Excerpts from Sacramento Daily Union - Second Inundation 12/24/1861 [press date]

(c) 2012, Mike Barkley


Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3351, 24 December 1861, p. 2


. . .

The heavy rain of yesterday and the day before caused a considerable rise in the American river, which continued at a late hour last night. At nine o'clock the rain was still falling here and at Placerville, Folsom, and at other places. The American broke through at Burns' slough again at about six o'clock last evening, but as its water can easily flow to the Sacramento, no fear need be apprehended of a repetition of the recent inundation unless the Sacramento should rise with a rapidity far exceeding its wont.

BURNS' SLOUGH.--A second rise in the American river came too soon for the men engaged in building the levee in Burns' slough. The water came up yesterday so fast as to overflow the new part and carry it away. This will probably increase the water in the southern portion of the city somewhat, though not to any serious extent. The work of the last few days at that point has, of course, been lost; but better luck next time will be the motto of the Committee. The same thing happened in 1853. The first work done on that slough, and the one at the Tivoli House, was destroyed by a sudden rise in the river, and it had to be done the second time. Had the weather remained pleasant a week longer, everything would have been made secure by the Committee. It is to be regretted that a force could not have been sent on Saturday to the crevasse between here and Sutterville, as there has been no water passing through it for the past two days, and therefore it might easily have been closed. . . .

LATE FROM WASHOE.--We find the annexed items of intelligence in the Territorial Enterprise of Dec. 20th: . . .

We understand that good prospects are obtained in Gold Canon, near Johntown. The gold is fonnd in crevices of the bed rock, and seems to have been deposited by the tailings swept down the stream by the recent freshet.

The water in the Carson river has subsided to about its usual mark, and the workmen are busy repairing the dams and bridges which were swept away by the flood. . . .


The Board of Supervisors appear to have determined to punish the Railroad for the late flood. The members, since the flood, pretend to have found out that the Company has forfeited its right of way into the city, because it failed to build trestle work and bridges on the line east of Sixteenth street. Why did not this wide awake Board discover that fact before the city was flooded? Had they attended to their duties they would have had the embankment in the slough removed, and trestle work substituted. There was much more truth than poetry in the plain talk of A. Black at the meeting last week. He asserted that the Board of Supervisors were responsible for the disaster which had overtaken the city, because the members did not compel the Railroad Company to open the embankment at the slough, east of the end of R street. Now, he said, they were keen to make the Railroad Company perform its duty, after "we had all been drowned out." They were for locking the door after the horse was stolen. The action of the Board against the railroad partakes very much of the lock the door after the horse is stolen, character. The members seem to be actuated by a spirit of revenge. The Board possessed the right to give the Company notice to take up their track west of Sixth street, but it did not possess the power to pass an ordinance ordering the Company to take up its track on the levee and on Front street within ten days, and if it failed, ordering the police to take it up. No ordinance can be legally passed upon the assumption that the Company has forfeited its legal rights. Whether it has or has not is a fact which must be settled in a Court of justice, until the Court decides that the Company has forfeited the privileges granted it, the ordinances passed by the Board are not worth the paper upon which they are written. Adopting ordinances under such circumstances tends to bring the authority of the Board into contempt before the people. Such hasty action upon a matter of so much importance is particularly to be condemned. Impulsive legislation generally proves unwise. The rights of the railroad are no more forfeited now than they were twelve months ago, and the fierce action of the Board in the premises is the severest condemnation of the failure to act of past Boards which could be published. The present course of the Board is likely to involve the city in an expensive law suit, and that, too, without accomplishing the object the members have in view.


SAN JOSE, December 19, 1861.

H. O. BEATTY.--DEAR SIR: I have read with satisfaction your communications in reference to the city defenses of Sacramento; and beg leave to make to you a few suggestions of my own.

You are aware that I was in the City Council in 1853, when the R street levee was constructed and the old levee repaired. The R street levee vas constructed with a view to a double defense of the city. I had long observed that the bank of the river below R street was yearly caving in, and saw from the natural shape of the ground that it would be most difficult to construct there a permanent work. We also knew that the levee above Thirty-first street might break. I always doubted the strength of the levee near the Tivoli House. In constructing the east line of levee from about opposite the fort to the same distance above, the dirt for he embankment was, contrary to my judgment, taken from the outside; thus forming a channel for the water; and as the formation was sand, this channel would necessarily be enlarged and the embankment fall in. Where a line of levee, of any considerable hight, faces running water, it should very gradually decline on the side next the current. This will prevent its washing away. I am satisfied, from reflection and experience, that to keep up permanent levees will require an annual expenditure of some $5,000. The levee should be annually repaired and increased in strength and hight. The safety of Sacramento requires eternal vigilance and steady system. In filling in the head of the slough, there should be double sheet piling of redwood lumber, and earth on both sides of the piling. Between the rows of piling there should be sheet iron, zinc, or tin, so as to prevent the gophers from gnawing through the piling. An embankment of this kind, made high enough, will certainly stand. The main error heretofore committed at that point has been in not making the embankment high enough.

From all I can learn, the Consolidation Act has failed, and I suppose will be abandoned. But in abandoning that Act, will you fall back upon a system that has also failed? If so, what will be gained but a litttle [sic] variety in failure?

The redemption of the city, and its future stability, requires a steady, practical system. The system must first be practical, and then pursued for years, in order to attain success. If you have a charter creating officers of only one year's duration, can this be done? I think not. There can be no steady pursuit of any determinate system when your officers are always green, and always under the apprehension of being shortly turned out. Such officers are either indifferent to public opinion, or so fearful of it, that they grant everything that everybody asks, and hence, grant a ruinous privilege to A, and another to B. Has not this been the case heretofore?

But you not only require a steady pursuit of the same system for years to come, but you must reduce your city expenditures to the lowest practical standard. To accomplish both these purposes, you must give your officers long terms, moderate cash salaries and hold them to a rigid accountability. If you will then select good men you must succeed. An officer can well afford to serve for a much less annual salary, when he is in for a long term that when he fills a short one. To put a man in office for a short term, with an almost certainty that he will not be again elected, it will require most of his salary to pay his electioneering expenses, and, if honest, in the end he is the loser in a pecuniary point of view.

Your new charter should give your Mayor a long term and ample power, and he should be made responsible for the [actions of?] subordinate agents under him [where he has to?] exercise his powers to correct abuses. He should be subject to removal for incompetency as well as for willful misconduct. If you will make your salaries moderate you will then be able to pay them punctually. There are many good and competent men that are willing to fill offices with moderate salaries, because they are not fortune-seekers, and are willing to accept office for a plain support and the opportunity of doing good. Extravagant salaries fill offices with mercenary men as a general rule. There should be nothing speculative in salaries because there is no risk of failure. The chance of great gain should always go with the chance of great loss.

The government of a city, as a general rule, requires almost as much talent as that of a State under our theory. I think I may speak from some little experience, and I must say it is about as difficult to fill well the office of Mayor of such a city as San Francisco for example, as to perform the duties of Governor of a State. The government of Sacramento city is about as difficult as that of San Francisco, though the former city is of less extent. This arises from the local position of Sacramento requiring a system of levees to be kept up.

It occurs to me that your new charter should give the city the power to acquire the right of property in the line of levee outside the city limits, and the charter should impose adequate penalties for injury to that line of levee and prescribe the manner in which they could be inforced. Your City Council should not be too large. A few members will do more work than many, and do it better. The Mayor should have a negative upon all acts of the Council unless passed by a majority of three fourths. You must take a new start in your city government and infuse into it more conservative elements, or you will still fail as heretofore. Any sound practical mind could take charge of the affairs of the city, and in a few years have her placed in a safe and elevated position. You must give ample powers to your city authorities, You must also place them in a position where they can exercise their own sound judgment.

There is no cause to despair of the future of the city. Let her maintain her honor to the last, pay the interest upon her bonds punctually, and if she must at last fail, let her sink into the grave with her honor unsullied.

Yours truly, PETER H. BURNETT.


Rise of the American River at Folsom-Rain in the Interior.

FOLSOM, December 23--6 P. M.

The American river has raised at the rate of one foot per hour, and stands within seven feet of the greatest hight, and is still rising.

9 P. M.--It is raining hard at Folsom, Placerville, Strawberry and Coloma.

p. 3


THE STORM AND THE LEVEES.--In consequence of the prevalence of the storm during yesterday, and the unfinished condition of the levees at various points, our city was kept throughout the day in a feverish state of excitement. The rain of Sunday continued with but little intermission, though moderate in degree, during the night. Anxiety was of course felt in the morning concerning the stage of the rivers, and the chances of protecting the city from a second inundation. The Sacramento had fallen some three inches during the night, and at half past seven o'clock there were no signs of a rise in the American at its mouth. Soon after eight o'clock the American commenced to swell, and at eleven o'clock information arrived from Rabel's tannery to the effect that it had risen seven feet in three hours. Simultaneously with this report, telegraphic information was received from Folsom that the river at that point was as high as on the occasion of the late flood. Soon afterward it was rumored that the levee at the tannery had given way, and subsequently at Smith's Garden, then at Burns' slough, and that the water at these points respectively was coming rapidly into the city. The truth of the matter was, that the American was not, at any time, at Folsom, at Barns' slough or at Rabel's tannery, so high by several feet as it was on the 9th of December; neither was there any break in the levee at any point during the day. At the tannery the rise was sudden and rapid in the forenoon. In the afternoon the water rose at the rate of about six inches to the hour. At three o'clock in the afternoon it was not so high by four feet as during the former flood. Some twenty-five men, under the control of W. Turton, were kept at work at this point during the day. They were engaged chiefly in completing the new embankment, though some attention was given to strengthening the old levee. At Burns' slough, about one hundred and fifty men and twenty five teams with wagons were kept at work throughout the day. The members of the Committee of Safety were there the most of the time. All efforts of men and teams were directed to the construction of a permanent embankment across the slough the entire length being about 150 feet. The constant rain impeded greatly the progress of the work. The earth was difficult to handle. The men became wet and chilled by the rain, and early in the day a portion of them abandoned their work, and the remainder were induced to continue only by being offered double pay. During the day an embankment some eight feet high was built, but the water rose so rapidly as to keep within from six to twelve inches of the top. Gunny sacks were used wherever they could be to advantage. At dark a large number of lanterns were procured and preparations were made to work all night. All efforts, however, were unavailing, and at about six o'clock the new embankment broke, and in a few minutes was swept away. The labor of the last two days was destroyed in less than an hour.

A SECOND INUNDATION.--At about half past six o'clock last evening the bells of Young America and Protection fire companies were rung, and the fact soon became known that the alarm did not indicate fire, but flood. Soon after six o'clock, while the workmen were still at work, the new embankment at Burns' slough had given way, and several horsemen brought speedy word to the city of the occurrence. At the suggestion of members of the Committee of Safety, Eli Mayo came in with a request to the parties at the above named engine houses to ring their bells. The city was at once alive with excitement. Many rumors were soon in circulation as to the locality, extent and effects of the openings in the levee. Men by hundreds were out with lanterns to determine for themselves the extent and character of the danger. Many of them were unable to find anything unsound, and returned to their homes impressed with the idea that a groundless alarm had been sounded. Some three hundred and fifty persons--men, women and children--repaired to the Pavilion, and were received and taken care of during the sight. It was quite difficult to ascertain through the evening the quantity of water flowing from the American river at the break, the exact course it was likely to take, or the probable effect upon the city. At about nine o'clock the bell of Protection Engine Company and that of St. Rose Church were both rung. At that hour the water was coming in from the east, both north and south of I street, and had reached Twentieth street. Its effect had not baen felt at the southern portion of the city, at Fifth and Sixth streets. ;As our report closes, at half-past ten o'clock, it is difficult to say how far the water will extend. It is generally believed that the eastern and southern portion of the city will be flooded, but that the central and business portion will escape. Up to our latest advices the levees at the tannery were still standing, and it was thought they would maintain their position unless the river should rise considerably through the eight. According to telegraphic information received last evening from Folsom, the American river was not so high as two weeks ago by seven feet. It was still raining at that place, and also at Placerviile, Strawberry and Coloma at nine o'clock in the evening. The rain continued in this city at intervals throughout the evening. On one occasion the stars made their appearance through openings in the clouds, but they soon disappeared. At eleven o'clock last night the water had reached Tenth and L streets, and stood at that point about a foot deep. . . .

THE RAIN.--At nine o'clock last evening the quantity of rain which had fallen during the past twenty four hours, as reported by Dr. Logan, was 1.200 inches. The wind was still in the southwest.

THE SACRAMENTO.--The Sacramento rose during yesterday about ten inches--standing at sundown at 19 feet 8 inches above low water mark. . . .

THE SLOUGH.--The rise of the water in Sutter slough, yesterday, was about eighteen inches. . . .


MONDAY. Dec. 23 1861.

The Board met at one o'clock P. M.--two hours later than the time fixed at the last adjournment. President Shattuck, and Supervisors Granger, Hite, Russell and Dickerson, were present. . . .

A communiction was received from G. W. Colby proposing to oblige himself to build a bridge across Burns' slough, on J street, ninety-six feet long and twelve feet in width, in accordance with an accompanying plan, for $10 per lineal foot, payable in tolls to be collected at rates not more than fifty per cert less than the present charges on the ferry running at that point. If at any time the Board thought proper to dispense with tolls, he would accept payment for the balance in city indebtedness at $40 per foot. The dimensions of timbers, planks, etc., are minutely specified. The floor of the bridge is to be ten feet above the present hight of water in the slough. For a double track bridge, eighteen feet wide in the clear, he would add fifty per cent. to the above prices. On K street he would build a bridge one hundred and twelve feet long at the same rates.

Supervisor Hite said the Committee had visited the place this morning, and examined the structure propceed [sic] to be sold to the city by Benjamin and McWilliams, and the Committee had decided to let the ferries remain, and build no bridges at present, but require the parties running ferries there to procure licenses. There were three ferries, two of which had no license

Supervisor GRANGER said he understood the Committee to be in favor of allowing Benjamin & McWilliams to continue their ferry, at the rates fixed for the ferry on K street, on their paying thirty dollars for the license, and with Supervisor Hite's consent he would make that a part of the report. It would be difficult to build a bridge there now, but easy enough at a proper season, and whenever a bridge should be built there it ought to be much larger than the one proposed. Experience showed that if the slough was not stopped up the water would require a passage way of at least one hundred feet.

Supervisor RUSSELL said there was a proposition on the part of McWilliams & Benjamin to give up their structure at the end of thirty days, and he would move the acceptance of that proposition.

Mr. McWILLIAMS, by leave of the Board, said their proposition was to keep J street in as good repair as at present for thirty days from date, and at the end of that period, Jan. 23, 1862--to turn their boat over to the city in as good condition as at present.

The report of the Committee granting a ferry license to McWilliams & Benjamin for thirty days, on payment of $30, was adopted, and the proposition to turn the property over to the city at the end of that time was accepted.

The PRESIDENT called attention to the claim of A. D. Rightmire, for expenses incurred on his contract to build a bulkhead at Rebel's tannery, and said Rightmire had been compelled to hire money with which to do the work, at two per cent, per month. He was now paying that rate of interest on $3,500, and could not return a part of it until he paid the whole, and the Board ought to take action immediately.

Supervisor HITE said he had a resolution to offer on that subject, and submitted a resolution that the sum of $4,009 be appropriated to A. D. Rightmire, payable out of the City Contingent Fund, for cash paid cut for lumber, etc., provided that if within twenty-four hours the Citizens' Committee shall pay him the sum of $1,002.25 in cash, he shall fully release the city from the claim.

The resolution was adopted.

Supervisor RUSSELL said the Committee appointed to confer with the Citizens' Committee on this subject had not yet been able to meet with a quorum of that Committee, but they hoped to give them a chance to redeem the city's credit, by paing [?] this $1,000 in order to save $4,000. He had no doubt that this was a legitimate subject for the Committee's expenditure, yet they might construe their authority differently. If there were time, he would like to get an expression of the citizens on this subject, as the Citizens' Committee seemed to regard such an expression necessary.

Supervisor HITE said be would like to have Mr. Rightmire make a statement to the Board, under oath, to show the necessity for this action.

The PRESIDENT objected that that would look like child's play, as Mr. Rightmire had previously made his statement to the Board, and the matter was now disposed of.

Supervisor HITE said he wanted the public to understand why they were compelled to vote so large a sum. The public might think the city paper worth more in the market.

Supervisor RUSSELL said he thought it would be well to call on Mr. Rightmire to make a statement; it was only to show that twenty-five per cent, was all that the scrip could be sold for.

Mr. RIGHTMIRE said he had not the slightest objection, and was sworn by the President.

Supervisor HITE asked if he had canvassed the market to ascertain the value of city indebtedness.

Mr. RIGHTMIRE replied that he had seen all the men that he knew of who dealt in scrip, and could find but one man who would take it at any price, and he said he would take it at twenty-five per cent.

The PRESIDENT expressed an earnest hope that the Finance Committee would use their best efforts to induce the citizens to pay this money. He thought it was clearly their business to pay it, as they had taken the contract out of the hands of the Board.

Supervisor RUSSELL reported from the Finance Committee in favor of paying the bill of A. D. Rightmire for $4,009, according to the resolution. The report was approved.

The monthly report of the Finance Committee was read and approved, including the Rightmire claim of $4,009. . . .

Supervisor RUSSELL moved that the parties asking aid for the Howard Benevolent Society be allowed to withdraw their application. Carried.

Patrick Bannon appeared before the Board, asking for a change and slight increase in the rates of toll established at his ferry across the slough, at the present rates were very inconvenient and troublesome in making change.

On motion of Supevisor RUSSELL,.the rates were fixed, tor [sic] one or two horse wagons twenty five cents, and twenty-flve cents additional for each additional span--footmen free.

The bond of Mr. Bannon, $1,000, was approved.

Supervisor HITE said he was just now informed that the water was coming into the city rapidly from the American river, and he would like to have an alarm given.

Mr. Bannon said that must be an error. He had seen one of the Committee, who had just returned from the slough, and he was informed that there was no break.

Supervisor DICKERSON called attention to the condition of the levee below the city, and said there never could be a better time for repairing it than now.

The PRESIDENT said that whole matter was now in the hands of the so called Vigilance Committee.

Supervisor GRANGER said he was ready to act if any one could tell what could be done.

Supervisor DICKERSON said the only thing to do was to go to work and repair it.

Supervisor GRANGER submitted the following ordinance, which was read a first and second time:

An Ordinance concerning the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company.

The Board of Supervisors of the city and county of Sacramento, do hereby order and ordain as follows :

Section 1. The Sacramento Valley Railroad Company having violated, and failed, neglected and refused to comply with the terms and conditions upon which it was granted the right of way with and through the city, all ordinances and parts of ordinances passed by the late Mayer and Common Council of the city of Sacramento, or by the Board of Supervisors of the city and county of Sacramento, granting the said Sacramento Valley Railroad Company the right of way into the city, or the privilege to construct and lay down railway tracks within the city, or granting it any rights, franchises, privileges or immunities within the city limits, are hereby repealed.

Sec. 2. The right of way is hereby granted to said Sacramento Valley Railroad Company to make and maintain the necessary embankments, and to construct and lay down railway tracks thereon, on and along the line of R street, from the eastern limits of the city to a point one hundred and fifty feet east of the east bank of Sutter Fort slough; and from thence to construct and maintain said railway tracks upon open and unobstructed trestle work, without any embankment or filling in of any kind or nature whatsoever, to a point one hundred and fifty feet west of the west bank of said slough; and from thence to make and maintain the necessary embankment for such railway track on and along said R street to the east line of Sixth street; and said Company is also hereby authorized to lay down one or more tracks, with all the necessary turnouts, such tracks and switches upon the aforesaid portion of R street, on a road bed constructed in the manner aforesaid, and also upon any street or alley between L and R, and Sixth and Tenth streets, which may be selected by said Company as necessary to obtain sufficient curvature for the purpose of communicating with and running their locomotives and cars to their depot, which said depot may be erected at any point within said limits; and said Company may at its option use either horse or steam power on said road; and said Company is also authorized to use so much of the R street levee as lies east of Sixth street; provided, however, that nothing herein shall authorize said Company to cut away any portion of said R street levee, or in any manner to reduce its hight or width from the hight and width set forth for said levee on the plans and specifications thereof on file in the City and County Surveyor's office; and provided, further, that said Company shall not acquire any rights under this ordinance untll it shall have graded Sixth street and each of the streets crossing the R street levee east of Sixth street, in the manner prescribed in "Ordinance No. 62--an ordinance relating to the grade of streets crossing the R street levee," approved November 12, 1859, and shall also have constructed on the north side of said levee, at the bottom of the ditch, and under and through each of said street crossings, a stone culvert, or wooden sewer made of three inch redwood plank, with a clear opening of at least twelve square feet of drainage; and provided further, That nothing in this ordinance contained shall be taken or construed to authorize the erection of any cistern, water tank, or building, or the placing or maintaining of any obstruction whatever, excepting only the necessary rails on either of the streets or alleys of the city, and excepting only that said company may erect the necessary water tanks and cisterns on the R street levee, provided the same are at least fifty feet from the nearest line of any cross street; and provided further, That the tracks, turnouts, side tracks, turn tables and switches shall be so constructed as to leave free from obstruction, and so that they may be conveniently used for the passage of vehicles, animals and pedestrians, the streets and alleys used by said company; and provided further, That if said company shall at any time remove its principal office from this city, or if it shall construct or connect with any railway track terminating outside of the city, but in Sacramento county, within one mile of the Sacramento river, and if said company shall fail, neglect or refuse to comply with each and every of the terms of [sic] conditions of the ordinance, then every right, privilege, immunity and franchise granted by this ordinance shall cease and determine, and said company, its successors and assigns, shall remove their track or tracks, together with the appurtenances, from the city limits.

Supervisor RUSSELL offered an amendment inserting a provision that the ordinance shall be void, etc, if the Rallroad Company shall at any time make a distinction in the price of freight or passage between citizens of Sacramento and other persons by any regulation in regard to transhipment, through tickets or otherwise.

The PRESIDENT said that suited his views exactly, but it struck him that the Board of Supervisors had no right to regulate the price of freight or passage on the railroad.

Supervisor GRANGER was also of opinion that it would be a dead letter. If they could insert it in a contract with the Company they might hold them to it, but he questioned very much whether they could fix the prices by ordinance.

The PRESIDENT said he had been very credibly informed that the Railroad Company had been in the habit of charging about double the rates of freight to Scramento that they charged to other places.

Supervisor RUSSELL said he only offered the amendment to have it discussed, and with no view of passing it as a part of the ordinance

The amendment having been discussed was withdrawn.

Supervisor GRANGER moved to suspend the rules in order to put the ordinance on its final passage.

Supervisor RUSSELL said they had not yet had time to consider it fully, and he thought they had better lay it over.

The PRESIDENT said he would have no objection to passing it now if there were any necessity for immediate action, but there were only four members of the Board present, and hs thought it had better be postponed.

Supervisor GRANGER said his objection to postponement was that the introduction of the ordinance would afford an excuse to the company in the interim to proceed and fill up a portion of the space proposed by the ordinance to be kept open. Unless they could have another meeting within two or three days, with a chance of getting a fuller attendance of members, he should press the motion to suspend the rules now. His object was to inform the company upon what terms they could be permitted to come into the city. They had violated every ordinance, and he now proposed to begin anew with them.

The PRESIDENT said he was sorry to see half a dozen ordinances on this same subject, when the whole matter might have been disposed of in one. .

On motion of Supervisor RUSSELL, the Board adjourned until to-morrow (Tuesday) at twelve o'clock M.

PERILS ON THE MOUNTAINS.--A correspondent of the Tuolumne Courier, writing from Aurora under date of Nov. 25th, relates the following hard experience:

I left Mono on the 20th, and was overtaken by a violent snow storm, which continued for twenty-four hours; thank God I succeeded in getting through alive, and am around as usual. But first of Mono: The annual snow storm of Mono commenced on the night of the 10th, and with but slight intermission continued up to the 13th. The snow fell to the depth of from two to three feet. On the night of the 13th, the large building known as Hate & Hughes' saloon, from the pressure of snow upon the roof, gave way and came down with a terrible crash, burying in the ruins Bob Lowdon and Isaac Sherman, who were sleeping upon the tables near the room. Sherman was not very seriously hurt, but Lowdon was much bruised, and perhaps inwardly injured. It is a most remarkable circumstance that they escaped with their lives. The billiard table was forced through the floor, and in fact every part of the furniture and contents demolished. Lowdon is cared for by Downey and wife, and his friends may rest assured that nothing will be left undone which will tend to ameliorate his unfortunate condition, and as soon as the weather will permit an effort will be made to bring him to this place. On the 19th the weather was beautiful, and not the slightest appearance of a storm; in company with Joseph Pettigrew (formerly of Sonora), I left Mono for Aurora. After reaching the Half Way House (fifteen miles) we felt able to go on, and thinking we would have moonlight we might get through in the night. We had an animal packed, and got along very well for a few miles, but in less than an hour we were overtaken by a snow storm, which gradually increasad in violence until it blew a perfect hurricane. How long we struggled through the snow drifts I cannot say, but we since know that we reached a point within seven or eight miles of Aurora, when the wind suddenly changed and blew directly in our faces. It now became a matter of life or death with us, and we struggled on manfully for a short distance, but becoming perfectly exhausted, no longer could we push our way through. Here we lost the road, and fearing that any further effort would subject us to being frozen to death--sick at heartand perfectly exhausted, feeling we were lost forever--we turned in all directions , and looked shelter, but there was none--not a tree, not a shrub, no, not even the oft-cursed sage bush appeared, to cheer us in this terrible hour.

Oar last hope was in our blankets, and finding a sage bush, we tied our animal, threw them down and covered up as best we could. By this means we managed to keep from freezing until day dawned upon us, Notwithstanding the storm still raged with increasing violence, daylight was a truly welcome visitor. Benumbed and almost helpless, we crawled out from under the snow, and leaving six pair of blankets, saddle-bags with clothing, carpet sack, boots, etc., managed to untie our poor animal, which stood before us almost literally covered with ice and snow. We knew we were off the road, and for tvo hours we labored incessantly to find some trace of it, and after wandering for that length of time through snow from four to five feet deep, we reached a point overlooking the valley below, where we discovered the road, and in another hour we knew where we were--some six miles from Aurora. Here we found some willows, and vainly endeavored to kindle a fire. Again we took the road, which was up the mountain for over two mile, I in front leading the animal and breaking the road, while my companion was fast freezing and suffering the most excruciating pains. Occasionally I would assist him upon the animal, but the frequent snow drifts we would encounter would compel him to alight. Thus, foot by foot, we slowly worked our way up the long hill.

Upon reaching the summit we were within a mile of Esmeralda, but had a terrible task before us. I felt exhausted, and insisted upon being allowed to lay down for half an hour, but fortunately Pettigrew felt better and I suddenly appeared to gain strength. His hands having been badly frozen now felt more comfortable, and it became him in turn to place me upon the animal. I could only keep the saddle, however, for but one or two minutes at a time, it being impossible to ride through the snowdrifts, in this way we rode, walked and crawled until we reached the first occupied cabin in Esmeralda (one mile and a half from Aurora), which proved to be that of Kile, who, assisted by his kind hearted lady, God bless her, procured us a cup of tea and furnished us with snow and snow water, in which we continued to bathe our frozen hands and feet for over three hours. Pettigrew was unable to proceed any further last night, but I, after enjoying a good supper with onr generous host and hostess, wended my way down to Aurora. I have been fortunate enough to escape with comparatively little injury, but poor Pettigrew's hands are dreadfully frozen, notwithstanding the remedies employed to save them.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3352, 25 December 1861, p. 1

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[For the Union]

Supervisor DICKERSON called attention to the condition of the levee below the city, and said there never could be a better time for repairing it than now.
The PRESIDENT said that whole matter was now in the hands of the so-called Vigilance Committee.
Supervisor GRANGER said he was ready to act if any one could tell what could be done.
Supervisor DICKERSON said the only thing to do was to go to work and repair it.--Union, Dec. 24th.

MESSRS. EDITORS: If the so-called Vigilance Committee" alluded to by the distinguished President was organized for the ends that Vigilance Committees sometimes are, the honorable gentleman might find it inconvenient to make satisfactory answers to such questions as they would without doubt propose. When their authorized officer would demand from Mr. Shattuck why he suffered the Summer months to be spent in frivolous or worse debate which should have been devoted to that species of legislation that would have averted the terrible calamity just befallen us, which has changed hundreds of happy homes into loathsome wildernesses and has driven thousands to seek protection from the combined charity of the people of this city and San Francisco, we apprehend that Shattuck's sneer at the "so called Vigilance Committee" would give place to a very different expression. The Board of Supervisors, with Shattuck as Captain General, are responsible for the misfortunes we are now suffering from. They were warned and cautioned a thousand times of the danger the city was in from the imperfect condition of the levees, but disregarding every admonition and every solicitation, they obstinately refused to do the only thing they seemed capable of--vote the people's own money for their protection. Summer passes away, Autumn follows in its train, and when Winter comes and the front of Heaven is pregnant with fearful threatenings, the sapient Board conclude a contract for our protection, the performance of which is to commence on the 12th of December--mid winter--the people know the rest. The 9th of December came with all its horrors. It can now be traced in the faces of many stout men and fair women. The toils of years were in one hour destroyed--the hopes of years in one moment blasted; and now when the generous and charitable come forward to seek to secure to their unfortunate fellow citizens the little that is left, the author of all our troubles alludes to them with a sneer, for which and for his ignorance alone he is celebrated, as the "so called Vigilance Committee." There is no Vigilance Committee in Sacramento. None to punish malfeasance in office, or mete out prompt and immediate justice to those who wilfully trample on the rights of others, but there is a Committee here who have sworn in the bitterest tears of agony and distress that they will henceforward protect themselves against ignorance and cupidity, and that they will call to a severe account those who are more immediately responsible for their present grievances. How they shall do so or when, the President of the Board of Supervisors will hereafter learn.

THE STORM AT MARYSVILLE.--The Marysvilla Appeal of December 24th, gives some particulars of the effects of the second great storm at that place. It says :

So much rain here and above Marysville, caused the Yuba to rise slowly all day Sunday, and at a late hour last night the stream was thought to have raised about twelve feet since Saturday night, and was still rising. The Feather, usually several hours behind the Yuba in rising, had not commenced rising any, at last accounts; consequently the Yuba was running with a swift current, not being set back by the Feather, but the slough has been set back from the Yuba, and was running over its banks at its lowest points, just above the Third street bridge, flooding all that thoroughfare below E street, and making an island of Williams' flouring mill. As long as the Feather does not rise, there is not the least danger to be apprehended from the Yuba at this point, although the telegraphic items elsewhere indicate a rising on the upper branches. But the stream has to rise a long way to be near the high water mark of the last flood. Preparations were made last night to repel the advances of any freshet by embankments made along Commercial alley, in the rear of Van Muller & Co.'s store, and many families from the country come into town for safety last night, and several families on the west side of the slough, drowned out by the last flood, left their habitations again for fear they might be obliged to leave in the night. Across the Yuba, opposite town, the water is making a clean sweep across the spit of land between the Yuba and Feather. . . .

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. . .

We are advised that the principal streams north and northeast of Sacramento rose considerable yesterday from the heavy rains, but the effect was not marked on the waters of the Sacramento and American. The former rose only about ten inches for the last twenty-four hours, and the latter fell about one foot. In that portion of the city which was submerged yesterday morning by the crevasse at Burns' slough on the night previous, the water gradually subsided during the day. Last night it was generally believed that all danger had passed, though some were fearful that a further rise of the Sacramento might back the waters of the American over the levee at Rabel's tannery. This could hardly be the case, as we were informed last night at the Telegraph office that the American river at Folsom had fallen six feet from the mark of the previous night.

A man whose name is supposed to be William H. Tymanor, or Tyman, was drowned yesterday while attempting to go on board the Nevada.

