining hard here all the afternoon. It is raining in the mountains as far up as Strawberry, which will melt the snow in that vicinity. The streams are filling here.

CARSON CITY, Jan. 8th.
It is raining hard and blowing a gale in this valley. . . .

SACRAMENTO.--Our cotemporaries of the interior generally have had a favorable word to say of the State Capital and its late misfortune. The Red Bluff Beacon, among others, has the following:

We had intended to write an article concerning the State Capital, giving the paper goss [?] that said that the seat of government should not be permanently located where the town was liable to suffer from overflows. But every editor in the State, we believe, has given the subject an article, and besides we have been unable to even find out what paper it was that is so down on Sacramento as the Capital, now that she has suffered from an overflow. Sacramento has too much capital, energy and enterprise ever to be kept down by such a trivial cause as an overflow.

The Yreka Journal adds:

Notwithstanding the damages of flood at Sacramento, there is no more convenient interior point in the Sacramento valley, nor one less subject to floods, in the right spot. The new building, however, should be built high, with a strong plateau walled around, so that the walla of the building will be clear from water in the future.

The Shasta Courier remarks:

The people of the State of California deeply sympathize with the Sacramentans, in relation to the untoward disasters with which they have been afflicted, and which to a people less energetic than they are known to be, would be absolutely crushing. The city can be saved from future inundations, and it is the fixed opinion of their neighbors that it will be done thoroughly and at once. . . .

p. 3

CORONER'S INQUEST.--Coroner Reeves held an inquest yesterday on the body of an unknown Chinaman found in the American river above Norris' bridge. The body was found on Tuesday, floating on the north side of the river, by Isaac Watson and several other men in a boat. The Coroner had it brought across the river to Brighton. G. W. Parkison, M. C. Reed, S. F. Weaver, T. B. Burnes, H. E. Judson and C. Eshnaur were impanneled as a jury. The only witness examined was Watson, who stated that the body was made secure, and no examination of it was made until the Coroner arrived. It was in a nude condition, having a string tied around the waist. There were several marks and bruises about the head and face of the deceased, who appeared to have been about sixty years of age. The bruises may have been caused by floating against driftwood. The jury returned a verdict to the effect that the cause of death was unknown to the jury, but that deceased was probably drowned. . . .

TO BE REPAIRED.--The Committee of Safety, at a meeting held yesterday, decided to lay down and put in order the street crossings on the line of Eighth street, between the Capitol at Seventh and I streets, and the residence of Governor Stanford, at Eighth and N streets. As the office of the Governor will be located at his place of residence, these repairs are rendered indispensable. The Committee expect the property owners on the line to repair their sidewalks as far as practicable. . . .

A SUCCESSFUL JOB.--The chain gang, under the direction of Overseers Dreman and Long, dug a ditch yesterday on the north side of K street from Third street to the drain which crosses K street in the middle of the block. The result was to carry off the water which has stood for several weeks at the corner, to the great inconvenience of teams, foot passengers and property owners in the neighborhood. . . .

THE LEVEE.--Workmen were engaged during Tuesday and yesterday forenoon at two points on the American river, east of the tannery, repairing the levee. The rain of yesterday rendered work in the afternoon impracticable. . . .

THE FLOOD IN MARIPOSA.--Scarcely any portion of the State was exempt from damage by the late floods. The Mariposa Gazette of December 31st says:

Property has been damaged along the Merced to an amount not dreamed of by men who have for long time lived in the localities. Commencing at the Benton Mills, it damaged their works to a considerable extent, though the dam stood the pressure asd the loss is comparatively trifling. Wyatt's bridge was then wiped out--then everything at Split Rock Ferry--then everything below, including Chapin's dam and mill, a structure which probably cost in the neighborhood of $100,000. Below that, at Merced Falls, Murray's and Nelson's bridges went by the board, together with two fine flour mills, belonging to the same gentlemen. We have no means at hand for computing the losses of those who suffered from the flood, but should judge that $300,000 would hardly cover them. . . .

THE RIVER.--The Sacramento fell some eight inches yesterday, standing at sunset at about twenty-one feet above low water mark.

MORE OF IT.--We were visited yesterday by more rain, and last evening by another violent gale of wind.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3365, 10 January 1862, p. 3

. . .

CATTLE CHILLED TO DEATH.--The several cold rains of the past few days have been destructive to cattle, numbers having died from being chilled to death--five in one body of stock were seen to fall and expire in a couple of minutes, being, too, in fair condition. The cold wind pierces them as they stand on elevated knolls to keep out of the water that has spread so over the plains, and the result is numbers are chilled to death, of stock, too, that have been Winter fed. We may judge from this the destruction of cattle that have received no attention this Winter, are in a bad condition. They must have fallen in vast numbers before the freezing blasts, against which no shelter has been provided for them. Our present stcck system is a cruel one to the brutes, that should be reformed.--Stockton Argus. . . .


WEDNESDAY, January 8. 1862.
The Board met at 10-1/2 o'clock A. M.. Present--All the Supervisors. . . .

Supervisor HITE presented an ordinance fixing the grade of the streets. The same ordinance had been presented to the Board on the 6th of November last and passed on the 19th of that month, and reconsidered on the 20th. It was now introduced as a new ordinance.

Consideration of the ordinance was postponed to allow the attorney for Benjamin & McWilliams, who had a ferry over the slough at J street previous to the late flood to make a statement. The parties were engaged in repairing the approaches to the slough, and they now wish to file a bond and take out a license for the ferry for thirty days.

Supervisor HITE hoped that no action would be taken that would interfere with the construction of bridges over the slough.

Supervisor GRANGER thought it was impossible to collect the proper timber and complete a suitable bridge over the slough within thirty days.

On motion of Supervisor HANSBOW, the license was granted Benjamin & McWlillams to continue until the completion of the bridge at J street, but in no event for longer than thirty days.

The ordinance fixing the grade of certain streets was then taken up and considered.

Supervisor GRAINGER presumed that the Board did not intend to affect buildings already erected, but he was in favor of declaring that intention by resolution. If this were done there would be no hardships in the passage of the ordinance, because persons who were going to put up buildings would prefer to have those structures placed above high water mark. He was in favor of postponing the consideration of the ordinance

Supervisor HITE was suspicious of delays. He hoped Dr. Morse, who was present, would be heard upon the important question.

Dr. MORSE thanked the Supervisors, but stated that he had not intended to say anything upon the subject before the Board. He indorsed the remarks of Supervisor Granger, and believed that, with the explanatory resolution proposed, the ordinance would meet with the hearty approval of the community.

The ordinance was then laid over under the rules.

Supervisor HALL, Chairman of the Committee on Roads, Ferries and Bridges, submitted the following:

Resolved, That B. F. Leet be and is hereby authorized to build two bridges across Sutter slough, on J and K streets, respectively; to be at least as strong and durable as the bridge shown on a plan prepared by said Leet; and that said Leet is authorized to charge and collect toll on the same until the 1st day of May, 1862; provided that said Leet furnish all the material and do all of the work at his own expense and risk, and on the said 1st day of May deliver the said bridge in good order to the city of Sacramento, then and thereafter to become the property of the said city, and provided that all ferry licenses hereafter to be granted shall cease and determine on the completion and opening of either of said bridges, and that the licenses of the present ferries shall not be renewed. The rates of toll to be collected by said Leet on said bridge shall not exceed the rates now being charged by the ferry boat plying on K street.

Supervisor GRANGER was in favor of wholesome competition, and suggested that the resolution be laid over until to-morrow. A motion to that effect was adopted.

Supervisor HITE offered an ordinance to regulate the speed of steamers passing the city. The rate was fixed at five miles per hour. On motion, the rules were suspended, and the order was considered and passed without dissent.

Supervisor HANSBROW said that he had one other text for an editorial in the UNION. He intended to refer to the same old subject--the railroad. The Chief of Police, it was stated, considered the action of the Board illegal, and had declined to obey the instructions given him. There was also a difference of opinion among lawyers as to the legality of the course planned by the Board. He believed that the Supervisors had acted in strict conformity to the law. He submitted a letter from Daniel J. Thomas, containing a legal argument in support of the course pursued by the Board in regard to the removal of the rails.

The following communlcation was received and read.

"To the Hon. Wm. Shattuck, President of Board of Supervisors and ex officio Superintendent of Streets of the city and county of Sacramento--Sir: You will please take notice that you will be held, by us personally liable, on your official bond and otherwise, and in your official character and also individualy, for trespass and all or any damage. or damages which may ensue to us by reason of your removing the rails or in any way disturbing or interfering with the property, rails, goods, chattels, or effects of the Sacramento Valley Railroad, or of the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company, or any part thereof, whether constructed or situated on any streets or levees west of Sixth street in the city of Sacramento, or elsewhere
"By J. P. ROBINSON, Superintendent."

Supervisor HANSBOW thought that the best course. for the Board to pursue, in order to have this question settled, would be to bring the issue into Court. He therefore moved the adoption of the following:

Resolved, That the President of the Board be authorized to employ an attorney to appear before the proper Courts and ask for injunction to issue restraining the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company from running their cars on or occupying any of the streets or city front west of Sixth street, and to compel them to take up and remove the track from off of the streets and city front west of Sixth street, in consequence of the said company not having complied with the terms regulating the same.

Adopted unanimously.

Supervisor GRANGER offered the following, which he said ought to be adopted before passing the ordinance fixing the grade of the streets. It would quiet a great deal of apprehension in the minds of property holders:

Resolved, That whereas great anxiety has been felt by property holders in the city at the great cost of the proposed grade; now, therefore, in the passage of said ordinance nothing shall be so construed as to compel the property holders at this time to fill up the streets, unless at any time after the passage of this ordinance, three-fourths of the property-holders upon any block may petition the honorable Board of Supervisors to fill the same, when the same may be done. It is only meant that all new buildings to be erected, or any building raised, must conform to the grade hereby established.


The rules were then suspended, and the ordinance. fixing the grade was taken up and passed finally.

By this measure the grades were fixed as follows;

I street--Commencing on the levee on the west side of Front street, eighteen inches above high water mark, and from thence easterly shall be level until it strikes the natural surface of the ground.

J street--Commencing fourteen feet west of the east line of Front street, six inches below the grade of I street, and thence easterly level.

K street--Commencing fourteen feet west of the east line of Front street, twelve inches below the grade of I street, and thence easterly level.

L street--Commencing fourteen feet west of the east line of Front street, eighteen inches below the grade at I street, and thence easterly level.

M street--Commencing fourteen feet west of the east line of Front street, two feet below the grade of I street. and thence easterly level.

N street--Commencing fourteen feet west of the east line of Front street, thirty inches below the grade of I street, and thence easterly level.

O street--Commencing fourteen feet west of the east line of Front street, three feet below the grade of I street, and thence easterly level.

P street--Commencing fourteen feet weet of the east line of Front street, three feet and six inches below the grade of I street, and thence easterly level.

Q street--Commencing fourteen feet west of the east side [sic] of Front street, four feet below the grade of I street, and thence easterly level.

R street--Commencing fourteen feet west of the east line of Front street, four feet and six inches below the grade of I street, and thence easterly level

The grades of the streets running north and south from Second street to Fourteenth street inclusive, to be as follows: Commencing at I street, the grades in their respective parts shall be the hight of a straight line drawn from the grade of I street to the grade of K street so as to touch the grade of each intermediate street.

"High water mark," as used in this ordinance, is to be deemed a point on the city gauge twenty-two feet nine inches above low water mark, be marked on said gauge.

On motion, the Board adjourned to meet this morning at ten o'clock.

p. 4


Heavy and continuous rains, followed by the melting of the snow and the rise of the rivers, are reported at various points to the eastward. At Folsom, at eight o'clock last evening, the river only lacked four feet of the hight attained at the time of the great flood, and the water continued to rise at a rapid rate. At the same hour we learned at the telegraph office that a heavy storm of rain prevailed at Strawberry, Placerville and Folsom. The bridge at Willow Springs, three miles east of Folsom, has been swept away. From Carson City, intelligence has been received that the water was pouring down the mountains in torrents. The bridge below Silver City was carried away. In this vicinity the American had risen about three feet by last evening,

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors held yesterday morning, ordinances were passed imposing penalties for obstructing the streets of the city by fences or otherwise, and for placing signs over the sidewalks. The plans and proposals of G. W. Colby for constructing bridges over Sutter slough at J and K streets were referred to a Special Committee, with power to close the contract with that gentleman. Supervisor HANSBROW, who is going to the World's Fair, took leave of the Board. An attempt to pass the Rightmire bill, notwithstanding the objections of the Auditor, was defeated, and the sense of the Board was taken in favor of an appeal to the Legislature for authority to levy a special tax for the payment of the claim.