THE RIGHTMIRE CONTRACT.--A few days since, the Supervisors entered into a contract with A. D. Rightmire to build a breakwater at Rabel's tannery. The season was so far advanced that we doubted the policy of entering into a contract to do the work. The better plan, we conceived, would be for the Levee Committee to have it done by the piece and by the day. But that Committee thought proper to let the work on contract to Rightmire for $17,000 in scrip, or $7,500 in cash, he giving bond and security to complete it in a given number of days. The river rose in about a week after the contract was signed, the floods came and rendered it impossible for Rightmire to do the work as required by the terms of his contract. The rise of water also showed a change in the current of the river, which rendered the piling and planking at the tannery unnecessary. Rightmire would be liable on his bond if the work was not completed as per contract, and the common sense course for the Board would have been to say to him, we will release you from your contract and bond if you desire it. But the Board did not want the contract complied with, and the parties proposed a compromise. One was finally agreed upon, under which the Board agree to pay Rightmire his expenses, and the loss he estimates will be experienced in disposing of the lumber bought. Rightmire's bill was $1,002.25--cash, to pay which, the Board audit a claim in his favor for $4,009 as a debt against the city. This was a nice transaction.

The Board first agree to pay $17,000 in city indebtedness for a job for which the contractor was willing to take $7,500, and then, to get relieved from this contract, the members agree that the city, at some future day, shall pay $4,009 for that which could now be satisfied for $1,002.25. This $4,009 the city is to pay for the blunders of her authorities--or to be released from a contract of their making, which the contractor could not perform, and which he would have been compelled to ask to be rescinded in order to save his bondsmen. Supervisor Hansbrow yesterday protested against the action of the Board, and by a kind of common consent the transaction is to rest on the table, upon a motion to reconsider, until the next regular meeting. So outrageous did the transaction look yesterday, that Supervisor Russell proposed to pay one hundred dollars of the claim out of his private funds. If paid at all it should be by subscription, as the action proposed by the Board is unquestionably contrary to the provisions of the law, and would be held null and void by the Courts.

CHRISTMAS.--. . . Although duly mindful of the requirements of the day, the people of Sacramento do not feel like entering upon its observance with their olden spirit, weighed down as they are by the heavy affliction of the flood, but they are ready to extend a kindly greeting to those who are more favorably situated, and heartily wish them, one and all, a "Merry Christmas."

STAGE ACCIDENT.--As the Oroville stage was leaving Marysville, Monday morning, December 23rd, and attempting to cross the slough, the vehicle was capsized and a Chinese passenger drowned. The stage was lost. . . .


Since the occurrence of the flood, over two weeks ago, what have the city authorities done for the protection or relief of the people of the city? They have, we believe, employed the chain gang in doing a few small jobs, but beyond that have the members of the Board of Supervisors taken a single step to defend the city or to put it in a condition to be inhabited with any degree of satisfaction by those accustomed to the ordinary comforts of civilized life? So far as we know, the Supervisors have not so much as furnished plank to build bridges over the ditches through J and K streets, dug by individuals to relieve their houses and lots of water. Not an effort has been made by them to repair the streetaso [sic] as to render them passable east of Tenth street for loaded wagons. Not a sewer has been made or a ditch cut to aid in relieving the city of water, by order of the Board of Supervisors. The levees and their repairs are turned over to the Committee of citizens. Not even a contract for a bridge over the slough, the builder to take his pay in tolls, has been let, though seventeen days have passed since the flood. A ferry or two have been licensed, but ferries are a poor substitute for bridges. One of the parties granted a license agrees to keep J street in as good condition as it now is; it is now nearly impassable for loaded wagons. Both J and K need a good deal of work from Tenth street to the slough, and if tolls are to be paid for crossing it, the toll gatherers should be bound to put both those streets into good order for the season. There has been no work of consequence done on them since 1853, and as the Board of Supervisors act as if they were helpless in the matter, the members ought certainly to see that those who collect the tolls should do the work necessary to place them in a reasonably good condition for traveling. There is hay enough in the city ruined by the flood, if hauled upon those streets, to fill the holes and deep cuts made by loaded wagons. Unless something is done in the way of repairing them, they will soon become impassable.

The Board may plead in excuse for not doing anything for the relief of the city the absence of money in the treasury and the total destruction of the city's credit. True, cash is wanting, but in an exigency like the present our city authorities ought to possess financial ability and personal character sufficient to enable them to raise the money so absolutely needed for self protection.

In 1852 the fire swept out of existence three-fourths of the capital in the city; a few days subsequent the ruins were engulphed in the waters of the American, and for a time it looked as if the fate of Sacramento was sealed. The credit of the city was then about as low as it could sink. On the credit of the corporation the Mayor could not purchase plank to cover a half dozen bridges destroyed by the fire. But the authorities, on their personal credit and the pledge that the money should be returned by a special tax, borrowed $20,000, and commenced work vigorously to place the city again in a living condition. It was a desperate struggle, but the authorities succeeded. The city is now millions richer than she was at that time, but the authorities were unable to get credit or to borrow a few thousands upon a pledge of future reimbursement through the taxing power. They left for private citizens to do what should have been performed by those in authority. It was the conviction in the public mind that the Board of Supervisors was not equal to the occasion, which mainly caused the people at first to turn to the Interest and Sinking Fund for relief. But if the credit of the city is down almost to the freezing point, who, besides the present and past Boards of Supervisors, are responsible for the miserable condition of the city finances? The Board has been year after year auditing claims against the city funds, when the members knew there was not a dollar to pay them. This practice has continued until claims on the Contingent Fund are estimated by the Board itself as only worth twenty-five cents on the dollar. In settling with the Controller for work which was to have been done at Rabel's tannery, but which cannot now be done, and ought not to be if it could, the Board allow him in city indebtedness $4,009, for a claim for which he would accept in cash $1,002.25. Such financial operations would soon beggar the richest city on the globe.

It must, however, be admitted that the Board of Supervisors has been very earnestly engaged for several days during its late regular session--not in adopting measures for the relief of a people prostrated by the flood, but in the passage of ordinances aimed at the Sacramento Valley Railroad, which are certain to involve the city in expensive litigation with the company without gaining a single step towards the end the members had in view. Had the Board proceeded legally it might have initiated proceedings which would have resulted probably in forcing the company to take up its tracks on Front street, and to build its freight and passenger depot on Sixth street. But as every move it made was of questionable legality, the result must be a lawsuit in which the city will prove the sufferer. There is, however, some consolation to be gathered from the reflection that these acts of folly and imbecility on the part of the Board will strengthen the public mind in the conviction of the absolute necessity of repealing so much of the Consolidation bill as unites the city and county. . . .


A few days more of reasonably favorable weather would have enabled the Citizens' Committee to so far complete the work at Burns' slough as to have placed the levee beyond the reach of the water in any ordinary flood. It would in a couple of days have been in a position to defy the water when no higher than it was Monday and the night following. But the Committee only had about five days to work in; they pushed it along energetically, but when the river rose so suddenly they lacked a couple of feet of being high enough to keep the water from flowing over the new portion of the levee, and carrying away in a few minutes the results of the labor of the men employed. The work done at Rabel's tannery is likely to prove equal to any future emergency. The release of so many men at Burns' slough, will enable the Committee to complete the work at the tannery, in a substantial manner. The Committee will be left free to deal with the levee from Thirty-first street to the Sacramento, and down that river to Y street.

There is a point between Sixth and Seventh streets, on the slough, which has been weakened by Chinamen digging places on the inside to set their washing apparatus, and also by the encroachments of others on the outside. This point ought to be strengthened materially and immediately. The levee on the Sacramento below R street ought also to be attended to. It is not safe as it stands. A new levee should be raised back of the old one. Below that to Y street the levee needs raising and its width increased. There has been little work expended on that levee since it was built, in 1850; it has settled and been worn down by travel until it is probably from a foot to eighteen inches lower than it was when built. No further work can be done at Burns' slough until the river falls several feet; but in the meantime work may be performed on the line of levee between that point and Thirty-first street.

After the water broke over on Monday evening it followed the old line of slough down to the Thirty-first street levee, near the eastern termination of F, G and H streets, where the previous flood effected a serious breach in the levee. A road crossed it at this point, and the water crossed first on the road and subsequently cut the levee away on each side, so as make quite a crevasse. It was through this a portion of the water from the slough made its way Monday night north of J street, and as this street is raised to nearly the elevation of the levees, it was forced to extend itself west into the city as far as Eighth street before it could find an opening for crossing J and K streets. The effect was to partially submerge that portion of the city lying immediately north of J street and east of Seventh. There ought to be a large canal dug through J and K, east of Fourteenth street, so as to permit water north of J to pass off south towards the R street levee. As only a small portion of the water flowing through at the head of Burns' slough comes in at the break near F street, if the Committee would put a few men to work there they would soon stop the water and relieve all that portion of the city north of J and east of Seventh. There is another break a little south of M street, which discharges a considerable water into the southern section of the city, which might easily be so far closed as to relieve the city of water from that source. While the slough remains open at the head, the particular breaks in the Thirty-first street levee, which admit water into the city, might advantageously be closed so far as to shut out the water which comes into the city from these openings. . . .


Identified--The Savings and Loan Bank Panic--Rough Weather on the Pacific Coast--Broderick Will Case.

SAN FRANCISCO, Dec 24th. . . .

Frederick Jerome, a boatman, found the body of an infant in the water at North Point, to-day. . . .

Vessels from the Northern coast report rough weather. The bark Nellie Merrill went ashore on Agment reef, but got off and came into port leaking badly. Vessels outward bound had to put back in consequence of the weather. . . .

It is still raining here.

FURTHER FLOOD IN SOUTHERN OREGON.--The Jacksonville Sentinel of Dec. 14th gives some particulars of an additional flood with which the people of Southern Oregon have been visited:

On last Sunday we were visited with a much more destructive flood than that of the previous week. On the night of Friday, Dec. 6th, a heavy rain set in, and continued to pour down heavily almost without intermission until Sunday morning. This body of water pouring into the channels which were yet full from the flood of the preceding week, was too great for the ordinary bounds of the streams, and in consequence it spread over a considerable portion of the valley. The lower portion of our own town was submerged from the waters of Jackson creek, and the valley was converted into a group of numberless small islands and lakes. Jacksonville and the immediate vicinity has sustained no material damage, but from other portions of the county we learn that the losses have been very severe.

It is said that Neal's Canon, beyond Ashland, through which a stream of water was running, on Sunday, became clogged by accumulated drift logs, and backed up an immense body of water. Under the heavy pressure the dam gave way, and the water rushed with irresistible velocity down the valley, carrying everything before it. By this torrent we understand that William Taylor lost his outhouses, grain, etc. We have not particulars as to the full extent of damage, but the loss must be heavy. The farmers along Bear river have suffered. One gentleman who owns a farm on that stream, tells us that on Sunday he stood by for a while and watched his properly, in fences, float off at the rate of about one hundred dollars per hour. He lost a number of horses and several thousand rails, and without doubt, many others have been equally unfortunate.

There have probably been many heavy losses that we are unable to record, owing to the interruption of communication, even from portions of our own county. With the miners, the damages they have suffered will be more than repaired by the supply of water, which is indispensably requisite to their profitable labor. It is to be hoped that the mines may pay well enough to leave a margin of profit to the community over all losses

The Rogue river bridge, which had weathered the first storm, was not able to withstand the latter. Its loss, up to the present time has effectually blocked communication north of us. We think it safe to say that there is scarcely a bridge left in its position over a single stream in the county. . . .

THE FLOOD NORTH AND NORTHEAST.--Dispatches to the Marysville Appeal give the folloving [sic] intelligence under date of December 23d:

At Downieville the river has not raised much since noon, and it is not so high as was the last flood.

At Foster's Bar, on the North Yuba, and at Freeman's, on the Middle Yuba, the water is np to the highest mark, and still rising. The South Yuba, at four o'clock, was np to the highest point, and rising fast.

Deer creek, which runs through Nevada City, is full as high as it was at the late storm, and rising rapidly.

It continues to rain hard in Downieville, Forest City, Camptonville, San Juan and Nevada.

CHICO, Dec. 23--9 P. M.
Chico creek is not quite so high as it was at the last flood, but other creeks in the vicinity are higher. At five o'clock the Sacramento river was rising a foot an hour.

RED BLUFFS, Dec. 23--9 P. M.
The Sacramento river is as high as it was last year, and still rising. . . .

NORTHERN SIERRA.--The La Porte Messenger of December 2lst has the following:

We stated last week that $2,000 would not cover the loss sustained by the owners of the Rabbit creek flume by the freshet, but we are informed by Underhill that, upon prospecting the gravel in the bed of the flume, it has given evidence of richness sufficient to guarantee the belief that it will clean up enough richer in the Spring to compensate for all damage done the works. The vast amount of gravel which washed through the channel during the rise moved a great deal of gold, preparing a rich deposit for future harvest.

At Howland Flat, the Union Company, after working about fifty hands ten or twelve days, cleaned up over $25,000! with the prospect of finishing up the washing with about $6,000 more. The Down East Company, working ten men, clean up weekly, and average about $600 a week through the season. All the claims are said to be doing well at Howland. . . .

p. 3


CHRISTMAS.--In consequence of the late flood and continued rains, our citizens have made but little preparation for the celebration of Christmas compared with that of former years. Nevertheless, and although clouds may overhang us physically, and perhaps throw a shadow over our spirits, we shall generally, it is to be hoped, spend the day in a becoming manner, making it to ourselves and to each other a day of joy and gladness. . . .

THE INUNDATION.--Although considerable anxiety and alarm was felt by our citizens on account of the breaking of the levee at Burns' slough on Monday night, it proved to be not much of a night for floods after all. The current swept down the slough past the Fort and Poverty Ridge with great velocity, and as the slough filled up, made an advance to the west upon the city. The American was not so high by three or four feet as it was on the memorable morning of the 9tth of December, and consequently the progress of the water was much less rapid and less destructive than on that day. On account of the dilapidated condition of the Thirty-first street levee, the water seemed to progress along the whole eastern line with about equal rapidity, coming in north as well as south of J street simultaneously. By morning, the most of the city east of Twelfth and south of L streets was inundated. I, J and K streets, west of 11th and 12th, and L west of 17th, together with the cross streets, were not reached by the water. Business, therefore, was but little disturbed, and there was no damage of consequence done to goods and merchandise. The openings through the R street levee rendered the fall of the water easy, and throughout the day a lively current poured through to the south. The water commenced to recede from the city before noon, and continued to lower slowly until night. The level of the water at its highest point was about four and a half feet below that of December 9th.

DROWNED.--At a quarter before two o'clock yesterday afternoon, an unknown man, while going aboard the steamer Nevada, fell into the river and was drowned. As he stepped upon the plank, one end of it slipped from the boat, which was rocking considerably at the time, and both man and plank fell. He came to the surface, and struggled against the current, but was carried several rods down stream. Three boats started to his relief, but failed to reach him. The body sunk, and has not been recovered. A carpet sack which he held in his hand was picked up, and was sent to the office of Coroner Reeves. It contained a black cloth dress coat, a white shirt, two pairs socks, a Testament, neckerchief, razor, etc., etc. On the edge of the leaves of the Testament were the letters W. H. T. On a fly leaf was the name "William Hughes Tyman," or something near it. On the collar of the shirt the name "Noble--75" was stamped in ink with type. The socks were apparently knit by hand, were of wool, and were marked with the letters W. H., and numbers 1, 2. etc., marked with a needle. The articles above referred to will remain at the rooms of the Coroner for identification.

THE RIVERS AND LEVEES.--The Sacramento river had risen at sunset last evening ten inches within the preceding twenty-four hours, and stood twenty-one feet six inches above low water mark, the entire rise of the past three days being thirty inches. The rise continued until afternoon, when the river seemed to come to a stand. The American river commenced to fall earlv in the morning, and lowered some twelve or fifteen inches. In the afternoon it appeared to be kept at the same point by back water from the Sacramento. The levees, except those points at Burns' slough, and westward to the Tivoli, which gave way the night before stood firm through the day. After dark last evening, however, J. O'Brien came in from the tannery and stated that should the American raise six inches higher the levee at that point, old and new, would surely give way, and the stream would come directly into the city. A few men were sent out by the Committee of Safety. In a late dispatch from Folsom, last evening, it is stated that the American river had fallen six feet since morning. . . .

THE WEATHER.--There were some indications yesterday morning of the breaking up of the cloudy canopy above us, but the southeasterly wind worked hard for more rain, and more rain came. It continued through the greater portion of the day. At about dusk the wind shifted to the west, the clouds disappeared, the stars presented a beautiful appearance, the atmosphere became quite cool, and at eleven o'clock everything looked and felt like clear weather. . . .

CARRIED AWAY.--The flood of water which swept through Burns' slough on Monday night, when the embankment gave way, carried off both the ferry boat and the temporary bridge at the Fort. On this account, and from the fact that J and K streets were badly washed, there was little or no travel in that direction yesterday. . . .

THE PAVILION.--Some four hundred persons lodged at the Pavilion on Monday night. Five or six hundred persons were fed there yesterday and about two hundred were accommodated there last night. . . .


TUESDAY, Dec. 24, 1861.

The Board met at fifteen minutes before one o'clock, the Presldent and Supervisors Granger, Hite, Hansbrow and Dlckerson in attendance . . .

The ordinance concerning the Sacramento Valley Railroad, introduced yesterday by Supervisor Granger, was taken up.

Supervisor HANSBROW offered an amendment in section two--striking out "L" and interesting [sic] "O"--so as to authorize the company to lay down tracks, etc , "upon any street or alley between O and R and Sixth and Tenth streets which may be selected by said company, etc. This, he said, would give them the range of twelve blocks, which he thought was quite sufficient.

The amendment was adopted.

Supervisor GRANGER moved that the ordinance be placed on its final passage.

Supervisor HITE said he was rather inclined to oppose this ordinance. He could not see the necessity of giving the company a right of way at the present time, and the Board had already passed two ordinances in regard to the railroad, which ought to be enough for the present. He thought it was the prevailing wish of the people to change the location of the railroad so as to come in on the north side of the city, and perhaps if they waited, propositions on that subject, would come from the Railroad Company. The Board had already forbidden their going west of fifth street, and he was not in favor of their coming in on the R street levee at all. The people in his section of the city would prefer to have no levee there at all.

Supervisor GRANGER said he wanted the ordinance passed to-day, because if it were delayed, the Railroad Company would have a good excuse in the future to fill in the Sutter Slough, not having been notified of any adverse expression of the Board. If eventually the railroad came in on the north side, it would only be brought about by negotiation and contract with the city, and that could not be matured and the work done in less than twelve months. In the meantime where was the railroad to come? There would be no ordinance to prevent the filling in of the slough, and once it was filled up, even if the company went on the north side, either the city would be compelled to remove the filling, or sue the Railroad Company to compel than to do it. He had no doubt that the company would fill it up, at least so as to leave only the sixty feet opening required by the old ordinance, which experience had shown was not a sufficient passage-way for the water. It was in consequence of the pressure at that narrow place that the late flood broke through on J street. Now was the time for the Board to say on what terms it would allow the railroad to run into the city to Sixth street, and he was surprised that Supervisor Hite should oppose it, as he had been particularly anxious to have something done to prevent future disasters. It was true that they had passed an ordinance to compel the company to take up their track west of Sixth street, but this had no relation to that subject, and he was not aware that they had passed more than one ordinance in relation to the Railroad Company. If this proposed ordinance required litigation, and the city could not sustain herself, then let them know it, for the city would be required to build much higher levees.

Supervisor HITE repeated that his objection was that he did not want the railroad to come in on R street at all. The road was gone now, and the Board could restrain them from rebuilding it until they made arrangements to come in on the north side. He did not see any advantage in requiring that one hundred and fifty feet of trestle work, for there were at least two other places in the slough that would need to be enlarged by the city. He believed the company had forfeited all their rights, and he was for holding them back until proper arrangements were made.

Supervisor HANSBROW said this ordinance was drawn in accordance with the old one, and he thought with Supervisor Granger, that whatever was done should be done now. The Board could go no farther after the passage of this ordinance, and if then the railroad could, in defiance of their wishes, run where the company thought proper, at least thielr duty would be done. If the UNION of this morning was good authority, as it generally was, although it missed the mark sometimes, when they had a right to repeal the ordinance allowing the road to be constructed from Sixth street out, or, in other words, to deter it from entering the city. Therefore if the judgment of the UNION was correct, the passage of an ordinance of this kind was requisite and necessary.

Supervisor HITE said the old ordinance provided for removing the track by giving notice and paying the expense of taking it up, and also in case of violation of contract on the part of the railroad. In the latter case, the Board could at any time declare the ordinance granting the right of way rescinded up to Twelfth street, he believed; and did not know but it extended to the city limits. That could be done without notice, and that was the right which he desired to exercise at this time.

Supervisor DICKERSON said this was a matter which the city delegation ought to decide for themselves, and therefore he did not wish to interfere, although it was aa important subject.

The PRESIDENT suggested that the matter lie over till a fuller meeting could be had.

Supervisor GRANGER said he was satisfied, and so was the President that nine-tenths of the people demanded just such an ordinance, but he did not think the people desired to require the railroad to terminate outside of the city, for that would be no advantage either to the city or the traveling public. [Here Supervisor Russell came in and took his seat] He (Granger) thought Supervisor Hite was yesterday in favor of this ordinance, but to-day having read a piece of criticism which appeared in the UNION the gentleman seemed to have become frightened.

Supervisor HITE said he had not read the UNION of that day yet

Supervisor GRANGER said he knew what the citizens wanted as well as the editors of the UNION did, and mingled with them quite as much, and he knew there was one united expression in favor of this measure. If the Railroad Company were permitted to rebuild this embankment now, and afterwards required to remove it, they would say it was a hardship and the Board ought to have apprised them of its intentions so as to save the expense, To shut the railroad out to Thirty-first street would increase the cost of transportation; if it cost six bits to cart to Sixth street it would probably cost twice as much to Thirty-first street, and that would be a disadvantage to the city. The damage to the city by the Railroad filling up the slough was not less than a million and a half of dollars, and now it was only proposed to specify the length of the trestle work to replace that filling. It was charged that this Board of Supervisors should have prevented that filling, but he was happy to say that it all occurred under the old city organization, which also passed every ordinance giving rights and privileges to the railroad, and upon them rested the responsibility. But now, when by a visitation of the elements they had discovered the evil, they proposed to do all they could to remedy it. Still he was deposed to deal liberally, aad not exclude the railroad to Thirty-first street, and they would be the better disposed to negotiate to come in on the north side. If the depot were located on Thirty-first street it would require half an hour more time for citizens to catch the train, so that it would be a loss of time and increased expense to them as well as to the traveling public generally.

Supervisor HITE said he would vote for the ordinance although he still thought it would be better to exclude the railroad entirely in that direction. If there had been no railroad the late flood would have been no more disastrous than the one to-day, for all that saved the city to-day was the water flowing off as fast as it came in through the various breaks in the levee. But Supervisor Granger's argument about the additional cost of transportation to Thirty-first street was the worst one that he could use. If it was an advantage to remove the railroad terminus to Sixth street, it would be a still greater advantage to move it to Twelfth street, or even further. He believed the road ought to come still nearer to the river, if it could come in a proper place, but he would never consent to allow the railroad to turn a wheel on Front street

Supervisor GRANGER said there was another argument in favor of having the terminus on Sixth street. The Sacramento merchants now had to pay cartage, while those in the interior having their goods transhipped by railroad paid none, thus placing the Sacramentans at a disadvantage. Besides, the railroad on Front street was a great inconvenience. He thought it was only a reasonable protection of our own cltizens to place the terminus at Sixth street. They owed no sympathy to the railroad, which, instead of showing gratitude for past favors, had charged Sacramento twice as much for freight as San Francisco. It was no advantage to a city to have a railroad pass through it, and Folsom had grown up at the expense of Sacramento by being the terminus of the railroad.

The ordinance was passed--yes Supervisors Granger, Russell, Hassbrow, Hite, Dickerson--5; noes, 0.

On motion of Sapervisor Dickerson, the Clerk was directed to deliver a copy of the ordinance to the agent of the railroad. . . .

Supervisor HANSBROW asked leave to express his opinion in regard to the legislation of the Board yesterday concerning A. D. Rightmire's claim. He did not impugn the motives of any member, yet he looked upon that act as one of the worst pieces of legislation ever enacted by the Board. He would have been present yesterday, but after waiting an hour and five minutes past the time fixed for the meeting, he was obliged to leave to meet an engagement, and consequently did not attend. But in the meantime he conversed with Rightmire, and assured him that he never could consent to such an enormous reduction as 75 per cent, on the city scrip. He admitted the justice of Rightmire's claim, but he really thought the Board had not considered the consequences of its action. He was particularly surprised that the proposition should have come from a member who had preached nothing but economy; yet it was upon that gentleman's proposition that the Board voted to pay $4,009 of money to be paid by the taxpayers, in order to pay a bill of $1,002. The idea was absurd and preposterous, and had already created great commotion. People had asked him what in the name of heaven they were doing. Were they going to compel the city to repudiate? Such a thing was never before done as the city fixing the value of its own scrip at 25 cents on the dollar. He did not wish to injnre Mr. Rightmire, but he protected [sic] against the action, especially at this crisis, when the taxpayers were almost on the verge of destruction. It was enough to drive the city to repudiation, and he did not see how they could avoid it. He was sorry Supervisor Hite had shown himself so inconsistent in this matter, and for his part, he would hereafter refuse to expend a dollar of the City Contingent Fund unless in a case of absolute necessity. He believed if the Board would reconslder its action, they could negotiate in some way to obtain the money for Mr. Rightmire. He would be willing to pay the interest on his whole loan for a month if necessary, rather than take such a step.

Supervisor RUSSELL moved to reconsider the action of the Board on Mr. Rightmire's bill, and said he would be one of ten citizens to advance the money on the claim.

Supervisor HITE said be believed Supervisor Hansbrow had withheld his name from original contract with Mr. Rightmire. This People's Committee had taken that whole matter out of the hands of the Board, and informed them officially that the work was not needed, and they could save great expense to the city by rescinding the contract. The Board agreed with Mr. Righmire to do so, paying him in cash for his expenditures on the contract. The whole Board, Supervisor Hansbrow included, pledged their word to that agreement. But they had no money, and it appeared that the city indebtedness was worth only two bits on the dollar. Whose fault was that--the fault of the Board or of the tax payers? They had presumed that the Citizens' Committee would pay the money, but they would take no action on the subject, and there was no other way in which to redeem their plighted faith than to give Mr. Rightmire the city indebtedness at the price it would fetch. Still, he doubtless would be willing to take the money and give up the scrip, and if anybody had been so ingenious as to devise another plan he would be happy to hear it.

Supervisor HANSBROW explained that he withheld his name from the original contract in order to be consistent, as he had opposed it from the beginning. He proposed that Mr. R. be allowed a bill for one month's interest on the whole amount borrowed by him, and in that time he thought they could raise the money. The interest would only amount to $80 or $90, and if there was no law for it the Board had at all events accomplished the same thing heretofore without law.

The PRESIDENT sald he and Supervisors Granger and Russell had had a talk with several members of the Citizens' Committee, but could not make such impression on them.

Supervisor DICKERSON said as this matter had been referred to as unprecedented he would ask if there was not a similar case last summer when it was stated that it would cost $25 cash to raise an old hulk, and the Board allowed for doing the work a bill of $100.

Supervisor HANSBROW insisted that that was not a parallel case; it was absolutely necessary to cut down that hulk in order to insure the safety of millions of property and hundreds of lives.

A. D. RIGHTMIRE said he would like to make a statement, and in the first place, would ask under what law and with what face he could come before this Board, or before the Auditor, and ask to be allowed a bill for interest? There was not a shadow or scintilla of law for it.

Supervisor HANSBROW now said it was just as legal as to take $4,000 to pay a bill of $1,000.

A. D. RIGHTMIRE said he had taken it upon himself to consult with Figg, Harris and Knox, of the Citizens' Committee, and they told him they did not consider that the Committee had anything to do with this matter. He saw no other way to raise the money, even if they put it off six months, and they must bear in mind that in the meantime he was the only party that had to stand the risk.

Supervisor HANSBROW said he would pay his pro rata of the interest for one month rather than have the Board commit such an act of legislation.

Supervisor RUSSELL said he would do the same.

Supervisor HANSBROW said in spite of the question of legality they had been compelled to allow similar accounts to parties from time to time, in order to do justice. They were beginning to learn that the Consolidation bill would not work.

Supervisor RUSSELL said the only hope of extrication from the dilemma laid in raising this money outside. He was willing to advance towards it more than he could well spare, until he could be reimbursed by the city, and he would be one of the five city members to pay the interest for a month also.

Supervisor HITE said he was sorry that great financier did not make his appearance yesterday. He was not acting on the square in coming in at this late hour, in order to make capital out of this thing. Why was he not there yesterday to redeem his word as he should and might have been. He (Hite,) was for retrenchment and economy, but he was also for dealing honestly and justly. If the credit of the city was bad it was not their fault, and it was less the fault of the Consolidation bill than of the taxpayers.

Supervisor GRANGER said the press and the public had demanded the work at Rabel's tannery, and went on to give a detailed account of the contract with Rightmire. Even if they paid him the $4,000, the city would save $14,000 on the contract by the aid of the elements, and that he regarded as pretty good financiering. If by this Act they were fixing the value of the city paper, they were compelled to do so by the force of circumstances. He would pay his share of the interest, however, If Rlghtmire would consent to postpone the matter at least till next month. This Board had not created city indebtedness unnecessarily.

Supervisor HANSBROW said the only force of circumstances which compelled the Board to take this course was the representations of two or three sharpers who dealt in scrip. Were these men to be allowed to determine the value of the city paper? It was their sworn duty to regard the city paper as worth dollar for dollar and act accordingly, and not be guided by men who lived by taking advantage of the necessities of others.

Supervisor GRANGER asked if Mr. Rightmire would pledge himself to keep his paper till next meeting, the members guaranteeing the interest.

A. D. RIGHTMIRE.--I will, provided you will allow the matter to remain as it is

Supervisor GRANGER said that would satisfy him. The Board might act as if it considered the paper worth dollar for dollar; but they could not compel men to buy it at that rate, because the buyer had a right to make at least half of the bargain. He regarded the prohibition of .the.Consolidatlon Act, against creating indebtedness beyond the annual revenue, as a failure and said the people demanded its repeal. The fault was with the taxpayers, for the delinquent tax list for the last five years had exceeded $50,000, and it was notorious that some of the wealthiest citiizens had not paid a dollar of tax since 1857. Yet they had been obliged to keep up the city government, and the police organization, or allow the city to be overrun by assassins aad highwaymen. The old city government had run the city in debt purchasing fire engines, Worthington pumps and so on, and this Board had not created over $40,000.00 [?] indebtedness. If the delinquent taxes were paid, there would be money in the treasury to-day. The people used to pay four per cent taxes without grumbling, but now the rate was much less, and even including the special taxes, the people of Sacramento paid less taxes than those of El Dorado and some other counties.

Supervisor HITE moved that the whole subject be postponed till the first meeting in January, and remain as it now stands before the Board until that time. Carried.

The Board then adjourned until two o'clock, P. M.., on Monday, January 6, 1862.

THE FLOOD AT CRESCENT CITY AND SMITH RIVER VALLEY.--The Jacksonville Sentinel, of December 14th thus refers to the effects of the late storm in the vicinity of Crescent City and Smith river:

Snow fell on the mountains to the depth of five feet, which went off with a warm rain; being flood tide, Smith river rose to such a hight that its banks gave way and a large body of water run through the farms of Gilson and Cabel and emptied into the lagoon back of Crescent City. At that place a small stream called Elk creek empties into the ocean, on either side of which are a number of buildings. The water from Smith river caused the lagoon to run over into Elk Creek and increase it to that extent that the buildings referred to were swept away. On Front street, drift wood, most of which was hewn timber, supposed to have come from Humboldt and Trinidad, was piled up ten feet high; this, together with tapping the lagoon so that it conld run into the ocean, which labor was performed by the Indians, the city was saved, although the water is said to have been three feet deep in the buildings on that street. The wharf sustained considerable damage; one-third of it was carried away in the middle, a large stick of timber was thrown with great force by the waters over the wharf and entered the warehouse of Dugan & Wall. The opinion prevails that the steamer Columbia is lost, as a variety of goods have floated ashore, some of which were marked "Snyder," Klamath Reservation. In the valley the loss has been far greater. A Mr. White lost his wife and two children; they had been taken from his house by the Indians in a canoe, which capsized. Smith was saved by clinging to a log, where he remained all night and was taken off by Indians. He lost his farm buildings and stock. Frank Gay, at the ferry, lost rope and windlass, but saved his boat and his house by lashing them to a rock. Gilson and Gay, with their families, were four hours on a rock which stood three feet out of the water; even this place was very insecure, as driftwood threatened to sweep them off. Gilson lost all his property. Cornelius G. White was at Gilson's house with his family when the water reached it they went to the barn, from which they were rescued by Indians. Cabel lost his farm, but saved his family by taking them to the Redwoods. The farms of Lockwood and Mrs. Benjamin were covered with water; the house of the latter was swept away. Otto, at Bradford's Ford, lost his house. Buel lost fencing and seventy five head of cattle. Both fisheries were swept away. Mathias Smith lost farm and stock, including two hundred head of fat hogs ready for butchering; he was sick at the time, but was saved by being taken out through the roof of his house. At Fort Dick, on the lagoon, Yoman lost all of his fencing. John White lost his house, fencing, etc. Hale lost his ranch, house, barn, etc., and was taken out of the second story of his house while afloat. The Indians had to leave their camp, which was on an island at the mouth of Smith river. Hall lost his saw mill; one of his employes was on a stump twenty-four hours, and when the current subsided swam ashore. A man by the name of Humboldt, and another whose name our informant did not learn, were drowned while attempting to go from the Bald Hills to Crescent City. Taken all together, the destruction of property in Smith Valley has been fearful. All of the bridges on the Crescent City road, and two on the pack trail belonging to Gasquette, have been swept away, with the exception of the one across Sucker Creek. Lewis will rebuild his bridge immediately. . . .

EXPENSIVE.--ln consequence of the impassable condition of J and K streets to the fort yesterday, and the absence of the ferry boat at that point, passengers from Folsom were compelled to come to the city from the present terminus of the railroad in boats. The price charged by boatmen varied from two to four dollars per passenger.

POSTPONED.--The funeral of O. V. Chapman, which was to have taken place at two o'clock yesterday, was postponed until further notice, in consequence of the difficulty of reaching the cemetery through the high water.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3353, 26 December 1861, p. 2


. . .

Notwithstanding the uncomfortable stage of the water in portions of the city, our people observed Christmas day much after the usual fashion, and, in the evening, some of those who are called by the New Yorkers "the governing classes" were especially merry.

The Sacramento river remained at a hight of about twenty-two feet above low water mark yesterday, after eleven o'clock, up to which time it had been rising. The American fell considerably during the day. The water in the lower part of the city has probably done but little more harm than to inconvenience the residents of that region in the matter of traveling. . . .

THE SECOND FRESHET IN MARYSVILLE.--The Appeal, of December 25th, thus refers to the second freshet which visited Marysville:

The second freshet of the season set in night before last with a right smart chance of a rise in the Feather, which soon brought the rising Yuba over all of the low ground below E street and across the slough up as far as Fourth street, filling the lower stories of numerous small buildings, and coming up on a level within four or five feet of the last flood mark by daylight yesterday morning. But by the middle of the forenoon it had commenced to fall, and at a late hour last night had gone down so far as to preclude the possibility of any serious overflow occurring at this stage of the flood. From above we learn that the Yuba is falling at Downieviile, San Juan, and other places; and at Oroville the Feather had fallen several feet up to last night. As the fall in the Feather at this place is still inconsiderable, the Yuba does not go down rapidly, and it will be a day or two before the streams regain their usual channel and hight. . . .

THE FEATHER AT OROVILLE.--A dispatch to the Marysville Express, dated December 24th, says:

The river here has fallen five feet in the last twenty-four hours. It was at its hight about 11 o'clock last evening. No accidents have occurred in this vicinity from this flood, so far as heard from, except the drowning of a span of horses belonging to John S. Morris, in a slough near the Prairie House. The man driving the team saved himself by swimming. He had crossed the same place but a few minutes before. . . .

MAN DROWNED.--Thomas Campano, a Portuguese who has lately lived on the Hale place, Mad river, while attempting to cross Little river, Humboldt county, lately, at its mouth, was drowned. He was fording the stream, leading his horse, when the force of the current carried his feet from under him, and he was swept into the ocean.

ROADS.--An up country stage driver informs the Marysville Express that the roads in the mountains are in pretty fair condition, much better than one would suppose judging from the late severe storms. The roads across the plains leading from Marysville are much worse than those higher up the country. . . .

KILLED BY A LAND SLIDE.--One John Smith was killed by a land slide at Cold Canon, Sierra county, December 8th. . . .


We publish a letter to-day from John Kirk, who built most of the levees about the city, in which he expresses the opinion that the cross levees ought to be repaired, in order to effectually protect the city. But he concedes that the first work to be done is to repair and strengthen the levee on the American river. It was Kirk who built the levee at the head of Burns' slough, in the Winter of 1853, and it was effectually done, though left a little too low. He expresses the opinion, in which we fully concur, that the best material for building a levee is earth, firmly packed. An earthwork embankment, broad enough and high enough, will turn the water of any river in the world. The material is abundant on the American, and all that is required is to put it in place, and build high and broad. And, by the way, while building a levee outside the city, the Citizens' Committee may save future trouble by obtaining from the owners of the land along the river a grant of the right of way, and the right to use all the earth deemed necessary in building the levee.

The condition of things has changed materially since 1853, a fact which Kirk seems to have overlooked. A necessity existed then for the R street levee to protect the city against back water. The banks of the Sacramento were then without levees from Sutterville down. During a rise in the river, the water flowed freely over its banks into the lakes below Suttervilie, and from them backed into the city. Since that time, private enterprise has so far leveed the river as to keep the water out for some ten miles, and consequently the water has not, since 1853, backed into Sacramento. The Swamp Land Commissioners will shortly let a contract for leveeing the Sacramento to Georgiana slough, which will effectually protect Sacramento from back water, provided the American is shut out by a secure levee. Under such a state of things the R street levee would seem useless, except it is deemed advisable to repair it as a kind of double security. It is conceded that the Thirty-first street levee, in the event of the water breaking over from the American river, would turn the water so as to let it pass harmlessly by the city. Had the breaks in that levee been closed, the water which broke over Monday last at the Burns slough would have gone by without so much as notifying our citizens of its presence. The late flood demonstrated that had the railroad embankment been out of the way the water in the first would never have entered Sacramento to cause any damage. But the levee on the American ought to be made so broad, firm and high as to bid defiance to the waters of the American if they were to rise from seven to ten feet beyond the highest water mark known to the oldest inhabitants. It is our duty to make provisions for resisting floods which may rise a number of feet above the line made by the flood of the ninth of this month. Our theory is, that the water may rise in this valley much higher than any American has ever seen it, and that it is our duty as citizens of Sacramento to build levees accordingly. The experience of Americans here extends back but a few years, and it is impossible for them to have learned from experience the real high water line in this valley. . . .


PLACERVILLE, December 24, 1861.

DEAR SIR: Your favor of the 19th inst. came duly to hand. In reply, I would state that I consider the R and Thirty-first street levees of great importance. They should be rebuilt. By keeping them up the water coming from the Cosumnes river and the Sacramento would be stopped should breaks occur in the present levee below R street.

I remember that in 1853 the back water in the city came from the Cosumnes instead of the Sacramento river, as people generally supposed.

I would further advise that the levee on the American river be enlarged, following the present line from Seventh street to Burns' slough, and then continued to the high land. It would not be necessary to extend the line any further than the slough, were it not for the railroad embankment; that prevents the water from passing out towards Sutterville. I think there should be an opening in the railroad embankment, if for no other purpose than the surface drainage, but I doubt whether the city controls enough of it to give sufficient space for the overflow of the American; hence the necessity of prolonging the levee on the river above Burns' slough.

So far as the embankment in the slough is concerned, nothing more is required or can be better than good earth. I see no use for timber only to make a coffer dam to keep the water out while the bank is being built.

Yours truly, JOHN KIRK . . . .

p. 3


CHRISTMAS.--ln spite of the aqueous perils which environ our city, old Santa Claus, alias St. Nicholas, visited us on Christmas Eve with his usual liberality toward all the gocd children, and by unanimous consent the children were all considered good for the occasion. . . .

THE SACRAMENTO.--The Sacramento river continued to rise during Tuesday night, and by eleven o'clock yesterday forenoon it attained the hight of twenty-two feet three inches, making due allowance for the swell of the water in striking the guage. At this point it stood, with no perceptible change, until sundown. This is three inches higher water than we have had before during the present season; six inches higher than last season, and within three inches of the highest point ever attained since the settlement of the country. In the flood of '52 and '58, the water rose to twenty-two feet six inches. The river is therefore higher now than it has been for the past eight years. The opinion has frequently been expressed that the present city gauge is not reliable, that it is set too low and does not accord with the high water of early times, etc. A leaning sycamore tree on the bank of the river was marked in '53 by George Rowland when the water was at its highest point. When the water yesterday lacked three inches of reaching twenty-two feet six inches on the gauge, it also lacked three inches of reaching the notch on the sycamore. There can be but little doubt that twenty-two feet six inches on the gauge is the high water mark of the past. The present rise in the river results chiefly from the waters of the Feather and Yubas. After a decline for a few days it may again come up from the rains of the Northern part of the State.

DINNER FOR THE PRISONERS.--County Warden Harris made up his mind, several days ago, that his family of about fifty prisoners, rain or shine, flood or no flood, flush times or hard times, should on yesterday enjoy a Christmas dinner. . . .

WATER IN THE CITY.--The water in the flooded portion of the city south of L street continued to recede during Tuesday night and yesterday, and had fallen about two feet by sundown last evening. It was the opinion of many, however, that for an hour before sundown it had commenced to rise. If such was the case, the result must have been produced by back water, as the supply from the American is constantly diminishing. On the north side of J street the water is higher by about a foot than on the south side. The street has been cut at Twelfth, Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth streets, and probably at several other points, and lively streams are pouring through these openings. The crevasse at Burns' slough still throws one or two streams into the city through the Thirty-first street levee north of J street and several south of that point. A slight fall in the rivers will render the stoppage of these openings practicable. The water finds vent and runs freely through the openings in the R street levee towards Sutterville.

THE EIGHT STREET SEWER.--It is generally conceded by residents on the north side of J street that the Eighth street sewer, recently cut from near I to the alley north of K street, worked very successfully during the last flood. There was no other outlet for the water from that portion of the city west of Twelfth street, and it would have risen considerably higher than it did had there been no drain dug through Eighth street. Many of those who are benefitted by it are talking of constructing a substantial brick culvert in the trench before it is closed up. The experiments at drainage now being tried, ought to prove of permanent benefit to our citizens, and wherever the sewers work successfully they should be substantially constructed, so as to avoid the necessity of reopening them at another time. A. C. Sweetzer, who has had the superintendence of the one above referred to, believes it to be practicable to make a thorough job of it by funds raised by private subscription.

THE WEATHER.--We were favored yesterday with a clear sky, a bright sun, and a cool northwestern breeze. The agreeable change from the weather of the past three weeks was experienced by all our citizens, whose cheerful faces bespoke their gratification at the prospect of no more rain or flood and a diminution of the mud in our streets. The sky remained unclouded through tne evening, and all signs seem to indicate that we shall have fine weather in which to work to provide against future disaster.

AT WORK.--E. P. Figg, of the Committee of Safety, with a detachment of workmen, was engaged yesterday afternoon at the levee below R street, in strengthening the weak point against the encroachments of the river. Gunny sacks were filled and used wherever necessity seemed to require. This point, although continually yielding to the action of the eddy, has withstood its power much more successfully than seemed probable a few weeks ago.

NOT DESTROYED.--We are informed that the new embankment at Burns' slough is not so badly injured as was at first supposed. The water first entered the slough over the natural ground around the new levee, and in that way formed a back-water protection which rendered the current less destructive than it would otherwise have been. It is thought that $300 will repair all damage done at that point.

EMBARCADERO.--The corner of Sixth and M streets--the Pavilion sidewalk--has become recently a regular embarcadero, between which and all ports in the flooded districts our city flotilla come and go, according to the demands of the traveling public. Ranchmen from several miles south of the city, who come up in boats, seem also to have selected it as their landing place.

THIEVES.--Continual complaint is made by residents of the lower portion of the city that their houses are frequently entered and pillaged of everything which can be carried off. Chief Watson should establish a marine police, whose exclusive duty it should be to cruise for pirates, and overhaul and bring into port every suspicious craft whose papers are not entirely satisfactory.

NOTHING FURTHER.--No information has been received by the Coroner or anyone in the city regarding the man who was drowned from the steamer Nevada on Tuesday last.

THE AMERICAN.--The American river commenced falling on Tuesday afternoon, and has been declining ever since. The entire fall up to last evening at and above the Tannery, was about three feet. As the tributaries above have done their worst, we have, of course, but little to fear in the way of overflow until the next storm. W. Turton and about a dozen men were on duty yesterday, watching and strengthening the old levee and adding to the hight of the new one.

RESCUED.--At an early hour yesterday morning William Webster discovered a dun colored horse in deep water, entrapped in a fence corner near the crevesse above Sutterville. The animal had evidently been in that position over night, and was nearly perished. He was released and handed over to the care of a neighboring ranchman.

CATHOLIC CHURCH.--The congregation of St. Rose Church occupied the Assembly chamber yeaterday morning for religious services, in consequence of the weak condition of the floor of the Church.

TRUNK FOUND.--A trunk well filled with clothing was found at Sutterville on the occasion of the late flood by W. Sherbourn for which an owner is wanted. A letter found in it is addressed to M. C. Rieff, Sacramento City. . . .

NO FERRY YET.--There had not up to last evening been any ferry boat set in motion at the Fort. Passengers and mail matter from Folsom were brought into the city by small boats. . . .

SEMBLINS says that notwithstanding the common belief, the water didn't seem to him as high on the 9th as in '53, when he paid 75 cents an inch for it.--Sierra Democrat. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3355, 28 December 1861, p. 1


. . .

SACRAMENTO AND THE FLOOD.--The Christian Advocate has the following reflections on our flood:

The city wears an extremely dreary appearance; while the dejected countenances we meet at every turn inform us too surely of anxious and apprehensive feelings. There is, however, in the people of Sacramento a vast amuont of recuperative energy too great and active to be withered by fire or strangled by flood; while too much honor, reputation and property are at stake to think of moving the site of the town, however desirable such a course might be. The city occupies a position where money may be made, and there some men will build, live and transact business, if the town be a Venice, with canals for streets and boats for drays.

As to the Capitol question there seems to be quite a unanimous opinion that this is the best site, and that here it should remain. With a week or two of fair weather and the presence of the Legislature the city would assume its wonted briskness and beauty; feelings of despondency would give way to cheerful smiles and pleasant hopes; dread and despair would move away as clouds after a storm before an exhilerating western breeze and all be joyous as a May morning. . . .

p. 2


The Sacramento last night, at sunset, reached a higher point than was ever before experienced, viz: 22 feet 7 inches above low water mark, one inch higher that at any former period. The river remained at about that hight. The American also remained about stationary last night, although at Folsom it had fallen during the day some six feet. It is evident that the Sacramento, being so high, has locked up the American at its mouth. The present cold nights will now, doubtless, cause these rivers to recede. In the lower part of the city there was some increase of water yesterday, owing to the high state of the Sacramento and American.

No Overland mail was received in this city yesterday. We learn that communication to Folsom and Placerviile has been much obstructed by the flood. Last night, as a boat party was coming towards the city, near Poverty Ridge, the boat was upset in the current, and the letter bag of Wells, Fargo & Co. lost. No lives were lost. . . .

THE FLOOD SOUTH.--The Stockton Republican of December 25th says :

The storm which has been raging for two or three days has seldom been equaled in this vicinity. Yesterday the rain fell in torrents much of the day, and the southeast gale prevailed until the middle of the afternoon, when the wind shifted to the northwest, and in the evening there was a show of clear sky. A tremendous quantity of rain has fallen. There is no danger to the city, the few defenses which protect it not being affected by the waters. The Calaveras has overflowed its banks in several places. Yesterday morning the driver of the Mokelumne Hill stage, after getting two miles beyond the Fifteen Mile House, could see nothing but a large body of water in his road, and accordingly put up his horses, and did not attempt to go further. The water was up to the stringers of Frost & Leach's bridge when last heard from. Mormon Slough will come down "booming" this morning.

The Independent adds :

The Sonora stages were alone in reaching us yesterday at the usual hour. The Murphy's stage, which left this city in the morning, reached the Fifteen Mile House, beyond which it was impossible to proceed in consequence of the overflow of the country. The stages from Mokelumne Hill due yesterday, had not arrived up to a late hour last evening--probably detained by high water.

A dispatch from Stockton, dated December 26th, has the following:

It commenced raining very hard in this city about nine o'clock this morning, and still continues. The water is very high. Near town the country is overflowed for many milles, but no material damage or loss of life. The water is pouring over the causeway which crosses the slough on Hunter street. It will be cut away, as it is backing water upon the gardens. The bulkhead on Mormon slough is safe. No land is overflowed on the ordinary level of the city.

The steamer Christina arrived yesterday from Turner's Ferry, on the San Joaquin river, and reports that the water rose at that point on Tuesday night some six feet, and was still on the increase. In some places it had found its way over the banks, and was threatening damage to the ranches. The current in the river was great, and the large quantity of saw logs and drift wood which came floating down the stream was an indication that the watter [sic] in the upper river and its tributares had experienced a sudden rise. The current yesterday carried down the river the floating bath house belonging to Oliva. We are entirely cut off from stage communication.

OUR CHINESE RESIDENTS.--This portion of the resident population of Sacramento have been highly favored during the late floods. Living on I street, which has the highest grade of any in the city, they have altogether escaped the affliction which has generally visited our citizens, and it may indeed be said they have been as "happy as clams at high water." They owe their protection from the overflow to the excellence of that portion of the northern levee on which they generally reside, and undoubtedly feel a proper degree of gratitude in connection with this fact. Among this population are many rich merchants, who possess the ability to contribute something handsome to the fund which is being used for their protection as well as for that of others. We have heard it suggested that these people might fell [sic] slighted by reason of the Subscription Committee not calling on them for a contribution. We trust that the Committee will take this matter into consideration, and give our Celestial brethren an opportunity to exhibit their generosity in the premises.

THE LATE STORM.--We learn that the late storm was pretty general in its visitation. Those portions of the State which escaped a flood previously have now felt the influence of copious rains, and their streams and rivers are swollen. The present rainy season will be a marked one in the history of the State. . . .

FINANCIAL FOLLY OF SACRAMENTO.--It is not strange that the imbecility manifested by our Board of Supervisors in their management of the affairs of this city should attract attention abroad. Their general legislation, and especially that in reference to the Rightmire contract, is thus referred to in the Bulletin:

Sacramento is suffering more for the want of a good municipal government than for the lack of such levees as will protect the city from overflow. A tolerably efficient Board of Supervisors would never have permitted the railroad company to dam up the only outlet for water when the American river is high, and with this precaution there need have been no overflow to this day. Yet while this very outlet was obstructed, the Supervisors were stopping rat holes in the American river levee, showing that they anticipated an inundation from that side, and never reflected where the water would seek an outlet when it came into the city. This short-sightedness can possibly be excused on the ground of stupidity but how can we find any reason that would influence honest men, no matter how stupid, to indorse such a transaction as the following paragraph from the UNION discloses?

[Here follows a brief article from the UNION, specifying the manner in which the Board allowed Rightmire a disproportionate amount of scrip for what he had no legal right to claim:]

The outrageous recklessness of the Sacramento Supervisors in this transaction will further appear, when it is stated that, in the first instance, the contract with Rightmire was illegal and void under plain provisions of the City Charter. The Supervisors have no more power to run Sacramento in debt than has D. O. Mills, or any other private firm. The City Charter is copied from the San Francisco Consolidation Act, which, as everybody knows, prohibits entering into any contract binding the corporation, until the money is provided to pay for the expenses of carrying out the contract. Any contract made without means already provided to complete it, is expressly declared to be void by the charter itself. Now the Sacramento Board of Supervisors audit a "void" claim for $1,000, and issue $4,000 of "void" scrip to pay it. This is running up a city debt with a looseness that has no parallel in California. Indeed, it is running credit "into the ground"--to that point where it runs out entirely, and ceases to retain tangibility. Debts thus contracted are no debts at all, and the evidences of them cease to be negotiable among men fit to do business precisely as forged notes are dealt in by none but fools or knaves. Yet we are told that there is floating about Sacramento some hundreds of thousands of dollars of these "void" evidences of indebtedness, and that but for them, no one there would ever have thought of repudiating the debts which the city legally owes her creditors in good faith, who are without fault. These startling facts should arouse the permanent citizens of Sacramento to the necessity of putting forth effort to secure a permanently honest city government; and while they are volunteering so freely from their private resources towards building levees, it will do them good to consider this main question.

There has been no good reason for Sacramento city to go in debt one dollar since the adoption of the new charter in 1858, even were there any legal authority for so doing. Abundant taxes have been paid to defray the expenses of an efficient local government. Had D. O. Mills, James Anthony, or any one among several hundred men of means and business capacity in Sacramento been elected "the whole city government," during the past three years, and paid $50,000 per annum for current expenses, the city would not have gone in debt under such an administration, would not have talked of repudiation, and the public peace and quiet would have been admirable in comparison with the state of things that has prevailed under the "bummer rule," under which the Police Court alone costs the city some $20,000 per annum [?] more than the fines imposed.

THE HENNESS PASS.--Marysville Appeal says:

The. Henness Pass route is obstructed near the summit by fallen trees and an excessive amount of mud. Beyond Maple's the road is good. Since the Truckee bridge was swept away, that stream is crossed by a ferry. There is but little snow on the route.

KIDNAPPING A CHILD.--The Stockton Independent of December 25th gives some particulars of a kidnapping case in that city:

A painful case of kidnapping occurred yesterday, in this city, the circumstances attending which are substantially as follows: One Maxon, his wife and child, emigrated to this State a few months since, and on the journey hither Maxon acted towards his wife in a manner arbitrary and unbecoming, until she declined to live with him, and they separated, Mrs. Maxon assuming the custody of the child. On reaching Sacramento the mother applied to the Courts for the sole control over and possession of the child, and it being shown that the husband was an unfit person to have custody, the Court, through Judge Robinson, placed it in the charge of the mother, who recently came to this city and took up her residence on Flora street. Yesterday, the father visited his daughter, as he had on several occasions done before, and no one being present save the mother and her sister, he seized the child and ran from the house, followed by the mother, begging him to give back her child, and weeping bitterly on finding she was powerless to prevent him from carrying it away. He was joined by another man shortly after leaving the house, and the two proceeded in a westerly direction, through Park street to the bank of the slough, where a small boat was in waiting to receive them, into which they hastily entered and made off down the river. Their destination is unknown, but is supposed to be Sacramento. A warrent for the arrest of Maxon was placed in the hands of the Marshal, and that officer left the city yesterday in search of the kidnapper. We are informed that on a previous occasion, Maxon made an ineffectual attempt to accomplish the object in which he yesterday succeeded. If caught, as we trust he may be, he will probably have the opportunity of serving a term in San Quentin.

THE LATE STORM NORTH.--The Marysville Appeal of December 27th, referring to the late storm, says:

Rain commenced to fall heavily yesterday forenoon and continued, without a moment's intermission, during the entire day and up to a late hour last night. We have probably had no rainfall this season in which so much water fell in the same length of time as in the twelve hours ending at twelve o'clock last night. No perceptible change was observable, of course, in the condition of the streams at that time last night, but if the rains should continue for a day or two longer at the same rate of falling, we should have another touch of deluge which may be a freshet No. 3, which may a kind Providence forbid.

The Express says;

The Yuba commenced falling on Wedneaday night, and during the time fell about one foot. Notwithstanding the heavy rain of yesterday, undoubtedly the heaviest of the season, the Yuba continued to fall gradually, and late at night was still falling.

A dispatch dated at Red Bluff, December 26th, has the annexed particulars of the storm at that point:

Yesterday was a very pleasant day. This morning about three o'clock it commenced raining and has rained almost incessantly all day, and since dark the rain has poured down in torrents. The creeks are all up very high and the Sacramento river rising fast. No stage from below this place since yesterday morning and none from above since Tuesday night. It has never been known to have rained harder than now. The creeks and sloughs between here and Shasta are all full, and Cottonwood river is higher than it has been before this year. A team in attempting to cross the Cottonwood yesterday was drowned; the driver escaped. . . .


Suicides--Conviction--Mike Branigan [?] Hunted--Vessels at Panama


. . .

The rains have done much damage in this city. The wall of a brick building corner of Dupont and Post streets fell yesterday. . . .

[For the Union.]


MESSRS. EDITORS: As the action of the Supervisors in allowing Rightmire $4,009 for the purpose of making the amount allowed equal $1,002.25 in cash at the current market rates of audited claims on the Contingent Fund, having caused considerable discussion both in the papers and on the street, I, without expressing any opinion on the equity of the case, call your attention to the fact that the law is fixed, and that any discussion about it is a perfect waste of breath or pens and ink. The question has been adjudicated by our highest tribunal, and the exact case occurs in Foster vs. Coleman (10 Cal., 278), on an appeal from Los Angeles county. The facts shown by the record in that case are that in 1856 the Assessor presented a claim for 165 days' service, at the established rate of $10 per day, making a total of $1,650, which claim the Supervisors allowed as follows: "Ordered, that the sum of $4,125 be paid out of the fund for current expenses, to equal $1,650 in cash, at the rate of 40 cents per dollar," and that in conformity with said order the Auditor draw his warrant in favor of Coleman (the Assessor) for said sum of $4,125, which warrant was presented to the Treasurer and indorsed and registered in the same manner as other warrants not paid for want of funds. The case came up on an application made by Foster, a taxpayer, for an injunction prohibiting the Treasurer from paying the warrant, and for an order that Coleman deliver it up to be canceled, both of which orders the lower Court made and Coleman appealed. The opinion of the Supreme Court was delivered by Justice Field, Baldwin and Terry concurring, and the Court says:

"The only question for determination respects the validity of the order of the Board of Supervisors. It appears that the market or cash value of county warrants, was only forty per cent, of the nominal amount and that the object of the action of the Board was to give Coleman that which was, at the time, an equivalent for cash. The object did not justify the action. The effect of the order was to create a debt or liability on the part of the county, and this the Supervisors were not empowered to do for any purpose except as provided by law. Their action was entirely without authority, and altogether indefensible. Judgment affirmed. The demand of plaintiff for his services can be again presented to the Board, and upon its allowance, a warrant for its true amount be ordered."

You will see that this is conclusive, and that however much Mr. Rightmire may suffer from the fact, the claim as at present allowed is totally worthless--not good even for the original $1,000 unless it is withdrawn and presented again.

THE RIGHTMIRE CLAIM.--This claim, as provided for by the Board of Supervisors, is effectually disposed of, as appears by a communication from a legal source in another place. The claim for $4,009 is clearly illegal, as appears by the decision of the Supreme Court in 10 Cal., 278.

[lodge symbol] I.O.O.F.--At a Special Meeting of the General Relief Committee, held at Odd Fellows' Hall, Sacramento, on Sunday, 22d instant, the following resolutions were adopted:
Whereas the timely aid extended by our sister Lodges of San Francisco and Stockton having enabled us to enlarge our sphere of action, thereby relieving many cases of distress and suffering throughout the city; therefore be it
Resolved, That the thanks of the Committee and the Order in general are hereby tendered to those Lodges who so kindly rendered assistance in our hour of gloom and adversity.
Resolved, That the prompt and ready action in forwarding relief cannot be too highly estimated; and, we trust, if ever occasion should arise, that we shall be found totally prompt and ready to repay the debt thus contracted on behalf of suffering humanity.
Resolved. That the foregoing resolutions be published in the San Francisco, Stockton, and Sacramento papers and that a copy duly attested be forwurded to the different Lodges. SAMUEL YOUNG, Secretary.
N B--Morning Call, San Francisco, and Stockton Independent will please copy. d28-1*

p. 2


. . .

POLICE COURT--. . . Thomas Smith said he did not know whether he was guilty of stealing $20 in coin, a belt and & pair of boots from Wm. Barnett or not, as he "was very drunk at the time, yer honor." His Honor informed him that he ought to be the best judge--which was not certainly placing a very high estimate on his own judicial ability and fitness. Barnett, the complainant, testified that he was a little tight the second day after the flood, and laid down and went to sleep. When he laid down his belt was around him, his money was in his pocket, and his boots, that he paid $7 for in Carson City, Nevada Territory, were on his feet. When he got up he was denuded of his belt, plundered of his money, and stripped of his boots. He next met the belt and the boots around the body and on the feet of Tom Smith, whom be did not recollect of having ever before set eyes on: the money he had not yet discovered. Smith was adjudged guilty, and is to be sentenced to-day. Barney Riley's trial for stealing a rowboat worth $30, the property of J. S. Ellison, was put off till Tuesday next to await the arrival of the Matilda Heron with a load of coal and an important witness for defense. . . .

THE TANNERY.--The rumor was kept afloat at various times and various ways yesterday that the levees--old and new--at Rabel's tannery had yielded to the waters of the American river--that the workmen had been compelled to abandon them, and that a torrent of water was coming rapidly into the city, etc., etc. Such stories were, of course, unfounded. The levees were closely watched during Thursday night. The American began to rise rapidly at three o'clock, A. M.., yesterday morning. W. Turpin with about a dozen men worked steadily during the whole of yesterday. The water continued to rise until about three o'clock, P. M., and rose about four feet. It remained stationary from that hour until sundown. The remnant of the old levee was strengthened by gunny sacks to the best advantage. The current of the river was, as usual at that point, very strong, and told with effect upon the remaining portion of the embankment. Portions of earth kept caving and falling continually, thus increasing the chances of the water breaking over and coming in contact with the new levee. The assaults of the current were, however, resisted until night, but it was doubtful whether it could be kept at bay until morning. If the old levee should wash away, the result of the direct action of the water at its highest stage on the new levee is somewhat doubtful. It was designed, however, by those who had the work in charge, if it should become necessary, to let the water gradually into the space between the two levees, and thus form a basin of still water to protect the new work. If the water should fall in the night, as seemed highly probable, there would be no necessity for such a course. At eight o'clock last evening the American at Folsom had fallen six feet, and was falling at the rate of one foot per hour, as we are informed by telegraph.

BOATS UPSET.--At about eight o'clock last evening a boat containing two boatmen and six passengers, was upset near Poverty Ridge. Among the party were Wells, Fargo & Co.'s Express messenger, the Overland Stage agent, and two telegraph operators. All the passengers had just arrived by the cars from Folsom, and were on their way to the city. The letter bag of Wells, Fargo & Co. was lost, and has not since been recovered. The unfortunate navigaors were picked up by a boatman known by the name of "Red," and were safely landed at the Pavilion. Their luck was very like that of a party of pressmen who went out on a boating excursion on Christmas evening. There were seven in the company, and their boat was large enough to hold but three. The remaining four concluded to borrow a boat, which they did without consulting the owner, and put out upon the waters as cheerfully as though they had his consent for the use of it. They unfortunately failed to inspect it as to sea-worthiness. After the two boats became separated, and when in twelve feet of water--by measurement the next day--the bottom of the boat very suddenly gave out, and the water as suddenly came in. The four excursionists in a moment found themselves with very little idea of their latitude or longitnde, or the soundings beneath them. They were all picked up within ten minutes, and are extremely anxious that the owner of the boat, should he ever recover it, shall make the bottom more secure before they have occasion to borrow it again.