DESTRUCTION BY WATER.--Within the past month California has suffered a loss of millions of dollars by floods. The exact amount can never be ascertained, but if the figures could be presented to the people, it would astonish them. Intelligent gentlemen from Trinity affirm that the damage by water in that county in the month of December was not less than one million of dollars. But that county has suffered heavier losses than any other in the mines, though all are included in the list of heavy sufferers. The Sacramento valley is represented as presenting a scene of desolation for two hundred and fifty miles, and the San Joaquin valley must from accounts, be in pretty much the same condition.

On the west side of the river from this city in Yolo and Solano, thousands of acres have been submerged upon which water has not been seen during the past eleven years. It will require years for the State to recover from the effect of the destructive floods by which she has been visited. An invasion by Price and his rebel marauders wouid not have proved half so destructive. . . .


Governor Downey transmitted to the Legislature yesterday his second annual Message. . . .
The Governor commences with the remark, that "a most eventful year has been added to the history of the country." A fact which no one will dispute. It is also true that our State has prospered the past year, with the exception of the immense destruction of property by floods during the past month; this fact the Governor seems to have overlooked in summing up the events of the year. A loss of millions by one of the destructive elements in the last month in the year might have been appropriately referred to in the Governnor's [sic] Message. . . .

NOT YET REPAIRED.--It was a month yesterday since the city was inundated and the railroad rendered useless this side of Brighton. It was repaired in a few days to the break in the slough at Sixteenth street; and at that point the repairs seem to have pretty much come to a stand still. We confess to a little surprise that the breaks have not all been repaired within the month, for the road is losing business enough each week to pretty well pay for the necessary repairs to enable it to be operated from the city. We do not see why the work of repairing was not commenced each side of the breaks. What little business is doing in the city is suffering a heavy drawback for want of the shipping facilities heretofore offered by the road. The roads are now in such condition that were the railroad in working condition all the goods sent to the interior would be forwarded by railroad. But the difficulties of getting freight now to where the railroad receives it are so great as to amount almost to a prohibition. We heard a merchant say last night that he paid, yesterday, ten dollars a ton to have goods hauled to where the railroad could receive them. This is an awful tax on Sacramento business, and one which merchants are deeply interested to have removed. If no other plan presents itself, they had better unite and put J or K street in such a condition that they can be used by teams with a half load. The short remedy, though, is the repairing of the railroad. A railroad could now be of more service than ever again. . . .


The American at Folsom.

FOLSOM, Jan. 9--8 P. M.
The river here lacks four feet of being as high as at the great flood, and is now rising at the rate of one foot and a half per hour. It has raised fourteen feet to-day. The weather is stormy.

The Weather in the Interior.

COLOMA, January 9th--9 P. M.
The water at dark was within a few inches of the previous high water, and was rising rapidly. It is still raining hard.

CARSON CITY, January 9th--9 P. M.
It has stopped raining here. The wind is blowing hard.

WEBSTER'S STATION, Jan. 9 th--P. M. [sic] .
The water in the river at this place is as high as it was after the first big storm. The snow is nearly all gone; there is perhaps five inches left. It rains very hard with no present indication of letting up.

STRAWBERRY, Jan. 9th--P. M.
It has been raining at this point for the last thirty hours, most of the time extending to the summit. The snow is settling and disappearing very fast. The river is quite full--perhaps as high as during the previous storm.

It is still raining here, with no indications of clearing up. No express or mail stages from the East or from Sacramento have arrived today. The opposition stage from Sacramento arrived at about 5 o'clock. It got through by heading [?] some of the small streams.

The mail rider from Grizzly Flat reports that there was a foot of snow there previous to the rain, and when he left this morning it had all disappeared except about an inch.

CHICO, Jan. 9th.
It has stopped raining here, but the wind is blowing furiously.

OROVILLE, Jan. 9th--9 P. M.
It has stopped raining here. The river raised five or six feet to-day.

No rain has fallen since three o'clock. The river raised rapidly.


Just commenced raining again.

Just commenced storming very hard.

THE PRESENT STORM.--We find the annexed dispatches in the Bee, under date of Jan. 9th:

PLACERVILLE, 10 A. M. --lt rained all night to the very summit of the Sierras. The snow is melting fast and the streams are coming up rapidly. It is still raining here and at Strawberry.

PLACERVILLE, 1:30 P. M.--The rain continues to pour down. No stages can cross to-day between this place and Folsom. Hangtown creek is higher than ever before known.

FOLSOM, 12:30 P. M.--American at this place rose seven feet since daylight this morning until now and continues to rise fast . The bridge at Willow Springs, three miles east of this place on the Placerville road is carried away and stages cannot cross.

WEBSTER'S. 35 miles east of Placerville, 10:30 A.M.--The South Fork of the American at this place is now as high as it was at any time this season, and it is still rising. The rain is falling heavily.

CARSON CITY, N. T., 11 A.M.--It rained here all last night, and continues to pour.

CARSON CITY--1:45 P. M.--It commenced raining here yesterday about three o'clock, and continued without intermission up to this time. There was about one foot of snow lying on the ground, but it has all disappeared. The water is pouring down in torrents from the mountains, flooding the streets and valleys. Much apprehension is felt that the Carson river will overflow, which would cause great damage to the mills on that stream. The bridge below Silver City, at the Sierra Nevada House, was carried away. Langton's stage, coming down this morning, was very near being carried off--capsizing stage, and the horses narrowly escaped being drowned. All communication by stage between here and Virginia City is cut off. Still raining with unabated violence, and it is impossible to get through the streets with teams.

p. 5


DEATH AND INQUEST.--A man named Peter Connelly was found dead yesterday morning in the rear of the residence of. Mrs. Phillips, at Thirteenth and L streets. At about seven o'clock on Wednesday evening, while engaged at work in the house, she heard and saw some one at the window. She asked what was wanted, and he answered that he wanted to come in. Mrs. Phillips, whose husband died some months ago, being alone with her two children, was very much frightened. She told him to leave, that he had no business there, and locked the doors and barricaded them with chairs, tables, etc. She also put out the light, and then saw that the man appeared intoxicated. She was afraid, however, that that might be assumed, and that he had some sinister object in view. He subsequently passed around the house and knocked at the back door, again demanding admission, and still later she heard him groaning and hallooing. She then called to George Brier, who lived on the opposite corner, telling him that there was a drunken man there--that she was afraid of him, and asked him to come over. It was raining very hard at the time, and the street between the two houses was covered with water. Brier told her he could not get across without going into the water, but if the man attempted to break into the house he would go over. Yesterday morning the man was found lying dead alongside a bale of hay, some two rods from the rear of the house. A bottle of liquor, a mustard bottle, a whip and an empty pocketbook, were found with him. Coroner Reeves was informed of the facts of the case, and held an inquest over the body yesterday forenoon. The deceased proved to be Peter Connelly, a ranchman, who lived near the upper Stockton road, about nine miles below the city. He came into town on Wednesday afternoon with a team. On K street his team became stalled, and he asked parties to assist him, stating that his family was on the ranch in need of provisions, to obtain which he came to the city. The team was found yesterday morning on K street, and was sent to the stable of James McClane. The Coroner's Jury was composed of W. H. Stickman, P. F. Dunn, D. H. Davis, W. H. West, S. Roll and D. D. Loveland. The witnesses examined were Mary Phillips, George Brier, H. Varwig, James McClane and S. E. Kyburg. The jury returned a verdict to the effect that the name of the deceased was Peter Conelly, a native of Ireland, aged thirty-three years, and that he came to his death near Thirteenth and L streets in this city on the eight of January 8th, 1862, and that the cause of his death was intemperance and exposure. Two brothers of the deceased arrived in the city last evening. He was unmarried but lived with his brothers. His funeral will take place at ten o'clock this forenoon. . . .

THE STAGE OF THE WATER.--At sunset last evening the American, at the Tannery, had risen but two and a half or three feet, and did not appear to be rising rapidly. An additional rise of four feet was necessary to bring it to the hight attained on the 9th of December. At and near Burns' Slough an increased volume of water was coming over. It had overflowed the ground to the base of the Thirty-first street levee, and men were engaged in the afternoon in strengthening with gunny sacks such points in the levee as were presumed to be weak. The water of course found its way into the lower portion of the city, and during the evening rose at the Pavilion about one foot. From the fact that telegraphic dispatches represented the varions tributaries of the American to be much swollen, considerable apprehension was felt by many that the result might be inconveniently felt in our city. It was not believed, however, that the business portion of the town could be again inundated. . . .

AT R STREET.--The levee at the foot of R street continued to work away yesterday quite rapidly. A large quantity of lumber, belonging to the Railroad Company, caused the earth to cave. Some twenty men were engaged during a great portion of the day in removing it. The eddy at that point seems to be bent on malicious mischief, concerning the large scale belonging to the Company. At a point in the levee still farther down, serious inroads were also made. E. P. Figg was engaged during the afternoon, with a gang of workmen, in securing this point with gunny sacks of earth.

RAIN.--Dr. Logan reports the amount of rain which fell between eleven o'clock A. M. on Wednesday and nine P. M. yesterday, to be 1.810 inches. We have had during the present season 15.327 inches of rain, of which 2.170 fell in November, 8 637 in December, and 4.520 in January. This aggregate is a large amount for the period, and the season's rain bids fair to equal that of '49 and '50, or '52 and '53, which was over thirty-six inches at either period.

WHO ARE MISSING.--A ranchman who resides four miles up the Sacramento, brought information to the city yesterday that a boat was upset in the river several days ago, containing two men, and both were drowned. The river was rough and no assistance could be rendered. They were not known by those who saw them. Who are missing?

THE RIVERS.--The Sacramento river at sunset last evening had raised six inches within twenty-four hours, standing at 21 feet 6 inches above low water mark. The American river raised at its month about one foot during the day, and at Rabel's about three feet. At Brighton it was reported to have risen about six feet.

TEMPERATURE.--The thermometer at Dr. Logan's store stood at two o'clock and nine o'clock P. M.. yesterday, at 56 degrees above zero. This is warm weather considering the prevalence of a winter storm. . . .


THURSDAY, January 9. 1862.
The Board met at 10-1/2 A. M. Present, all the members. . . .

Supervisor HALL submitted the plans and specifications of B. F. Leet, for the construction of a bridge over Sutter's Slough at K street.

Proposals, plans asd specifications were also submitted from G. W. Colby, for the construction of bridges over the same slough, at both J and K streets. Besides constructing the bridges, Mr. Colby proposed to give bonds to keep the streets approaching said bridges in repair.

Supervisor HALL, on behalf of the Committee on Roads, Ferries and Bridges, offered the following:

Resolved, That B. F. Leet be and he is hereby authorized to build a bridge across Sutter slough on K street said bridge to be built of the best quality of Puget Sound pine timber, and according to the specifications previously submitted by said Leet; and that said Leet is hereby authorized to charge and collect tolls on the same until the 15th day of May, 1862, at the following rates: Animals in droves,--per head; for one animal and rider, twenty-five cents; two animals and vehicle, forty cents; four animals and vehicle, sixty cents; and ten cents for each additional animal over four; foot passengers, twelve and a half cents. Provided that said Leet furnish all of the material and do all of the work, at his own expense and risk, in building said bridge, and keep the said K street in good order, so that from Eleventh street to the eastern limits of the city of Sacramento as heavy loads can be transported as can pass over the roads beyond; and that on the 15th day of May, A. D. 1862, the said bridge shall be delivered by the said Leet to the city of Sacramento, in good order, there and thereafter to become the property of said city; provided, further, that no ferry licenses shall be granted by the Board for establishing ferries across said slough, and that when the present ferry licenses across said slough shall expire, they shall not be renewed; said Leet binding himself in the sum of two thousand dollars for the immediate commencement and faithful performance of the work hereinbefore mentioned.

On motion, G. W. Colby was allowed to be heard in explanation of his plans and proposals. He pointed out the differences between his plans and those of Mr. Leet, and said be proposed to erect longer bridges, composed of more durable material, than the one planned by Mr. Leet, and to surrender the J street bridge by the 15th of April--one month earlier than the time fixed by Leet--the bridge at K street not to be delivered to the city until the 1st of Jane.

Supervisor HITE favored the plan of dividing the work, and thus insuring competition.

Supervisor HALL then asked leave to withdraw his resolution.

Supervisor HANSBROW said this matter of constructing the bridges was not in a proper shape for action. He was in favor of Colby's proposition, but he wanted the contract drawn up in intelligible form.

On motion, the subject was laid upon the table temporarily in order to allow Mr. Colby to prepare specifications.

The complaint of Mr. Bernard, that by the digging of a ditch all communlcation with his place of business had been cut off, was referred to the Committee on Drains, with power to act. . . .

Supervisor WATERMAN moved a reconsideration of the vote by which the objections of the Auditor to the Rightmire bill were sustained. The ayes and noes were called upon this question, wtth the following result: Ayes--Granger, Dickerson, Hite, Hall, Woods and Waterman--6, Noes--Russell and Hansbrow--2.