THE HIGHEST WATER ON RECORD.--The water in the Sacramento river at sunset last evening stood twenty-two feet seven inches above low water mark, having risen ten inches during the past twenty-four hours. This is one inch higher than the highest mark of '58, or than the river has ever attained since the settlement of the State by Americans. We desire, in this connection, to call attention to the fact that the levee on the American east of the Tivoli is washed away in many places and the waters are flowing uninterruptedly through, and the crevasse two miles below the city is still open and a torrent is pouring through, and yet the business portion of the city is entirely free from inundation. Even with the present grade of J, K and L streets, while the passage of the waters is uninterrupted, we are not flooded by the highest water ever attained by the Sacramento. Will not a slight elevation of the grade of our streets place us out of the reach of danger, provided the water is not dammed up to our detriment?

WASHING AWAY.--The Sacramento levee, between P and R streets, commenced to wash away in many places yesterday. The earth was entirely removed by the action of the water from the river side of many of the large cottonweed trees growing at that point. Unless something is done to support them, they will probably be blown over and destroyed. There is, of course, no immediate danger to be apprehended from the levee at this point, but it will require the attention of the Committee of Safety after the water falls.

SUNDAY NOTICE.--The Rev. Mr. Banton will preach to-morrow morning at a quarter before eleven o'clock, and likewise in the evening, at seven o'clock, unless there should be a violent storm. . . .

INJURY TO THE RAILROAD.--The freshet of yesterday morning made another break in the railroad at Brighton of about two hundred feet. The cars were prevented on that account from coming so near the city as usual. A portion of mail matter was detained beyond that point last evening. Preparations were made yesterday for repairing the road as speedily as possible. . . . .

FUNERAL TO-DAY.--The funeral of O. V. Chapman will take place at half-past twelve o'clock today from the rooms of J. W. Reeves, on Fourth street. Those who attend it will be conveyed from the Pavilion to the City Cemetery by boats, as there is no other way of reaching that point.

WATER IN THE CITY.--The water in the lower portion of the city commenced to rise early yesterday morning, and by sunset had risen two feet. As the American ceased to rise at about three o clock P. M., yesterday, the city will probably be considerably relieved by this morning. . . .

THE POUND-MASTER.--After the first of the year Pound-master Mayo designs to remove his impounding establishment to dry land--the present locality being under water. He will then take charge of all stray cattle on his range.

NO SERVICE.--There will be no services in the Baptist Church next Sabbath, Dec. 29th, as another week will be required to finish the repairs. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3356, 30 December 1861, p. 1

THE LATE FLOOD. We find that the late rains in certain localities in the interior have been more disastrous in their effects than the former floods. We compile the following accounts from our exchanges.

SAN JOAQUIN.--Stockton Republican, of Dec. 27th, says:

Yesterday was ushered in by a howling southeast gale, which continues as we are writing this. At ten o'clock yesterday morning the rain commenced falling, and during the day and evening an enormous amount fell. The storm yesterday was the severest which has been experienced in this city for a long time. The gale made bad work with everything that could be damaged by.the wind. Awnings have been destroyed, and signs, fences and trees blown down by the score. The worst piece of mischief which we have noticed is the unroofing of the southwest portion of the City Hall, about one-fourth of the tinning having disappeared. Alderman Sargent engaged a party of sailors, who procured canvas, with which, with the aid of boards, the roof, a very sham-built affair, was covered temporarily, though some damage will be caused by the water. The water is very high in the sloughs in the city, and one or two foot bridges have been carried away. No land which is of the ordinary level of the city has been overflowed. Those whose premises inclose portions of sloughs have a plentiful supply of water upon their lots, though their houses are all set upon the level of the city, and are safe. The south half of Mayor Holden's premises were overflowed on Wednesday night, and he had a time of it in getting out his Cheshires and Suffolks to a place of safety. Hart's premises, which are similarly situated, are also overflowed, but his large new brick house is safe, or was at last accounts. He had to swim his horses from the stable to the high land. The grounds of the Seminary, partially in a slough, are overflowed, and the southern fence is down. Hart attributes the presence of most of the water upon his place to the existence of the causeway on Hunter street, which operates as a dam across the Oak street slough and backs the water upon him. The causeway has a culvert, but not one-fiftieth part large enough to let through the water. A passage three feet wide and deep was cut through the causeway yesterday, but it is doubtful if this will lower the water above sufficiently. The earth of the causeway is so clayey and tough that the great body of water will not sluice the cut any larger. The water commenced pouring over the causeway on Wednesday evening, and continued until the cut was made. The place was a regular water fall, some three feet high and a hundred feet in length. The water first reached the city early Wednesday afternoon, though warning had been given that it was coming, and ever since the water has been rushing down from the country with great violence.

The Stockton Independent of the same date remarks :

The stage from Sonora, due on Wednesday, arrived in this city at one o'clock yesterday, having been detained over night at the Twenty-six Mile House. McCombs, the driver, informs us that the principal place of detention is at Simmons' slough, which is running bank full and still rising. A small bridge above Doak's has been washed away. The slough at the Five Mile House, is in very bad condition for the passage of teams. The stage which left this city for Sonora, was swamped in this slough, by reason of which it failed to connect with the down stage, otherwise the stage due on Wednesday would have reached here in the usual time. The water in the Stanislaus, at Knight's Ferry, is reported to have risen on Tuesday night eight feet.

The Mariposa stage arrived at half-past seven o'clock last evening, making the trip through from the Tuolumne since morning. We learn that the water at Loving's Bridge rose on Tuesday night to within four inches of the planking. At Dry creek the water was too deep to render stage crossing in any degree safe. The passengers were ferried across in boats, while the horses swam the stream, making a change of stages on the opposite bank.

We learn that the Mokelumne on Tuesday night was six inches higher than in the Winter of 1852. The bridge at Woodbridge was saved from damage by some considerable exertion, the water having risen nearly to the stringers.

The following dispatch to the Bulletin, dated at Stockton December 28th, 2:30 p. m., gives a later and still more discouraging account of the flood in Stockton:

The alarm bells were rung most of last night. The water was unprecedentedly high. The city generally has been overflowed. Several blocks on low ground have been flooded in the business portion, owing to imperfect drainage. A few stores have been flooded on the south side of Main street. A great many dwelling houses are flooded, and families have had to seek other quarters. The water is now fast running out of the city.

The main body of the water came from the Calaveras river. The country for miles around presents one vast sheet of water.

SONOMA,--Of the rains in Sonoma county and in the vicinity of Petaluma, the Journal of Dec. 27th speaks as fellows:

An acquaintance of ours who has just returned from a trip through the upper and western portion of this county, represents the damage done to property, roads, etc., and the loss of stock, by the late flood, as immense. In many sections the roads are completely washed away; the course of the creeks and streams materially changed; farms overflowed, and in some instances covered many inches with wash dirt; fences destroyed, etc. According to his description, large numbers of cattle, hogs, etc., were drowned. On the Santa Rosa creek he noticed several head of young cattle hanging in the branches of the trees, high and dry from any ordinary flood. Near Cloverdale we are told the river cut a new channel, leaving the mill of Caldwell & Co. in a bad fix.

EL DORADO.--The Placerville Democrat, of December 28th, says of the late storm in its locality:

Another severe storm has visited us, doing a great deal of damage to bridges, flumes, ditches, roads, etc. On Thursday night the rain fell heavily and the wind blew furiously all night. On that night Hangtown creek was higher than ever before. The extent of the damage we have been unable to ascertain. An immense amount of rain has fallen this month, and it seems reluctant to "dry up."

A correspondent writing from Georgetown, December 26th, says:

A severe storm is raging here and all through the mountains up this way. Trees are blown down and other damage done. The heaviest rain of the season fell this afternoon, and is falling in great quantity at this time (nine o'clock P. M.)

NAPA.--The Napa Reporter, of December 28th, has the following:

During the last week we have had an almost incessant pour from the clouds, and with a slight increase of rain we may expect another flood of Napa City. Cornwell's Addition has become "boatable ;" but the damage is slight, and limited to that part of town. From the upper part of the valley we learn that the late flood left but little chance for harm.

BUTTE.--The Record of Dec. 28th says:

Feather river was swollen by the recent rains to within six feet of the former freshet. All crossing was suspended at the ferries for two days; but no great damage was done, that we have been able to learn. The creeks and sloughs have been higher than before, but not enough so to do further damage. All communication with Marysville was stopped for two days; and staging to Tehama was not resumed until Thursday morning. The bridge over Dry creek, on the road to Lynchburg, was swept away, and the Celestials, who were working on the banks of all the streams in the vicinity, left on double quick for high ground. The great mass of Chinese have never seen a flood in Calfornia, and they do not comprehend it very well. They are afraid of water in large quantities, and no "shabbe big water come in night and washee away cabin, Chinaman and everything Chinaman catchee in Californy." The Indians appear to be highly pleased at the discomfiture of the Celestials; there appears to be no affinity between them.

NEVADA.--The Democrat of Dec. 27th adds:

After a moderately pleasant day on Christmas, giving hopes that the storm was over, the rain set in again early, Thursday morning and continued to fall steadily until about nine o'clock this morning. During the most of the time it was raining very hard, and a high wind prevailed last night. The quantity of water that fell at this place in the course of twenty-four hours, ending yesterday morning, was four inches, and nearly twelve inches has fallen since twelve o'clock Saturday night This morning the water in Deer creek was within a foot of the highest mark attained on the 9th instant, and as large quantities of tailings have been washed out of the bed, the volume of water in the creek must have been greater this morning than at any previous time this Winter (the South Yuba was also very high this morning, but we have heard of no damage of consequence. The sun came out about two o'clock this afternoon, and there is now a prospect of pleasant weather.

TRINITY AND HUMBOLDT.--We find the following in the Journal of December 31st [?]:

From Denny, Humboldt, mailman who arrived last Sunday for the first time in over three weeks, we learn that not only the new bridge over the Trinity at Hoop Valley is gone, but the wire suspension bridge built across the Klamath river three miles below Weitchpeck, last summer, by Martin, was carried away. This bridge was put up by A. S. Halladie & Co. of San Francisco; was 500 feet long and 98 feet above the river. It cost some $8,000.

At the mouth of Trinity river, John Fennessy's house, stock of goods and everything else was swept away; and at Big Bar, on the Klamath, the trading post, and other property of Wm. Shelton shared the same fate. No tidings have reached us from Orleans Bar, but the general impression is that the town must have been destroyed.

To give our readers some idea of the immense body of water accumulated below the confluence of Trinity and Klamath rivers, we state on the authority of Capt. Cecil of Klamath, that at the wire suspension bridge above mentioned the water rose one hundred and forty feet!

Everything is swept clean on Trinity river, and the damage is immense.

p. 2


. . .

The water fell yesterday in the portion of the city which was submerged about eight or ten inches. The American has fallen several feet since our last issue and the Sacramento about four inches. The latter river, it is well known, rises and falls slowly. The business portion of our city is and has been since the last flood free from water.

We are without telegraphic intelligence from any quarter this morning, the wires being generally out of order.

According to an account elsewhere, our neighboring city of Stockton suffered severely by the late storm.

THE WORK TO BE DONE.--We do not suppose it necessary to remind the Citizens' Committee of the importance of even one hour in the work before them. Not a minute should be permitted to pass, after the water at Burns' slough falls so much as to render it possible for the water to be stopped, before the work is begun. It was delayed too long before. The flood came on Monday, the 9th, and work was not begun at the slough until the next week Wednesday, ten days after the high water. A beginning three days earlier would have insured the levee at the slough against the last two floods. It should be made secure before the next high water, and in order to do that, a large force will be necessary. At Rabel's tannery the new levee would be strengthened by a lining of brush, weighted down with a few bags of sand, or with dirt thrown on to it with shovels. The Committee is also aware that there are other points in the levee between Burns' slough and Thirty-first street which need work the moment the water will admit. We would also suggest to the Committee that it may do a great deal towards improving the appearance of the city, as well as add materially to the comfort and convenience of citizens and strangers, by the expenditure of a few hundred dollars on streets and sidewalks where owners have too little public spirit to improve the latter. The ditches cut acros the several streets should be made permanent drains, lined with brick or .redwood plank, and thoroughly bridged. The streets of J and K ought to be repaired from Front to the Fort, and ferries established or bridges built, so as to insure people a passage to and from the city. The board of Supervisors licensed two ferries at the slough, but neither of them were in operation Friday and Saturday when they were most needed. The flat at one was reported sunk; the rope of the other was under water, and all attempts to make trips across the slough given up. Had proper arrangements been made, both of these ferries could have been operated during the high water.

The Board of Supervisors have neither money nor credit to do anything for the improvement of the city. For what has been done so far, the people are indebted to the liberality and enterprise of private individuals. If the Committee will now take up the work where individuals have left it, the members can, for a very little money and a few days sunshine, put the business portion of the city in a neater and better condition than it was in for about half of last Winter. In view of coming events, we are confident that such a movement on the part of the Committee; will meet the approbation of a large majority of the people of Sacramento. . . .

From the rapidity of the current at the Fort on Friday and Saturday, across the east end of the city, and through the break in the R street levee, a man could hardly arrive at any other conclusion, than that there must be from eight to ten feet fall between the Fort and Sutterville. The water at the Fort ran with such force as to render it difficult to cross the stream in a boat. To swim it on a horse would have been a desperate undertaking. . . .

THE LATE STORM IN SAN FRANCISCO.--The San Francisco Herald says :

The storm of Thursday night was a very severe one for this locality, several of the oldest inhabitants averring that they "had never seen the like before." The wind blew very hard during the entire evening, increasing to a gale towards midnight. We learn that a house, the property of a poor family, near the corner of Mason and Chesnut streets, was blown down, and that five new cottages, nearly completed, on Douglas Place, near Beale and Harrison streets, were demolished. In various parts of the city damage was done to awnings, signs, etc. Houses in airy localities, which withstood the gale, were rocked like cradles by its violence. The houses in Douglas Place were undermined by the water. A portion of Third street is stated to have been submerged. . . .

THE STATE CAPITAL.--The Solano Herald thus remarks upon the proposition of a few parties to remove the State Capital:

Since the occurrence of the great calamity which has recently overwhelmed the Capital City, carrying want and ruin to so many of her poorer citizens, entailing heavy losses at present and immense expenses in the future upon her capitalists; and trouble and inconvenience upon all, it has been contended, by interested parties and parties inimical to the present location of the State Capital, that the Legislature should at once provide for its removal; and the claims of various localities to the honor of being the seat of government have, it seems to us, been urged with more zeal than wisdom, and with a heartless cupidity more consonant with the maxims of savage life than with the teachings of civilization.

The principal reasons urged for its removal, so far as we have heard, are that it is subject to overflow, and that Sacramento is so hopelessly in debt as to be utterly unable to build a levee of sufficient dimensions to prevent the recurrence of the late disaster, the possibility of whose construction has been seriously doubted. The expense to which the State must be subjected in order to protect its property in that city, is urged as a reason for removing the Capital, and we suppose, abandoning the State property there to the protection of a people whose inability to protect themselves forms the stock in trade of these removal agitators. We do not perceive the force of these arguments. When we reflect that it would require a volume of water at least ten times as great as that which recently overwhelmed the city, to produce a rise of one foot above the point it then reached, the magnitude and consequent expense of the work would not seem so very formidable but that even Sacramento, debt ridden and almost bankrupt as she is. might undertake its accomplishment with a fair prospect of success. But we would not leave the work entirely to Sacramento. If there were fifteen thousand inhabitants of any other part of the State suffering to the same extent as those in Sacramento, we do not believe that an appropriation for their relief would be objected to; and we can see no reason why the fifteen thousand inhabitants of Sacramento should not receive as much consideration as a like number in any portion of the State. Besides, the relief most needed by them will, if granted, do much toward placing the property of the State in a condition of security, and thus obviate all objections to the present location of the Capital.

There is another objection to a removal which does not seem to have been considered by those who are opposed to the expense of retaining the Capital at Sacramento. The State, last Winter, made a contract with the city of Sacramento, by which the State agreed to build a State House in that city on certain well defined conditions. On the part of the city those conditions have been complied with, and at great expense; and if any one is so simple as to suppose that the State can escape the performance of its part of the contrast at an expense less than double the cost of a perfectly secure levee around Sacramento, he must be simple indeed. And it would soon become apparent that the expense entailed by removing the Capital from Sacramento would scarcely exceed that of locating it anywhere else; for, with the act of perfidy before them which some would have the State commit, no city could be found to contribute a dollar for the purchase of grounds or the erection of buildings, and the State would have to bear the entire expense. So far then as economy is concerned, it would be exceedingly unwise to change the present location of the Capital.

BOAT FOUND. - PICKED UP IN the Sacramento river about six weeks ago, during the first rise, a flat-bottom skiff, painted lead color. The owner can reclaim his boat by applying at the PACIFIC MARKET, paying charges, etc., d30-3t*

p. 3


. . .

POLICE COURT.--On Saturday Judge Gilmer sentenced Thomas Smith to serve one hundred and eighty days in the chain-gang, for stealing William Barnett's boots off his feet and $20 in money out of his pockets. . . . Richard Fox and M. Callahan were convicted by a jury of four of assault and battery on W. Reed, but a motion for a new trial is expected to be made this morning. W. Reed is also charged with assault and battery on Fox and Callahan, and his trial wes postponed until to-day. The difficulty between these parties grew out of a dispute about a boat.

FUNERAL OF O. V. CHAPMAN.--The funeral of O. V. Chapman took place yesterday afternoon. A large number of the members of the Masonic fraternity resembled at their Hall, and proceeded to Sixth and M streets, at which point the remains of the deceased were placed in a boat for transportation to the City Cemetery. About fifty-five members of the above named organization followed the remains to the Cemetery--the whole forming a procession of nine boats, presenting an unusual and extraordinary spectacle. The train passed down Sixth street to the railroad, through the opening in the embankment at that point, and thence in a direct line to the Cemetery. The funeral service was pronounced by the Rev. W. H. Hill.

LIBRARY REPORT.--From the monthly report of the Librarian of the Sacramento Library Association, we find the following information: . . . It will be observed that the number of books drawn has fallen somewhat below the average. This should not, however, excite surprise, when the confusion and disarrangement consequent upon the overflow is taken into consideration.

EACH IN TURN.--Our neighbors at Washington and those of Slater's Addition, who escaped inundation entirely when the main portion of the city suffered the most on the 9th of the month, have met with their share of misfortune in that respect within the past few days. The high water of the Sacramento is finding its level among them to their great inconvenience and loss. . . .

THE RIVER.--The Sacramento river at sunset last evening had fallen some four inches from its highest mark, and stood at 22 feet 3 inches above low water mark. "Slow and sure," is an old saying. If the fall of the Sacramento is as "sure" as it is "slow," we have a dead thing of it in the course of time. The American river has fallen so far as to be docile and harmless. . . .

ROOF BLOWN OFF.--During the gale by which our city was visited on Thursday night, a portion of the roof of the grand stand at Agricultural Park was blown off. Nearly one-fourth of the entire roof was carried away, giving the edifice as it stands a very dilapidated appearance. . . .

ARRESTS.--. . . Richard King and John Maboney were also arrested by Taylor and Cody for petty larceny in stealing a boat, the property of M. Vance.

FUNERAL FROM THE HOSPITAL.--The funeral of Napoleon Lanouette, who died at the Hospital several days ago, took place yesterday afternoon. The remains of the deceased were conveyed to the City Cemetery in a boat.

RUNNING AGAIN.--The ferryboat at the slough at Sutter's Fort commenced running on Saturday afternoon. Footmen, horsemen and teams pass in and out K street. Several openings across J street require to be bridged. . . .

SERIOUS ACCIDENT.--The annexed particulars of a sad accident are given by the Knight's Landing News of Dec. 28th:

On Thursday night last, during the storm, W. G. Seely, the proprietor of the Union Hotel, proceeded with a lantern to the top of the hotel building to clean the spouts of obstructions, which prevented the water from running off from the roof. The rain and wind put the lantern out, and in attempting to descend he missed the ladder. He held on for some time by the fire wall and called for help, but before assistance could be rendered he lost his hold and fell to the platform below--a distance of thirty-six feet. His leg and ankle are supposed to be broken, but he appears to have received no internal injuries.

A SAN FRANCISCO LANDLORD.--The following card is published in San Francisco:

To all those fleeing from the floods of Sacramento and Stockton, the proprietor of the Niantic Hotel would respectfully state, that his house will be open and free for them for one week. H. H. PARKELL, Proprietor.
SAN FRANCISCO, December 28th

P. S.--We are told that "giving to the poor is lending to the Lord." This has been verified in my case. In 1850, when I had just arrived in the country, I contributed my last $50, through the (then) editor of the Alta, to the sufferers on the Plains, and never have had occasion to regret it. H. H. P. . . . .

THE RAIN.--lt commenced raining with great severity at nine o'clock today, in this city, and the storm continues unabated. At San Rafael the rain commenced at half past eight A. M., and at Petaluma at nine A. M., with great force. The tide to-day is unusually strong, and there is every indication that the rain is general.--San Francisco Alta, Dec. 26th. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3357, 31 December 1861, p. 2


. . .

The waters of the Sacramento at sunset last evening were about the same hight as they were twenty-four hours previous. The rains yesterday and on Sunday night had raised the American somewhat, and Sutter slough last evening was about an inch higher than on the day before. No fear was entertained that the late rains in the interior would cause any dangerous flood at this time. . . .

The telegraphic wires were down last night in every news direction, and we were left without communication with the outward world.

THE LATE FLOOD IN AMADOR.--The late rains did considerable injury in Amador county. The Jackson Ledger of Dec. 28th says:

A storm of equal severity with the one which visited us during the last week is never remembered to have occurred in this section, by white people. Without intermission, the avalanche of water poured from the heavens for about thirty-six hours, swelling every little rivulet to a torrent, which bore along in its resistless course houses, fences, bridges--and overflowed ranches and gardens. Many of our citizens have suffered severely. The waters of the Middle Fork of Jackson creek broke over its banks above Palmer's livery stable, and ran in a perfect torrent down Water to the junction of Broadway street to a depth of three or four feet.

The Young America saloon was for a time in great danger of being carried away, in consequence of the foot bridge crossing Jackson creek, near the residence of White, being swept away and lodged against it. Everything of a movable nature was carried out of the building. The damage will amount to $300 or $400.

The North Fork overflowed the upper end of Main street, causing a panic and stampede among the celestials who inhabit that part of town--the waters visiting their dwellings and sweeping over floors to which water had heretofore been a stranger.

The Mokelumne river was yesterday at an unprecedented hight--nearly reaching the stable that stands at the south end of the bridge.

A portion of the dugway on the Mokelumne Hill road was washed away near Butte City, as also the bridge at the quartz mill where the old road used to cross the gulch.

THE LATE RAIN IN PLACER.--On Saturday night, December 21st, the late storm commenced in Auburn, and continued until the following Tuesday. The temporary trail bridge at Mineral Bar was carried away. Thursday afternoon the storm commenced again, the rain falling heavily. The Herald of December 28th says:

The storm was the most violent of any experienced this Winter. Auburn ravine reached a higher mark than during the first flood, and all the tributary ravines were very high. The turnpike was again flooded, but not seriously injured. The American river rose very fast, but did not come within five feet of its previous high mark at Oregon Bar, below the junction. From this we conclude that upon the head waters of the American forks snow, and not rain fell. . . .

THE STORM AT GRASS VALLEY.--The late storm was quite severe at this place. The National of December 24th says:

Another severe rain storm commenced about twelve o'clock on Sunday morning, and has continued without intermission to the present time, five o'clock p. m. on Tuesday. Up to sundown of Sunday 4.16 inches fell, and 2 50 from that time till sundown on Monday. Since that time, up to the hour of our going to press, today, five o'clock P. M., but .60 of an inch have fallen. The storm however is still continuing, and there is a prospect of more rain to-morrow than we have had to-day. Thus far 7.26 inches has fallen during the present against 14 01 which fell in about the same time during the last storm.

THE LATE STORM IN DOWNIEVILLE.--The Sierra Democrat of December 28th thus speaks of the late rains in its vicinity:

The river is up again, and likely to be for some time. The foot bridge at Jersey still holds. The other freshet took out so many obstructions that the same volume would not now rise so high over the banks. If these latter rains had fallen on as much snow as laid on the mountains before the recent flood, the water would now be higher than then. All this week the ruin has been falling, with but very few and short intermissions. . . .

SUPPOSED SUICIDE.--A man, named O. G. Dunham, who has been in the Sierra County Hospital, and had one side of his body paralyzed, is supposed to have jumped into the river at Downieville and drowned. He was a native of Vermont.

DROWNED IN PLUMAS.--Thomas Dawson, an old citizen of Quincy, Plumas county, was drowned near that town recently while returning to his home. The deceased left a young wife.

THE COSUMNES.--The water rose so high on the Cosumnes a few days since as to surround the old adobe house at Grimshaw's ranch. This is said to be quite unusual, even in high water times.

THIRTY-FIRST STREET LEVEE.--Judge H. O. Beatty, who has examined the Thirty-first street levee, thinks it can be so far repaired as to fill the breaks from L to E street for about five hundred dollars. This would shut the water out of the city north of L street, and leave that portion of the city comparatively dry. It would be well for the Committee to look at this matter, and have it done right away, if the river is too high to begin work at Burns' slough. It would be gaining quite an important point to so repair that levee as to exclude the water running out of the river at the slough from entering the city north of L street. But as early as possible work should be commenced at the slough, and continued day and night until the levee at that point is placed in a condition to resist higher water than that which came over it on the 9th instant.

SIDEWALKS AND STREETS.--We reiterate the suggestion that the Citizens' Committee ought this week to give some attention and money to putting the streets and sidewalks to and from Capitol in a good condition for walking upon. We hardly suppose that any property owner will object to putting down a sidewalk opposite his lot or lots before the Legislature convenes. First impressions go a long way, and our property owners ought to consider that they are vitally interested in having the city present as favorable and inviting an appearance as possible under the surrounding circumstances.

THE LATE STORM IN CALAVERAS.--The Chronicle of December 28th says :

The storm of this week has been far more severe, in this county, than the one which resulted so disastrously for Sacramento. The rain commenced falling on Sunday morning, and for three days it seemed almost as if the windows of Heaven were literally opened. The branches of the Calaveras were higher than during the memorable flood of '52. Bridges have been carried away from several streams, and the swollen torrent rushed along through gulches and ravines, carrying before it everything that obstructed its course; we have heard of several accidents, but no losses of life. In attempting to cross a stream, a horseman was carried down the river for some distance, but finally reached the shore from which he started without suffering any inconvenience but a thorough wetting. Some gentlemen attempted to go from San Andreas to Calaveritas, but were compelled to return, being unable to get over Willow creek. We learn that the Calaveras overflowed its bank, and that the city of Stockton and the surrounding country was inundated. The Mokelumne was not as high as during the rain of last week. The bridge at Sandy Bar was carried away. We have not heard of any other damage on the Mokelumne.

THE FRESHET IN PLUMAS.--All the bridges in Indian Valley with the exception of one, the bridges across the East Branch at Twelve Mile Bar, as well as numerous minor ones, were carried away, by the late freshet.

p. 3


POLICE COURT.--The police business of yesterday was disposed of by Judge Gilmer as follows: The case of W. Reed, charged with assault and battery on R. Fox and B. Callahan, was dismissed. Fox and Callahan, previously convicted of assault and battery on Reed, were fined $10 each. . . . The case of John Mahoney and John King, charged with the larceny of a boat belonging to R. H. Vance, worth $25, was partially examined, and continued for further testimony until to-day. Vance proved the boat to be his. It had been missing about two weeks, when it was found in the possession of the defendants. Their statements as to how they came in possession of it were contradictory. The testimony on this point was also conflicting. . . .

SIDEWALKS.--Our attention has been called to the bad condition of the sidewalks at several points near the Capitol. The lot at the northeast corner of Seventh and I streets, belonging to Dr. Pearis, has no sidewalk on either front. That on the south side of I near Sixth is also in bad condition. At a point on the east side of Seventh between I and J, and also between J and K streets repairs are badly needed. The Legislature will assemble in a few days--Monday next,--and for many reasons these repairs ought to be completed before that time. If owners neglect the work the authorities ought to attend to it as is provided by ordinance.

BOAT UPSET.--At about noon yesterday a small boat containing two men, a woman and a child, was swamped by the waves produced by the Gov. Dana on her way from Marysville. The accident occurred opposite Mike Bryte's ranch, three miles above the city. The parties in the boat were all saved by clinging to the beat and to the willows along the shore, near which the accident occurred. They were rescued by Joseph Gray, Andrew Conlin and Nicholas Short, with the aid of a small boat, by which they were taken one at a time to shore. As the steamer did not halt, it is presumed that her officers did not witness the accident.

THE RIVERS.--There had been but little change at sunset last evening in the Sacramento river during the past twenty-four hours. The gauge still indicated twenty-two feet three inches of water. The American river at the tannery commenced to rise about noon yesterday and rose moderately throughout the afternoon. The slough near the Gas Works rose about an inch during the latter portion of the day. . . .

COMPANY A.--Company A, Captain Joseph Smith, of the Fifth Regiment, was brought to the city yesterday from Sutterville, by the steamer Gov. Dana, and was transferred to the steamer Antelope, for San Francisco, a few minutes before her departure. The company numbered seventy-eight men. Considerable delay was caused in transferring the men from one boat to the other, on account of the prevalence at the time of a heavy rain and terrific gale of wind.

FURNISH THE LUMBER.--Overseers Long and Dreman, with the chain gang, are engaged in constructing street crossings wherever the material is furnished by property owners. Furnish the lumber, and let the streets be again made passable to pedestrians.

WAITING FOR GOOD ROADS.--A large number of teams are detained on the Auburn road; between that road and this, waiting for roads and weather by which they can travel. . . .

RAIN.--Our city was visited yesterday, by way of variety, with a violent storm of some two or three hours duration. The rain which fell, we learn from Dr. Logan, amounted to 0.400 of an inch. This amount, added to 0.350 which fell during Sunday night, makes 0.750, or three-fourths of an inch during the past twenty-four hours. We have had about nine inches of rain during the month of December. . . .

GREAT EXPECTATIONS.--lf the almanacs tell the truth we shall have a new moon at about 9 o'clock this morning. The hopes of many of our citizens for clear weather hang upon its horns. . . .

p. 4

NOTICE IS HEREBY GIVEN that the undersigned will apply to the honorable Board of Supervisors of Sacramento City and County, on the 27th day of January next, or as soon thereafter as the application can be heard, for a license to keep a Ferry across the American river, at the old Hereford & Lisle Ferry.
December 26, 1861, [d27 80t] R.A. PEARIS, . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3358, 1 January 1862, p. 1

RECORD OF EVENTS IN THE CITY. Below will be found a brief mention of noteworthy events which have occurred in this city during the year. Sacramento has suffered extensively, both by flood and fire, during the year, but her citizens still retain the energy and self-reliance which have hitherto been found sufficient to combat more disastrous calamities than they have experienced in 1861. . . .

March 14--. . . Work commenced on the sewer from the St George Hotel to the I street levee. . . .
March 27--Very high stage of water in the American and Sacramento rivers, and great alarm felt lest an inundation of the city should follow. Swift's bridge at the mouth of the American was swept away. Body of A. J. Baer found in the Sacramento river, below Washington. A Coroner's jury found a verdict of suicide.
March 28--Water from Sutter Lake forced its way into the American river, across First street. Lisle's bridge partially swept away by the freshet. . . .
April 7--The Sacramento levee at the foot of R street was washed seriously by an eddy, and caused a good. deal of excitement. The work of strengthening it was commenced at three and concluded at nine o'clock P. M.. At midnight another alarm was given, and fears were entertained that the levee would be broken through before morning. . . .
April 8--At one o'clock in the morning a train of cars left for Folsom for cobble stone with which to repair the levee at the foot of R street; sixteen loads were brought and used during the day. The work was continued through the night.
April 9--. . . During a portion of the day the Sacramento river stood at twenty-one feet and nine inches above low water mark. . . .
April 11--The waters of the Sacramento continued to range at twenty-one feet and six inches, and upwards, above low water mark, although so long a time had elapsed since the fall of any rain here that the street sprinklers were brought into requisition to lay the dust.
April 17--. . . Fifty thousand feet of Puget Sound lumber arrived for Lisle's bridge. . . . Yesterday and to-day twenty car loads of cobble stones were thrown into the crevasse at the levee below R street.. . .
April 23--Ordinance passed forbidding the pumping of water from cellars until the Sacramento river shall have fallen to a point eighteen feet above low water mark. . . .
May 23--The Supervisors entered into a contract to have the water in the lower part of the city which had oozed through the levees, pumped out. . . .
May 31--The work of pumping out the water from the lower part of the city was commenced by Supervisor Hansbrow. . . .
July 17--A free bridge across the American river constructed by Bannon, Johnson and others was thrown open to travel. . . .
Oct. 22--The Board of Supervisors determined to build a bulkhead at Rabel's tannery. . . .



. . .

Nearly every material interest in the State suffered, to an extent unprecedented, by great freshets which, during the month of December, swept off houses, immense numbers of cattle, farming and mining utensils, and other property. In many of the cities and villages, inundations have destroyed heavy stocks of merchandise, and driven hundreds of families from their dwellings to seek refuge elsewhere. . . .

The following is a record of some of the noteworthy occurrences and facts of the year: . . .
March 29 [sic]--Great freshets in the rivers in the northern portion of the State, causing much damage to property.
March 28--. . . Stage travel greatly interrupted in consequence of the destruction of bridges by the freshets. . . .
Nov 12--Heavy rains throughout the State. Equipments at Camp Alert were all afloat. . . .
Nov 17--Tremendous storm of snow in the mountains and rain in the valleys.
Nov 18--No Overland mail received in consequence of the interruptions by storm in mountains. . . .
Dec 6--Northern California visited by the most terrlble rain storm ever experienced by American inhabitants.
Dec 7--The effect of the storm very disastrous in the carrying away of bridges and other property, and the obstruction of telegraphic and road communication.
Dec 9--Great inundations throughout the State, causing a fearful destruction of property. The waters of the Sacramento, Feather, Yuba, American, and other streams, reached a hight unknown before. Sacramento City was all under water but the levees.
Dec 11--The high waters slowly receding; communication both by telegraph and stage almost entirely destroyed within the Slate. Great sums of money raised in San Francisco for the relief of sufferers by the flood in the interior. . . .
Dec 13--Telegraphic communication with the East reopened. . . .
Dec 21--The Sacramento Board of Supervisors passed an ordinance ordering the removal of the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company's tracks and other property from the river banks and from R street between Sixth street and the river.
Dec 23--Another rising of the American, Yuba, Feather.and Sacramento rivers, caused by heavy rains. . . .
Dec 26--The most terrible storm of wind and rain ever experienced in Northern California by Americans.
Dec 27--. . . Travel much impeded by the high stage of water in all the principal rivers.

p. 3

. . . The receipts of the city from the levee are derived from a toll of. . .

This amount, judiciously expended, ought to be enough, if the city levees were once well built, to keep them in tolerably good repair. The falling off in the month of December is attributable to the general stagnation of business caused by the recent disastrous overflows. . . .

FLOODS IN SANTA CLARA COUNTY.--The San Jose Tribune of December 27th, says:

The stage for the steamer at Alviso could not pass the bridges over the Guadaloupe this morning, in consequence of the rise in the river. The stream has overflowed its banks, and the water is up to the fence of the Convent Notre Dame. The stages were compelled to go to Alviso by the new turnpike road. We also learn that the Coyote is very high, and that the stages for Gilroy, San Juan, Watsonville and Santa Cruz did not leave this morning, being apprehensive that they could not make the trip in consequence of the rise in the streams. . . .

p. 4


. . . The late flood naturally disarranged business to some extent, and caused to be destroyed or mislaid, many papers in the possession of person who have generally furnished us some matter for our New Year's paper. We found it difficult, too, at times, while all were so busily engaged in repairing damages and rearranging business, to interest in the matter those who could alone furnish the desired information. . . .

HIGH FLOODS.--A communication in the San Jose Tribune expresses the opinion that the flood of Dec. 9th in Sacramento was caused mainly by the bursting of clouds in the mountains, and contains the following statement:

I met Col. Williams at Sacramento. He was there urging some war claims he had against the Government upon the attention of the Legislature. In conversation with him in regard to the overflow of '49, he stated to me positively that he had seen the water at that place (the embarcadero it was formerly called) ten feet higher than the top of the levee in front of the city. He further observed that, if I doubted the fact, he would walk with me to the slough and show me the marks on the trees that would convince me. I had no reason to doubt the old gentleman's word, and therefore did not accept the invitation.

We have seen similar marks in waters all over the State, but they are unreliable in determining the hight of a flood. Trees, unless they are large and strong, are borne down by the force of the waters, and when they right themselves again, exhibit on their trunks, and sometimes in their tops, marks of the flood, such as dead leaves and other floating matter. We have witnessed these indications often in the interior, and were deceived by them as to the height of rivers, until a long residence in the locality and a severe experience with floods gave us more reliable intelligence. . . .

THE BRANNAN RANCH.--lt is stated that the losses of stock on the Brannan ranch, on Feather river, will not exceed ten thousand dollars. Most of the sheep drowned were of ordinary breeds. Some six thousand were driven to the high lands and saved. . . .


. . . No immediate or peculiar calamity should be permitted to obscure the fact that our reasons for rejoicing during the past twelve months have been more numerous and potential than our excuses for despondency. . . .

This strengthening of the ties of allegiance to a form of government which furnishes the best guarantees of peace, liberty, security and prosperity, should afford ample atonement for any mere local disaster. . . .

Sacramento, though so recently and so seriously visited, has no justification for spending a gloomy New Year's day, or for cherishing unkindly memories of 1861. Previous to the advent of the December floods, the city had cause to be thankful for her progress in wealth, business and permanent population. Her position as the second city in the State, was rendered more than ever secure. Those who had faith in the bright future of the capital before the rising waters devastated her streets, cannot lose confidence in the recuperative power of a people whose energies have been frequently tested and approved, nor yet lose sight of the natural conditions which render a metropolis located precisely where Sacramento stands a necessity of the State. No ; let the Old Year carry with him in his flight all thought of grieving over the effects of the flood, and the advent of the New Year bring us cheerful confidence in our destiny, while nerving us to prompt and thorough-going action, in order to restore what has been lost and to secure safeguards against a repetition of the calamity . . .

CONVICT LABOR.--The San Francisco Journal has published several sensible articles on the condition of Sacramento and the levee question. It thinks convict labor might be successfully employed. In a late number it says:

In an article in this paper on Saturday, we indicated how, at a comparatively trifling expense, the State can extend to Sacramento the aid which she so much needs, assistance without which, we may add, she may be blotted out from the list of the fair cities of our State--assistance which magnanimity and interest alike command us to extend. The employment of the convict labor of the State in this way, while it will confer such important benefits upon the country by securing it against the destructive inundations to which it is now subject, commends itself to favorable consideration for several other reasons. First, it relieves a most important class of our fellow citizens from a competition alike odious and impolitic--a competition degrading to our mechanical industry, and which no pecuniary consideration can ever make tolerable. But as suggested in the pamphlet to which we have before referred, the employment of these outcasts upon the works alluded to can be extended to the reclamation of the swamp and overflowed lands, and by a judicious system of compensation for their labor, made an effective means of their ultimate reformation. Levees, canals, and in places stone walls will be indispensable to the reclamation of these lands, and the protection of the country from inundation, and there is already a fund of about $300,000 applicable to the required works, and which will be ample for the procurement of all the machinery, tools and materials required beyond what will be cheerfully furnished by the cities and counties immediately interested in the works. At least, so much as has been derived from the particular districts upon which the work is to he done can be thus devoted. The prisoners can be incited to faithful labor by a provision for the accumulation of a fund, by setting apart a reasonable proportion of the proceeds of the sales of the reclaimed lands, from which the discharged convict, at his release, shall receive his proportion, either in land or money, thus giving him a small capital at his re-entrance into the world, and freeing him from the temptation which destitution opens for entering upon a new career of crime. We are satisfied that legislative wisdom can eliminate a system which has merely been hinted at in these papers, by which incalculable good will result, not only to the people of the river counties, but to the State at large, and we urge its consideration upon public attention. . . .

THE STORM IN SAN JUAN.--The late storm in San Juan was very severe, and prostrated fences and trees, and did damage generally to local improvements.

GOT AGROUND.--A few days since, the steamer Bragdon, in passing from Stockton to San Francisco during the late gale, was blown on the bank of the slough about six miles from Stockton, and remained there without injury until hauled off by the Helen Hensley. . . .

p. 5


POLICE COURT.--. . .In the case of John Mahoney and John King, two boys, tried on a charge of stealing a boat on Monday, and held under advisement, the defendants were discharged, with good advice from the Court.

THE LEVEE NEAR SUTTERVILLE.--ln addition to the main crevasse, near Sutterville, through which an immense quantity of water passes hourly, we are informed by citizens of that locality that about three-quarters of a mile of the levee is in a very precarious condition. The water is running over it in several places some six or eight inches deep, wearing away the bank, gradually it is true, but surely. In many other places the bank is caving by the action of the water, and is gone for a distance of one half or two-thirds the width of the levee. Those who have seen these weak places say that if they can be supplied with a few bales of hay, a few pickets, and a few gunny sacks, they could stop the depredation of the waters, but that if there is no remedy applied soon the levee for the distance named will have to be entirely rebuilt.

SINGULAR.--On Monday afternoon a footman, on approaching the city, near Burns' slough, met with a man who was riding a horse and leading two others, both saddled. As a severe rain prevailed at the time, he obtained permission to ride one of the horses. The owner, or ostensible owner rode so rapidly into the city that the borrower was unable to keep pace with him, and was afterward unable to find him. The horse was taken to the station house and placed in charge of Chief of Police Watson. Hia owner has not yet been heard from. The horse is a large white animal, and has the letter N branded on the left hip.

BOAT BUILDING.--The most active and universal business now going on in the city appears to be that of boat building. All who have hammer, saw, nails and lumber, employ their time in this line of mechanism. There is, of course, an endless variety of models produced. Had Noah postponed his experiment at ark building until 1861, and laid the keel in Sacramento he could have obtained many a new idea in that line which was never dreamed of in the olden time. Whether he would ever thereby have reached Mount Ararat is another question. . . .

FREIGHT BOAT.--A large flat boat, ten feet wide and thirty feet long, was built yesterday at M and Second streets, by J. B. Newland. The builder launched the craft last evening in the water on M street. He designs to use it in carrying freight from the business portion of the city to the present railroad terminus at Poverty Ridge. When the boat is no longer of use in this line it will be taken to Georgiana slough to be used as a ferry boat.

THE RIVERS.--The water in the Sacramento at sunset last evening stood twenty-two feet seven inches above low water mark, having risen four inches within the past twenty-four hours. This is the high mark of Friday, December 27th. The American river declined slowly during the afternoon. The water in the lower portion of the city raised about eight inches during Monday night, and partially receded during yesterday afternoon.

AT WORK.--The Committee of Safety had a number of men employed on the northern levee yesterday, wherever work could be done to advantage between Rabel's tannery and Burns' slough. In consequence of the rains of Monday and Monday night, and of the continued high water, it is impossible to work at present except at a few points. As soon as practicable, a much larger force will be employed. . . .

NOT THEIR WORK.--The Committee of Safety give notice that they do not consider it their business to make or repair street crossings or sidewalks, dig drains, construct sewers, or bridges, or remove nuisances. Their whole business as a Committee they consider to be to protect the city from inundation. Application of all descriptions have been made to them for the performance of such work as is above referred to. . . .

GOOD WORK.--An excellent sidewalk was yesterday partially constructed in front of the lot belonging to Pearis & Wilcoxson, at the northeast corner of Seventh and I streets. Lumber has also been provided for similarly improving other property in the same vicinity. Such promptness is worthy the imitation of other property owners, as its effect must be advantageous to all. . . .

YOLO.--The water continues to rise higher and spread further in Yolo county daily. Many ranches, which have never been known to be flooded before, are now under water. Several houses belonging to ranchmen, which were thought to be entirely safe, have been set afloat and turned over by the action of the water.

THE WEATHER.--After the rainy night and cloudy morning, the wind veered around from the southeast to the northwest yesterday forenoon. The clouds disappeared, the atmosphere became cool and bracing, and the general hope was inspired that the rains were over for the present. Quien sabe? . . .

THE FLOOD IN SAN FRANCISCO.--Our neighbors in San Francisco have not altogether escaped the consequences of the storms. The Bulletin of December 30th says:

The wind blew heavily again last night from the southeast, but we have learned of no damage to shipping except in one instance. The bow hawser of the ship War Hawk, lying at Vallejo street wharf, cut through into her bows some distance. The planking must have been rotten. The bay was calm again this morning and the skies blue, but the rain fell toward noon in great quantity. The tide, too, happened to be higher--the oldest inhabitant says--than ever known before. These two causes have flooded many of the cellars of our down town houses. On California street this is especially the case, as the torrents rushing down the hill are met and held back by the high tide. This back-water is thus forced through the adjacent cellar walls. The damage is not very great, as perishable goods are not kept to any great extent in these cellars. The whole of the southern portion of the city and county watered by Mission creek is also flooded by the high tide, and no small damage will result to gardens of that neighborhood, and large lakes have been formed in other low lands by the rain.

The Alta adds :

Early this morning the rain set in with renewed violence, and up to one o'clock this afternoon has fallen heavily and without intermission. An immense amount of water has fallen, many of the streets and cellars down town being flooded. At eleven o'clock the water in the bay rose to an unparalleled hight. It came up to the caps of the wharves. The great rise was caused by a very high tide, coming at the same time with a wind from the west preventing the escape of the water through the Golden Gate, and a flood in the streams tributary to the bay. Fortunately there was no wind from the north or south, for a heavy blow sweeping the bay lengthwise would have thrown the waves over the wharves and done great damage to the property along the water front. The tide will be higher to-morrow, the day after, and the next day, than it has been today, but probably the other influences will not concur to raise the bay so high as it was this morning. The roads leading out of town are exceedingly muddy, and in the adjacent counties almost impassable.

REMOVAL OF THE CAPITAL.--On this subject the San Francisco Spirit of the Times says:

We think the Sacramento papers have attached too much importance to what a few irresponsible persons have said touching a removal of the Capital. So far as San Francisco is concerned, no such an idea has ever been entertained or even hinted at, much less putting in force any machinery, political or otherwise, looking towards such an undertaking. That the people of San Francisco desire the Capital to remain where it legitimately belongs, was made manifest in the prompt manner in which they responded to the appeal for relief from Sacramento. The people of San Francisco do not wish the Capital located in their city, and have not signified such a wish; and if there be any who speak contrary to such a view, professing to represent San Francisco in the premises, they do so without the slightest right or authority. The Capital of the State is at Sacramento, belongs there, and must remain there, and even if it should be necessary to adjourn the Legislature to some other place for the present, still Sacramento is the Capital of the State, and some provision should be made by the Legislature about convening to find means to protect the property of the State. It savors of a dishonorable act, to us, to even discuss the removal or probability of a removal of the Capital from Sacramento, for the reason that she is temporarily in difficulty; but as San Francisco naturally seems to be the locality aimed at in the Capital removal articles, we deem it but an act of justice and a part of our duty as a journalist to disclaim that she desires such a change. Should the matter of permanent removal come up before the next Legislature, we hazard the opinion that the vote of every member from the city and county of San Francisco will be against it, and rightly so. We entertain a hope, however, that instead of discussing the removal of the Capital from where it belongs, the feasibility of protecting it for the future will be one of the prominent measures of the session. The people of California will not sanction the removal of the Capital from Sacramento. . . .

CROWDING EXTRAORDINARY.--The Mountain Messenger says they have got a wooden building up at La Porte, built of seasoned lumber during he past Summer, between two brick buildings. It was fitted into the opening so tight that the swelling, caused by the recent wet weather, is crowding the two outside bricks to such an extent as to endanger the safety of one of them. The "devil" of the Messenger office suggests the application of a bottle of Sherman's Rheumatic Liniment to take down the swelling. . . .

THE FLOOD IN STOCKTON.--Referring to this topic, the San Joaquin Republican of December 28th says :

The sun came out brightly yesterday, and the latter part of the day was in strange contrast with the boisterous day before. It is now settled, if it were not before, that Stockton cannot be seriously overflowed. The water fell quite low yesterday in the sloughs. The cutting away of the Hunter street causeway nuisance drained the four lots upon which the water was backed, completely, though they are partially in the sloughs. The water in Mormon Slough rose two feet yesterday afternoon, and at two o'clock this morning was nearly full, and rising rapidly.

All the sloughs traversing the city were high at two o'clock and rising. Several houses situated on low ground near the slough, at the back of the Stockton Bakery Hotel, were surrounded with water. At half past one o'clock the alarm bell was rung, and in a few minutes a hundred or more persons were on their way to Mormon Slough, which was supposed to have overflowed its banks or broken over the bulkhead. The slough was found to be nearly bank full, but the bulkhead safe and sound.

The overflow comes from the Calaveras. Miners' avenue, between Hunter and California streets, was all under. The water was a foot deep in Supervisor Severy's garden. Col. Connor's bulkhead is partially is [sic] under water, and the foot bridge was likely to break at half past two this morning. The slough at Hart's and Shoaff's was bank full. The water was within half a foot of reaching Hunter street bridge, and was rising at the rate of six inches an hour. Probably not a dozen lots in town are overflowed.

A dispatch to the Alta from E. S. Holden, dated Stockton, December 29th, P. M., says : " Stockton is free from water--damage yesterday, five hundred dollars.". . .

[drawing of dancing couple] IN CONSEQUENCE OF THE
unsettled state of the weather, the INAUGURATION BALL will be POSTPONED until further notice. JOHN H. CARROLL,
ja1-8t Chairman Executive Committee. . . .

p. 8


Nov 11--. . . Considerable quantity of rain fell--first of the season. . . .
Nov 17--The city was visited by a lively shower of hail, accompanied and succeeded by heavy rain.
Nov 18--The Board of Supervsors rejected the only bid for constructing a bulkhead at Rabel's tannery. . . .
Nov 29--. . . The Board of Supervisors agreed to contract with A. D. Rlghtmire for a bulkhead at Rabel's tannery. . . .
Dec 9--By a sudden rise of the American river, consequent upon recent heavy rains, the levees were broken, and the entire city, with the exception of the remaining levees, was submerged. About forty houses were swept away by the flood, and an immense amount of property, estimated at about a million and a half, destroyed. One man was drowned by driving his team into a cistern, the cover of which had floated off. It is not known that any other lives were lost. During the night the flood subsided, leaving L street and all that portion north of it free, but the remaining portions of the city have been covered with water to a greater or less extent, at intervals, to the present day. Liberal subscriptions in aid of the sufferers were received from San Franclsco.
Dec 11--A citizens' meeting and a Committee chosen to prepare a plan of action in regard to the inundation and the condition of the levee, and report on the following day.
Dec 12--At the citizens' meeting, the Committee reported a plan for rebuilding and repairing the levees by transferring the Sinking and Interest Fund to a special Levee Fund for that purpose. The Board of Supervisors had a special meeting called for that parpose, and passed an ordinance making the transfer as desired.
Dec 13--On account of various legal and other difficulties in the way, the project of appropriating the Sinking and Interest Fund was abandoned, and a Committee of citizens was appointed to raise money for that purpose, the money to be expended by another Citizens' Commitee. Nearly $60,000 were raised, and the work was prosecuted with a good degree of vigor. The Howard Benevolent Society exerted its energies to relieve the suffering poor, establishing a depot at the Pavilion for shelter, food and clothing, and a hospital in another locality for the sick . . .
Dec 16--The laborers at the new Capitol building resumed work, having been driven away by the flood.
Dec 17--The Board of Supervisors voted to cancel the permission given the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company to run their cars on the R street levee west of Sixth street and on Front street. . . .
Dec 19--A Citizens' meeting, called to consider the subject of the removal of the railroad to the northern part of the city, voted to instruct the Citizens' Committee to go on with the levees without regard to the railroad; . . .
Dec 23--The American river again broke through at at [sic] Burns' slough, the location of the flrst break, sweeping away much of the new levee built by the Citizens' Committee, and flowing through the southern part of the city. The Board of Supervisors passed an ordinance repealing former ordinances granting the right of way to the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company, and enacting that said company may construct a track into the city as far as Sixth street, by building trestle work a distance of 150 feet each side of the slough.
Dec 24--A man supposed to be William H. Tyman, was drowned in attempting to go on board the steamer Nevada. The Sacramento had risen twenty-two feet six inches above low water mark.
Dec 25--Notwithstanding the uncomfortable stage of the water, Christmas day was observed with a good degree of hilarity.
Dec. 27--The Sacramento river at sunset was twenty-two feet seven inches above low water mark, being one inch higher than ever before known since the country was settled by Americans. By the upsetting of a boat near Poverty Ridge, two boatmen and six passengers were ducked, and Wells, Fargo & Co.'s letter bag was lost.
Dec 29--. . . Nearly one-fourth of the roof of the grand stand at Agricultural Park was blown off by gale.


SIXTH STREET CHURCH--. . . The basement of the church has been much injured by the late flood, imposing additional expense upon this society. . . .

H STREET M. E. CHURCH--. . . Up to the time of the great flood the church had been prospering finely for three months. The congregation had increased so that the average attendance was more than that given, and the Sunday School was rapidly advancing in numbers and interest. The condition of the city has affected both these; but as the property has not been materially injured by the flood, and the church is now in comfortable condition, increased prosperity is confidently hoped for. . . .


SACRAMENTO VALLEY RAILROAD.--. . . The business of the road has been prosperous during the year, up to the time of the December flood, which destroyed a portion of the railroad embankment within the city. Repairs are rapidly progressing. . . .

Altitude at the top of the Levee, in front of the City, 54 Feet 5 Inches. Hight of lower surface of Mercury, 52 Feet 5 Inches above Low Tide at San Francisco--with remarks.

[a number of observations, including:]
Quantity of rain and fog
JANUARY. - 2.668
FEB'Y. - 2.920
MARCH. - 3.320
APRIL. - 0.475
MAY. - 0.590
JUNE. - 0.135
JULY. - 0.000
AUGUST. - 0.000
SEPT. - 0.000
OCTOBER. - 0.000
NOV. - 2.170
DEC. - 8.687
ANNUAL MEAN. - 23.201
AVERAGE. - 18.019

. . .

Arranged according to the Classification recommended by the American Medical Association; with remarks,

. . .
From External Causes:
. . .
Drowned - 4
January -1
April - 1
July - 1
December -1

Male - 4

1 to 10 years - 1
20 to 30 years - 1
50 to 60 years - 2

California and Pacific States - 1
Atlantic States of N. America - 1
F'gn Countries - 2

. . .


There are in the city a number of Societies, having various praiseworthy objects in view.

THE HOWARD BENEVOLENT ASSOCIATION, organized December 28, 1857, relieves the sick, poor and destitute, regardless of nativity. creed or color. Its officers are as follows: President, George W. Mowe; Treasurer, T. M. Lindley ; Secretary, R. T. Brown ; Directors, P. H. Russell, C. Robin. John McNeill. John H. Carroll, William H. Hill and N. A. H. Ball; Steward, George P. Warner. The confidence which is universally entertained in the efficiency and integrity of this organization is well attested by the fact that the generous people of San Francisco made it their agent to receive and disburse donations to the amount of more than $30,000 for the relief of the suffering in Sacramento and the surrounding country, caused by the inundation of December 9, 1861. The labors of the officers have been so arduous during the past month that it has been impossible to obtain any statistics in regard to their transactions for the year. . . .


Abstract of the Meteorology and Necrology of Sacramento, with remarks.

[table omitted]

REMARKS.--Clouds and rains and storms, attended with unprecedented floods, have characterized the month, and rendered it exceptional in many respects. The persistence of the inclement weather, chronicled in our November report, continued to prevail unill the 7th, when an almost tropical rain set in, and in the space of thirty-six hours over 2-1/2 inches of water fell at Sacramento. In consequence of this sudden accession of water which, according to our advices, was in the proportion of about one here to six in the mountains, the American river rose very rapidly, and would doubtless soon have run off at its debouchement into the Sacramento (then only twenty feet above low water mark,) had not the unseasonable spell of warm weather melted the snow from the mountains at the same time. From the latter source the waters came rushing down the sides of the mountains like an avalanche, carrying away dams and aqueducts, and deluging, in a very brief time, the foot hills, as well as the valleys lying far below. The levee on the American soon yielded to the sudden pressure, at Burns' slough, and the natural outlet having been closed by the railroad embankment, the cumulated mass of water soon found its level in our streets, and at 12 M. the whole city was submerged, with the exception of Front and I streets. At the former point the water attained within sixteen inches of the top, at. 10 P. M,, when it had reached its maximum elevation. As soon as it found a vent through the embankment at the south of the city, the water subsided rapidly, and on the morning of the 10th the main streets were freed from the destructive element. From this period the weather continued variable and unsettled until the 22d, when a second term of heavy rains commenced, and consequently the lower portions of the city were again inundated. On Christmas the sun broke from its cloudy confines, but the wind changed again by night to the rainy quarter, and the following day the most copious precipitation on record was experienced as regards the proportion of quantity to time. During the space of 13 hours a warm rain poured down in torrents, accompanied at intervals by a high wind from the S. E. During this period the minimum of the barometer was recorded as above. The water which fell measured 2.440 inches, and the American responded rapidly again, flooding the lower portions of the city, which had been partially relieved. As the Sacramento had at this time attained the highest stage on record. viz: 22 feet 6 inches above zero, the American had no other outlet except through the southeastern portion of the city. That the entire city was not again submerged is proof practical that there is a much greater fall in the Sacramento below the city than is generally conceded by engineers, and that the first extraordinary flood is altogether attributable to the error of not leaving open a passage for the escape of the water in the event of a crevasse such as we have just experienced.

The exceptional characteristics of the month are found in the unusually high range of temperature, the great proportion of cloudy, foggy and rainy days, and the large amount of precipitation, amounting to nearly one-half of our average annual supply. There is generally a period of intermission between the early and the latter rains, and doubtless it is now at hand, as we have already received much more than half of the annual quantity. Considering all the circumstances, then, meteorological and physical, just mentioned, in connection with our past experience, we may confidently predict that the business portions of the city cannot become inundated again this season. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3359, 3 January 1862, p. 1

. . .

SWEPT AWAY.--The bridge over the Mokelumne, at Woodbridge, was swept away on Friday night, December 27th, the sudden rise in the river having taken it off bodily. It then [?] lodged against the bank a few miles miles below Woodbrldge. . . .

p. 2

TRAVELING IN THE INTERIOR.--Travel from Auburn to Nevada and Marysville is much interrupted at present by high water in the sloughs. . . .

p. 4


. . .

The wires of the telegraph between this point and San Francisco being down, we are without our usual dispatch from the latter city. . . .

The waters of the Sacramento are falling, but very slowly. The Committee of Safety resumed operations yesterday morning, and a number of men were employed in repairing the levee along the American river. . . .

FLOODS IN THE MOUNTAINS.--Persons who come [?] down from the mountains of Tuolumne and Calaveras, December 30th, inform the Stcckton Independent that the late floods which have overflowed the Calaveras and Mokelumne were quite destructive throughout the mines. The small streams in Calaveras have all been out of their banks. Flumes, mining claims on the bars [?], fences, gardens and orchards have been swept away, or ruined by deposits of sand and water. About Murphy's much damage has been sustained by the claimants along the bed rock traces [?] which penetrates the flat; and scarcely a locality has escaped without serious loss. The roads are nearly impassable. Numbers of the small bridges are gone, and slides from the hills are frequently encountered.

In Tuolumne, according to the Columbia Courier, the destruction of property has been equally as wide spread, and work in the mines was almost universally suspended last Saturday. The Main Gulch flume burst on Thursday night, completely deluging all the claims in Columbia gulch. The Water Company's flume was injured to the extent of $5,000. The telegraph wires were disordered in all directions, and no news came in either by mail or telegraph. The buildings at Osborn's Ferry were surrounded by water from two to four feet deep. The end of the ferry rope had given way, and the river transit had become entirely suspended. The bridges, including Loving's, were still standing, though constantly threatened with being swept away by the rise. The rain had fallen [?] with a steadiness and severity never before witnessed in that part of the country. . . .

OUR WANT OF CITY AUTHORITIES.--Theoretically, we have city authorities, but practically, we are without any city government. The Consolidation Bill professes to furnish the people with a Board of Supervisors, and a President, who, by virtue of his office, is Superintendent of Streets and Levees. The salary attached to the office has been three thousand dollars. This was allowed the President as a compensation for giving his time and labor to the public in presiding over the deliberations of the Board, and in superintending streets and levees.

This is the theory, but in practice for the past two years the city has been without a Superintendent of Streets and Levees. President Shattuck, so far as we are advised, has taken upon himself very little more trouble about the streets and levees than any other citizen. They have been left pretty much to their own care--except what little has been bestowed upon them by the overseers of the chain gang.

The Board of Supervisors itself has pursued very much the same course in relation to city matters as its President. The most it has done for the city is included in allowing accounts and contracting debts contrary to the spirit and letter of the law. So great is the floating debt thus created against the City Contingent Fund, that the Board itself estimate warrants on that Fund as worth only twenty-five cents on the dollar. The credit of the city has been run down by successive Boards until it is below zero. So worthless is city scrip that we question whether there is a lumber merchant in Sacramento who would sell the authorities five hundred dollars' worth of lumber for even two thousand dollars in warrants. This condition of things seems to have been fully appreciated by the Board at its late session. Notwithstanding the city had been completely inundated, millions of property destroyed, sidewalks swept away, crossings floated off and Sacramento left a wreck of her former self, the Board of Supervisors met, held a session of several days and adjourned without making a single effort to assist in placing the city in as advantageous and comfortable a condition as circumstances would admit. The Board did not even purchase plank to build bridges over the ditches cut by individuals to drain different portions of the city. The Board literally has done nothing for the people in their distress. Of what benefit are such city authorities? Would not the people be much better off to-day if the members of the Board and the President were to resign and let the city be placed by them under a provisional government? One of the earliest acts of the Legislature should be to pass an Act that will give to Sacramento an efficient city government. . . .


In 1857, Philip A. Roach, of San Francisco, published a pamphlet on the "State Prison System of California." His main object seemed to be to demonstrate the impolicy [sic] and injustice to the mechanics of the State of the contract system as applied to State Prison labor. He argued at length against the practice of contracting State Prison labor so as to have it come in competition with the labor of the mechanics of the State, and suggested that the labor of State convicts might be advantageously employed in building levees on the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. When engaged in that kind of labor, he argued, the convicts would be employed so as not to interfere with the laboring men of the State. In his pamphlet, Mr. Roach said :

If the labor of the prisoners were under the control or the State, as it ought to be, various works of great importance might be undertaken. For instance the improvement of the navigation of the rivers leading to the Capitol of the state might be at once commenced. Sacramento and Marysville, each in just proportion for such an object, would probably furnish their quota of provisions and guards for the maintenance and safety of the convict, with hulks for their lodgment; and it is doubtful whether more would escape at any time from the wooden walls, than do now from San Quentin, with its brick ones. Then let the people of Stockton, who desire to improve the navigation to their town, enjoy the same privilege--its people guaranteeing to take charge of the prisoners, and in the event of their escape, to offer, as the people of Sacramento would, a reward for their apprehension, even twofold greater than is now required by the lease under which their services are held. And the people of San Jose, and perhaps of San Francisco, might profit by the same labor. As there are many hundreds in the institution, the Legislature might appoint a Committee, consisting of the Governor, Secretary of State, Controller, Treasurer and Surveror [sic] General, to apportion the number that each locality ought to have; and the Sheriffs of the different counties, where the labors were to be performed, might be authorized by the Board of Supervisors of their respective counties to appoint proper deputies to assist the State authorities to safely guard the prisoners.