J. W. COFFROTH then addressed the Board at length in favor of the Rightmire claim. He argued that there was no necessity for an appeal to the Legislature; that the Board was perfectly competent to meet the obligation; that the members had pledged themselves to pay the debt; and that this debt, honestly contracted, should be paid, "without regard to popular clamor."

Supervisor HANSBROW replied, and contended for an appeal to the Legislature.

The ayes and noes were then called upon the question of ordering the Rightmire bill to be paid, notwithstanding the objections of the Auditor, with the following result:
Ayes--Granger, Hite, Dickerson, Waterman and Hall-5.
Noes--Hansbrow, Russell and Woods--3.

As this was not a two-third vote, the question was decided in the negative. . . .

On motion, B. F. Leet was allowed to withdraw his plans and specifications for the bridge at K street. . . .

The subject of constructing bridges over Sutter slough at J and K streets, was then taken up, and Mr. Colby submitted final specifications for both bridges.

Supervisor HANSBROW moved that the plans and specifications of Mr. Colby be referred to a special Committee, with power to close the contract with that gentleman. Agreed to.

Supervisors Hite, Granger and Russell were appointed to serve as the Committee.

Supervisor HANSBROW offered the following:

Resolved, That this Board take some definite action with reference to the claim of A. D. Rightmire, by the passage of a resolution directed to our members in the Legislature, requesting them to have passed a bill levying a special tax for the payment of the same.


On motion, the Board adjourned, to meet on the third Monday of this month, at two o'clock.


EDITORS UNION: "T------," in a recent issue of the UNION thinks the plan of Colt's levee not applicable to your levee on the American, because the bottom, the foundation is not permanent. I do not desire to meddle in the affairs of Sacramento, but I have an earnest desire to see her succeed in her efforts at self-preservation, and if anything I can say may be of the least benefit, I shall feel repaid for my trouble. I am but partially acquainted with the situation of the land where the danger lies, but I infer from what a correspondent says, the Citizens' Committee is building a levee on a shifting foundation. I know that this can be done for I have seen it. Although I never saw it done on river banks, I have seen permanent breakwaters on shifting bottoms at several places on the great lakes, which have long withstood the fury of the waves, far more powerful than the current of the American. For a single instance: The breakwater at Chicago, Illinois. This work is very long and shows a full broadside to the northeasterly gales, but it withstands the force of Lake Michigan's waves, as they dash against it. I have seen sunken cribs operate successfully for the same purpose; but they would fail in the case mentioned, on account of the movable sandy bottom. But these sandbars have a foundation, and by penerating [sic] to it and sinking piles in it, then bolting strong planks on the piles parallel with the current, ground on the inside would not be washed away. This is mainly the plan of the Chicago breakwater. I do not feel capable of advising your authorities, but if you consider there is any fact here stated which is worth consideration, you may use it. . . .

MARYSVILLE, Jan. 8th. . . .

THE ROADS IN YUBA.--On this subject the Marysville Appeal says:

The prolonged storms, the extensive freshets, and the long neglect of the authorities, have combined to make the thoroughfares leading from this place to the country north and east of us of just about as much use for all practical purpose as though they had never been laid out. Traveling by them may be said to be virtually suspended; and while we have stocks of goods for sale in this place, and mountain traders are out of the staples of business, we have no decent means of communication; and though the trouble is not confined to our county, even the roads directly under the control of our city and county authorities are not kept even in passable order, and were not before the late storms set in. . . .

RAIN IN SAN FRANCISCO.--The people of San Francisco appear as much disgusted with the immense flood of water as are the people of Sacramento. The Bulletin says:

Will it ever dry up--this rain? Flooded cellars, streaming sidewalks, foaming gutters, small mud lakes, are among the pleasant accompaniments of this unending storm. . . .

p. 8

PROVISIONS SCARCE.--A letter received in Stockton from Hornitas, states that the stock of groceries and some kinds of provisions are getting pretty well run out in that vicinity, and that if some are not forwarded soon, there will be a decided scarcity. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3366, 11 January 1862, p. 1


Friday, January 10, 1862.
At eleven o'clock the Senate was brought to order and the roll called, a number of late members failing to respond; . . .


Mr. DE LONG asked leave to introduce a bill without notice, which was granted.

The SECRETARY read the bill by its title (Bill No. 2)--An Act concerning swamp and overflowed lands, salt marshes and tule lands donated to the State of California by Act of Congress. It was read twice.

Mr. DE LONG--I move that the rules be suspended and the bill read for the third time.

Mr. PERKINS--What is the necessity of that?

Mr. DE LONG--The necessity is, we want to stop the contracting of the reclaimants of swamp land during this flood.

Mr. PARKS--I hope that bill will take its regular course, and be laid on the table until the Committee on Swamp Lands shall be appointed. I make the motion that it lie on the table.

Mr. DE LONG--I believe the motion to suspend the rules will take precedence.

The PRESIDENT--The motion to suspend all the rules is quite unusual.

Mr. DE LONG--Although the motion is not debatable I trust that the Senate will give attention to the matter.

The PRESIDENT--The motion is, shall the bill lie on the table.

On a division, the motion was carried--ayes 14; noes, 6.

The PRESIDENT--Barely a quorum has voted. The Senate is admonished that a quorum, in cases of this kind, is necessary, or the vote stands for nothing. Very often bills are passed with only one man voting in favor of it. The practice is not to be tolerated. . . .


PROMISE OF A GOOD HARVEST.--The continuous rain though suggestive of dull times and some damage to the city, gives promise of abundant crops the next two years in our valley. The largest crop per acre harvested in our valley, and if we mistake not, in the Sacramento Valley was the harvest succeeding the freshets of 1852-53. For the last six in [?] years there has been but one year which there was an over supply of moisture added to our tillable soils, and two or more years the rains were insufficient; so that the moisture of the earth, on which our crops are dependent, has been gradually reduced until its want has been shown in a lessened yield per acre of our cereal crops, beyond the falling off which constant cropping occasions. The abundant rains of this season will replenish the earth's exhausted reservoirs, and its good effects will be seen for more than the coming season.--Napa Reporter. . . .


The Alta of November 9th gives a sad account of the effects of the late storm in San Francisco. At the time of preparing the article the rain had not ceased, and the storm subsequently was very severe. The particulars of the disasters caused by the flood read very much like those connected with the Sacramento flood of December 9th:

The rain storm of yesterday was renewed at an early hour this morning, the waters pouring down with a volume and violence almost unprecedented, even in California. The waters were fairly pumped out of the clouds, and the consequence is that considerable damage has resulted to such portions of the city as would receive the drainage of the streets built on the hillsides. The waters coursed in streams down the streets running east and west, carrying with them so much sand and debris as to choke the culverts to the sewers at the intersections of the streets running north and south, and all these thoroughfares were more or less flooded, as ponds soon formed, and the water found its level according to the grade. Montgomery street never presented a like view as it did about 8 a. m., for nearly the whole length from Market to Jackson was covered with water, and some places over the curb and sidewalks. A large amount of water and mud inundated cellars, but further damage was prevented by the prompt removal of the culvert and sewer covers, which soon reduced the accumulated waters. The platforms used for the horses attached to job wagons and loose timber floated about with the current, and taken in conjunction with the dilemma which residents and passers through were in, created a scene of some excitement if not novel interest. To show how heavy was the fall of rain the past twenty four hours, the gauge (which, if anything, is inclined to under rather than overrate,) at nine A. M. to-day indicated that 3 40-100ths inches of rain had fallen since nine A. M.. yesterday, giving us nearly a foot of rain within seven days. The greatest damage has been done to that portion of the city lying at the base of the hills. On Bush Btreet, between Kearny and Montgomery, where a sewer was in course of construction, a large gully was washed away, and the water and mud ran into the cellars on the four corners of Montgomery street, doing the most damage to the Tontine and Occidental buildings. Here it was necessary to throw up wooden and earthen barricades two feet high, in the shape of a sluice, to run the water off. Below Sansome street nearly all the cellars were filled with water, and the services of the Fire Department were called into requisition, and their apparatus used to pump them clear. As the occupants of the stores in this section of the city are annually subjected to overflowings of their cellars, we presume the actual damages will not prove as great as they appear. Dwelling houses built on declivities of hills suffered considerably, quite a number in the northern and southern portions of the city being inundated, and we have heard of several instances where the water filled the lower story. The damage will be felt more by private families, and to many the damage will be heavy. Those built on streets recently improved by grading--either by filling up or cutting down--also suffered, as large masses of earth and stone have been washed away, and in some locations near North Beach, the newly filled streets have been washed away in various places. On Second and Third streets the planking and sidewalks have suffered considerably. The top of the sewer or fire cistern (we do not know which) at the intersection of Mission and Second caved in, and a large and by no means inviting hole left in the center of the street.

The morning stage for San Jose left the Plaza at its usual hour, but was forced to return to the city after going three miles, the county road being impassable.

The waters in Mission creek have overflowed their boundaries, and Brannan street, in part, with the flats in that vicinity, have been flooded.

No damage has resulted to the shipping at the wharves that we can learn, nor have any houses been carried away. The result is a very great annoyance--temporary, it is true, but nevertheless inconvenient.

The head waters of Mission creek overflowed the Willows, carrying off a number of the improvements.

The Market street Railroad track was washed away by the flooding of a branch of Mission Creek, which runs by the Acid Factory The property of R. B. Woodward, which adjoins the creek, is also flooded.

The embankment of the Mission street. plank road, which took the place of the bridge at the intersection of Seventh and Eighth streets has been washed partially away from the pressure of the flood on both sides, the back waters from Mission Creek and the neighboring ponds having forced a passage through.

The buildings on Post street, between Stockton and Powell, have from eight to ten feet of water in them.

An outhouse of the Mission Woolen Mills, used as a storehouse for wool, was blown over yesterday by the wind. Two workmen who were in the second story escaped uninjured by jumping down on the bales of wool, when the roof covered them.

The various streams feeding the Mission creek have all overflowed, and much damage, has been done to gardens and residences.

The Journal of the same day says:

This morning, during the heavy rain, Chief Burke was called from his domicil by the astonnding intelligence that the station house was overflowed, and sure enough, when he got there he found eighteen inches of water in that "home of the inebriate." This not much needed and rather convenient cleansing was caused by a rush of water from the hill above Kearny street which, finding no escape through the inlets to a subterranean channel, facetiously termed a sewer, in the proceedings of the Bourd of Supervisors, overran the sidewalk in front of the City Hall and flowed through the gratings into the prison below, so copiously as to inundate the City Prison. The exploring party sent out by the Chief, finally succeeded in finding the grating, which, at the street corners, are supposed to indicate sewer entrances, and after removing the slabs of stone, apparently placed there to prevent the passage of water, succeeded in leading off the heavy flow which was doing so much mischief. The lower part of the city is suffering from an actual inundation. The cellars of all the mercantile houses nearly are filled with water, and the flood even made an effort to wash out Davidson's bank, on Montgomery street. As, however, that institution is "fast," there are no signs of a "fade," notwithstanding the heavy washing to which it was this morning subjected. . . .

SNOW IN NEVADA COUNTY.--A severe snow storm recently visited Nevada and its vicinity. The Democrat of January 7th says:

We were visited on Sunday last with a severe snow storm. It commenced snowing about noon of that day, and continued without intermission for twelve hours, and yesterday morning the ground was covered to the depth of from twelve to fifteen inches at this place. At Eureka the snow fell to the depth of three feet. and about the same quantity fell upon the ridge above Omega. The stage lines to Omega and Moore's Flat have substituted sleighs for their stages. The weather has been quite warm yesterday and to-day, and the snow is gradually melting off. . . .

p. 2

In consequence of the flood having extinguished our fires, we were unable to print but a limited edition of the present number of the UNION. In case the water subsides, we shall endeavor, in the course of the day, to strike a sufficient number of copies to supply our subscribers.


In consequence of the flood the wires were disarranged; and there was no telegraphic communication with any point yesterduy [sic]. . . .

Locally, the flood, which has again placed the greater portion of the city under water, absorbs all other topics. The continuous rains and the rapid melting of the snow in the upper country have swollen the rivers and precipitated torrents of water upon us before the defenses of the city could be repaired and strengthened. . . .