After the improvement of the rivers shall have been accomplished, or the public roads opened, let the Surveyor General set apart, of the swamp and overflowed lands, so many acres for the support of the Insane Asylum, so many for the State Hospital, so many for Orphan Asylums in the State, to be divided among the different denominations; so much for the Public Schools, and then, under proper officers of the State, let the prisoners work to reclaim thm. While their labor thus employed would not come in competition with that of the mechanic, it would add immensely to the wealth of the State. If each convict reclaimed per day but sufficient to pay for his maintainance, the State would be a gainer; but with the engineering talent we have among us, the construction of large canals wculd drain millions of acres, and then would be serviceable for the purposes of navigation. Millions of the most productive lands could then be offered at low prices and in reasonable quantities to the actual settler, and their value applied to reduce the indebtedness of the State, the interest of which is gnawing at our vitals. The articles that could be raised on this land--tobacco, rice, sugar and cotton--are those which we now import at a greatly enhanced cost, as we are so distant from the countries of production, and would interfere but little with our usual agricultural crops. There is another point to be considered. The Commonwealth reaping the benefit of the labor of her erring children, could do something for their reformation. Of every hundred acres reclaimed, let a small percentage be dedicated to a common fund, to be divided, at the expiration of the sentence, among those who had labored in the lands. In this manner the convict would have an inducement to be industrious, and in proportion as he had toiled, might have something with which, on the expiration of his term, to commence the world. For many years to come the swamp and overflowed lands will give employmeet to this special labor, and would certainly prevent, if so directed, the ruin which now threatens our people engaged in mechanical pursuits. The State of California, with a seacoast nearly as great as that of the "old thirteen," must certainly have within it some article on which this labor can be directed, without coming into close and unwise competition with that of our people. As it is now, the cost of the punishment of crime falls upon those who labor in industrial pursuits. Our Constitution has one merit. The State credit cannot be loaned directly or indirectly to banks or corporations; nor can evidences of State indebtedness be issued as a circulating medium; nor can mortgages on property be issued in the form of bank notes. And therefore, as against capital, no laws have been framed in any way to lessen its earnings; nor ought any to be enacted. So in regard to labor, the same freedom ought to be permitted, and no private individual be allowed to have the control of five hundred men for his own purposes, even as the punishment of crime. Think of it! Five hundred destinies--leases of life--controlled within the limits of one man's discretion, under the law of California! Now make a contrast. Give one man to use, within the limits of his discretion, five millions of the State funds. How the tax-payers would howl! Why should those living by the labor of their hands be silent?

In a communication addressed to the UNION, Mr. Roach suggests that the convict labor of the State may be profitably employed in building levees around Sacramento to protect both the city and State property. The plan suggested is practicable for building permanent levees and raising those erected this Winter, but convict labor could not be made available for the present exigencies of Sacramento. A certain amount of work must be done as soon as the weather will permit. The slough at Burns' farm must be closed so as to insure the city against water from that source. But the work of widening, raising and strengthening the levees around the city will be prosecuted for years, and in this work convict labor can be made available. It is in contemplation to build a levee thirty feet on top, with a base of sixty feet, raising it several feet above the highest point the water has ever been known to reach. This will be a work of time, and may be accomplished by convict labor. It will probably be several years before it will be completed. It is conceded that, in addition to the money collected recently, it will be necessary to raise annually, by a levee tax, a sum sufficient to keep it in repair, and add to its strength and hight. The conviction is general, that a new system must be adopted--that we must have a Board of Levee Commissioners to superintend our levee matters, and that they must be furnished with funds to place the levees beyond all contingencies. The late floods have satisfied all that there is no obstacle in the way of building a levee on the American river which will bid defiance to the turbulent floods of that mountain torrent. All our flood disasters have been produced by that river, and were it so effectually leveed as to insure the exclusion of the water of that river, the people of this city would consider it secure for all time against inundation. That such a levee can be built, there is no room for doubt. The fact will be demonstrated most fully, if the Citizens' Committee can be favored with ten days of favorable weather. They have made two efforts since the late rise to begin work, but found it impossible from the stage of water at Burns' slough, and the soft condition of the earth, to do so. They will commence to-morrow morning, wind and weather permitting. In the future it is likely that a horse railroad track may be laid on the line for the purpose of moving earth from points where it can be obtained to raise the line to the desired grade. After the Sacramento river falls an immense amount of material will be rendered available in the large bar formed by the American river above the bridge. There is material enough in that bar to build all the levees needed, raise all our streets to the level of I street, and that, too, without producing, perceptible reduction in the size of the bar. In calling our attention to the pamphlet written in 1857, the existence of which we had forgotten, Mr. Roach addressed us the following letter:

SAN FRANCISCO, December 30, 1861.
EDITORS UNION:--Seeking my way to the Senate chamber on the day of the flood in 1852, I fell from the levee and narrowly escaped a watery grave. From frequent conversations with old residents, I feared that the disasters of 1849 and 1852 might recur. Herewith is forwarded you a pamphlet issued in February, 1857, to break up the "Levee System of Prison Labor," and to point out how the convicts could be employed without detriment to mechanics, and with advantage to the Commonwealth. The passages marked may prove suggestive. Let the State devote the convict labor to levee the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. That labor costs the State, under any circumstances, so much, and it is bad policy to make it productive by competition with individuals, when vast interests of State can be promoted by it.

In the Swamp and Overflowed Land Fund there is a large balance which could be legitimately used to assist the convict labor, in addition to yearly appropriations, in leveeing and at the time time reclaiming the overflowed lands. That fund was overborrowed; but speculative heads may at some future time find pretexts to divert it again, perhaps, with total loss.

Let the State devote all its uncontracted labor to the object mentioned, and with proper engineering talent, the work of five or six hundred men would, in five or ten years--and what matters the time for such an object--make Sacramento and Stockton ports at which clipper ships conld anchor. In any event, the inundated cities should be assisted by the State, and one of the best resources in its power is the labor of its convicts.

With willows from the banks of your unruly rivers, bowlders and fragments of granite from Folsom, the services of several hundred prisoners would enable you to erect a barrier such as would resist the stormy billows of a Zuyder-zee or the penetrating water of an Amstel.

Amsterdam, Brest, Cherbourg, etc., are ports where fleets can ride; and dike, levee and dredging machine have conquered them from the ocean.

The objections to the Mississippi levee system would not occur here. The Sacramento and San Joaquin are short rivers compared with the Father of Waters, and our bay and its outlet bear such a relation to them in area that the rapidity of the currents would not be increased.

These lines are written hastily, but with the hope of helping a city whose disasters are so contrastlve to our own. As San Franclsco, however, has risen like a phenlx from her ashes, may Sacramento rise Venus-like--invigorated by her bath.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

HINTS TO SACRAMENTANS.--The San Francisco Call recommends to the people of Sacramento some attention to the following facts:

The water of the Mississippi used to wash away the banks and levees of the town of La Crosse, Wisconsin, in spite of all the people could do. Finally they cut immense quantities of willow rods, which they bound tightly in bundles, like bundles of grain. These bundles, at low water, were piled up compactly on the banks of the river, sloping inward, with earth scattered upon them; the result was that long ere the season was over the willows sprouted and took root, so that they became thoroughly entwined together and fastened to the soil beneath in such a manner that all subsequent floods have proven powerless to disturb them. It is necessary to watch the willows and cut them down occasionally, so as to keep them from growing out into the stream and causing bars to form. As this system has worked well on trial, it would be a good idea for the Sacramentans to resort to it for the purpose of rendering secure beyoad a doubt the weaker portions of their levees--those portions from which danger is always apprehended in case of a flood. They have abundant material for the purpose close by them, and to use it properly would cost but a small sum comparatively.

THE ROADS SOUTH.--Stockton Independent of December 30th says:

The Columbia and Sonora stage arrived in this city at half past nine o'clock last evening. We are informed that the rain in the mountains was very heavy all of yesterday. The road between this city and the Twenty six Mile House is almost impassable, the stages going over the entire distance upon the "dead drag," with hubs buried in the mud. At Kelley's, the floor of the stable was covered with two feet of water, and the country beyond flooded so as to put a stop to all kinds of travel. The bridge over the Tuolumne, usually crossed by the Stockton and Mariposa stages, has been partly carried away.

THE CALAVERAS.--It is stated that this river a day or two since was two feet higher than at the period of the former flood.


The Weather in the Interior.

Six feet of snow fell on the Summit during the late storm. Sleighing is excellent in this vicinity. The roads are very muddy, and in a horrible condition below. The wind is blowing very hard.

NEVADA, Jan. 2d.
It has been raining to-day. Weather windy and cold.

OROVILLE, Jan. 2d.
Thunder storm here to-night--wind and rain. . . .

THE FOOD [sic] ON THE MERCED.--There has been a severe overflow from the Merced river, which carried away Murray's and Nelson's bridges, above Snelling's. A dam erected at great expense by Messrs. Flint, Peabody & Co. of San Francisco, had also been swept, away, causing an amount of damage impossible to estimate. . . .

p. 5


FERRIES LICENSED.--Two ferries were licensed by the Board of Supervisors to run across the slough where J and K streets strike it, but during the high water neither of them was in operation. This fact proved that the owners of the boats did not understand their business very well, or had neglected to make the necessary preparations for high water. One ferry started Tuesday, and has had all it could do since. Yesterday and the day before wagons were compelled to wait in some instances for hours before they could be set over. K street, over which all the travel passes, is in a wretched condition. Between the holes cut by water and those made by wheels, it is nearly impassable for a loaded wagon. Individuals were engaged yesterday in hauling ruined hay into some of the most dangerous, and it answered a first rate purpose for filling them up. There is a large quantity of damaged hay lying around in the city which, if hauled into K and J streets and unloaded in the holes cut in those streets, could be made very serviceable. The business men of the city will find their interests promoted by giving a little of their attention to those streets

THE LEVEE NEAR R STREET.--The levee on the Sacramento river near R street is washing away quite rapidly at several points. On Wednesday the bank commenced to cave opposite the large scales constructed by the Railroad Company several months ago for weighing cars and cargoes of cobbles, granite, etc. Up to last evening a gap had been made about thirty feet long, and eight feet wide at the deepest portion. The earth beneath the railroad track had been carried off, and the foundation of the scale, which coat $3,000, was threatened. J. P. Robinson had employed during the afternoon some fifteen or sixteen men, endeavoring to combat the action of the water. A sheet of canvas was sunk by means of an iron rail, and a large number of gunny sacks filled with earth were deposited in the gap. The levee is wearing away with almost equal rapidity, and much more danger to the city, at a point below the old break of last year. There are also several places between Q and R which need attention from the Committee of Safety.

SUPPOSED TO BE DROWNED.--Patrick O'Donnell, of the River House, corner of P and Front streets, has been missing since Wednesday evening under circumstances which render it probable that he has been drowned. He was the owner of the wood barge St. Louis, which lay moored at the levee, a short distance from the house. At about ten o'clock on Wednes-evening, Captain Fairchild of Truworthy's barge, passed the St. Louis, and observed O'Donnell sitting, without his hat, on the plank connecting the barge with the levee. Fairfield asked if he needed assistance to get on board. O'Donnell replied that he did not. He appeared to have been drinking. He has not been seen since. His hat was found yesterday morning on the barge. He leaves a wife and children at his late residence. . . .

STREET CROSSINGS.--As there will be a necessity for constant communication--through Committees and otherwise--between the Capitol at Seventh and I streets and the residence of the Governor at Eighth and N streeets [sic], it is suggested that the street crossings between the two points should be attended to at once. Eighth street is said to be not navigable to pedestrians at the present time. It is further suggested that there is a large amount of street crossing lumber, carried away by the late floods, which might be recovered by the proper authorities, wherever found, and again employed for the same purpose, wherever needed. . . .

WORK ON THE LEVEE.--A large number of workmen were employed yesterday by the Committee of Safety at various points on the American river between Rebel's tannery and Burns' slough. With the wind and sun of yesterday the ground dried rapidly. The American is yet too high to justify any attempt to close up the slough.

CLOSING OUT.--The Howard Benevolent Society closed their hotel at the Pavilion, for want of patronage, last night. We learn that they have relieved, according to their various necessities, about five thousand men, women and children since the first flood, and yet have $2,000 or $3,000 remaining. Their hospital on Fourth street will probably be closed to-day. . . .

THE LINCOLN ROAD.--During the late freshets several bridges on the Folsom and Lincoln Railroad were swept away. They are so far repaired, we are informed, that the cars will today resame their regular trips. . . .

STUBBORN.--The Sacramento river still stands at about twenty-two feet three inches above low water mark. The water in the lower part of the city is receding rather more rapidly.

DROWNED.--Edward Lubbeck, a hand on the sloop C. W. Gunnell, Capt. Croft, was drowned several days ago some eight miles below the city. He was carried overboard in a gale. . . .

MOKELUMNE CITY.--This place, on the Mokelumne river, is about 6 to 8 feet under water. A ball, which was to come off there lately, was postponed. . . .

p. 8

THE STOCKTON FLOOD.--The Stockton papers claim that there was no great flood there after all. The Independent of December 30th says:

Owing to the absence of any system of sewerage several stores on the south side of Main street, between Center and El Dorado streets, were covered several inches on the floors with water. These stores (as in every instance in which water entered the houses) are from two to three feet below the grade of the city, as established by the Common Council. In several of the stores to which the water found its way the floors were below the level of the sidewalk' Of course, any ordinary fall of rain would enter buildings thus erected but for the protection the sidewalks afford. The cellars for the most part were submerged, including the basement of Agricultural Hall. The late extraordinary rise of water has served to warn our citizens to keep open the natural outlets--the sloughs--and prevent them from being improved in any manner which may impede the flow of water through them during the Winter. This done, and we may rest in perfect security against the consequence of an overflow; otherwise, we may anticipate a recurrence of the events of Friday night, with effects more disastrous than the mere washing out of the sewers, as was the case in this instance. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3360, 4 January 1862, p. 1


GREAT SALT LAKE CITY, Dec. 22, 1861.
With profound regret we learn of the sad calamity that has befallen Sacramento and the river towns--destruction of property and the loss of life. [Our correspondent has probably received some exaggerated account in regard to the latter particular.--Eds. UNION] No human power can ever replace the spark of existence and restore to desolate homes and afflicted hearts those who have fallen victims to so terrible a visitation; but, that apart, none doubt that in a few short years the invincible energy and untiring perseverance of your Western men will suffice to deface from sad memory the present calamity, save in its confirmatory contribution to that philosophy that trusts nothing to the elements, and sees a world of wisdom in that sage exhortation, "Say your prayers, but keep your powder dry." . . .

p. 2


. . .

In consequence of the wires being out of order, we were unable to obtain, last evening, dispatches from the East or from San Francisco. . . .

While we are enjoying clear and cool weather, the rivers continue about stationary. Workmen were employed yesterday in making repairs along the Sacramento below R street, and along the American above the Tannery. . . .

THE STATE CAPITAL.--We have heard it suggusted [sic] that an opinion prevails in some quarters of the State that the condition of our town is worse than it really is, and that locomotion to and from our principle [sic] places of business is difficult. This is a great mistake. The side.walks in our business streets, and from our principal hotels and boarding houses to the State Capitol, are mainly in an excellent condition, much better than they usually are in the wet season of the year. Since the flood there have been many improvements in this respect, and there are few towns in the State where travelers can at this time pass from point to point more comfortably. It is true that in the lower part of the city residents suffer inconvenience from water, but the main streets are free from water and traversed as usual and at ease by men, women and children. . . .

RAIN STATISTICS.--During the year 1860, 7.86 inches of rain fell at San Francisco. In 1861, 18.64 inches fell--nearly double the quantity of rain that we had the previous year. The rainy days of the wet season of 1861 were:

    November. December 10th. ....... 0.27 1st 0.05 12th......... 0.74 3d 0.07 13th 0.29 6th . 1.02 14th 0.05 7th 0.29 15th.......... 0.08 8th.......... 1.65 16th.. ....... 0.39 9th 0.18 17ih 0.22 l6th 0.01 19th 0.56 22d 0.03 26th. 0.48 23d 1.06 27th 0.60 24th 0.56 29th. 0.08 26th . 2.02 30th 0.34 27ih 0.23 28th 0.17 29th... 0.70 30th 1.25 3lst, up to 9 A. M 0.25 In November 4.10 In December 9.54 ----- Total for the season 18.64
--S. F. Bulletin.

GOOD FROM THE FLOODS.--There is never any great injury without some corresponding benefit. The Placerville Republican cites a case in point. It says:

The cleaning out of many ravines and canons in the mines, where tailings had accumulated, left their deposits of gravel which prospect richly, and can be easily worked. The freshets also, by removing the accumulations of many washings, have increased the amount of grade for sluices, and facilitated the working of claims heretofore unprofitable for want of sufficient "fall," as the miners express it.

SNOW IN WASHOE.--The Territorial Enterprise of Deoember 25th says:

The snow lay to the depth of two or three inches in Virginia City yesterday morning. It did not extend below Silver City, having rained there the entire night. The wind drifted the snow fearfully yesterday, almost blinding those who were compelled to face it. Last evening the sky became clear, and the weather was very cold. The water in Carson river yesterday morning was four inches higher than during the late rise. . . .

THE LATE GALE IN SAN FRANCISCO.--During the late severe gale, several vessels dragged from their anchorage toward the ocean. It was feared that the schooner Bartlett Allen would be driven out to sea, but she was rescued in time.

p. 3


POLICE COURT.--. . . Heinrich Frey and Rosina his wife were tried for assault and battery on a round-faced damsel named Anna McGee. The case arose from a quarrel about a floating fence, and was chiefly remarkable for the adamantine character of some of the testimony. Anna testified positively that Frey struck her two or or three times in the face and called her vile names, and a lad named Crowley fully corroborated her story. On the other hand, a German living with Frey, and an elderly female, who spoke of Anna as "dirty company," swore point blank that Anna was the aggressor, threatening to knock Frey's Dutch brains out, while that Teuton only used very mild language indeed, considering the circumstances. On hearing this testimony Anaa [sic], in blank amazement, opened her mouth and eyes so that they looked for a moment like three large O's set in a trianguhr position (.). It happened, however, that Judge Gilmer had himself seen the marks of the blows on the maiden's face on the day of the assault, and as this was a piece of corroboratory evidence on which he could rely, he pronounced Frey guilty. As to Mrs. Frey, there was no evidence that she committed any overt act of hostility except that of the elderly female, who said "she made Anna run by saying she did not want her there," so Mrs Frey was discharged. . . .

RELIGIOUS.--. . . The Rev. W. H. Hill will officiate and preach in Grace Church, morning and evening. The Sunday School will meet as usual after the morning service. Subject of the morning discourse, "things Done and to be Done on Account of the Recent Floods." The public--especially all interested in the operations of the Howard Benevolent Association are invited to attend. The annual collection in aid of the funds of that Association will be made on this occasion.

CONDITION OF THE CITY.--All that portion of the city lying north of L street is now as free from the watery element as it has ever been at this season of the year. The lower portion of the city is covered with water, but that is no inconvenience to strangers, who could not, if no water were there, find hotel accommodations. All the business streets, and those upon which are located the hotels, are in as good condition as they have hitherto been at the opening of the session of the Legislature. New crossings have been constructed wherever they were most needed, and the members of the Legislature will find that the signs of the flood consist principally of improved sidewalks and crossings in those portions of the town usually traveled by them. . . . .

GOOD EXAMPLE.--Harmon & Co. and C. S. Coffin have removed the mud from the front of their stores on J street, between Third and Fourth, and thereby set an example worthy of imitation. By hauling away about six inches of softened mud from the surface, they come to the hard, gravel bottom. If other merchants along J street should do likewise, the street could be made to present as dry and hard a surface as in Summer time.

WOODLAND.--The name of Yolo City, located in Yolo county, sixteen miles from Sacramento, has been changed to "Woodland." A Post Office has been established at that point. The town is out of water and is in a flourishing condition. Complaints are made by its citizens that the contractors do not promptly carry the mail from this city, as they are in duty bound.

NOT HEARD FROM.--Nothing has been heard concerning Captain O'Donnell, who is presumed to have been drowned on Wednesday night, from the wood barge St. Louis. His wife states that he left the house a short time before midnight, against her earnest remonstrance. She has no doubt that he has met with a watery grave.

LEVEE REPAIRS.--E. P. Figg, of the Committee of Safety, with about a dozen men, was engaged during yesterday in repairing the levee below R street. Some two hundred and fifty gunny sacks were filled and placed along the bank, protected by brush sunk beneath them. Some eighty men were employed on the American river repairing the levee at that point. . . . .

COOL DAY.--We were favored yesterday with cool weather, and a bracing northwest breeze--the tendency of which, if continued, must be to dry up our streets, and lower the water in the rivers. . . . .

ABOUT THE SAME.--The Sacramento river maintains its hight with no perceptible change, ranging at twenty-two feet three inches above low water mark.

NEW SIDEWALK NEEDED.--A new sidewalk is badly needed on both parts of Haworth's lot, at the northeast corner of Fourth and J streets. . . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3361, 6 January 1862, p. 1

[p. 1 filmed twice, first is cut off at bottom and fades to black in lower right corner, 2nd OK]

. . .

FREE BRIDGE.--The citizens of San Joaquin and Calaveras counties living on the Stockton road propose to make a new road from the place known as "Jimmy's Bridge," crossing Shower's ranch and connecting with the Fanning road by the way of Cady's ranch and the North American. The Chronicle says :

The bridge over the main stream will be about sixty feet; one of the sloughs will require a shorter bridge--this will cut off all the sloughs which now interrupt travel, and the road can be used without any inconvenience from floods or high water. Toll bridges on the Stockton road have become a crying evil to all teamsters. The toll from Stockton to Mokelumne Hill or San Andreas will average about $2.50 per week, which, in a single year, will amount to $130 on a heavy team; this tax on freight will all be avoided by the building of a free bridge. The citizens living on the road are determined to put the road through. . . .

p. 2


. . .

A timely discourse, entitled "Lessons of the Great Disaster of 1861," delivered at Grace Church, in this city, yesterday, by Rev. W. H. Hill, appears in our present issue, and will doubtless receive, as it deserves, a thoughtful perusal.

Sacramento was visited by another heavy fall of rain yesterday, which had a tendency to check the fall of the rivers. A dispatch from Placerville leads us to infer that cold weather, followed by rain and snow, has prevailed in that region. At Strawberry, on Saturday, the mercury fell to sixteen degrees below zero. We are informed that there was a regular New England snow storm at Marysville yesterday. There has been also a heavy fall of snow in Carson Valley."

ACCIDENT TO THE STEAMER GOVERNOR DANA.--The steamboat Governor Dana, on her trip to Marysville on Saturday evening, struck on a bar at the foot of E street, Marysville, just below the Yuba bridge, and swinging around, ran into the sycamores on the river bank below. The steamer's smoke stack was knocked off, but no further damage was done.

AGROUND.--The steamer Autocrat grounded recently on the bank of the Stanislaus river, a few miles above its outlet; having been forced there by the late flood, it being difficult to ascertain the direct channel. . . .

CENTRAL RAILROAD.--This road is in running order between Folsom and Lincoln, all damages by the late flood having been repaired, not in a temporary, but in a substantial and permanent manner. The traveling public, undoubtedly, feel anxious to see some progress made in repair, upon the road from this city to Folsom.


Rain at Placerville - Snow and Cold Weather in the Mountains

PLACERVILLE, Jan. 5--8 P. M.
It has been raining here all day, and turned to snowing to-night. It is snowing hard at Strawberry and in Carson Valley. It was very cold here yesterday, the ground being frozen hard. At Strawberry the thermometer stood at sixteen degrees below zero


The Directors, on behalf or the members, and on this occasion in behalf of the citizens of Sacramento and vicinity, in submitting their monthly statement, express the most sincere and grateful thanks to all who have aided our suffering and destitute poor by their timely and munificent donations. But for such substantial aid the distress and misery would have been fearful, and the means of the Association totally inadequate to have relieved it for one week.

Probably in the history of the United States, there is not a parallel to the situation of our community on the morning of the 10th of December. Situated in a saucer, the rim formed by our levees, and the saucer filled with water; clothing, bedding, etc., saturated; and for the five succeeding days a thick fog enveloping the place, precluding the possibility of the mass of people from procuring a change of dry clothes. The demand for shoes, hose and clothing was universal, and so pressing that it taxed the energy of all to relieve the pressure.

On the morning of the 9th of December, by order of the President, four boats were sent to take families to the Pavilion, and preparations made for their accommodation. Four hundred women and children were provided with blankets, and all fed by seven P. M., and the Hall was thronged all night by men and women seeking refuge and shelter. The Pavilion was twice nearly cleared, when the second and third floods forced the families again to return, so that there has been an average of two hundred and fifty persons kept and comfortably provided from the 9th of December to the morning of the 3d of January, when it was finally closed.

Seventy-five families have been provided with new homes in the northern portion of the city--theirs being still submerged and a month's rent paid in advance, provisions, fuel, etc., provided, so that, to a large extent, they will be hereafter self-supporting. An average of five hundred persons daily were fed at the Pavilion during the period of our occupancy.

On the 15th December, a Hospital was opened on Fourth, between I and J, where the sick families were kept, and the whole supervised by Drs. Harkness, Montgomery and Frey. This was closed--families having been provided for by us--on the 4th instant

On the 28th of December a pest house was procured and fitted for patients, and on the 4th instant handed over to the City and County authorities.

The Association have kept boats employed in aiding the poor to recover their effects from buildings partially under water, and will continue its aid in this manner.

In the distribution of the freshet of money and articles so liberally supplied to relieve the freshet of wants, the Association, in pursuance of its constitutional requirements, has not known either creed, nativity, color or sex, but supplied all who were destitute and without available means of support.

The imposition to be expected we are satisfied has been but a small percentage, and all cases known will be published in our next monthly statement, if in the meantime restitution is not made.

Our relief has been extended to all sufferers in a circuit of twenty miles of the city, whose cases were known, or applications made by or for them.

Many of the reliefs have been to those suffering under the severest affliction from disease, which, were it proper to recite, would be heartrending and appalling.

Every member of the Association but one--who resigned upon the first call to duty--responded to the call of the President with alacrity, and the labors though onerous have been faithfully performed.

The ladies of the city who were able from their exemption from loss, have rendered us most efficient aid, and scores of philanthropic citizens have devoted their time and efforts in furtherance of our object.

We estimate the losses in this city alone to be at a low figure, $700,000, which does not include the losses from disruption of business or deferred payments of debts.

We estimate the losses within a circuit of twenty miles of the city at $200,000--principally stock, fences and agricultural implements.

There are upwards of sixty houses destroyed, so that they are unfit for future occupation.

We have granted upwards of 1,500 dispensations, and relieved 5,000 persons.

The entire medical fraternity of the city have responded to our calls and treated at least 150 patients

The California Steam Navigation Company, the Railroad Company, the proprietors of all the stage lines, the Telegraph Company, and Wells, Fargo & Co., have each in their several departments responded to all our calls, and rendered gratuitous services.

The Treasurer's statement is as follows :

    Balance on hand December 1, 1861 $998.29 Private Donations, Sacramento .... $405.00 Capt. Littleton,Sacramento 10.00 Gov. J G. Downey, Sacramento 100.00 Wm. H. Beatty, Sacramento . . . 10.00 California Steam Nav. Co., Sacrat'o 1,000 00 W. R Spencer, Sacramento 10.00 Moses Hyman, Sacramento 5.95 Thos. H. Williams, Sacramento 25.00 Rev. W. H. Hill, initiation fee 5.00 Dr. J. F. Montgomery, initiation fee 5.00 J. L Seiden, initiation fee . . . 5.00 ---------- $1,580.95 Nat. Rennie and others, Folsom 179 00 Sundry persons, San Jose 211.00 Peter H. Burnett, San Jose 100.00 Citizens of Stockton 568.50 Lewis Sober, Mokelumne Hill 50.00 Rev. J. E. Taylor, Presbyterian Church, Columbia 35.00 Rev. Dr. Peck (from a friend in Martinez).... 5.00 Unknown party, San Francisco 5.00 Unknown party, San Francisco .... 30.00 Edward Hull, San Francisco..... 50.00 F. MacCrellish & Co , San Francisco. 100.00 San Francisco Bulletin Co 100.00 J. C. Beideman. San Francisco 100 00 H. W. Stein & Co., San Francisco. . . 25 00 J. B. Roberts, San Francisco ... 100.00 J. Y. Hickock & Co. San Franclsco.. 100 00 R. D. W. Davis & Co., San Francisco. 100.00 Barry & Patten and others, San Francisco 42 50 P. B. Cornwall and others, San Francisco. 300 00 Mrs. W. S. Mesick, San Francisco. . . 10 00 Attaches Custom House, San Francisco........ 309 00 Citizens' Meeting--by A. M. Winn, San Francisco. ..... 232.50 Citizens' Meeting--by A. M. Winn, San Francisco. . 89.30 Charles F. Lott, San Francisco. . .. .. 250.00 Weils, Fargo & Co., San Francisco. . 1,000.00 Parrott & Co., San Francisco ... 500.00 Pacific Mail Steamship Company, San Francisco . . . 1,000.00 B. Davidson & May, San Franclsco.. 500.00 P. Sather, San Francisco 500.00 Tallant & Wilde. San Francisco ..... 500.00 Alsop & Co , San Francisco . . . .... . . 500.00 Banks & Davis, San Francisco 500.00 Kellogg, Heuston & Co., San Francisco................. 200.00 L. Maynard, San Francisco . ...... 200 00 Reynolds, Reis & Co., San Francisco. 100 00 Henry Hentsch. San Francisco..... 200.00 Pioche & Bayesque, San Francisco.. 200.00 Barron & Co., San Francisco 500.00 Wm B. Johnston. San Francisco . . 50.00 J. Mora Moss, San Francisco ..... 500.00 John Sims & Co., San Francisco 250.00 Liverpool and London Ins. Co., San Francisco........ ....:......... 100.00 San Francisco Lodge No. 3, I.O.O.F. 100.00 Roberts Morrison and others, San F. 55.00 J. Mora Moss--second subscription, San Francisco 100.00 Metropolitan Theater, San Franc'o. 114.25 Unitarian Church--by Rev. T. S. King, San Franclsco 317 25 Yerba Buena Lodge, I.O.O.F San Francisco..... ........ 171.00 Rose Cooper and others, San Fran.. 48.00 D. Norcross, San Francisco 25.00 Children of Trinity Mission Sunday School,Ssn Francisco 15.50 Jerome Rice, at Sacramento. ...... 5.00 Donohoe, Ralstcn A Co. and Castle & Kette, Committee, San Francisco 10,395.60 [minus 1,148.50 = , assume add'n error] 20,589.90 ---------- Total.. [plus 1,148.50 =] $24,317.64 EXPENDITURES. Paid bills audited Dec. 3 $ 324.99 Paid rents for families, boaatmen, drayages, nurses [?], Hospital and Pest House expenses, cooks, etc. 2,050.00 Drygoods, blankets, etc . . . 8,322.58 Provisions...... 3,047.91 Clothing. 1,719.73 Boots and shoes. 1,878.98 Wood.... 723.00 Mattresses and furniture. 1,276.19 Drugs and medicines 63.42 Hardware, stores, etc. 624.90 Sundries 225.42 Amount returned Ladies' Protection and Relief Society. San Francisco, portion of amount subscribed by M Brumagim 250.00 $20,507.12 ---------- Balance, Jan. 6, 1862 ..... $3,810.52
We have on hand clothing, provisions and wood, valued at $750, and there are bills not yet presented of equal amount.