Since the flood of the 9th of December, which deluged Sacramento, and in a few hours destroyed the property of her citizens to the amount of at least a million of dollars, we have not been favored with a half-dozen clear days. Rain storms, with snow in the mountains, have succeeded each other with such rapidity as to render all attempts of the Citizens' Committee, who have abundant means at hand, to close the levee at Burns' slough and this side, so as to insure the city from further floods in the American river, ineffectual. Their first attempt would have been a success, had three days more of weather in which they could work been allowed them. But the storm of the 26th of December drove the men from the work, and the water again invaded the city, but not to the extent of interrupting business and locomotion on the main business streets. Such, however, have been the steady additions by rain and snow since that date, that the water at the slough did not so far subside as to permit work to be resumed at that point, and consequently the flood produced, by the late terrible storm, in the American, was left free to spread over the country east of the city, and consequently to back up into it, until it is again under deeper water than before. This flood has been poured into the valley at a time when it is filled and covered with water on all sides, as far as the eye can reach. The Sacramento, too, is up to high water mark, with the water on each side standing at about the same level, thus rendering it impossible for the water which has been precipitated upon the city by the American to run off to the south as fast as it would under more favorable circumstances. While a great deal of suffering and destruction will be caused by this third watery visitation for this season, the loss will not be so great compared with that caused by the first. People are better prepared; there is much less of perishable property upon which the water can operate. Many of the sidewalks and crossings which have been laid since the first inundation will be floated out of place, and there is a probability that the water will remain for some length of time in the southern portion of the city.

These repeated inundations are not very encouraging in their influence, but they furnish no ground for despondency; and if they did, Sacramentans will be the last to perceive it. They have in times past triumphed over fire and flood; their city has been by those two destructive elements, on a previous memorable occasion, nearly swept from existence; but the indomitable spirit of her citizens scorned to acknowledge any such word as fail, and their enterprise and desperate energy rebuilt their city in a form more beautiful and substantial than before it was blotted out by fire and flood. Such a people cannot be crushed; they will, as they have before, rise superior to the misfortune of floods, and, with time vouchsafed them for operations, restore Sacramento to what she was on the 1st of December, 1861, and build a levee around her which will bid defiance to the torrents of the American and the floods of the Sacramento. It can be done, and Sacramentans will do it. Sacramento must and will continue the second city in the State in spite of the elements. The wants of commerce, agriculture, society and the State demand a city at this point, and here one will be maintained. The future is certain. But the people of Sacramento have been lulled into a false security; nine years had passed without their even being seriously threatened with an overflow, and many fancied that the day of floods had passed, never to return. They have been rudely undeceived. They have been taught that they knew little of high water and a continued rainy, stormy season. They have learned by a bitter experience that they have, while zealously laboring to promote the prosperity of Sacramento in other directions, totally neglected the real point of danger to that property.

Within the past four years Sacramento city and county have paid twenty-five thousand dollars towards building a wagon road over the Sierra Nevada; they have raised and expended some thirty thousand dollars in a splendid Agricultural Hall; the city raised and paid sixty-five thousand dollars to the owners of the property on which the Capitol building is to be erected, and the State accepted a transfer of that property for that purpose, but in all this time not a dollar was appropriated in repairing and strengthening the levees, upon which the existence of the city depended. An exemption from floods for nine years, led to criminal negligence on the part of the people and the authorities. The latter stood by and permitted the Railroad Company to remove the trestle work over the slough, and substitute therefor a solid embankment which rendered the inside levees not only useless but absolutely injurious to the city. These follies will not be repealed. The people of Sacramento have taken a lesson from experience which they will not soon forget. They must, however, have time to accomplish the ends they have in view. After being granted this time, if they fail to place their city in a position which the most timid will admit is a perfectly safe one against the encroachments of water, they will frankly say to the Legislature that it owes it to the people to remove the Capital and declare to the world that Sacramento is no longer the Capital of California. But until it is demonstrated that Sacramento is unable to defend herself against floods, her citizens ask as a matter of sheer justice in the presence of what they have done, as well as in the face of the calamities they have lately suffered, that no movement shall be made looking to a removal from this city of the Capital, or even a temporary adjournment of the Legislature to another locality. It might, too, be added, that the State, when she accepted property which cost $65,000, for the purpose of building a State House, entered into a contract with Sacramento to continue her as the State Capital. The first appropriation was conditioned upon the paying for the land which composes the Capitol grounds, by the people of this city.

If Sacramento cannot be defended successfully against floods, her citizens will not ask the State to continue her as the Capital. They will surrender all claim. In the opinion of those who have given the subject much attention, the late floods have demonstrated that levees can be easily enected which will form a perfect protection. The water has pointed out the points to be strengthened, while the levee on I street and on Front street have demonstrated the kind and character of the levees demanded on the American. That on I is about sixty feet at the base and say forty on the surface. No weight of water can disturb such a levee. It is admitted to be safe beyond peradventure, and this is the character of levee it is proposed to build from Sixth street to the high ground this side of Brighton. For most of that distance there is now a safe levee, but the plan is to add to its width and hight until it is admitted to be wide enough to resist any amount of water, and at least five feet higher than the highest water line known to the residents of this valley. A new grade, too, has been adopted, which will finally place the foundation of the city above the high water line of this year. It will require some years, though, to elevate the foundation of the city, while a few months of reasonably fair weather will suffice for completing the levee. And after it is built, the plan includes an annual special tax for the purpose of improving, elevating and keeping it in complete condition at all seasons and under all circumstances. To accomplish these ends, we reiterate that time is necessary. . . .

p. 3


ANOTHER DESTRUCTIVE FLOOD.--Our city was visited yesterday by another destructive flood, exceeding as to hight of water that of the 9th of December by at least twenty inches. Thursday evening, in consequence of the incessant rains of the past few days and the melting of the recently fallen snow in the mountains, the American river became so swollen that east of Rabel's tannery it commenced to overflow its banks and cover the entire area of country east of the Thirty-first street levee. The most of the openings in this levee made a month ago, except those near R street, had been closed up by the Committee of Safety. It soon became apparent, however, that there was danger of their yielding again to the force of the water, and in the afternoon every effort practicable was made by the Committee to strengthen the levee with gunny sacks, etc., for the night. In the evening the water raised in the lower portion of the city perhaps a foot before ten o'clock. At sunrise yesterday morning the rise in the southern part of the city was found to be two and a half or three feet, while the eastern portion north of J street was also flooded. Early in the forenoon the water reached the level of L street in the south, but as the entire northern and western levees remained firm a general confidence was felt that the R street railroad would carry off all the water which come in from the east, and that no considerable additional rise could follow. Still the tide advanced slowly but steadily. That of December 9th came with much speed and force, chiefly along the streets north of R, from which it backed up to K and J. That of yesterday approached in a more even line from the east, rolling gradually down J and K to Front street. At one o'clock P M. those streets, at Eighth and Ninth, were under water. At about two o'clock the water had found its level at Front street. Higher and higher it rose, and at about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, it attained a hight equal to the highest rise of December 9th, which occurred at about nine o'clock on that evening. On that occasion the water covered a portion only of the first floor of the UNION office. At seven o'olock last evening.it stood twenty inches on the floor. The depth on J and K streets averaged from four to five feet. During the entire day the water passed freely through the openings in the railroad, and early in the day it was said that there was a fall of two feet at those nearest Poverty Ridge. The city presented in the afternoon an animated appearance. Merchants were engaged in many quarters in raising their goods on platforms erected in their stores above the line of supposed danger. Stock owners were busy in driving horses, mules, etc., etc., to the I street and Front street levees. Women and children were seen moving from one point to another, going into upper stories wherever practicable, or on to higher streets than those which they had just vacated. There were some of the land operations observable, but the marine movements of the occasion constituted the chief feature of the day. There was much less danger of loss of life, or of personal inconvenience, than at the time of the first flood; and there was but little of the fear and anxiety and excited hurrying to and fro of that occasion. Hundreds of boats were afloat on the streets, some carrying one passenger and some a dozen; many contained ladies and gentlemen, evidently out on excursions of pleasure, while nearly all who were out seemed to enjoy the novelty of the occasion, and created for themselves, and for spectators on every available balcony, hilarity and mirth. There were many, however, in the southern and eastern portions of the city, who were compelled to leave their homes in boats, and without knowing where to find accomodations. The hotels were soon thronged, and could receive no more. A large number who had suffered but little inconvenience heretofore found before night that their confidence had been too great. Early in the day the Committee of Safety commenced work at such points on the levees as required attention. E. P. Figg resumed work with a dozen men below R street. The levee there had been reduced to a width of not more than ten feet. Before noon he had completed the work and left the place in a comparatively secure condition. Rabel's Tannery was also the scene of life and activity. The Committee of Safety had constructed the new levee, and left the old one standing as a breakwater to protect it. They arranged to let the water gradually in between them to form a basin of still water to guard off the current. This they deemed necessary to prevent the new embankment from washing away. George R. Hooker, who resides in the neighborhood, had been on duty on the levee all night. At about daylight, for the purpose, as was alleged, of making some portion of his garden more secure, he cut the old levee at the lower end of the basin, and started a stream of water through into the river. The effect of this proceedure [sic] was to start a current along the base of the new levee, which, it was found, would soon wash it away, and bring the full tide of the river, with its resistless and relentless force, through the heart of the city. When the members of the Committee arrived the feeling was such that a warrant was subsequently issued on the affidavit of W. F. Knox, charging Hooker with malicious mischief. Workmen were at once employed in filling gunny sacks, and several rods of the levee were lined with them in such a manner by eleven o'clock A. M. as to promise permanence and safety. On more mature reflection and a dispassionate survey of the field, the members of the Committee were less inclined to severe censure towards Hooker than at first. Soon after the levee was cut the water rose so high as to overflow the top of the adjoining portions of it, and thereby produced the current which it was desired to avoid. They felt that it was at most but an error in judgment, which had produced no serious injury, and partially inclined to the opinion that it was perhaps a judicious step. This appeared to be their feeling when Deputy Sheriffs Lansing and Christie arrived upon the ground with a warrant and arrested Hooker--he in the meantime having been at work himself all night, and being engaged with his team all day in hauling brush, etc., doing everything in his power, to forward the work according to his judgment; they came to the unanimous and natural conclusion when Lansing read the warrant that republics are ungrateful. He came to the city and gave the necessary bond for his appearance at Court. At noon yeaterday the water at the Tannery was not so high by about six inches as on the 9th of December. We were unable to learn anything from that point during the afternoon. It was thought by many, from the extreme hight of the water in the city, that the new levee must have yielded to the current late in the afternoon, but we are inclined to think that that could not have been the case. It is highly probable that the banks of the American were overflowed for several miles above and that a good share ef the water after leaving the river took a south westerly course towards the city. The morning train from Folsom came in to Poverty Ridge and on attempting to return it was found that all that portion of the railroad recently washed away and repaired was again carried off. Nearly three quarters of a mile had been carried off or rendered impassable. The train being unable to get either east or west remains still in the vicinity of the Ridge. About ten days work will be necessary before the next train can go to Folsom. During Thursday night a Committee of the Howard Benevolent Society were on duty at the Pavilion, and during yesterday that building was resorted to by large number who were furnished with and such accommodation as their necessities required. Many of our boatmen were generously employed yesterday in rendering service wherever it was needed. We are informed that a new boat, launched on Thursday--the Lucy Harron--manned by W. H. Lee and ---- Kendall, rescued some thirty persons, mostly from the tops of houses, near Sutter's Fort. They were all taken to the Fort building. So far as we are advised, no loss of life occurred or accident of serious character. The loss of property will, it is feared, be very heavy, though it is to be hoped not equal to that of the former flood. A less quantity of furniture and clothing will probably be destroyed. A less quantity of merchandise of various descriptions was exposed below the supposed high water mark, but the last twenty inches of rise in the water will be found to have destroyed an immense quantity of goods, which were, at noon yesterday, supposed to be entirely secure. A number of small frame buildings floated off late in the afternoon through the R street levee. After three o'clock in the afternoon a portion of the west wall of Agricultural Park, about three hundred feet in extent, fell to the ground. At eight o'clock yesterday morning the water in the Sacramento stood at about twenty-one feet above low water mark. It rose gradually through the day, and at seven o'clock in the evening--although too dark to see the figures on the gauge--we think from other marks that it obtained a hight of twenty-three feet. If we are not mistaken on this point, the river was five inches higher than the highest recorded mark. At the same hour, the water in the city had reached the top of the Front street levee, and was running over in many depressed places. It appeared to be nearly a foot higher than the water in the river. At nine o'clock a rain set in, which though not violent was steady, and continued up to the closing of our report. The fires under our boilers were extinguished at about 5 o'clock, stopping the press while running off the weekly edition. There is reason to apprehend that the families of ranchmen, for miles below the city, have suffered to a greater extent than on any former occasion. Relying upon the old watermark, they would be likely to be deceived. A family came up in a boat from a point six miles below, leaving at 3 o'clock and reaching the city at 8 o'clock. The water was rising in the afternoon when they left more rapidly than was ever known before. At 10 o'clock last evening the water in the city had fallen two inches.

Howard Association.--At daylight yesterday morning, the Association re-opened the Pavilion, and at ten P. M. there were five hundred women and children, and at least one hundred and fifty men. They were all fed, and the most of the females and children furnished with conveniences for sleeping. They also employed seven boats, which were all day visiting the more remote portions of the city, and rescuing the suffering. The boats were kept out and active during the entire night. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3367, 13 January 1862, p. 1


Friday, January 11, 1862.
The members of the Legislature came to the State House in boats, at the usual hour of assembling, and were landed on the stone steps in front of the State house building. At eleven o'clock the Senate was called to order.. Nearly all the members answered to their names . . .