We have endeavored to procure the subscription list from the Committee in San Francisco, who collected and forwarded the large sum of $10,395.60, but it has not yet come to hand. Soon as received we will give fall credit to the parties. In addition to the sums of money, large and valuable contributions have been received of clothing, both new and old, in all of the value of $5,800--from the following persons, viz:

Frank Baker, San Francisco, dry goods.
Roberts, Morrison & Co.., San Francisco, boots and shoes.
Lazard Freres & Co , San Francisco, dry goods.
Jennings & Brewster, San Francisco, clothing.
L. & M. Sachs, San Francisco, clothing.
M. Heller & Bro., San Francisco, dry goods.
Hardy & Rutenburg, San Francisco, dry goods.
Badger & Lindenberger, San Francisco, clothing.
L. B. Benchley, San Francisco, comforters.
Mrs. Alvan Flanders, San Francisco, cases children's clothing.
Murphy, Grant & Co., San Francisco, dry goods.
Mission Woolen Mills, San Francisco, blankets.
J. Seligman & Co., San Francisco, clothing.
M. Guerin, San Francisco, shoes.
J. B. & Co., No. 400 Sacramento street, San Francisco, dry goods.
B. Hamburger, San Francisco, dry goods.
Samuel A. Woods, San Franclsco, boots and shoes.
F. Henderson, San Francisco, dry goods.
Mrs. Beck, Lee and others. San Francisco, clothing.
Jansen, Bond & Co , San Francisco, dry goods.
Wilson & Stevens, San Francisco, cases provisions.
Metropolitan Market, San Francisco, provisions.
Old California, San Francisco, clothing.
Amelia Moss, San Francisco, clothing
Heyneman, Peck A Co., San Francisco, comforters.
Scholle Bros., San Francisco, clothing.
Goodman, Hamburger & King, San Francisco. [sic]
Hecht Bros., San Francisco, clothing.
Rosenstock & Price, San Francisco, shoes,
Mrs. A. J. Nesbitt, San Francisco, clothing.
Jones & Dixon, San Francisco, women's skirts.
Mrs. J. H. Holt, San Francisco, clothing.
Simon & Dinkelspiel, San Francisco, clothing.
J. M. Strobridge, San Francisco, clothing.
H. M. Newhall & Co., San Francisco, clothing.
S. Herman, San Francisco, clothing.
Levi Strauss, San Francisco, clothing.
Hobart & Co., San Francisco, shoes.
Goldstein, Ryan & Co., San Francisco, dry goods.
R. Meyer & Co., San Francisco.
Insane Asylum--from matron--Stockton, clothing.
Citizens of Stockton, merchandise.
Miss Mary Atkins, Benicia, clothing.
Heuston Hasting & Co., Sacramento, clothing.
Charles Crocker, Sacramento, shoes.
A. Dennery & Co., Sacramento, crockery.
Booth & Co.. Sacramento, Provisions.
Wheeler & Wilson, of San Franclsco, sent two sewing machines with workmen and material, which rendered us efficient aid for several days.
The Commander of the Navy Yard tendered 300 rations for fifty days.
I. S. Van Winkle, of Sacramento, allowed us to use the second floor of his new brick house, on Fourth street, for a hospital, free of expense.

There were a number of cases and packages received the donors of which we do not know. If any have been omitted in the foregoing enumeration, it has been from inadvertence, ard we will be pleased to make mention of all.

While our thanks are due and most heartily given to all who have assisted us and made the Association the almoner of their bounty, yet to the people--the noble, ardent, and self-sacrificing men and women of San Francisco, our most fervent thanks are tendered, and the record here presented will be a lasting memorial of their fraternal affection and readiness to aid any and all who are in distress.

Our extraordinary labors are over, yet for two months to come we shall be obliged to make large expenditures for provisions and fuel for many poor families, whose means of support are crippled and at any moment may be entirely cut off. The Association is fully equal to the emergencies of any character that may arise, and desires that all citizens will enroll themselves as monthly subscribers of one dollar, and whatever other aid may be needed we will call upon our own citizens, without fear of the result. Donations can be left at the stores of the Secretary or Treasurer, and subscribers can leave their names and residence with the Steward at the Depot, corner of Sixth and I streets.

On behalf of the Association.
GEO. W. MOWE, President.
R. T. BROWN, Secretary.
SACRAMENTO, Jan. 6, 1862. . . .

p. 3


THE LEGISLATURE.--The Legislature of California will commence its thirteenth session at the State House in this city at twelve o'clock M. to-day. Nearly all the members have arrived in town, and, accompanying them, the usual army of newspaper correspondents and reporters, office seekers, lobbyites and hangerson. These fill the hotels and boarding houses, and, thronging in all the public places, give to our city an appearance of more than usual bustle and animation. Of course the usual amount of caucussing, planning, wire-pulling and scheming of all sorts has happened, the results of which, so far as any results have been attained, are noticed elsewhere. Members from abroad are agreeably disappointed as to the condition in which they find the city. In some instances they had been led to think that the whole city was still submerged by the recent floods, and that boats weuld be necessary to enable them to reach the hotels and to traverse the streets; but they find instead that the streets in all that part of the city which their business will require them to visit are in about as good condition as they ever are in Sacramento, or any other city, in California at this season of the year. There is reported to be a movement, probably having a speculative origin, to attempt to bring about a temporary removal of the Capital or the Legislature to San Francisco, but we do not apprehend that such an attempt will be countenanced by sensible men in either branch. The general impression last evening was, that neither House would permanently organize to-day, but would adjourn early to give all sides an opportunity for caucussing.

RAIN AND SNOW.--There was a heavy fall of rain yesterday, commencing about ten o'clock in the morning, and continuing without much interruption till late last evening. At first the rain was mingled for a few minutes with a very respectable flurry of snow, the large flakes sailing slowly downwards like a cloud of geese feathers, but melting as soon as they struck the moist earth. A snow storm in Sacramento is a spectacle very rarely witnessed. From Dr. Logan's rain gauge we learn that from ten o'clock A. M. yesterday to two o'clock P. M., .67 of an inch had fallen; from two to nine P. M. the fall was 1.12. Total fall in eleven hours, 1.79, and no signs of abatement. . . .

THE RIVER.--Sacramento river continued to fall very slowly on Saturday, but during the day yesterday it remained about at a stand, an inch or two less than twenty-two feet above low water mark. It is not likely to recede further while the present heavy rain continues. The water sets back from the Sacramento so that it is difficult to determine the exact condition of the American river, but if, as accounts indicate, there has been a fall of snow instead of rain in the mountains and foot hills, an immediate rise in that turbulent stream need not be apprehended.

THE MOON.--It was predicted that the last change of the moon would bring with it a favorable change in the weather, and so it did; but unfortunately it did not stay changed. Those who have faith in the moon will, however, derive some comfort from the fact that another change is at hand. The moon "quarters" at thirty-seven minutes past two P. M. to-morrow, at which time, if not before, we hope Jupiter Pluvius will see fit to retire, and allow Sacramento to "dry up." . . .

OVERBOARD.--A woman and child fell into the slough, near the Gas Works, on Saturday afternoon, and were rescued from drowning by a gentleman who happened to be passing. We did not learn the names of the parties. . . .


EDITORS UNION: I was examining the late work of our Committee of Safety at this point yesterday. They are undoubtedly doing everything that they think is needful in the premises, and are making a good outside levee. But while looking at the operations there, it occurred to me that a greater service could be rendered and the city much better protected if the waters of the river could be led to take a direct west course through the willows, a short distance above, instead of attempting to fight its whole force at the tannery, where it is disposed to cut into the bank. It would not require much digging to lead it off above, and the force of the current would do the rest. But if this is decided impracticable, or the right of way can. not be obtained from Norris except at great cost, then I would suggest that willows be planted thickly on the line of the levee facing the river, and the levee or levees there be sown with alfalfa, whose roots will strike down deeply and strengthen the earth embankment. I would suggest that the sooner this is done the better, in order to take advantage of an early growth. The Committee can do this in a short time, as the labor of two or three men only will be required a portion of one day.

COOL WEATHER IN SAN FRANCISCO.--ln San Francisco, January 4th, thin ice was discovered. The thermometer was down to 32 degrees. . . .


EDITORS UNION: I had expected that, among the many cases of good levees which have been referred to in your journal, the celebrated "dyke" of Colt, the pistol manufacturer, would have been mentioned ; but it seems left to me to call your attention to it. The circumstances which led to its erection are like those which led to the erection of the levees around Sacramento. Colt owned a large tract of land known in New England as the "Connecticut Meadows," which was subject to annual inundation. Around his land he built a levee which has always succeeded in keeping the waters out from the tract inclosed. So confident of its effectiveness was the proprietor, that he has built his immense factories, twenty or thirty splendid dwellings, and all the outhouses of his palatial mansion, on ground which seldom escaped the Spring freshets, relying for protection on his artificial breastwork. My object is to tell you how it is made so secure. The work is built much higher than there is any danger of the river's ever rising. In its narrower part two or three carriages can pass abreast, while it is generally much wider. It is mostly clay, covered with a thick stratum of gravel; steep on the inside, sloping down to the river on the outside. The means taken to prevent washing away are what I wish to notice particularly. While the dyke was building, a European gardener was on the way to Connecticut with a great many thousands of French willow cuttings, which were merely stuck into the gravel on the outside bank. They sprouted and grew rapidly, so that the year after their planting the crop of cuttings, made into baskets, paid all the expenses of transportation and original purchase. And I honestly believe that since these willows were planted, the proceeds from the manufacture of baskets from annual cuttings, has amounted to half the cost of the embankment. Colt's willows are of the choicest variety for baskets, besides being the best kind for their protective use, on account of the density with which they grow, and their long, deep roots. If your levee building Committee should consider this worth notice, and the plan of Colonel Colt worthy of imitation, I have no doubt, from his characteristic generosity, that he would present a sufficient number of cuttings to your city if he knew what a benefit they would be.
MARYSVILLE, January 3d.

THE FLOOD IN SUISUN.--Solano Herald, referring to the late flood in Suisun City, says:

Since Friday of last week, the country round about Suisun and Fairfield has been covered with water, causing considerable damage and much annoyance in the way of washing down fences and depositing mud on the fields, and rendering the roads well nigh impassable. On account of the floors settling, parts of Jackson's warehouse were flooded to the depth of one layer of sacked grain, the other warehouses narrowly escaping similar injury. We hear of several cases of stock perishing in the vicinity, large numbers suffering from their location in the tules.

THREE MEN DROWNED.--On the 27th of December, three men were crossing the West Branch of Feather river in a boat, which was capsized and all were drowned. Their names are--John Edgerton, of Cavan county, Ireland, John F. Lamson, of Bangor, Maine, and a Kanaka, From the best information we can gather, says the Butte Record, the Kanaka was crossing the other men in a boat which he kept near the lower natural bridge, when it got swamped and they were all lost.

BRIDGE GONE.--The bridge over the South Fork of the Mokelumne was carried away by the late flood in Calaveras. . . .

p. 4



Preached in Grace Church, Sacramento, January 5, 1862, after the disastrous overflow in that city in December, 1861.


TEXT--Ecclesiastes vii. 14; and Galatians vi. 2: "In the day of adversity, consider." " Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ."

This is emphatically the time for consideration--for reflection on the past; examination of the present; amendment for shortcomings; repentance for sin, and wise resolves for the future. The close of the old, and the beginning of a new year would call to all this, under any circumstances. And had nothing uncommon occurred, I should have felt it to be my duty, as we enter upon the scenes and vicissitudes of another year, to call upon you, seriously to consider your ways, and inquire, "Is it well?" Solemn indeed is it to listen to the knell of the dying year--to feel that its record of good and bad is made up for the final judgment; and to enter upon the rolling months of a new year, not knowing but what it may be written of us, as it was of millions a twelvemonth since. "This year thou shalt die." And if to die--what then? Aye, what then ? Will not, must not both pastor and people ask that question with earnestness and anxiety? God grant to you and to me an answer of peace. And if this be a duty--the necessary work of the wise man at the close and beginning of every year--what shall we say of the present time? Truly has "the day of adversity" come upon us as individuals and as a community, and who is there that does not feel compelled to pause and consider. The hopes and expectations and accumulations of years gone in an instant! Death in its most terrible form escaped in numberless cases, almost as by miracle! Suffering and distress so appalling that words cannot describe! Burdens too heavy for enfeebled shoulders to bear, and the strong summoned to support the weak, by a call to which none might turn a deaf ear, lest He, whose Omniscient Eye watched over all, should say to the faithless servant: "Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these my brethren, ye did it not to me: Depart ye cursed." Aye, ye know well, my hearers, what has been the record of the past three weeks. Some of you have felt the iron entering into your own soul--none, I trust, turned a deaf ear to the appeals of the needy and the suffering.

I ask you, to-day, to stop awhile and consider all these things; what you have seen; what done; what left undone; what you have yet to do. I could not call your attention to these topics sooner. I felt that when hundreds and thousands of my fellow beings were suffering for the necessaries of life, and a duty was thrown on me as a Christian minister and one of the almoners of the bounties of others--(God bless the liberal souls who remembered us in our distress and helped us wipe away the tears from so many eyes!)--see that their aching hearts were relieved, their crying wants supplied, that I had no time to turn aside from such scenes, to write essays on Providences in general, in my study, or utter commonplace sentences of condolence and sympathy. I felt that the poor creatures needed something more than words to insure that they were "warmed and filled" in this hour of their poverty and distress. It was to me a time when it was the incumbent duty of all to make practical that test of true religion which the Apostle gives: "Pure religion and undefiled before God and the Father is this, to visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world." For all that has been done, let the praise and glory be given to Him who opened the hearts of His earthly stewards, teaching them the glorious truth that it "was more blessed to give than to receive."

But we have a breathing spell at last. We may now sit down and rest awhile, and discuss plans and work--past and future. And to-day it is my duty and privilege to help, so far as in my power, your thoughts and good resolves towards the right direction. We will invoke the aid of him, "without whom nothing is strong and nothing holy;" for if He guides, we will be sure to walk in the right path and do all things for the best.

We first ask--What was seen during and after the late great and disastrous flood? I answer--as has probably been true of every great and fearful calamity--the development of both extremes of human nature, the bad and the good. And of both, we may say, as the prophet did of the figs he saw in vision: "The good were very good; and the naughty, very naughty and bad." I could believe in the doctrine of "total depravity," methinks, as I was compelled to witness such developments of the wicked heart as have been brought to my notice. Would that the mark of Cain could be affixed to the brow of all such--that henceforth they might be avoided by all good men and true, as the prudent would avoid the most loathsome of diseases. And sometimes, methought, the devils must have blushed as they saw their own depravity outdone by beings who called themselves men. I refer to those--not few in number, I am sorry to say--who could see and hear drowning men, women and children appealing for relief, but would not go to them until exorbitant sums of money were prepaid. Such ill-gotten gains will burn the pockets and souls of the extortioners, and though men may never know who they were, God will remember their unrighteous and unholy work; and fearful will be the recompense; for, though often long delayed, His judgments are sure, and he is fearful in His wrath. Pass on, then, ye miserable imitations of men. We will only say of yon, further: "Room for the Leper; room!" Akin to these--though not so far gone in depravity--are those who have laid, and in some instances consummated plans to impose upon the Relief Committees of the city. We have seen persons sacrificing a lifetime's reputation for honesty and truth to get a morsel, as it were, of the food and clothing designed, as they knew well, only for the distressed and the worthy. Let these, too, pass. We want no black list of their names published. We leave them, too, to the righteous judgment of Him who is angry with those who rob the widow and the orphan for gain. We feel sad that such people live in our midst. Let us try to forget them and their evil deeds.

We gladly turn to a more pleasing theme--the good things that were seen. Noble souls were in our midst, and they were not few in number. Faithful were they in their good deeds, and hundreds owe their lives to men whose very names they know not, but which are written on a scroll, nobler and more lasting than all the records of earth. The good Lord bless them, one and all, and give them one hundred fold in this world, and in that to come life everlasting. The same we say, too, of those--not few in number, too, either--who opened their houses to the destitute and suffering, and fed, lodged and clothed them, without hope or expectation of fee or reward, except in the approval of a good conscience. And here let me express the thanks of an overflowing heart to those noble people of our commercial metropolis, who gave of their means until the pitiful cries of the destitute were hushed, and the most exacting could say, "It is enough." If we forget them for this, let the right hand forget its cunning--the voice in silence die.

While summing up the things that were seen, let me say, as one to whom most thereof was brought home with most vivid distinctness, that the suffering was most appalling, the distress beyond expression. I could detail instances that would thrill your hearts, by the most tame of descriptions, but I will not begin that work, lest I know not when and where to stop. Much of this, too, and that, if possible, the keenest and greatest, kept itself in the background till sought out by benevolent souls or was forced out by the sternest necessity. We hope that we have found out all, and to the extent of our means, relieved the suffering brought to our notice, May it never be our lot to see the like again, either here or elsewhere.

What has been done? Much, we trust, of which no earthly statistics can be kept or given. True charity ceases to be such when it degenerates into boasting. Let all this, then, be excluded as we try to say a few words as to what has been done, and the principles which have guided the action of those who were the intrusted almoners of the bounty of our fellow citizens, and especially of that which flowed in so copious a stream from our brethren in San Francisco. I shall speak more especially of the Howard Benevolent Association, for of its doings I know well. I would by no means be understood as excluding others. I well know that many hundreds of generous souls were indefatigable in searching out and relieving the necessities of the suffering. And indeed there was work enough for all. I know of some individuals, whose names I would gladly publish to the world, but it would be a pain and not a pleasure to them were I to do so. I will only say to such the better, more precious words of Him who saw all and remembers all: "God is not unrighteous, that He will forget your labor that proceedeth of Love; which Love ye have showed for His name's sake, who have ministered unto the saints and yet do minister." Some, and perhaps all, of the religions societies in our city worked well and faithfully in helping their suffering poor. So did the other benevolent societies that are an ornament to our city. I heard, and may say I know of acts done by the Freemasons, the Odd Fellows and the Hebrew Benevolent Society that were not only in the highest degree creditable to them, but shamed the laggardness of professing Christians, who ought, like the Master they have vowed to serve, to be foremost in "doing good." Many an aching heart was cheered; many a desolate home restored; many an impoverished larder and wardrobe replenished by these Good Samaritans, who did their work in secret, but will be rewarded openly.

Having thus contributed my feeble mite of praise to all these, you will pardon me if I now direct your attention to the Association first named and its work. Many of you have seen a little of that work. Some have perhaps heard charges of favoritism--imputations of error--and alleged instances of imposture. As to the first, let me, testifying as one who knows of what he speaks, enter a most unqualified denial. I know what I have done, and I believe, too, that I can speak as positively for those with whom I have acted. We have neither known, nor sought to know, what was a man's or woman's religion, or whether they professed any at all--nor what was their color or race, or condition in life--nor whether old or recent residents of the State or city. The one only question sought to be rightfully determined, was, "Are you in distress? do you need, or will you receive relief at our hands?" and then we endeavored to grant all that was in our power, erring, if at all, on the charitable side, and to do it in the most delicate manner possible, not censuring, but appreciating and humoring (if you please) the scruples and reluctancy of the most fastidious. Not a question was asked, or intended to be asked, save what was necessary to guard against imposture, and the recommendation of any reputable citizen was sufficient to open wide the doors of our distributing depot. I say this most, broadly and unequivocally, because I know what was done, and how it was done, and because I desire to repel at once and fully all imputations of favoritism. To the extent of our ability we desired and endeavored to say to all, substantially, and not in words merely, "Be ye warmed, and be ye filled."

That errors were committed, and that some things might have been done better and wiser than they were, is cheerfully admitted. Perfection belongs not to man. We only believe (pardon the egotism, if it be such) that no other men in our city could, in the peculiarly trying circumstances under which we were compelled to act, and that promptly, too, have made fewer mistakes. Had the complainant been in our place, I know he would have wondered that no more blunders were made. We only ask to be acquitted of intentional wrong, and that acquittal belongs to all. Much, too, has been said of impostures on our bounty. It could not be helped. Nearly all the blame we have received grew out of our wish and intent to detect these attempts of the lazy and the worthless, that we might have the more to give to those who were in need. We know that we were imposed upon, but to a much less extent than has been said and believed. Many of the stories brought to our notice were investigated, and the alleged imposture was found to be none at all. I feel satisfied that I am far within bounds when I declare my belief that the impostures upon us were less than ten per cent of the applications, and to me the only wonder is that they were not threefold that amount. Granting, then, all the deductions that may be made from all these sources, we know that since the ninth of December--the day of the flood--we have relieved, and liberally, too, the suffering destitution and wants of at least six hundred families. Very few of these had less than three members--the mass had more than five, and many of them eight or ten. There were the old, the middle-aged, the youth and the infant; the sick and the infirm, for which a hospital was established, cared for gratuitously by the three medical members of our Association. And here let me say, that all our city physicians deserve special mention for their generous and gratuitous services to all the sufferers by the flood. A large number of the families relieved by us had lost their all. They were supplied with a temporary home at the Pavilion, and when the waters subsided, were put again into as neat and well furnished houses as our means would permit. A few ungrateful ones have marred the general thankfulness, but as a whole, the hearty "God bless you" of those persons ready to perish, has more than repaid for all that was done. Of the thousands of dollars that all this has cost, and which must yet be expended, I cannot speak with precision. I only know that it must be reckoned by tens of thousands, and that for the mass we are indebted to the people of San Francisco, though liberal contributions have come from many other places, for which we express many thanks. Due acknowledgment for all will soon be given. So much have we done. May God pardon all errors, and own all that has been done well and with good intent. We ask no praise. Give the honor and the glory where all belong--to Him who opened these generous hearts to come so nobly and so seasonably to our relief.

We turn for a moment from the past and present to speak of and for the future. What is yet to be done? I answer, much every way. The text selected from the writings of St. Paul preaches to us its own sermon; and needs no explanation or enlargement. "Bear ye one another's burdens, and so fulfill the laws of Christ." Our work is far from being done. As individuals, we have and shall have very much to do--in lending the helping hand to the suffering poor, as their cases are brought to our notice; in severing the worthy from the unworthy, and seeing that the former suffer not for the ill deserts of the latter. All can take part in this work, for it may be done with a slender and even an empty purse as well, if not to so great an extent as with a full one. The kind word of sympathy--a few hours work with the needle--an errand done for the helpless--a good word spoken for the deserving, to those who have an abundance and to spare--all, I repeat, can do this work, and all should. Thus will they lift heavy burdens from the shoulders of the weak--fulfill the law of Christ--for He will say to such, "Inasmuch as ye did it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye did it unto me; Come ye blessed." Let all, then, give attention to those things while the pressing need exists. It will do all good. "He that watereth others, shall be watered himself." It will teach you, my hearers, how many blessings you have, of which your fellows are deprived, and you will cease ever so disposed to murmur at your lot. It will lighten your own cares and burdens, for the prayers and blessings of the relieved will give you strength.

The Association of which I have spoken so freely to-day, and in behalf of which a special effort is now made, has a great work to do in the future, as it has had in the past. They have many a destitute family on hand that must be cared for till brighter days dawn upon them. Work is also thrown upon them from which others shrink, for fear of contagion. We, as an Association, for I speak for them, have taken that duty, disagreeable as it is, upon ourselves, though legitimately it belongs to others and not to us, and by the help of God, we will endeavor that no one shall suffer for food, nursing or medical care. We then ask you, and all, to strengthen our hands; to give us your confidence, your sympathy, your material things--for this work costs money, and our pockets are neither large enough, nor deep enough to meet the demand. Let then your contributions be as becomes the work to be done; your own ability; your appropriate thank offering for the mercies whereby God hath made you to differ from another. We offer you the best of all investments and security--work of Him who is Truth itself: "He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto the Lord; and look, what he layeth out, it shall be paid him again;" [sic, missing "] Blessed is the man that provideth for the sick and needy; the Lord shall deliver him in the time of trouble." "Let every man then do accordingly as he is disposed in his heart, not grudgingly, or of necessity; for God loveth a cheerful giver."

As CITIZENS, interested in the prosperity of our city, you have much to do. Prophets of good and of evil are amongst us, and time alone will determine who are the true and who the false. The depression and sadness we need not wonder at, for thousands can truthfully say, "Is there not a cause?" Yet it will not hurt any one, but do good to all, to be hopeful and look on the bright side. For one, I believe our city will recover and more than recover the lost ground--that the scenes of desolation now to be witnessed will soon disappear, and this be again a city of flowers and shrubbery; of fruits and of CHEERFUL HOMES. The very calamity from which we have suffered, and which men would not believe possible till it came upon us, has taught our authorities wisdom that they will not soon forget. Our guards against floods will now be made sufficient--at least as much so as human foresight and labor can do it. The pitiful scramble for the emoluments of office will, for a while at least, give place to the higher law of self-preservation. Let all, then, be cheerful and look forward to brighter days. Severe is the lesson we have been taught. Let us show that we have learned and profited by its teachings like men--like Californians, of whom it has heretofore been justly said, that they rise the more buoyant and determined from the pressure of the heaviest calamities. So let it be with you, my fellow-citizens. A cheerful countenance, and a determination to make the best of adverse things, is a capital in bank, of itself, from which all may draw. "Bear ye one another's burdens," by cheerfulness and encouragements, and do not increase theirs and your own by despondency and anticipations of coming evil. Your mercies and blessings yet far outweigh your losses, and God can and will more than make all these last good to you. Only trust to him. "He is His own interpreter, and He will make it plain;" for

"Behind a frowning Providence He hides a smiling face."

One other thought and yonr attention will be relieved. I have just alluded thereto, and I would have you ever keep it foremost in your minds. There are effects and second causes, which are things of sight and suffering, and hence they very naturally absorb attention and comment and action. But in all things--in adversity as well as in prosperity--there is a first great and moving cause. God still wills and governs. His Providence is not only general, in controlling the mighty movements of the universe, but particular, now as ever, to the fall of the sparrow and the numbering of the hairs of the head. His hand has been in this our calamity. Why and wherefore is not for me to determine. Let there be deep searchings of heart on the part of all, to see if the answer does not readily suggest itself. Cause enough do the best of us give Him to punish us, and that severely. Did He but deal out to us the measure of our deserts, and as we treat our fellow men--alas! who could stand before Him, or answer for one of a thousand of our transgressions? Humble then yourselves before Him in this dark hour. Confess your sins unto Him and implore His pardon and forgiveness. Then will the black cloud begin to show its silver lining--the rainbow of peace again attest that the floods shall no more be upon the earth; and our Heavenly Father teach us so plainly that all this was for our good, that we will thank and love him the more. Learn, then, I pray you, this lesson of submission. Pray for grace to change afflictions into blesssings. Above all, learn by these disciplines of earth that here is not your home, but only a tarrying place for a brief while. "Set your affections on things above." Lay up your treasures in heaven, and then you will and can lose nothing. All the changes and chances of this mortal life shall only insure to you, through the mercies of Jesus Christ, an abundance of those glories and riches which never fade, for they are those of Heaven. Thus will your light afflictions, which are but for a moment, work out for you a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory."

God grant that so it may be with us all. Amen.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3362, 7 January 1862, p. 1


EDITORS UNION:--Seeing several communications lately in your valuable paper, in reference to the use of State prison labor, and the hope therein expressed that the coming Legislature and new State Administration would take the necessary steps to make such labor useful in repairing, widening and strengthening the levees in this city and vicinity generally, I have thought proper to inform you (being perfectly conversant with the subject), that Governor Downey, Lieutenant Governor Don Pablo de la Guerra, and Attorney General Williams, who compose the present Board of State Prison Directors, have placed it entirely out of the power of the new Administration or present Legislature to aid the city under any ordinary circumstances--by ordinary circumstances I am to be understood as saying that the natural increase would not give an aggregate for some time to come sufficiently great to leave at the disposal of the State any surplus, after supplying contractors, for the objects before mentioned. The average number of prisoners for the past year has been not far from 550; and I propose to show how utterly impossible it will be to obtain any benefit from that labor for so desirable a purpose as to make Sacramento impregnable from inroads of the waters of the Sacramento and American. A few figures, easily understood, will show what use Downey & Co. have made of the power vested in them, in the disposal of convict labor for the benefit of the mechanics and working men of California. His first contract was with Donald McClellan, proprietor of the Mission Woolen Mills, for one hundred men at 50 cents each per day for one year. That contract has been extended within a few days to a period of three years, upon the same terms. Mr. McClellan is making a clear daily profit of from $150 to $200, so it is easily seen he has a fine thing; but many a poor person suffers who is brought into competition with his work. The next contract was for sixteen months work of fifty men, at 50 cents per day, by E. T. Pease, in the coopering business, commencing July 1st, 1861. Thomas Ogg Shaw follows--one hundred men for five years from October 1st, 1861. He pays, for mechanics, 75 cents each per day, and for laborers, 50 cents per day. These men are to be employed in the manufacture of agricultural implements, blacksmithing and cabinet work. And now, last, but not least, follows ex-Lieutenant Governor Quinn and Colonel Ross, who, thinking the brick business would still pay when the best brick makers in the State could be hired for 50 cents a day, step in and contract for a hundred of them for the season of 1862, making the total number of prisoners contracted for three hundred and fifty. Add to this one hundred who are either sick, crippled or lazy and won't work, and one hundred more for waiters, cooks, butchers, bakers, room cleaners, and assistants generally, and we have a total of five hundred and fifty. It is, therefore, easily perceived that no aid can be looked for from that source, and any speculations upon the subject are idle and of no avail, owing to the far sighted policy of Downey & Co.
SACRAMENTO, January 3d, 1862. . . .

HIGH TIDES.--During the last week, says the Petaluma Journal of January 3d, the creek has been higher than at any other time since the Winter of 1852.

p. 4


. . . At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors held yesterday, a resolution was adopted instructing its Chief of Police to remove forthwith the track, and all other obstructions belonging to the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company from all streets west of Sixth street. This is designed as an enforcement of ordinances recently adopted by the Board. . . .

Notwithstanding the heavy fall of rain on Sunday, our rivers remain about stationary. The weather continues chilly. The coast range and the foot hills of the Sierra are covered with anew. Much snow has fallen at Carson City, Red Bluff, Colusa aed other points. . . .

THE HOWARD BENEVOLENT ASSOCIATION.--The good work performed by this noble and praiseworthy Association, during the past month of disaster and trial, should entitle the members to the lasting gratitude of this community. The difficulties with which they had to contend, and the untiring energy they displayed, are but modestly indicated in the statement which appeared in our columns yesterday; they appear to be anxious to give due credit for generous exertion to everybody who, in any way, contributed to strengthen their hands--reserving no claim of merit for themselves. But, certainly, the almost constant labor, personal sacrifices, exposure, and judicious management of these philanthropic citizens will be fully acknowledged in Sacramento, while the individuals whose distress has been relieved will cherish the liveliest memories of their effective and kindly efforts. Although it is probable that the most trying and extraordinary work of the Association has been completed, it should not be forgotten that for two months to come large expenditures will be necessary in order to supply, with fuel and food, many poor families whose means of subsistence have been diminished or destroyed. Material aid is required, and a sufficient sum can be easily obtained by the simple enlargement of the list of monthly subscribers. No citizen could contribute one dollar a month to a more praiseworthy purpose. We owe it to ourselves, to Sacramento and to the administration of a noble charity, to sustain the "Howard" with all possible liberality.

In the monthly report of this Association, we have an estimate of the losses sustained by the city and adjacent country, in consequence of the deluge with which this region has been visited. The document says: "We estimate the losses in this city alone to be, at a low figure, $700,000, which does not include the losses from disruption of business or deferred payments of debts. We estimate the losses, within a circuit of twenty miles of the city, at $2,000,000--principally stock, fences and agricultural implements." We think it probable that these estimates will be found considerably under the actual figures. There are many cases of individual loss, concerning which no complaint has been made--instances of the destruction of household goods, etc., which the losers have not deemed worthy of mention at a time when others have been nearly ruined, and of which it was impossible for the members of the "Howard" to gain any information. For the rest, the report of the Association is a faithful record of a disaster that will always be a conspicuous event in the annals of the city--a story of cloud, gloom and distress, only relieved by those gleams of heroism, philanthropy and selfsacrifice which often render a season of adversity a blessing in disguise, and exalt our estimate of human nature.

SUPERVISORS VS. RAILROAD.--The Board of Supervisors appears determined to make itself ridiculous about the railroad. They yesterday passed a resolution ordering the Chief of Police to take up the track west of Sixth street. As the order of the Board is illegal, and as the Chief of Police is not an appointee of the Board, we presume he will decline to obey an order which renders him liable for doing an illegal act under a resolution of the Board, which would not protect him.