Mr. PORTER offered the following:

Resolved, by the Senate the Assembly concurring, That this Legislature, when it adjourns, do adjourn until Monday the 20th inst., to meet in the city of San Francisco, there to remain during the remainder of the present session, at such place as may be provided, and that a Committee of three be appointed on the part of the Senate to act with a like Committee on the part of the Assembly, whose duty it shall be to procure properly fitted up apartments for the use of the Legislature, and shall remove thereto all the property and appurtenances belonging to this Legislature.

Mr. HEACOCK--I move that all after "Monday, the 20th inst," be stricken out.

Mr. GASKELL--If it is in order I desire to offer a substitute.

The PRESIDENT.--My impression with reference to this question of substitutes, is that the amendment must be dlsposed of in the first place. The amendment and substitute would be separate and distinct proposition before the Senate at the same time, while they are of the same grade.

Mr. DE LONG--The amendment proposes merely to adjourn to the 20th inst. The question is not generally understood; I call for another reading of the resolution.

The CLERK read.

Mr. DE LONG--I am opposed to the adjournment to the 20th. I am opposed to the amendment any how. I do not see why we can not as well meet next Wednesday.

Mr. VAN DYKE--lt seems to me this is a question of great magnitude, and should receive from the Senators some expression of opinion. For one, I came to Sacramento city with the intention of remaining here during the session, and if we could possibly do so, I still entertain that determination. But I wish to have the sense of the Senate in reference to our ability to meet here on the 20th, or within a month, and then go on to transact our business. Now, it is perfectly obvious to every Senator and every intelligent person, it seems to me, that we cannot transact business here in the present situation of the city, and it resolves itself to this, whether we shall adjourn to a future period, or adjourn to some other point. If I can be satisfied that we can meet here by the 20th, or even in one month hence, and then go on with the business, I shall certainly be in favor of doing so, in preference to adjourning to any other point. But have we any such guarantee? Is there any gentleman here who can give us an opinion which will justify the conclusion that we can meet at this place in one month and transact business if we are assembled. Unless we have some such assurance, it seems to me a necessity--which overrules everything else--to remove from this place. Why, how is it in case of invasion, pestilence or other causes which occasionally drive Legislatures from the Capital city? It seems to me this case is equal at least to any such lesson for the removal of the Legislature. Therefore, unless the gentleman who moves the amendment offers some facts on the strergth of which we shall be assured of being able to meet on the 20th, or within a month, I for one, although I regret the necessity, will be compelled to vote against the amendment.

Mr. HEACOCK--Some time pending the debate upon this resolution I shall take occasion, as fully as I am able, to give my views about the accommodations of .Sacramento within ten days. At this time I have no desire to express an opinion with reference to a measure which I am inclined to believe is already decided on.

Mr. NIXON--As a Senator of this county I feel under obligations to my constituents to say a few words on the question of removal. This calamity which has befallen Sacramento is unprecedented in the history of California. Having lived here for the last ten years I have never seen anything like this. I think it is not probable that we will see such another flood as the present perhaps for many years to come. There has been a combination of circumstaces which have caused the overflow of this city and this valley, which has not occurred since the first settlement of this country by Americans. Now if we can get an adjournment for ten days, and the waters of the American river should recede within its banks, the business streets of Sacramento would be above water again. In this length of tirne the hotels and boarding houses of this city be renovated and put in condition for accommodating the members of this body. If that should be the case, the present reasons for adjournment would not hold good, and would be no more potent than they were on the first meeting of this body. We have passed through three floods; this is the fourth. The last two before this would not have incommoded any member. The principal parts of the city were out of water, the hotels in full blast and not inconvenienced by the flood. Now all that we ask is that this amendment may be adopted and that the Senate may adjourn for ten days, in order to see what the result may be. Then if it should be found that our city is not a suitable place for the meeting of the Legislature, we should offer no reasonable objections. We ask Senators, we appeal to them that they will grant us this respite of ten days, and if the elements do not with our enemies combine, I feel satisfied that the business streets will be in good condition the boarding houses and public houses all in suitable condition for the accommodation of every person in Sacramento.

Mr. CRANE--I did not intend to trouble you with any remarks of mine on this question, but to have presented myself silently, voting according to my conviction. The question, as it presents itself to my mind, is one of an eminently practical nature. It is a question of freshet. What we see about it exceeds any language that I can command, in favor of the proposition before us. Now, as has been urged by Mr. Van Dyke, who preceded me, I resolved to put up with inconveniences if it were found practicable at all to hold the Legislature at this point. But coming to it as a practical question, what are the fair probabilities that in ten days from this time the town will be any more inhabitable than it is now. If I am rightly informed, the levee on the American river, which protects the town in that direction, is swept away for some conslderable distance, so that any freshet in the river would be certain to overwhelm the city again. On the 9th of December the great flood of the last ten years went over this city. That was said to have been unpercedented [sic]; the papers then told us, as the gentleman from Sacramento now tells us, that it was one of those great calamities that only occurred once in a generation, and would not be likely to occur again in many years. And yet thirty days have not elapsed when we find the water here standing twenty inches higher than it did then, and I would like to know who here can see far enough in futurity to say that in thirty days from now the water will not stand higher in these streets than it is now? But let us take it for granted that the water is now subsiding, that in three or four days it will be in the same condition as before this flood came; what then? What every person of the most ordinary intelligence knows, that brick walls, which have been for several days saturated in water cannot be dried for five or six days, nor even in a month, for we have found all the boarding houses in this town with no other than damp rooms resulting from the flood in December. Fill your box of matches, and they will have lost all their virtue in a very short time. Now, I say that the town is uninhabitable. The first law of our nature, self-preservation, appeals to us in favor of the misfortunes of this city, and God knows we all feel for them. I would feel myself bound to put my hand into my pocket as deeply as any one to assist in the misfortunes of those who are injured by this flood. I would go further, and as a legislator do any thing that can be done constitutionally to aid this city. But I do not think we are called upon, I do not think gentlemen from Sacramento ought to ask us, under the present circumstances, to continue our sessions in this place. Temporary removal does not include the removal of the capital. That is another thing, to be talked about at another time and at the proper place. Now, Mr. President, I have already detained this body too long, and I would explain here, on the part of myself and of the gentlemen of the surrounding districts from whence I come, that any other object or view than a single eye to the public good would fail to induce me to take this position. The fact about it is, the Legislature cannot here discharge its appropriate duties. Members of this body are in danger of their health and life in endeavoring to remain in this place. I hope the amendment offered will not be adopted.

Mr. PORTER--I feel bound to notice the remarks of the Senator who last spoke relative to the enemies of this community. I desire to disclaim any animosity, and here take occasion to state that my constituents, as well as myself, feel for the misfortunes of Sacramento. But I consider it unfair and unjust to ask as to remain here when every one of the residents who are able to do so have actually gone away. Furthermore, when this flood does subside, what will be the condition of the city with all is stagnant water and the air filled with malaria and pestilence. I consider it unfair to ask us to stay. I hope the substitute will not be sustained.

Mr. GASKELL--I shall vote against the amendment as reluctantly as any gentleman in the Senate, but I feel, perhaps, also as much personal magnanimity towards the people of Sacramento as any man connected with this body. I am not only opposed to the amendment, but to the original solution. But if it is resolved that the Senate shall proceed with its business, I think it a matter of pure necessity that we must leave the city of Sacramento. I have come to this conclusion, reluctantly on my own part, because I know my sympathies have been with the city, as are the sympathies of the people I represent. But I feel that justice to myself, to my fellow-legislators and to the State, compels me to vote for leaving the city. I am in favor, however, of the resolution which I offered myself, and which may be brought up in the proper time.

Mr. PARKS--I shall oppose this resolution and vote for the amendment. Whilst we find ourselves here under embarrassing circumstances, It is best not to be too hasty, for fear, we place ourselves under more embarrassing circumstances, and that which will cost the State a great many dollars. In my opinion the resolution intends to carry out that which cannot be carried out. It is in conflict with the law of the State, and a law cannot be repealed by a simple concurrent resolution. This resolution, if I understand it rightly, proposes not only to adjourn the Legislature to meet at San Francisco, but to transfer the public offices and officers; and all the archives belonging to them to San Francisco.

Mr. WARMCASTLE--That is a mistake.

Mr. PARKS--I call for the reading of the last part of the resolution.

The CLERK read: "To meet in the city of San Francisco, there to remain during the remainder of the present session at such place as may be provided, and that a Committee of three be appointed, to act with a like Committee of the House, whose duty it shall be to procure and properly fit out apartments for the use of this Legislature, and to remove thereto all the property belonging to this Legislature.

Mr. PARKS--I stand corrected. Now while we are surrounded here, temporarily, with many embarrasments [sic], I say temporarily because I believe in ten days the flood will have completely subsided, the question arises whether it would not be more convenient to adjourn for ten days than to San Francisco. Every one knows that we could not go there and begin business in less than ten days, and then the Governor, the officers, the State Library, etc., must be in Sacramento on which point the law is specific. Now, before we hastily plunge ourselves into a worse position, we should consider what we are going to do, and before this resolution, if it is to pass, shall be passed, there should be some investigation made. Prudence would dictate that we should at least adjourn five days to ascertain upon what terms we can go to San Francisco, and not throw ourselves upon the mercy of San Francisco. Which would.be the greater inconvenience to the Legislature: to adjourn for ten days until the floods shall subside, or legislate in San Francisco for ninety days without having the necessary officers, books of reference, etc? For one, I am in favor of adjourning from five to ten days, to see the result of this flood. It may be inconvenient to us personally to undergo what we are obliged to do, but we should sympathize with those who are suffering irreparable loss. It must be recollected that the Capitol has been located in Sacramento, that the citizens have taxed themselves $30,000 to $40,000 to purchase a location, that large investments throughout the State have been called here by the Legislature. I say it is acting in bad faith to cripple our citizens as this Act would cripple them, to save ourselves the little inconvenience of leaving the city for a few days. For one I shall never consent to it until I see the absolute necessity of it. There is more involved in this question, Mr. President, in my opinion, than Senators appear to comprehend at first glance. Those who know the peculiar situation of Sacramento, will readily understand that the evil results will not fall upon Sacramento alone. Every one who has watched the government of Sacramento, its financial condition, knows that it is very much embarrassed--knows that the Sacramento government is about on the verge of repudiation, and in my opinion the hasty action proposed here to-day would drive it into repudiation. Now let us see who will be the loser. Is the indebtedness of Sacramento held alone in Sacramento, or in San Francisco, Marysville, Stockton and other places throughout the State? I say this question involves a deep interest, not only to the citizens of Sacramento, but to the citizens of the State at large. It is not the policy of the State to cripple any portion of its citizens. When they have met with misfortunes, on the contrary, the State should endeavor to lift them up, and try to assist them. I, for one, shall never permit the llttle convenience I may gain to overbalance justice to the State and its citizens at large.

Mr. DE LONG--ln answer to the legal objections made by the Senator from Sutter, I simply wish to read Section 15, Article 4 of our Constitution--"Neither house shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which they may be situated." The inference is that they may, with the consent of each other, adjourn to any other place. That I consider conclusive upon the law point of the question.

Mr. PARKS--l did not say that the Legislature could not remove itself. My point was that they could not move the State officers; that the Capital would be still here, amd it would be a great inconvenience.

Mr. DE LONG--Then the Senator upon that ground has made no point at all. A bill going before the Governor for his sanction has ten days to receive that sanction--plenty of time to have it returned with approval or disapproval. There is no other business that I know of. We have a week ahead in which to draw our Controller's warrant and pay. We have no desire for access to the departments otherwise, As far as the State Library is concerned, It is a place of resort [?] which is fully equalled by private and public libraries at San Francisco which will be open to the Legislature. But another word. When I was addressed on the subject recently by a citizen of Sacramento, and I expressed my opinion that it was a duty to remove to another place. I was told, of course, "you favor our rival city." Now I disclaim that. It is more convenient to us to have the Capital here than in San Francisco, and I wish it distinctly understood that in voting for this temporary removal, I neither by word or act commit myself to the policy of permanency keeping it there. We work no great inconvenience to the city of Sacramento. Let them show us that they can protect us from the flood, and no majority of either body will be found willing to remove from their city. I do say it is wrong, as representatives of the State at large to remain here, drawing our pay, and doing no work. We cannot have access to our hotels; when we are there we must confine ourselves to the second floor; our dining rooms are small bedrooms, and we have nothing but bilge water and other nauseous nuisances to surround us. It is not a place to remain in. These Senators from Sacramento county, If they privately expressed their honest opinion, would admit that judgment and appropriate discretion would require a temporary removal. What they fear is what I would fear in their position, namely, that a temporary removal may lead to a permanent location elsewhere. But I say no Senator consents to a permanent removal by voting for a temporary removal. While I vote for it, I disclaim any desire to injure this city in the least; I sympathize as much with its citizens as any man upon this floor. If I was its representative, I would not insist upon the Legislature remaining here, under these circumstances, at the risk of being swept away with their lives, and under a certainty that the river must inundate us again, because during this flood it would be impossible to fortify ourselves against the river. The Senator from Sutter says, by this hasty removal we are throwing ourselves at the mercy of San Francisco, since we have made no arrangements for a place to meet there. Senators upon this floor will inform him that numerous places, such as Hayes' Park or Platt's Musical Hall, larger and more commodious even than this, are offered free of charge. I am told Platt's Musical Hall is open and free until further arrangements can be made. So we are not throwing ourselves at the mercy of those who will exact exorbitant prices from us. Supose we remain ten days. No one can tell what will occur in that time. It may be the streets will be passable. What did they tell us when we came here? They told us that the R street levee acted as a reservoir, and that was the cause; but now a sluice had been made and there would be no further danger. What have we seen to day? The R street levee is almost entirely gone, and the waters are twenty inches higher than ever before. A "combination of circumstance" the gentleman says. That is true, and the same power that has caused this flood may cause one even worse. Let them show, if possible, a plan by which they can protect us, and I will here pledge my oath against any permanent removal of the Capital from this city.

Mr. HARVEY--I desire to state before this vote is taken, that I came here as a member of this body, and with a fixed determination against a removal of the Capital on any pretense whatever. I believe such were the views of a large majority of both branches of the Legislature.

A MEMBER--It was mine.

Mr. HARVEY--There have been extraordinary occurrences here, and another flood is upon the city; hence, the opinions of Senators are changed to a great extent. Now, sir, I have come to look upon this question of temporary removal as permanent removal. It amounts to permanent removal.

A MEMBER--How do you make that out?

Mr. HARVEY--Well, sir, it is not the question directly under discussion at this time, but such will be the result. At any rate I will take the responsibility of making that prediction. Now, let us look this thing rightly in the face. A temporary removal to San Francisco will cost this State not less than $75,000.

A MEMBER--How do you make that out?

Mr. HARVEY--Let the gentleman go back to the history of removals of the California Capital, and he will find enough facts to justify that opinion. The State of California has expended considerable in Sacramento for publlc works. When we take this thing financially, and consider all sides of the question, I believe that the interests of the people of the State as well as the people of Sacramento demand that the members of this Legislature should endure an inconvenience for ten days or a month. I would like to see this resolution amended so as to adjourn for one month, and then see what can be done in Sacramento. It is my opinion that one month will show that the Legislature and public works can be protected. I vote against the temporary adjournment.

Mr. DOLL--I shall oppose the resolution and support the amendment, for the reason that we can fairly expect the city will again be habitable and suitable for purposes of legislation by the 20th instant, and that it would be much more expensive to move, as proposed than to adjourn temporarily. The project for removal I regard as an entering wedge, having for its ultimate object the permanent removal of the Capital from this city. My constituents are in favor of its remaining in Sacramento. To their preference I am willing to sacrifice personal convenience, and I am unwilling to add an avoidable injury to the present calamities of the inhabitants of Sacramento without necessary cause.

Mr. BAKER--The gentleman from El Dorado alluded to expenses. Now, it is proposed by the Senator from Sacramento to wait here for ten days. A rough estimate for ten days would, in round numbers, make an expense of $15,000, at $1,500 a day. This is without conferring a particle of benefit to the State. Perhaps the argument would not be so evident if there was some guarantee that after ten days we could certainly go on. But it strikes me that if, upon the expiration of ten days, we should find the condition of Sacramento similar to what it is now, uninhabitable, that arrangements would probably be made to remove permanently from this city the Capital of the State of California. As a friend of Sacramento, if I were residing here, I should favor the removal of the Legislature simply. I tell you, sir, if we adjourn for ten days, and the city is not improved, there is nothing that can prevent a permanent removal. I wish gentlemen who are friends of Sacramento, to consider this matter. For one I am opposed to a permanent removal of the Capital . if it is possible to make this a permanent seat of government. We have had too much experience in transferring Capitals to indulge much further in such measures at the expense of the people. Yet, would the citizens of Sacramento ask us to remain here if the city were invaded? And can an invasion cause greater inconvenience or cause more damage than this flood? Certainly not. It is a question whether we shall adjourn now, or after ten days, when it becomes certain that no improvement is made. The State officers want to remove; that is well known. Why the residents of Sacramento--the business men--are removing with their families. Can they expect the Legislature will remain under such circumstances? It is not reasonable.

Mr. PARKS--It seems to me the Senator from Humboldt is rather exacting, when he asks to have it mathematically demonstrated that there shall be no more water here after ten days. Now, sir, this is unprecedented, and with the former experience of floods here, we may expect within all reason that this water will recede in five days. It has never been known to stay up longer than that time. My position is this: that ten days expense without legislation is no more time than would be required to go to San Francisco. It would take longer than ten days to go to San Francisco. Every one knows that it will cost $50.000 extra to go to San Francisco and hold this Legisliture.

Mr. BURNELL--I did not expect to say anything upon this subject. The Capital of the State of California has been traveling almost since California has been a State, and if there is any one thing more unpopular than everything else, it is this emigration or transmigration of the Capital from one place to another, through speculating schemes. I do not think there is any particular speculation about this movement at all. But when I came here, the first thing that saluted my ears was that the Capital was to be removed to San Francisco. I found the business portion of the city even in better condition than it had been on previous sessions. Every one knows that this is an unprecedented Winter, what the oldest inhabitants have not experienced, and that Sacramento is not the only city that is suffering immensely on account of the flood. Why, Mr. President, the water is all over this State. I will subject myself to some little inconvenience as well as others. I do not think the Legislature should be so particularly reserved from the experience of every other portion of the State of California. I am disposed to make this a matter of dollars and cents, a matter of convenience to the people of Sacramento and the State. It has been said by my friend from Sutter that the citizens of Sacramento feel an interest in this removal and that the city could be bankrupted by such removal. Now I do not think that, but I am satisfied of one thing--it would subject the citizens of Sacramento to immense loss, from fear, and the reputation the city would gain of being an untenantable place for the Legislature of California. Now about the floods. I have been in California for ten years, and up and down this country, and I have no doubt myself that these streets will be comparatively dry in the space of ten days, and we can meet here and transact the business of the session as well as when we first came. We are told that similar circumstances may occur again. That is possible, but most usually heavy rains occur in the month of December, and the fore part of January. There is no probability that we shall experience any such flood again. As for the protection of the city, I have no doubt it will be protected from any ordinary flood from this to next season. The libraries, archives and State offices are here. In the course of ten days, I have not the remotest doubt, we can transact our business with just as much ease as when we first came. We can remain with as much ease as remove to San Francisco.

The question on adopting the amendment was taken.

Mr. DENVER, in explaining his vote, said he was opposed to the removal, but had paired off with Mr. Rhodes, who was in favor of it. The amendment was lost--ayes, 18; noes, 19.

Mr. HEACOCK moved that the whole matter be laid on the table, which was lost by the following vote: Ayes--Banks, Burnell. Dill, Gallagher, Harvey. Heacock, Lewis, Nixon, Parks, Powers, Quint, Shurtliff, Williamson--18.

Noes--Baker, Bagart, Chamberlain, Crane, De Long, Gaskell, Harriman, Hathaway, Hill, Holden, Irwin, Kimball, Kutz, Oulton, Pacheco, Perkins, Porter, Soule, Van Dyke, Warmcastle--20 . . .

Mr. DE LONG--l now move to reconsider the vote by which the resolution has just been passed. I make the motion hoping that it will be defeated. I shall vote against my own motion.

Mr. HEACOCK--I desire to inquire whether this vote must not be carried by a two-thirds vote.

Several MEMBERS--Oh, no! .

Mr. PERKINS--I would state, Mr. President, that I understand the Supreme Court has decided, in The People against Bigler, that the Legislature may remove to any place at any time by a majority vote.

The Senate refused to reconsider.

The PRESIDENT directed that the resolution be transmitted to the Assembly. . . .


The following was received and read by the Clerk:

The undersigned, majority of the Special Committee to whom was referred Senate bill No. 2, having had the same under consideration, report the same back and recommend its passage. [Signed by Senators Kutz, Soule and Harriman.]

Mr. PARKS--I do not like to take exception to the report of the Committee, but I have the bill in my pocket, and no member of the Committee has come to me to look at it. Owing to the flood last night, I could not get the Committee together. . . .

Mr. PARKS--I do not wish to rest under the implication here that I have tried to shun this Committee, or to pocket this bill. It was my intention at the earliest convenience to call the Committee together. I spoke to the Senator from Nevada to go with me to the Swamp Land Commissioners' office. The floods rose and I was unable to see the Commissioners. If the other members of the Committee have not the courtesy to withdraw their report, I hope the Senate will recommit it. . . .

Mr. NIXON--The question involves to a considerable degree the interests of my constituents, as I conceive. This Swamp Land Commission jointly with the city of Sacramento have now under consideration a project for the reclamation of Swamp Land District No. 2, which embraces this city and land south of this. Jointly with the city, they have also under consideration the construction of a levee on the northern portion of this city to prevent the overflow of the American river, the necessity of which all will understand at this time. I understand upon the passage of this bill all their proceedings will be stopped. I should be very sorry to see that passed.

Mr. PORTER--I had intended to vote against this, but for the benefit of these people I shall vote in favor of recommitting the report.

The Senate ordered it re-committed--ayes 17, noes 10. . . .


Mr. LEWIS offered the following:

Resolved, That the Sergeant-at-Arms of the Senate be instructed to immediately communicate with the proper officers of the California Steam Navigation Company and inform them of the action of this body relative to a temporary adjournment to San Francisco, and request them to delay the departure of their steamboat until the resolution shall be finally disposed of.

The PRESIDENT--Is there any objection to the adoption of the resolution?

Mr. WARMCASTLE--The only objection is that it may not pass the other House.

Mr. LEWIS--If the resolution pass the other House, I want to get off this evening. I would as soon leave the city for ten days for that matter.

Mr. WARMCASTLE moved it lay on the table, which was lost. The resolution was then adopted. [The Sergeant-at-Arms subsequently returned, and reported that the steamboat could not be detained.]

On motion [one P. M. ] a recess was taken until half past one o'clock. . . .


Mr. DE LONG moved the following:

Resolved, That the Sergeant-at-Arms of the Senate be and is hereby empowered and instructed to procure one or more boats, and have the same in readiness for the transportation of the members of the Senate during the prevalence of this flood.

Mr. HEACOCK--I move that the Sergeant-at-Arms agree with the boatmen upon prices to be paid. Some of the boatmen, I am told, charge very exorbitant prices. By taking this course the State may procure boat hire at reasonable prices.

Mr. DE LONG--I am surprised to hear the gentleman from Sacramento say that anybody charges exorbitant prices here. [Laughter.]

Mr. CRANE--I move that the resolution be amended by inserting "during the present session of the Legislature. The waters may come up again by and by; and there may be some doubt as to what the exact meaning of the words "present flood" is.

Mr. BURNELL--I think this body ought to be taken care of. It is a little questionable whether they can rationally take care of themselves. I believe the citizens here have to hire their own boats, and I am in favor of Senators hiring their own boats. The whole country is under water, and everybody is suffering. I see no good reason why we should waste time to make the State carry us about the city. I am in favor of adjourning until the water goes down for a week. Let this Legislature be attended with some degree of dignity, and with reference to the interests of the State. I am opposed to all resolutions of this kind.

Mr. DE LONG--Some things I like, and some I don't. One thing I don't like--to pay out more than I get when I am performing duty for anybody. Now plain talk is plain talk you can't get out of this Capitol building, to go to the rear, or any office under it; you can't light a fire, without wading three or four feet in water to do it. . And within the last hour the river has rased four inches, and is still coming up. Let her come! I think I am doing my duty and my whole duty, when I eat one meal a day--cold at that--in a garret, and shin down an awning post into a boat, to get to the Capitol. [Laughter.] My finances will not allow me to go any farther than I have done, and I can't get credit in this town. [Laughter.]

A MEMBER--Too well known. [Laughter.]

Mr. DE LONG--I am too well known for that, and I want the Sergeant-at-Arms to get relief for myself and for the balance of the Senate. And I hope the Senator from Amador will show his exceeding generosity, his care for the treasury, by becoming the watch-dog of that institution, and by paying his own boat hire. I can't get away from this Capitol without a boat, and have but little money to pay for it--the balance I want to save.

Mr. BURNELL--I fully appreciate the gentleman's remarks. I have no objection to the State furnishing him a boat, or half a dozen if necessary; but I do object to the State's furnishing him a boat to travel around the city. I do not calculate to travel around very much. I think when this Senate adjourns, It will adjourn for two or three days; my friend from Yuba may want to go to San Francisco, where be can get a warm lunch. We shall find the conntry overflowed generally. Now, Mr. President, I move this House adjourns to Wednesday at 11 o'clock.