One of the widest crevasses made in the R street levee by the first flood was at Sixth street, and if the Chief of Police were to take up rails as ordered, he would be forced to begin west of that crevasse. The proceedings of the Board relative to the railroad are farcical. Not the first legal step has been taken in the premises, and as a consequence the Board will involve the city in a costly suit in which it will inevitably be beaten, and the Railroad Company will go on as if no such body as the Board of Supervisors ever existed. The Board seems to be using the railroad as a kind of shield. They would direct the attention of the people to something besides the fact that in all the disasters inflicted upon them by the floods, the Board of Supervisors--the city authorities--has not taken a single step towards relieving the people from the effects of the deluge through which they have passed. Such city authorities are worse than none. J street is now impassable for want of bridges across the drains cut to let the water pass from the north portion of the city. Why do not the members of the Board take such steps as are necessary to have those drains bridged? Better the Chief of Police to attend to that. So much has K street been traveled since the flood, that from Thirteenth to Sixteenth street it is not passable for wagons with loads. Three or four were mired between those points at the same time, yesterday. But none of these difficulties of getting in and out of the city seem to trouble the Board the members can see nothing but the railroad west of Sixth street. If the Board would make an effort to do something for the benefit of the city, we would take pleasure in recording the fact that the members had really made one effort for the relief of the city. . . .

KNIGHT'S LANDING.--The News of January 4th says:

The water of the Sacramento river was higher yesterday at this place than it has been since the memorable Winter of 1852-3. Although suffering no inconvenience from it yet, a foot more would submerge a great portion of the town. . . .

DROWNED.--At O'Donnell Flat, Sierra county, December 27th, Wm. Dongman was drowned. He fell from the foot log as he was attempting to cross the river. . . .

THE WEATHER.--Dispatches to the Bee, dated January 6th, contain the following intelligence:

CARSON CITY.--lt is snowing hard here, and the ground is covered to the depth of two feet It is very cold.

PLACERVILLE.--It rained here all day yesterday and turned to snow last night; the ground covered this morning. It has been raining all day to-day, and the roads are in a very bad condition. The streams are not very full, the snow not melting in the mountains.

MARYSVILLE.--Very cold and a little cloudy. Can see the foothills, low down, covered with snow in all directions. It has not rained since half-past three o'clock this morning.

FOLSOM.--Raining lightly, but very cloudy. River rises slowly--rose about a foot to-day.

MARYSVILLE.--There was quite a severe snow storm at Marysville, January 5th. It continued for abcut half an hour. . . .


EDITORS UNION: "A Taxpayer" and "Publicola," in your issue of this date, have some interesting statements respecting Sacramento's protection. Publicola's ideas would not work well at Rabel's Tannery. For it is not the surface that is acted upon by the water, but a layer of sand underneath that wears away and causes the surface to cave. His proposition would work well provided the surface was the shifting material. About fifteen or eighteen hundred feet north from the tannery is the mouth of a slough, or an old river bed. That is overgrown with small trees and densely interwoven with vines. "A Taxpayer" proposes to open a way for the water to pass freely, and the river would likely make its own channel.

Many visits to that locality to examine the water's action have satisfied my mind that such is the proper course. The river would be shortened nearly two thousand feet, which would make the current much more rapid and effectual in making a channel. A narrow ditch would be of great service, and would not necessarily be more than about six feet deep, aad most of the way less than that would be sufficient

Trees and brush sunk along the threatened bank next the Tannery would be the surest protection. You have advocated that course, and a correspondent relates that towns in Iowa have been protected in that way. They would be as effectual as anything, and much cheaper than rip rap.

The right of way across the bar can be appropriated by the Legislature by satisfying them that it is necessary.
SACRAMENTO, Jan. 6th. T. F. P.


EDITORS UNION: I am opposed to angling and winding levees. To illustrate my idea, I will state that we have to contend not against the water that runs within the natural embankment of the river (as that takes care of itself), but that portion of water that runs above, nearly the whole of which takes an independent course of the low channel of the river. For instance: at Burns' slough the bed of the river is near a half mile off from the mouth of the slough; but that portion of the element that we have to contend againat comes down from Brighton, sweeps over this intervening half mile, willows, brush and all, and strikes our levee (the People's Committee are now rebuilding) nearly if not at right angles.

Now, would it not he wiser in us to build a strong levee, commencing on the south side of the mouth of Burns' slough, running thence near if not altogether in a straight line to the river by Rabel's tannery or Thirty-first street, then cut away the old levee immediately east of this terminus for at least forty rods? So that as the water comes down from Brighton it would not be interrupted, but would pass along in a straight course into the natural channel of the river about Rabel's or Thirty-first street.

You may guide the element, but you cannot force it; or, it is more difficult to force the element to one or the other side than it is to guide it in its natural course. TAX PAYER. . . . .

p. 5


. . .

INSOLVENCY.--C. B. Linton filed on Saturday a petition in insolvency in the District Court. The petitioner states that in the Spring of 1855 he commenced dealing in grain, in this city, with a cash capital of $8,000. Continuing business for six months he lost $1,000. He then went into the grocery business with $7,000, and continuing for the term of eighteen months lost $4,000. He susequently invested his remaining capital in bees, at the rate of about $100 per hive, and also purchased on credit at the same rate to the extent of $2,000. He also established a store in Nevada county, by which he lost considerable by bad debts, etc. By the time the bees were ready for market they had depreciated in value at least seventy-five per cent. On the 9th of December, 1861, a large proportion of them were swept away by the flood. His remaining property has been attached by the Sheriff to satisfy claims on which suits have been commenced. His liabilities are given at $3,944.14, and assets at $450. . . .

SNOW ON THE MOUNTAINS.--It was a matter of general remark yesterday afternoon, that the mountains either side--the Sierras on the east and the Coast Range on the west--were covered with snow to the foot hills. The Coast Range has never been known, since the settlement of the country, to present such an appearance. Snow is frequently seen in Winter on the loftier peaks of the range, but never has so general a covering of white been observed before. The Red Bluff steamer which arrived yesterday brings word that the snow at that point fell eight inches deep, and verifies the report by a sample of the snow which fell upon her deck and was shoveled up in a solid mass for the pnrpose of preservation. At various points along the river the inhabitants were amusing themselves with sleds and sleighs of elaborate workmanship like many of our Sacramento boats. . . .

FAILED TO ARRIVE.--It was expected that Company F, Capt. A. W. Cullum, and Company H, Capt. J. M. Cass, of the Fourth Regiment, would have arrived at the railroad terminus, from Auburn, by the noon train from Folsom yesterday, to proceed to Camp Union. They failed to reach Folsom in time for the cars, and will therefore not reach this city until to-day. It was expected that they would travel from .Auburn to Folsom on foot, and the rains of Sunday probably caused their detention. The remainder of the regiment it is expected will be down within a few days, and soon after their arrival it is presumed that the Fifth Regiment will leave for San Francisco.

THE LEVEE WORK.--The Committee of Safety commenced work yesterday in repairing the openings in the Thirty-first street levee. Over one hundred men were employed at the three principal points north of J street by which the northern portion of the city had been flooded, and by night the repairs were completed, and the levee put in a condition which will, in the opinion of members of the Committee, preclude the possibility of any more water from that quarter. One or two other openings near L and M streets will be repaired to-day. It is the design of the Committee to resume work as soon as practicable on the American river, between the Tannery and Burns' slough.

RAILROAD LUMBER.--The barge Victoria, Captain Shaw, arrived at the foot of R street, on Sunday, with a cargo of 108 thousand feet of lumber from San Francisco, for the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company. This is probably the largest cargo of lumber ever brought to the city. It consists of 10 by 12, 12 by 12 and 12 by 14 inch pieces, varying in length from thirty-five to sixty feet. It is to be used in building trestle work in repairing the R street Railroad. . . .

STATU QUO.--Sacramento river, was not swollen to any perceptible extent, yesterday, by the rates of the day and night before. Strange as it may seem, the American river had not, at the tannery, risen one inch at sundown last evening. The mountains were visited with snow instead of rain, which fact, of course, explains the condition of the rivers.

RAIN.--The total amount of rain which fell during Sunday, Sunday night and yesterday forenoon was 2.690 inches. This storm was quite extraordinary, from the fact that a violent northwest wind prevailed throughout. We have seldom had rain from the northwest, and never so large a quantity.

HARD ROAD TO TRAVEL.--The only road by which teams can at present leave the city for the east or south, is by way of K street and the ferry at the fort. K street is in poor condition for traveling with even moderate loads. Yesterday at almost any hour from six to eight, stalled teams could have been seen on it, between Twelfth and Thirty-first streets.


MONDAY, January 6th, 1862.
The Board met at 2-1/2 o'clock P. M. Present-Shattuck, President; Granger, Hansbrow, Russell, Hite, Dlckerson, Hall and Waterman. . . .

Supervisor DICKERSON called attention to the importance of establishing a new ferry at L, M, or N streets, to accommodate the travel on the upper and lower Stockton roads. He was authorized to say that G. W. Colby was desirous of establishing such a ferry.

Supervisor RUSSELL. moved that a license be granted to Mr. Colby for this purpose, upon the payment of the license .fee of of $30.

Supervisor HANSBOW thought the grant might interfere with the ferries already licensed and injustice might be done to their owners.

After some farther discussion the subject was postponed until the next meeting.

An application was received from Mrs. Amanda C. Harris. L. B. Harris and R. A. Pearis, the owners of Lisle's bridge, across the American river at a point just below the old Hereford & Lisle ferry, for a temporary license for a ferry until they could repair the damage done to their bridge by the late flood. They had already established a ferry to accommodate travel, and thought they could complete their bridge within sixty or ninety days. The applicants were represented on this occasion by counsel.

Supervisor GRANGER favored the postponement of the consideration of the matter. There was a legal difficulty in the way which should be first adjusted. He understood that there was a ferry already established and no inconvenience could result to the publlc from the postponement. He moved that the consideration of the application be postponed until the 26th instant.

Mr. CROCKER, attorney for Samuel Norris, who is an applicant for a license to establish a permanent ferry at the same point, said that Norris did not wish to press the consideration of the question at this time. He suggested that the proper course for the Board to pursue, under the circumstances, would be postpone the subject until the 20th instant, when Norris' application would come before the Board.

The question recurring on Supervisor GRANGER's motion to postpone the subject until the 26th, the ayes and noes were called, with the following result:
Ayes--Granger, Russell and Dickerson--3.
Noes--Hansbrow, Hite, Waterman and Hall--4.

Supervisor HITE then moved to postpone the matter until the 20th instant, in accordance with the suggestlon of Mr. Crocker.

Counsel for the opposing parties were permitted to argue the question.

Mr. WINANS, attorney for Harris & Pearis, contended that at this time neither party had a right to make application for a permanent ferry. His clients only wanted permission for a temporary ferry, which the statute, he thought, gave the Board ample authority to grant, without notice. The Board had nothing to do with any legal controversy between Norris and Harris & Pearis. Counsel asked that the temporary license be granted without delay.

Mr. CROCKER denied that the rights of the opposing parties were in litigation. That could not be the case, because Norris had not yet obtained a license. He contended that the statute did not permit the Board to grant ferry licenses without due notice, and said that justlce to the parties to this controversy demanded that the subject should be postponed until Norris' application came before the Board.

The motion to postpone the subject until the 20th instant was then unanimously adopted. . . .

Supervisor HITE submitted the following, which was adopted:

Resolved, That the commlttee on Roads. Bridges and Ferries are hereby authorized to advertise for proposals for the construction of bridges across Sutter Fort Slough, on J and K streets.

Supervisor HITE stated that the city was permitting a harvest to pass without reaping any benefit--ferries now paying a large profit to private parties. He knew that individuals were ready to build bridges upon terms favorable to the city.

Supervisor HANSBROW said that an impression had got abroad that there waa no intention to enforce the ordinance passed at the last meeting in reference to the removal of the track and tanks of the Sacramento Valley Railroad on Front street. He thought that the ordinance should be promptly enforced in order to show that the Board was in earnest. He submitted the following, which was unanimously adopted :

Resolved, That the Chief of Police be insructed to proceed forthwith to remove the rails and all other obstructions made by the Sacramento Valley Railroad, from off all the streets and levees west of Sixth street, under direction of the Superintendent of Streets.

President SHATTUCK desired some instruction in reference to the manner of proceeding.

Supervisor HANSBROW said it was probable the work of removal would be enjoined by the railroad company. He did not anticipate any difficulty, but if any increase of force was rendered necessary thousands of citizens would be ready to assist in the enforcement of the ordinance. He wanted the Board to show the Sacramento Valley Railroad Company that it (the company) did not own the city of Sacramento. . . .

On motion, the Board then adjourned to meet at ten o'clock this morning. . . .


Coroner Reeves held an inquest, on Sunday afternoon, at Camp Union, over the body of a private belonging to Company K of the Fifth Regiment, named David Bradish. The deceased had been missing since Dec. 9th or 10th, about the time of the flood. The body was found below Sutterville on Sunday morning. In the afternoon, the Coroner, on hearing of the fact, repaired to the camp, and impanneled a jury composed of William K. Ellis, Washington W. Hyde, Charles Lawson, Daniel Folley, Samuel Puryear, and William Russell. There was but one witness examined :

George Dutton, sworn--I belong to Company K, Captain Tidball; I recognize the deceased now before the jury as being the body of David Bradish, a private of Company K, Captain Tidball; he left this camp on the morning of December 9th, and has not been seen since, to my knowledge, until the body was discovered yesterday below Sutterville and reported to the camp, and by order the body was removed to this place; deceased's age is about twenty-eight years; a native of Pennsylvania; is a single man and has a brother-in-law residing near Georgetown, in El Dorado county; I do not know how the deceased came to his death, but am of opinion that he was drowned in attempting to cross the breach in the levee between the Half-way House and Sutterville; there was no money or valuables found on deceased to my knowledge.

The jury returned a verdict to the effect that the name of deceased was "David Bradish; a native of Pennsyvania, aged twenty-eight years; and that he came to his death by being accidentally drowned on Tuesday, December 10th, 1861; and that deceased was a private in Company K, Captain Tidball, Fifth Regiment California Volunteers." . . .

BEAR RIVER DITCH.--This ditch suffered considerably by the late flood, so much so, that the supply of water has been entirely cut off. Men are engaged in repairing the injured places as fast as possible, and in a very short time the miners will receive their usual supply of that necessary article--water. The Gold Hill ditch, too, has suffered to a considerable extent, but will soon be in working order again.--Auburn Advocate. . . .

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3363, 8 January 1862, p1


TUESDAY, January 7, 1862.
The House was called to order by the Clerk, J. M. Anderson, at eleven o'clock. . . .

Mr. O'BRIEN offered a resolution that H. A. Lease be appointed temporary Sergeant-at-Arms.

Mr. WARWICK said he would prefer to nominate for that position one James Parker, otherwise known as "Billy the Boatman," a man who exhibited commendable bravery, and rendered efficient sarvice to the cause of humanity during the recent flood. It would be a well deserved compliment to that man, and he moved to amend the resolution by substituting the name of Parker for that of Lease.

Mr. O'BRIEN said it was only the usual courtesy to aliow the old officers to serve until their permanent successors should be chosen; but he did not regard it as of much consequence, and the House could take such action as it pleased on the subject.

The amendment proposed by Mr. Warwick was lost, and Mr. O'Brien's resolution was adopted. . . .

For Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms Mr. SEARS nominated Jeremiah Watts, of Nevada.

Mr. DENNIS nominated C. B. Fleming of Placer.

Mr. SAUL nominated J. Parker of Sacramento, and said that was the gentleman whom his colleague (Mr. Warwick) had so highly eulogized for his gallant conduct in saving lives during the recent flood in Sacramento.

Mr. WRIGHT nominated E. E. Turk of Yreka.

Mr. WATTS received 39 votes. Mr. Fleming 10, Mr. Parker 9, Mr. Turk 8; and Mr. Watts was declared elected. . . .

p. 2


. . .

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors, held yesterday morning, definite action was taken in regard to the Rightmire claim against the city. The bill was returned by the Auditor with objections, and the objections were sustained by the Board. Rightmire announced his intention to hold the members individually responsible for the amount be claimed. . . .

The Sacramento fell several inches yesterday. There is little or no change in the condition of the American. . . .


. . . A year subsequent to the signing of this contract, it had become so unpopular, and such horrible reports of the treatment of prisoners were made to the Legislature, that a bill was passed annulling the contract with Estell & Co., and instructing the Governor, John B. Weller, to proceed to San Quentin, and take possession of the prison and prisoners in the name of the State. He obeyed instructions, the contractors merely making such opposition as was necessary to save their legal rights. They subsequently succeeded in obtaining a judgment against the State for the full sum they would have been entitled to under the contract had they continued in possession of the prison and prisoners. The Courts decided that the Legislature could not annul a contract into which the State had regularly entered in that way, and the effect of the hasty and illegal proceedings of the members cost the State several hundred thousand dollars. Our Board of Supervisors may profit by this example in their action toward the Railroad Company. Legislative bodies cannot disturb by Act rights which have been vested in individuals or companies by previous contracts. . . . .

RAIN IN SANTA CLARA.--By the late rains Santa Clara Valley was almost deluged with water, and the roads were in such condition, January 6th, that the stages could not leave for San Francisco. It seems a public meeting was held at Santa Clara on Monday, December 30th, for the purpose of securing the State Capital for that town. The San Jose Mercury says it was a failure, but another meeting will shortly be called. . . .

p. 3


LIBRARY REPORT.--From the quarterly report of the Board of Directors of the Sacramento Library Association for the quarter ending January 6th, we obtain the following information concerning the affairs of the Association: . . . .". . . There was overdue, on the 1st instant, on account of monthly dues, the sum of $265 50, a major part of which would undoubtedly have been in the treasury, but for the adverse circumstances prevailing in our midst for the past four weeks. . . . Arrangements were perfected for a course of six lectures, by distinguished gentlemen of the State, and the course commenced under very favorable auspices, as most of you are aware, but from unforeseen and unavoidable causes a temporary interruption has occurred. It is designed to resume the original plan at the earliest possible period, and we confidently anticipate for the course a success fully equal to that of preceding years." . . .

THE FRONT STREET RAILROAD.--No action was taken yesterday towards carrying out the policy of the Board of Supervisors with reference to the Front street railroad. Chief of Police Watson did not deem it to be his duty to commence the work of taking up the track. After the Board adjourned, at about noon, considerable excitement prevailed on the street on account of a rumor that the Board had adjourned with the intention on the part of the members of commencing the work in person. No such move was made, however, and was probably not contemplated.

VALUABLE HORSE LOST.--On Monday afternoon a valuable horse belonging to Beck & Ackley, of Eighth and J streets, became mired down in a mud hole on Tenth street, between G and H. J. Kane, the drayman, attempted to drive through a pool of mud and water, as other vehicles had been passing through. The horse sunk down, and after making an effort or two to get out of the hole, seemed to have injured himself in some manner. All efforts to keep his head out of water were unsuccessful. He died in about three minutes after falling.

THE CHAIN GANG.--The chain gang, under charge of Overseer Long, was engaged yesterday in burying the carcases of dead cattle around the outskirts of the city. They succeded in bagging some thirty head of cows, horses, hogs, goats, etc. This morning they will commence the work of draining off the water standing on Third street on the north side of K, a point at which their services can be most advantageously employed.

REMOVAL OF STOCK.--The steamer Visalia brought up yesterday afternoon, from Duboise's ranch, nine miles below the city, on the Yolo side, some twenty head of horses. The high water rendered their removal necessary. The steamer Laura Ellen also brought down, for the same reason, a number of horses and mules from Tilton and McHugh's ranches, eight or nine miles above the city.

SNOW IN YOLO.--C. Heinrech, of Third and L streets, received a letter yesterday from his ranch in Yolo county, near the foot hills, thirty miles from the city, stating that the snow fell at that point twelve inches deep, and that it was still lying on the ground, having melted but little. There was six inches of snow twelve miles this side of Cache creek canon. . . .

THE WEATHER.--The appearance of the sky and condition of the atmosphere last evening, gave strong ground for the hope that we might be favored with a little rain before long by way of variety. We may, however, be disappointed.. Let nobody bet on it. . . .

FALLING.--The Sacramento river fell some four inches yesterday, standing at sunset at twenty-one feet eight inches above low water mark. . . .

HEAVY RAIN IN SAN FRANCISCO.--Four inches of rain fell in San Francisco, between twelve o'clock Saturday night, and nine o'clock Monday morning. This beats Sacramento altogether. . . .


TUESDAY, Jan. 7, 1862
The Board convened at 10 o'clock. Present--Shattuck, President, Granger, Dickerson, Russell, Hite, Hall, Hansbrow, Woods and Waterman. . . .

Supervisor HITE, from the Committee on Roads, Ferries and Bridges, stated that two individuals were prepared to take charge of the bridging, etc. of certain streets, and would have their plans and specifications ready to submit it to the Board on the following day. . . .

Supervisor GRANGER wanted information in regard to the proposed action of the Committee on Roads, Ferries and Bridges, as alluded to by Supervisor Hite.

Supervisor HITE explained that it was intended to let one individual build a bridge over Sutter's Fort slough, at J street, and another a bridge over the same slough at K street, the tolls being appropriated to pay for the bridges, and keep the streets approaching them in repair.

Supervisor WOODS was opposed to the plan of trusting private parties to keep the streets of the city in repair. . . .

Supervisor GRANGER inquired if anything further had been done in reference to the Rightmire bill.

Supervisor HANSBROW stated that he had called upon the Citizens' Committee and endeavored to persuade them to indorse the action of the Board in regard to the Rightmire claim, and use their efforts to "turn in" the amount the Board proposed to pay. Judge Smith and two other members of the Committee decidedly favored the proposition, but Mr. Lightner, another member, opposed such action upon general principles, and contended that the city was not bound to pay Rightmire anything.

Mr. Rightmire, being present, was asked if he desired to be heard. He said that he had waited until the time fixed by the Board, and was forced to trust to the magnanimity of the Supervisors; but be hoped that justice would be done to him.

The following communication, returning the Rightmire bill without approval, was received from the Auditor:

SACRAMENTO, Jan. 4, 1861, }
To the President and Board of Supervisors: The within bill is returned without approval. l am unable to find any law authorizing the payment of money out of the City treasury unless for value received; there is none expressed or implied in the within account, and in justice to the tax payers. who will have to pay this amount if allowed, I return the bill without my approval. Respectfully yours,
J. HOWELL, Auditor.

Supervisor HANSBROW moved that the objections of the Auditor be sustained.

Supervisor GRANGER did not see how the Board could sustain the objections of the Auditor. What did the public want? Certainly the improvement which Mr. Rightmire had contracted to construct had been demanded by the community, and the Board had only performed its duty in making the contract. Did the people desire that the Board should contract for improvements and then repudiate? He could never sanction such a course while he considered himself an honorable man.

Supervisor DICKERSON would not sustaln the Auditor's objectlons. He thought the claim of Mr. Rightmire entirely fair and just, and one that ought to be settled without further delay. Supervisor Russell said that in seconding the motion to sustain the objections of the Auditor, he did not propose to repudiate. He wanted the obligation met in a different way, to wit: by obtaining a Special Act of the Legislature.

Supervisor HITE would not sustain the objections of the Auditor. He had given his word that Mr. Rightmire, who had taken a contract to do a necessary work when nobody else would take it, should be paid, and he considered himself honorably bound to vote for the claim. The People's Safety Committee was a Quixotic concern, which would probably undertake to turn the channel of the American river. The speaker would not be guided by their action.

Supervisor HANSBROW thought that Rightmire would get his money much sooner through an application to the Legislature than by any action of the Board. There was no doubt whatever of the illegality of the action of the Board, and hundreds of citizens were ready to obtain an injunction to prevent the payment of the bill.

On the question "Shall the objections of the Auditor be sustained?" the ayes and noes were called with the following result:
Ayes--Russell, Hansbrow, Woods, and Waterman--4.
Noes--Granger, Dickerson, Hite, Hall, and Shattuck, President--5.

As a two-thirds vote is required to overrule the action of the Auditor, the objections of that functionary were declared to be sustained.

President SHATTUCK stated that he had not pledged himself to sustain Rightmire, but he was positive that every member of the Board had done so, previous to Rightmire's going to San Francisco for bills and vouchers.

Supervisor WOODS explained that he was perfectly willing that Rightmire should be paid in a legal way, but he would not vote to pay four for one.

Supervisor HITE said that every day the Board paid four for one in the purchase of articles required.

Supervisor RUSSELL, as a member of the Committee on Finance, said that a considerable margin was allowed, but not quite four dollars for one. . . .

On motion of Supervisor DICKERSON, a license was granted to G. W. Colby for a ferry on L street.

Supervisor HITE called attention to the fact that the steamers passing the city were washing away the levee by maintaining an undue rate of speed.

Supervisor GRANGER said that the old ordinance regulating the rate of speed had not been effectual since consolidation.

Supervisor HITE gave notlce that he would introduce an ordinance to the same effect at the next meeting of the Board.

Mr. RIGHTMIRE now said that since the action of the Auditor in regard to his claim had been sustained, he would commence an action against every member of the Board. Every member had assumed the debt and made himself personally responsible. He would not act out of any feeling against the members, because he considered them all his friends and had a respect for them, but simply to protect himself.

Supervisor HITE thought that Mr. Rightmire would be perfectly justified in pursuing such a course, even if every Supervisor found himself in the calaboose.

Supervisor HANSBROW said that he believed every member had voted understandingly, and that no one was inclined to change his course under a threat. He thought the idea of making the members individually responsible for the debt was supremely ridiculous. Mr. Rightmire would doubtless change his purpose.

On motion, the Board adjourned to meet at ten o'clock this morning. . . .

RAIN AND SNOW SOUTH.--In Sonora, it rained all day on Friday, January 3d, aad snowed hard all night.

NEVADA.--Ice formed in this town, January 2d and 3d, of the thickness of half an inch. . . .

THE ROADS IN THE INTERIOR.--S. A. Merritt arrived on Saturday evening, January 4th, from Mariposa. He was five days making the trip, the roads being in a horrible condition. Part of the journey he had to make behind an ox team; twice he had to hire a team, the stage communication having been stopped; and at another time he had to walk a considerable distance.--S. F. Herald.

Sacramento Daily Union, Volume 22, Number 3364, 9 January 1862, p. 1

. . .

LOGS LOST.--At the Albion river, Mendocino county, during the late freshet, the boom was carried away, and logs to the value of $30,000 were lost.

p. 2


Early last evening, while the wires of the Overland Telegraph were working, we were promised dispatches from the East. But the reception of private dispatches was continued until a late hour, and then we were informed that news could not be received. The heavy gale probably deranged the wires. At this particular juncture there is great anxiety to hear from the seat of war, as the culmination of the contest is believed to have arrived.

The telegraphic wires between this city and San Francisco were not in working order last evening. . . .

At a meeting of the Board of Supervisors held yesterday, an ordinance was passed fixing the rate of speed for steamers passing the city. This is designed to prevent the washing away of the levees. The rate is fixed by the ordinance at five miles per hour. A resolution was adopted providing for the employment of counsel to bring the issue between the city and tbe Sacramento Valley Railroad Company before the legal tribunals. An ordinance was adopted fixing the grade of certain streets. This is substantially the same ordinance which was brought before the Board in November last by Supervisor Hite. A resolution, explaining that the ordinance was not intended to affect buildings already erected, except where three-fourths of the property owners in a block request it, was also passed. . . .

The rivers continued to fall yesterday, though it was rainy and unfavorable. At different points in the interior they have had chilly rains or snow. . . .


The Storm in the Interior

It has rained here at intervals all day and still continues, but it is not falling very fast tonight. It is very windy and cool.

OROVILLE, Jan. 8th.
It has rained hard here all day, and the rain continues unabated.

CHICO, Jan. 8th.
It has been raining hard here all day, and continues at the same rate. The streams are all rising rapidly. .

It has been raining hard here all the afternoon. It is raining in the mountains as far up aa Strawberry, which will melt the snow in that vicinity. The streams are filling here.

CARSON CITY, Jan. 8th.
It is raining hard and blowing a gale in this valley. . . .

SACRAMENTO.--Our cotemporaries of the interior generally have had a favorable word to say of the State Capital and its late misfortune. The Red Bluff Beacon, among others, has the following :

We had intended to write an article concerning the State Capital, giving the paper goss [?] that said that the seat of government should not be permanently located where the town was liable to suffer from overflows. But every editor in the State, we believe, has given the subject an article, and besides we have been unable to even find out what paper it was that is so down on Sacramento as the Capital, now that she has suffered from an overflow. Sacramento has too much capital, energy and enterprise ever to be kept down by such a trivial cause as an overflow.

The Yreka Journal adds:

Notwithstanding the damages of flood at Sacramento, there is no more convenient interior point in the Sacramento valley, nor one less subject to floods, in the right spot. The new building, however, should be built high, with a strong plateau walled around, so that the walla of the building will be clear from water in the future.

The Shasta Courier remarks:

The people of the State of California deeply sympathize with the Sacramentans, in relation to the untoward disasters with which they have been afflicted, and which to a people less energetic than they are known to be, would be absolutely crushing. The city can be saved from future inundations, and it is the fixed opinion of their neighbors that it will be done thoroughly and at once. . . .

p. 3

CORONER'S INQUEST.--Coroner Reeves held an inquest yesterday on the body of an unknown Chinaman found in the American river above Norris' bridge. The body was found on Tuesday, floating on the north side of the river, by Isaac Watson and several other men in a boat. The Coroner had it brought across the river to Brighton. G. W. Parkison, M. C. Reed, S. F. Weaver, T. B. Burnes, H. E. Judson and C. Eshnaur were impanneled as a jury. The only witness examined was Watson, who stated that the body was made secure, and no examination of it was made until the Coroner arrived. It was in a nude condition, having a string tied around the waist. There were several marks and bruises about the head and face of the deceased, who appeared to have been about sixty years of age. The bruises may have been caused by floating against driftwood. The jury returned a verdict to the effect that the cause of death was unknown to the jury, but that deceased was probably drowned. . . .

TO BE REPAIRED.--The Committee of Safety, at a meeting held yesterday, decided to lay down and put in order the street crossings on the line of Eighth street, between the Capitol at Seventh and I streets, and the residence of Governor Stanford, at Eighth and N streets. As the office of the Governor will be located at his place of residence, these repairs are rendered indispensable. The Committee expect the property owners on the line to repair their sidewalks as far as practicable. . . .

A SUCCESSFUL JOB.--The chain gang, under the direction of Overseers Dreman and Long, dug a ditch yesterday on the north side of K street from Third street to the drain which crosses K street in the middle of the block. The result was to carry off the water which has stood for several weeks at the corner, to the great inconvenience of teams, foot passengers and property owners in the neighborhood. . . .

THE LEVEE.--Workmen were engaged during Tuesday and yesterday forenoon at two points on the American river, east of the tannery, repairing the levee. The rain of yesterday rendered work in the afternoon impracticable. . . .

THE FLOOD IN MARIPOSA.--Scarcely any portion of the State was exempt from damage by the late floods. The Mariposa Gazette of December 31st says:

Property has been damaged along the Merced to an amount not dreamed of by men who have for long time lived in the localities. Commencing at the Benton Mills, it damaged their works to a considerable extent, though the dam stood the pressure asd the loss is comparatively trifling. Wyatt's bridge was then wiped out--then everything at Split Rock Ferry--then everything below, including Chapin's dam and mill, a structure which probably cost in the neighborhood of $100,000. Below that, at Merced Falls, Murray's and Nelson's bridges went by the board, together with two fine flour mills, belonging to the same gentlemen. We have no means at hand for computing the losses of those who suffered from the flood, but should judge that $300,000 would hardly cover them. . . .

THE RIVER.--The Sacramento fell some eight inches yesterday, standing at sunset at about twenty-one feet above low water mark.

MORE OF IT.--We were visited yesterday by more rain, and last evening by another violent gale of wind.

[flooding matters go on for about 45 days, plus follow-up articles for years to come]
--Mike Barkley, 167 N. Sheridan Ave., Manteca, CA 95336 (H) 209/823-4817
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