Mr. DE LONG--I object to the time. It has been determined by this Legislature, and his (Mr. Burnell's) vote among the number that we shall continue to transact business here. These facts are staring us in the face, the levees are down, the American river is flowing in without hindrance, the Sacramento is just beginning to pour down, and days must elapse before you can get to the Capitol without a boat; the streets will be all mud, the members absent, the Senate wanting a quorum, and legislation will be done by piecemeal. There are four feet of water in the treasury, and the other offices in the basement of the State House are in the same fix. Now I say, let us stay here. Keep on--I want to see yon all subjected to these inconveniences. I am compelled to drink the sewerage of the barnyard, and I want you to be obliged to submit to all these things. But this thing of adjourning from day to day and dallying with a big flood, which is coming worse and worse each day, I can see no object in, for the public interest, and certainly not for private comfort.

Mr. HARVEY--This matter as I see it is no joke. Notwithstanding the suggestions of the Senator from Amador, I am in favor of the resolution that the Sergeant-at-Arms be requested to make arrangements to bring members to this building. If we depend npon miscellaneous craft, I think the entire pay of the Legislature would be exacted to bring them to and from the Capitol.

Mr. PERKINS--There is no second for the motion to adjourn. I understand the resolution before the Senate is to authorise somebody to. hire a boat, to tote the Senate about this city. Now, Mr. President, you will observe that no San Francisco member has said one word in favor of adjourning to go to San Francisco. Some one said the San Francisco members were working for it. I say here, as a Senator from San Francisco, that she asks no boon of that kind. We have landed in our city every week double the number of persons that would be carried thither by the adjournment of the Legislature which has been proposed. We ask nothing of the sort, but we do say that, being sent here to do the business of the State and our constituents, we have a right to complain. If we wish to do that business, we cannot go about to consult each other, communicate with the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, or have any understanding about the business to be done. I say the interests of the people of this State will not be promoted by our being here. I am not going to talk about the few dollars more or less in the treasury or out of it. I can't live on bread and cheese.

A MEMBER--And cheese-bread.

Mr. PERKINS--l have for the last day had nothing for breakfast, dinner and supper but that same article. I do not believe in hiring boats for the use of the Legislature. Why the proposition is enough to damn any man who wants to keep us here. I have as much sympathy for the people suffering here as the next man that lives. I would be willing to do anything that might have been done--any suggestion, any manner or means, but I do not consider it my duty to make believe that everything is comfortable here, that we can go on and legislate here with the water over my head in almost every place throughout this city. Absolutely I cannot get out to perform the business that nature demands with any decency at all. Suppose a man to be called on in the Senate here, where is he to go? Why he his to go and call for a boat [Laughter.] Nature demands relief, and he wants a boat! [Laughter.] What a position for the Senate of California to be in! [Laughter.] Now the Senator wants to adjourn until Wednesday--what am I going to do until Wednesday with water six feet deep all around my boarding house?

A MEMBER--[To Mr. P.] Do you want a boat?

Mr. PERKINS--No; I do not want a boat now. There are five hundred boatmen in Sacramento. I would hire them all. l am opposed to monopolies, and this would be democratic. It is paid by the State. Gentlemen have been telling us how much it would cost to move. Some have figured it up as high as $400,000. Now I want them to figure up what this boat business is going to cost--five hundred boats at $100 a day? It will cost more than a removal. I am not going away from this Capitol. If we are compelled to stay here I am going to remain in this Capitol and send for my bread and cheese.

Mr. CHAMBERLAIN--I move to lay the resolution on the table for the purpose of referring it to the Committee on Commerce when such shall be appointed.

Mr. DE LONG--If the Senate does not employ a boat passing to and from this Capitol five, six or seven times a day as we are compelled to do, I shall resign myself to quietude, and compel the Sergeant-at-Arms to come after me.

The resolution to hire boats was adopted . . . .

The Senate adjourned (3:20 P. M..) to Monday at eleven o'clock.


SATURDAY, Jan. 11, 1862

The House met at eleven o'clock. The roll was called, and all the members responded except . . . .

Mr. BELL--. . . I know that the beautiful little city of Oakland, now high and dry abeve all the floods, was once on the mail route to Stockton, and the stage route extends from there to Sacramento, but I would not travel that road now upon any consideration. . . .


A message was received from the Senate announcing the adoption by that body of Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 9, relative to the removal of the Legislature to San Francisco, and the appointment of a Committee on the part of the Senate to make the necessary arrangements, etc.

Mr. EAGAN--I move that we now take up Senate Concurrent Resolution No. 9.

Mr. AVERY--I would like first to introduce a resolution. It relates to a report made this morning.

The SPEAKER--The resolution is not in order unless by leave of the House.

Objection was made.

Mr. BARTON--I move that we take up yesterday's message from the Senate.

The SPEAKER--There is a former motion which will take precedence, which is to take up Senate resolution No. 9.

Mr. BENTON--I rise to a point of order. It is that Senate resolution No. 9, on the Journal, which cannot be passed without a two-thirds vote, is not in order while other messages from the Senate are to be considered.

The SPEAKER--I shall hold that message already before the House in order. The Clerk will read the Senate messages. . . .


The Clerk read Senate Resolution No. 9, to relation to the removal of the Legislature to San Francisco.

Mr. CUNNARD--I move that the House concur.

Mr. BENTON--I rise to a point of order. The rule of the House is that Senate messages shall be taken up in their order; and if a motion is made to take up any particular message out of its order, it can only be done by a two-thirds vote of the House.

Mr. SHANNON--I will inquire of the Speaker whether this was not the order of the House at the time this message was taken up.

The SPEAKER--I understand it so to be; this is the next message from the Senate in order.

Mr. BENTON--Is there not on the Clerk's table, or the table of the House, a message from the Senate which was under consideration yesterday, in relation to another measure I think that is first in order.

Mr. SHANNON--l will endeavor to get the gentleman out of the fog. I see he is very much troubled about a certain resolution in regard to porters, etc. If I understand that matter it was yesterday temporarily laid on the table, and therefore it cannot be taken up now without a two-thlrds vote until the order of unfinished . . .


p. 2


The leading matter of interest in the events of the day is the flood which has visited Sacramento and other portions of the State, full accounts of which will be noticed in our columns. The damage to property throughout the State is larger probably by the present calamity than by the flood of December 9th. In Sacramento, while there has been less destruction to private dwellings and their appurtenances, there has been more loss to stocks of goods in stores. It is very difficult at this time to form any correct opinion as to the extent of their loss. We expect to hear that throughout the State there has been great injury to property as well as loss of life.

The tidings of the calamity in San Francisco, by which several lives were lost, including those of former residents of Sacramento, and which is chronicled at length in our pages, will call forth the sympathies of all.

The telegraphic wires were altogether disarranged by the late storm and flood, and we were not able, last evening, to gain any intelligence from localities in our own State or from the East.

The water level in our streets has decreased from its highest stage about two and a half to three feet, and if the present cool weather continues to prevail for a short time, our streets will soon be passable for pedestrians. The American river has fallen since our last issue largely and the Sacramento is now standing at twenty-three feet six inches above low water mark. It rose at one time to twenty-four feet.

The citizens of Sacramento have provided boats for the conveyance of Members of the Legislature to and from the Capitol so long as there shall be occasion for their use.

About 1,000 feet of the wall of the Agricultural Park grounds fell during the flood--as also a portion of the wall of Carpenter's Hall on Front street, which was heavily stored with goods.

Nowithstanding the calamity of the flood in Sacramento it is worthy of mention that the UNION has omitted no number of its daily or weekly publication.


The Senate, on Saturday--by a vote of twenty to thirteen--adopted a concurrent resolution for the adjournment of the Legislature to San Francisco for the remainder of the session. Three of the four San Francisco Senators voted for this proposition, although the leading journals of that city oppose the project, and probably represent more faithfally the wishes of the people in the matter than do the delicate gentlemen who long for the comforts of home. Senator Banks voted against a removal. . . .

In the Assembly the Senate resolution to adjourn to San Francisco was discussed at great length, and defeated by forty to thirty-six. Two only of the San Francisco members--Van Zandt and Amerige--voted againat the proposition. Bell of Alameda made a very able speech against the resolution, on which he took the ground that the Legislature had no right to disobey a law upon the strength of a mere resolution. This is the true ground.

The Legislature undoubtedly has the control of the question as to where the seat of government shall be located. This power was exercised in the passage of the law locating the seat of goverment at Sacramento. The idea that the Legislature may annul a law by a resolution is too absurd to be entertained by sensible men. If the valleys of the State are no longer inhabitable, let the Legislature pass a law changing the seat of government to some point on the coast above high water mark, or to the summit of Mount Shasta; but until the law is changed, let it be obeyed by our law-makers. There may be some who, knowing the illegality of an adjournment to another place, content themselves by saying that there is no remedy--that the Legislature cannot be compelled to do its duty and hold the regular session at the seat of government. We think a remedy will be found in the fact that members will not be entitled to pay if they meet elsewhere than at the place declared by law to be the Capital of the State. If this view be correct, a Court of competent jurisdiction might stand between the members and their per diem, and such an interruption of the finances would doubtless cure many Senators and members of the roving disposition now manifested by them. Advocates of an adjournment would do well, too, to consider whether all laws passed at any place other than the lawful seat of government would not be utterly void.


The continuous rains and the melting of the snow in the mountains have brought disaster and destruction upon those valleys and cities of California which have been the chief pride of the State. We cannot forget our own suffering--the losses to which we have been subjected; but the accounts we receive from all directions convince us that our misfortune has not been peculiar, and that throughout the State the damages in consequence of the flood have been of a character to excite the sympathies of the generous and charitable everywhere. In San Francisco and in all the interior cities, the injury worked by the waters is chronicled in the journals published in those localities, and their reports leave us no room to doubt that the inundation has carried destruction to a greater or less extent throughout the State.

In such an emergency as this we have a right to ask for large and liberal feeling among Californians. There should be a sympathy among the suffering which would lead to mutual advantage. It is no time for petty jealousies, or for the adjustment of disputes as to whether this or the other town is best located for the Capital of the State. It is a period when every Californian who has the interests of the State at heart should assist his fellow citizens in determining what should be done, and not act as if he had been employed by a particular interest to run down a certain city. It is not an isolated fact that Sacramento has been flooded. Every town in the richest valley in California, and in the other valleys of the State, has suffered in the same way. Are Californians prepared, to say that the most splendid districts of the State can no longer be inhabited by white men. We think not. All that the citizens of Sacramento ask, at the present crisis, is that the question of the removal of the Capital shall receive a fair consideration, and that they shall not be victimized while the most important portions of the State are under water.

The emergency is of a character to call forth the energies of every man who means to support our State. She has obtained a reputation for wealth and stability which is likely to be shaken if she does not provide for those who are affected by domestic disasters. Those members of the Legislature who have been working for the removal of the Capital are hardly deserving of ordinary sympathy, because they are laboring for a bad purpose at a time of public misfortune. If they consider well the calamity that has visited the whole of California, their views will be speedily changed, or if not changed, they are not exactly of the mold that is required for liberal and wise legislation in this State. If their wishes should be gratified in the present case, and they succeed in removing the State Capital by resolution to another place, they will soon find that their own per diem is not only in danger, but every Act they pass will be void and of no effect.

PROPOSED REMOVAL OF THE STATE CAPITAL.--The San Francisco Bulletin strongly rebukes the feeling that is entertained in some quarters in favor of the removal of the State Capital, either permanently or temporarily, and disclaims all sympathy with the efforts that are making to carry it to San Francisco. It says:

If the Legislature come here because the distressed condition of Sacramento makes that an unsuitable place of even temporary residence we wish, for the honor of our city, that it shall be recorded in history, that neither her people. her legal representatives, nor her press, had any part or parcel in influencing such change. We believe San Francisco is too proud, if no other motive be considered, to allow even the suspicion to go abroad that she would seek to derive profit through the misfortunes of a sister city. The fact cannot be disguised that the presence and incidental patronage of the Legislature would benefit San Francisco in many ways. Certain new occupations would be created, and the hotels and boarding houses would enjoy increased custom, while the wholesome legislation needed by this city could be more easily obtained were the members of the Legislature residing among us, so that they could understand the merits of our local bills from personal observation, than can be expected under circumstances as they exist. This fact--that our city may derive considerable profit by having the Legislature in our midst--the very reason why our people should hesitate long before accepting any such advantages at the expense of distressed Sacramento, if it is in their power to prevent it. The Legislature may contribute something to our stores which we do not need in our time of general prosperity; but this small gain to us will be the moat severe blow to Sacramento that she has yet received. Her discouraged people will almost feel like giving up all as lost when they lose the State Capital--always regarded as of vital importance to them. When the steamer left there yesterday hundreds of people were literally weeping in anticipation of the dreadful calamity of the flood coming in and the Legislature going out. [We ignore the latter allegation.--Eds. UNION.] It may be true that they estimate the loss of their position as "the Capital city" much higher than their neighbors will be disposed to estimate it for them. But the gain to us of having the Capital probably no town in the State will rate so low as San Francisco itself. If the Legislature comes here we shall treat it well, of course, and watch over it most tenderly, but we do not crave at any time, and least of all now, while Sacramento has already suffered more bereavement than a less enterprising town would well survive.

Speaking of the flood in Sacramento, in the same connection, the Alta says:

In her distress we feel for the trials of those threatened by this terrible flood, and hope that the water may quickly subside and bring quiet and freedom from apprehension of danger. It may be temporarily inconvenient for the legislators assembled to await the subsiding of the waters, but they, as well as other non-residents, can afford a little discomfort and remain at their posts. . . .

[For the Union.]

MESSRS. EDITORS: Cheer up, brave hearts! 'Tis the force of recurrent storms that beats vigor and power into the leviathan oaks. 'Tis the fierce tornado which publishes the integrity of the iron-bound roots of the giant pines of Calaveras; and, as rebellion proclaims the value of loyalty, so does adversity, come when it will and where it may, develop temper and make resistless the nerve and muscular energy of human power. What are the merciless floods that are now inundating and terrifying the people throughout the valley, cities and towns of Washington Territory, of the States of Oregon, California and the mining precincts of Carson? Though very severe, they are yet wholesome lessons to the new coming and uninformed settlers whom God has appointed to reclaim these waste places, by protecting them from inundation and revealing them to the world as Sicilian field of agriculture, as gardens of fruits and flowers more valuable than the famed apples of Hesperides or the canonized Flora of Mythology. To our people, naturally reckless and strong in that self-reliance which is fertile of expedients in emergency, a smaller chastisement would have been useless. To us as Sacramentans it comes as a finishing discipline to the many adversities to which we are indebted for the charitable record we have made in the past, and to the enduring, elastic and inextinguishable energy, enterprise and buoyancy with which we have written our history up to the present moment. Cheer up! Ere six months have told the stirring incidents of the first half-year of Sixty-two, Sacramento will be in better condition than she would have been in ten years without the admonition which a kind as well as sagacious Providence is inflicting upon us. Oar levees will be made broad causeways for business and pleasure, invulnerable to the aggressions of water. Our streets will be commenced in a process of elevation which shall make them when paved the most capacious and convenient thoroughfares in the world, and with drainage, good health and the business which our centrality affords us, we will be rich in the energy and contentment which are the best elements of wealth. PIONEER.


Seven Persons Burned to Death,

We condense from the Bulletin and Journal of the 11th instant, an account of one of the most heart-rending calamities that has ever visited San Francisco:

About twenty minutes before three o'clock, on the morning of the 11th instant, a fire broke out in one of the many small tenements adjoining the Pacific Flour Mills on the east, and in the rear of a boarding house known as the " Sarsfield Hall," which is situated on the northwest corner of Pacific and Montgomery streets. . . .

The Bulletin gives the following list of the dead and wounded by this terrible calamity: . . .

Mrs. Harrington and two children, who came from Sacramento about a week and a half ago. Her husband is a teamster, formerly engaged on the Capitol works, and is now engaged in carrying between Sacramento and Carson City. This unfortunate family, had a narrow escape during the first heavy flood of this season at Sacramento. They were driven into the upper story of their cottage, and to save her own and children's lives she placed two large trunks on her bedstead, and with her boy and girl in her arms stood upon them, crying for assistance until it came; the water in the meantime having reached the bottom of the trunks. The children are said to have been very beautiful. The charred skulls of the mother and her children were found with some of their toys. . . .

THE RAIN GAUGE.--The present rainy season surpasses in severity any yet experienced by Americans in California. According to the gauge kept by Mr. Tennent, at Benicia, we have already had the average rain of the rainy season. During nine days in January, 1862, it is stated that more rain fell at San Francisco than had fallen during any previous month, except December of 1861, and more than fell any month in 1860, 1859, or 1858. According to Mr. Tennent's gauge, the total fall of rain for the season of 1861-62 up to January 9th, is 21.22. . . .

THE RIVER.--On Friday evening the water in the Sacramento stood twenty-three feet above low water mark. On Saturday morning it had risen four inches, by evening it had risen still four inches higher, standing at twenty-three feet 8 inches, and during the night there is questionable proof that it rose to about twenty-four feet,--a foot and a half higher than the high water mark of 1852 and 1858. By eight o'clock yesterday morning it had fallen again to twenty-three feet eight inches, and by last evening it had fallen still two inches lower. At the last named point it is a foot higher than the high water of former years. While at its highest stage it ran over the top of the Front street levee in many places, and was nearly even with the top along the whole line.

SUTTERVILLE.--There was good reason to fear that the torrent of water which passed toward Sutterville from this city on Friday afternoon and evening, would carry away houses from the lower portion of the town, and perhaps destroy the lives of many of the occupants. A boat was sent down by the Howard Benevolent Society to reconnoiter. Dr. Harkness also visited the locality. We are informed by him that he could hear of no lives being lost, and the injury to property was not so great as had been anticipated. The Quartermaster at Camp Union agreed to furnish rations to such as were in need of provisions.

LIVE STOCK.--A large portion of the I street and Front street levees is occupied by live stock, chiefly horses, taken there from the various stables and yards for safety. They are tied, fed and taken care of, of course, by the various parties having them in charge.

THE CARS.--The cars from Folsom came yesterday as far west as Patterson's, nine miles from the city. The road will have to be repaired in several places before they can come to Poverty Ridge.

" LEGISLATIVE."--Such was the designation, yesterday, on a certain class of boats. The members of the Legislature, Clerks, etc., are furnished with tickets, which are good with any legislative boat for all parts of the city.

CAMP UNION.--It was reported in the city yesterday that Camp Union was flooded on Friday night, and that the tents were from necessity removed to a higher point on the Suttervilie ridge

p. 3


CARPENTER'S BUILDING.--At about six o'clock yesterday morning a portion of the east wall of Carpenter's building on Front street, between M and N, together with the division foundation wall, and a portion of the floors, roof, etc., fell with a terrific crash to the ground. This building is occupied by Campbell & Sweeney, grain dealers. The first floor contained a large quantity of grain, chiefly barley. The second story had been occupied by the two members of the firm and their families. At the time of the falling of the walls there was nobody sleeping in the building except one of the firm, James Sweeney, and George Holdforth. They occupied rooms on the west side of the building, and were not injured, as they hastily vacated the premises through the second story windows and down the awning posts. Through the center of the building, running from east so [sic] west, was a division wall in the cellar only twelve inches thick, the foundations of the east end of which gave way from the effects of water and the pressure above. Opposite the end of this wall were large arched doors in each story. These arches all fell, taking out a vertical section of the east wall, some fifteen or twenty feet in width from the foundation to the roof. On viewing the wall from the outside it is difficult to conceive how so narrow a portion could fall while both sides remained firm. A considerable portion of the grain in the building was placed there on storage. Campbell & Sweeney estimate their loss at from three to four thousand dollars. A portion only of the grain which fell is under water. The floors and stores of the front part of the building maintain their original position. C. K. Garrison of San Francisco is the owner of the premises.

DEATHS FROM DROWNING.--During Saturday and yesterday there were many rumors afloat of parties who were temporarily missing having been drowned. In the confusion which is necessarily caused by an event such as the flood by which we have been visited, relatives, friends and acquaintances become separated, and fears are naturally aroused for the welfare and safety of each other. These rumors have generally proved groundless by the appearance of the parties in person. We hear, however, of four deaths from drowning by the late flood, and time, it is to be feared, will reveal others. A Mrs. Carr and a hired man who resided on the Coloma road, fourteen miles from the city, were drowned from a raft with which they were endeavoring to reach land. Mrs. Carr was an elderly lady, and had kept a public house for several years at that point. A Frenchman, whose name we have not been able to learn, is said to have been drowned at Twelfth and O streets on Friday evening. His body has not yet been recovered. A colored man known by the name of Judge Kelly was drowned on Saturday night at Frank Powell's stable. His body was recovered last evening and taken in charge by Coroner Reeves. Kelly was a bootblack, was small of stature, humpbacked, and had several large wens about his face. He will be remembered at once by all who have ever seen him. He had been in the habit of sleeping in Powell's stable, and on the night in question he was heard to fall in the water, and efforts were made to save him, but without avail.

THE RISE AND FALL OF THE FLOOD.--On Friday morning, January 10th, at eight o'clock, the water in the lower portion of the city was not so high by four feet ten inches as the hight attained on the evening of December 9th. The following figures will show the rate at which it rose hourly through the day. They were carefully noted at the corner of Seventh and P streets: From 8 to 9, 3 inches; from 9 to 10, 3 inches; from 10 to 11, 4 inches; from 11 to 12, 5 inches; from 12 to 1, 6-3/4 inches; from 1 to 2, 8 inches; from 2 to 3, 11-3/4 inches; from 3 to 4, 12 inches; from 4 to 5, 9 inches; from 5 to 6, 5-3/4 inches; from 6 to 7, 1-1/4 inches. It will be seen by these figures that it rose most rapidly between three and four o'clock, and that the aggregate rise of the day was sixty-nine inches or five and three-quarter feet. It had risen during the previous night about three feet, making an aggregate in twenty-four hours of nearly nine feet. The hight attained was twenty inches above the high mark of Dec. 9th, and about equal to twenty-four feet on the city gauge. By ten o'clock in the evening it had fallen some two inches, and by eight o'clock the next morning some eight inches. During the night we had a steady and heavy rain, from the effect of which the water rose again during the afternoon and evening to within two feet of the highest mark. During Saturday night and yesterday it continued to recede, and by ten o'clock last evening had fallen nearly three feet from the highest mark.

THE SLOUGH LEVEE.--During Saturday and Saturday night the water from the slough north of I street, commenced to flow over the levee into the city, as the high stage of the Sacramento had filled it to the brim. By yesterday morning several channels had begun to cut through the levee, some of which assumed a threatening appearance. Near the station house, on the east, a considerable stream came over, washing away the earth to some distance. Another stream also crossed directly from the Sacramento in front of the station house. At .the east end of the slough on Sixth street, between E and H streets, a sheet of running water covered nearly the entire space. So long as the water in the city was about as high as that in the slough, but little damage was done; but as it fell the velocity of the running water was increased, and the danger of serious trouble grew greater. No effort was made until noon, yesterday, to repair the levees at these points. By that time several gaps were cut on Sixth street, through which considerable water poured. Some fifty men were employed during the afternoon in the work of repairs. Their efforts were continued through the evening. It was the opinion of members of the Committee of Safety and of others, that they would be successful, but it appeared to be an extremely doubtful case. The water in the slough was about two and a half feet above the water in the city at Sixth street.

AID AND SYMPATHY FROM SAN FRANCISCO.--The steamer Nevada arrived from San Francisco at eleven o'clock last evening. We are informed by ------ Barclay, ------ Foster, and J. Q. A. Warren, that an impromptu meeting was held at Platt's Hall, San Francisco, on Saturday evening, after the arrival of the boats from this city, to furnish aid to the sufferers of our city. As the wires were out of order, no information of the flood had been received. Committees were appointed to make arrangements to send up at once a supply of provisions. Families and restaurants were advised to prepare cooked food, and a large amount was prepared and brought up on the Nevada, which left at twelve o'clock M. yesterday. Another meeting had been held yesterday morning, at which still more extensive preparations were made, and the steamer Cordelia was expected to leave at four o'clock yesterday afternoon with a much larger supply of food. Arrangements had been made to open Platt's Hall for the accommodation of all sufferers who may go down. The lateness of the hour at which this intelligence was received, prevents us from giving a more extended account of the action of the meetings referred to.

NAVIGATION OF THE AMERICAN.--The steamer Defiance, Captain Gibson, left the levee on Saturday afternoon at two o'clock, for an excursion up the American river. In consequence of the recent injuries received by her collision with the Sacramento and Yolo bridge she was not in very good running order. She passed Lisle's bridge--carried away by the recent flood--and reached a point a little below Norris' bridge. While in sight of this structure it yielded to the force of the flood, and a portion of it was carried off. The defiance took from various houses on the river near Rabel's tannery and Burns' slough some five women and fifteen children and brought them to the city. The Defiance made another excursion up the American yesterday. It is presumed that one object of these excursions is to look out an eligible spot for an embarcadero--a second Hoboken--to which goods may be taken by steamer from the city and forwarded by cars, teams, etc., to the mountains. She had not not [sic] returned at dusk last evening

GREAT DAMAGE AT FOLSOM.--The American river rose, on Friday night, sixty feet above low water mark, and destroyed a great amount of property. The old flour mill of Stock